5 Paragragh Essay: The Catcher In The Rye

From the novel, The Catcher in the Rye, the youthful protagonist Holden Caufield, employs the word “phony” to describe the behavior of a number of characters including Mr. Spencer and Ossenburger, however it is not them who are“phony”, it is the young main character. First, Mr. Spencer, Holden’s ex- history teacher, is not described as phony, but according to the adolescent, his choice of words are. Secondly, according to our main character, Ossenburger is not the generous philanthropist he portrays himself to be, but rather a greedy undertaker. Lastly, the protagonist could quite possibly be the authentic phony. All in all, the main character’s use to describe many other characters in the book is with the single word phony, when in fact the word phony would be the most probable word to describe the lead character.Illustrating Mr. Spencer as phony because of his vocabulary, is when Holden leaves Pencey Prep permanently, and goes to say good-bye to the ex-history teacher. The depicted fake tells the ex-Pencey student “I had the privilege of meeting your mother and dad when they had their little chat with Dr. Thurmer some weeks ago. They’re grand people”. The ex-Pencey student immediately impugns Mr. Spencer’s use of the word “grand”, and tells the reader: “Grand. There’s a word I hate. It’s a phony. I could puke every time I heard it.” To sum up, Holden disgusts Mr. Spencer’s utilization of the word “grand” and thinks it is fraudulent.While observing the discription of many other characters in the novel as phony, it is safe to say that the phony character is indeed the protagonist. For example, the false character when lying to Mr. Spencer about going to the gym to clear everything out before leaving, is Holden. Once again we see this falsehood, when he tries to hit on some women in a bar, despite thinking the girls are not particularly extraordinary women. Exemplifying this phony behavior as well, is when our puerile character is telling Sunny, (the prostitute) that after all, he could not do “it” with her because of a “broken spinal canal”. In summary, it is in fact hypocritical in the sense that Holden is the phony one, but just not anyone else.In conclusion, our primary character implicates both Mr. Spencer and Ossenburger to be “phony”, when on the other hand, the protagonist can certainly fit this description to its optimum eligibility. Our leading character explicates that Mr. Spencer is phony as soon as he says Holden’s parents are “grand”. In Holden’s opinion on Ossenburger, he is phony because of his employment. Obviously, these characters stated above are not the phonies, the veritable phony is the protagonist because he is deceptive, and one may never know when one is regarding the genuine Holden Caufield. Holden should stop being so hypocritical and accept others for who they are in addition to accepting himself so he could stop all of the prevarication.

Torts in Restaurant Business

Any injury to an individual which is caused by another is called a tort. We have learned so far that these torts fall under three specific types, intentional, negligence and strict liability. I am sure that if I was to sit and reflect on the past that I would be able to recall being a victim, more than once, to some form of a tort and this is probably true for most people.
Most restaurants have worked so hard to get rid of any potential tort issues because of previous incidents(not necessarily incidents that happened to them but incidents that may have happened to other establishments) that it was a difficult undertaking to go out there and find some of these issues. It was very hard to visit a restaurant once and find five examples of torts. I had to choose somewhere I was familiar with and somewhere I go regularly so “TGI Fridays” seemed like a good candidate to fall under my scrutiny. I have been there many times and would usually have nothing bad to say about them but this time I was being mindful about it and really took everything in my surroundings into account.
The first thing I noticed after I walked in and was seated at my table, was the large decoration above my table in the form of a model airplane. It was quite large and was made of metal so I thought to myself, suppose I was sitting here eating and for some reason it was to fall. Somewhat unlikely it would happen to me at that point but what about the many other people who sit at the same table over a period of time, all it would take was one loose screw. They could really be in trouble if this was to happen and somebody got hurt. These decorations make the place what it is and improve the ambience so it would ruin it to get rid of them all together, but maybe a lighter material should be used in case it came crashing down. This would probably fall under strict liability should it happen unless it can be proven that it occurred through negligence.
They also have a full liquor bar at their restaurants and being open to the public for all ages to come in and dine, I am sure they have to be extra careful to whom they serve alcohol. I tested it by ordering a beer and sure enough they asked me for my identification. My test failed even though I was actually over the drinking age. The place was quiet and the waiters and waitresses were not too busy when I was there but is it not possible that if it was crowded and there were hundreds of customers that one drink may end up in the hands of a minor. This could really be costly under the “dram shop” circumstance of strict liability. I do not think there is much you can do to avoid this other than requiring identification from anyone who orders an alcoholic drink and strictly enforcing this. The issues so far were the most obvious to me and I could raise other problems they could run into by having a full liquor bar, like patrons becoming rowdy while drinking and watching a big game, which may lead to an assault, or even serving some of them too much alcohol and not cutting them off.
Another issue was water on the bathroom floor near to the sink. This clearly was not their fault and was probably just caused by another customer while he was washing his hands, however it was the restaurant’s responsibility to clean it up. I do not know how long it had been there but during that time someone could slip and fall and legal action could be taken on the basis of negligence or in some cases, strict liability if negligence cannot be proven. It was the restaurants “duty to warn” that the floor was wet if it could not be cleaned right away.
These restaurants serve a lot of meat so I looked for some kind of warning on the menu about eating undercooked meats being dangerous, I found none. It is possible that I may have missed it while I was skimming through the menu and it may have been in fine print somewhere but if that is not the case then this is just one more potential tort issue. If someone ordered their meat undercooked and got sick and could prove it, then the restaurant could be found liable because once again it was their “duty to warn” of this hazard.
The final issue does not have much to do with the restaurant. At this point I could find nothing else inside that could be a problem. When I was leaving however and was in the restaurant car park, I saw a man just sitting in his car with his stereo up to all. The music was very loud and he was being a “nuisance.” I do not know if he had any business on the property and if he did not then “trespass” was another issue in my mind. I think the restaurant could have taken action against him because he was deterring business by just being there.
These are all problems that I would usually let slides by and not pay great attention to but then you ask yourself “what if” they were to actually happen. They seem to be things that start out as a small issue in the back of your mind and some how along the way may escalate into something serious. We can therefore see that tort issues have the potential to ruin a restaurant so any restaurant owner or manager should be aware of them and work to rectify them before any mishaps occur. It is impossible to address all of them but a great effort needs to be exerted in making sure that the chances of something happening are minimized.


Philip Habib                                             Nov.1, 2003Block DBibliography
James Burnham
The Machiavellians : Defenders of Freedom
Gateway Editions, Washington D.C., 1987     A political theorist named James Burnham states that in order to be scientific, its method and goals must not be transcendentally based, and its outcome must be realistic. Dante de Monarchia and Machiavelli were considered two of the best political theorists in the time of the renaissance; however, they both had a different way in writing and stating their political theories. For Machiavelli’s way of writing consisted of stating the truth of what was going around, the reality and the exact description of politics, unlike Dante, who was using imagination in writing his political theories, and for that he was criticized by Machiavelli, where Machiavelli stated that a true political theorist should not be transcendentally based, and his methods, goals, and overall should be based on reality. One of Machiavelli’s was to unify Italy. He did not accomplish his goal, although he tried to in his writings, specifically in one of his books called “The Prince”. In this book, Machiavelli tried to call for a hero who could save Italy and unify it. But Italy, back then, was facing problems. Italy had to do a wise decision, whether to unify or to remain in the political structure it was in. If Italy remained in the same political structure then it would suffer from a huge economic and cultural loss, but if Italy decided to unify and become a whole country, then it would become the most important country in the modern world. Machiavelli was surely aware of the situation, and gave Italy his ideas for the unification, but Italy refused it. Later on, Italy regretted not accepting Machiavelli’s ideas, but by then it was too late, and Italy paid the consequences of being ignorant to a wise idea that could have changed history. Machiavelli’s writings were so important and wise during the renaissance. He was the first person who separated politics from ethics, as well as, science from ethics, considering that politics and science are based on facts and reality. Machiavelli always had a way to look for the truth, and this influenced many people, and in fact, looking for the truth is moral that he taught to every person who knew him, not even personally. In conclusion, Machiavelli was considered the best political theorist during the renaissance times, as important as he is today, and his way of writing was way much better than Dante’s.Vocabulary
Mere: unimportant
     - Dante’s moral aims and goals were mere and unimportant.
Treatise: a long and serious piece of writing on a particular subject.
      – Because Dante has moral aims, his treatise or long pieces of writing become unscientific.
Sordid: immoral, dishonest
     - If we compare the goal of unifying Italy to Dante’s ideals, they would seem sordid and dishonest.
Juncture: a particular point or stage in an activity or a series of events.
- Italy was ready for a new prince during the juncture or moments of events going on at the time.
Exaltation: an act of raising something to a high position or rank.
- In this period of time, many things corresponded to the exaltation and praising of a new prince.
In my opinion, Machiavelli was the best political writer during the period of the renaissance. And till this day, he is considered of the greatest, which probably explains why we still mention his work all the time and their effects on the world today, and its probably why we still study his work today as it still influences many writers and politicians.

Main Problems With The Crisis of Debts in the United Kingdom

There are three main problems associated with the crisis of debts in the United Kingdom. The first problem is housing witch has many alarmed impacts especially in London. Since the early 1990s, the housing supply has been under pressure and this pressure was increased by the increase in houses prizes, the high interest rate and the increase in the population. Consequently, many people could not effort to buy a house. Therefore, many desirable areas become eventually empty. It is likely that many people live in one house and share the same facilities. For example, in east London, it was found that 15 registered voters live together in a single house. However, this problem can be solved with several ways. One of them is building new houses and this solution seems to be immediate and practical. However, many politicians are arguing against this solution claiming that it is difficult to sell them to70% of households who already own a house. The second problem related to this crisis is the high level of saving. This can be a problem when all people save money concurrently. Nowadays, many people try to improve their financial statue so they are not spending money as the same level they used to do. Therefore Firms would lose their client and their business might be affected in negative ways. All of that can lead to a long recession in which the economy may take long time to recover. However, the Bank of England has plenty of rooms to cut the interest rate and that should encourage people to spend and invest their money. The third problem is the inability to repay the debts by individual families. Low income and unsuitable financial decision are the root of this issue. Moreover, people are blamed to a lifetime of poverty dominated by the concern of unplayable debts. In order to solve this problem, Debts Relief Orders were introduced to the government. Debts Relief Orders are planned to help people with low income and small assets. In addition, it works with the same way as bankruptcy but it costs less to initiate.

The Influences and Origins of Puritan Theology

The Influences and Origins of Puritan TheologyDue to religious persecution from the Church of England., the Puritans
embarked on a journey leading to America. They were deeply influenced
by the opposition towards them. This influence proved to the Puritans
that action had to be taken. The Puritan democracy eventually won a
place in the English system however; a more government controlled
Church encouraged the Puritans to disembark to America to become
The Puritans, who came to Massachusetts Bay after the Pilgrims came to
Plymouth, came to set up a theocracy, a “city on the hill” that would
show the rest of Europe, especially England with its religion that
they regarded as corrupted, just what a religious community could be.
They were quite fervent, and the ministers were the community leaders.
Their doctrines stressed original sin—that all people are sinners
(for Adam sinned), but that God, in his infinite mercy, has chosen to
save a few. Since He knows everything, he knows who will be saved (and
in Heaven) and who will be damned to Hell; however, a person does not
know for sure if he or she is saved. Therefore, the Puritans were
constantly examining their lives, especially their thoughts and
inclinations, to see if they indicated whether they might be saved.
They knew that people who “seemed” to live good lives might in fact be
sinners and damned (although they recognized that all were sinners.)
This inward analysis didn’t seem to do much for their lives,
sometimes; they did not believe that you could be saved by how you
lived, but that how you lived might indicate whether you were saved or
not. A couple of generations later, people in Massachusetts had lost
much of their attachment to the religion they had been born into, for
they had never had to stand up for their faith against prosecution and
life was pretty prosperous.
The picture that I have chosen was pictured in many of the “Elect”
households. It represents a goblet, a piece of communion bread, and of
course the Holy Bible. There are also many of the Calvinist and
Puritan doctrines and concepts of the Puritans. This is related to my
topic because it depicts the major religious devotion of the Puritans.
Puritan Concepts:
Original Sin. Because Adam sinned, every human is born sinful. This
concept of Original Sin has no exceptions; in Michael Wigglesworth’s
poem “The Day of Doom,” even babies who died at birth were condemned
to hell (if that fate had been predestined for them). Redemption
requires the preliminary overwhelming consciousness of one’s own
sinful nature.
Unconditional Election. God “saves” those he wishes, the doctrine of
predestination. Because God is all-knowing, He already knows the final
destination of every soul. Although all “deserve” to go to hell
because of original sin, God in his mercy has chosen to save a few.
However, a person cannot be totally certain of his or her Election,
and thus must constantly examine his or her life and motives to see if
they show signs of God’s grace.
Limited Atonement. Jesus died for the chosen Elect only, those
predestined for heaven, not for everyone.
Irresistible Grace. God’s grace, or merciful love, is freely given (to
the Elect) but it cannot be earned or resisted. A person cannot “work”
his or her way into heaven. However, if truly saved, he or she will
want to live as a saint.
Perseverance of the “Saints.” The Elect have full power to interpret
the will of God, and to live uprightly.
1. The World Book Encyclopedia, P volume 15, Field Enterprises Corp.
Copyright 1977.
2. A Puritans Mind: http://www.apuritansmind.com/MainPage.htm
3. Puritan Theology:


The Great Awakening
By Zhong Li
In the early 1700s, the American colonies were growing in population
and prospering economically. However, as the colonies grew wealthier,
there was a decline in church growth. In New England, as the Puritan
faith was dwindling, a few individuals set out to revive the spiritual
faith by preaching, thus beginning the Great Awakening.
There was no specific time for when the Great Awakening began, since
it started as early as 1679 but eventually died out and would be
sparked up periodically. The main period of this spiritual revival
would be the 1740s. It started because the Puritans felt that there
was a decline in piety and people were becoming corrupted. The younger
generations would forget the Puritan theocracy and partied with their
friends all night. Soon there was population increase indicating
immoral activities.
The Great Awakening had many famous figures; among them were Theodore
Frelinghuysen, Jonathan Edwards, and George Whitefield. In New Jersey,
where the Great Awakening initially started, German Pastor Theodore
Frelinghuysen told his listeners to experience God’s work rather than
just believe godliness. In Northampton, Massachusetts, Jonathan
Edwards preached that salvation is in the hands of God that God will
save whoever he pleases. George Whitefield preached many towns such as
Philadelphia and New Haven about how sinners can go to heaven if they
believe in Jesus Christ. Whitefield’s sermons touched many of his
listeners including Benjamin Franklin. The listeners of these
preachers helped spread the news of the Awakening.
The Great Awakening was a spiritual revival to bring Puritans and
other religious groups into the awareness of the need to strengthen
their faith and religious beliefs. In New England, the revival was a
success as 25,000 to 50,000 out of 300,000 people were added to the
church from 1740-42. The influence of Christianity strengthened in the
colonies and four fifths of the Americans gained a common
understanding of the religion and its evangelical purposes.



Jonathan Edwards
By: Ting Gong
Jonathan Edwards was born on October 5, 1703 in Windsor, a town in
Connecticut. He entered the work of ministry, probably to follow in
his father’s footsteps, Reverend Timothy Edwards, who was a minister
of the gospel on the east side of Connecticut River in Windsor.
Jonathan attended YaleCollegein the year of 1716, and obtained the
Bachelor degree of Arts in September 1720, at the age of 17. Even
though he was good in arts and sciences, he developed a taste for
Natural Philosophy. While living at his college during his first
degree, he prepared for the work of ministry, then passing the
necessary trials, which allowed him to receive a license to preach. He
was sent to New York, and preached there for 8 months. Edwards was a
very devoted man of religion. He would pray and fast in secret. While
preaching, because of his solemness, his face seemed to shine to
others. In his now famous book “Freedom of Will”, he insisted that a
man had freedom if forces outside forced him to allow others to choose
his own alternative course. He married Sarah Pierpont in July of 1727.
In February 1729 he became full pastor after Solomon Stoddard who was
his late grandfather, but in the year of 1750 Edwards was dismissed as
a pastor. Edwards then becomes a pastor and missionary to the Indians
of Stockbridge, MA. The College of New Jersey, which is now Princeton,
had voted Edwards as President in the year of 1758, which then Edwards
passed away on March 2, 1758 which was only a short time after Edwards
was asked to be President.
Sources : http://www.jonathanedwards.com
World Book of Encyclopedia
How Asceticism Grew out of Puritan theology- Adolph Bellamy
A lot of asceticism grew out of Puritan theology. Three Main ones are
sex, Impulsive enjoyment, and theatres. Puritans believe that sex is a
gift from God. All married Puritan couples should engage in sex with
delight. If the woman felt that the man was neglecting his sex life,
she would first complain to her pastor and then to here whole
congregation that her husband was neglecting her sex life, and then
the church would excommunicate him.
Impulsive enjoyment of life, which leads away from work and religion,
was an enemy of rational asceticism. Whether it was in form of
seigniorial sport, or the enjoyment of the dance hall or the public
house of the common man. Gambling and serious drinking is strictly
condemned. Sport is accepted if it served a rational purpose that of
recreation necessary for physical efficiency, but it was under
Theatres are obnoxious towards the Puritans and with the strict
exclusion of the erotic and nudity from the realm of toleration; a
radical view of either literature or art could not exist. The
conceptions of idle talk, of superfluities, and of vain ostentation,
all designations of an irrational attitude without objective purpose,
thus not ascetic, and especially not serving the glory of God, but of
man, were always at hand to serve in deciding in favor of sober
utility as against any artistic tendencies. This was especially true
in the case of decoration of the person, for instance clothing. That
powerful tendency toward uniformity of life, which to-day so immensely
aids the capitalistic interest in the standardization of production,
had its ideal foundations in the repudiation of all idolatry of the
Sources: 1-


2- http://www.humanismbyjoe.com/Puritans_Dark_Side.htm
[IMAGE] Puritans and Providence
By: Sean Thackurdeen, Frederick ___________, Adolph Bellamy, Zhong Li,
Ting Gong


The conceptual idea of humanism has existed since before the years of Christ.Biblical records state that when man was created he was made in the image of God. Thistimes and it has been passed down to our civilization of today. The evidence of this is inthe art of yesterday and the way we view art of today. The way we view art today is insuch a way that we feel and conceptualize what we create. We create things in the imageof how we view our life, our civilization, and our status in this civilization. In applyingthe things stated in the previous thought to the human life the result will be art .Culture is a distinct component of what society is. Culture is in all essence whatculture does. The whole purpose of culture is to in a way define a specific race or creed.Culture is what makes us unique and very individual. An example of this is myselfand my cousin named Brandon. We are both in the same family and we both have beenraised with the same values but what makes us different is the culture we have adopted inour lives to help us define the way we feel about ourselves and the way we feel aboutsociety. I feel as if the afro-American race is moving in a progressive manner towardsunity and he feels as if the Afro-American race as a whole is moving towards separationby the complexion of their skin. The culture that I have adopted has shaped my viewsand ideas and the culture he has adopted has shaped his thoughts and ideas. My ideas arenot better than his nor are his better than mine ,just different.Civilization is defined as many things but you can only define what is civil foryour own civilization. Many people have a definition of what a civilization is but whenthey make this definition it is by their own standards which is wrong. A civilization is aplace or group of people who can defend themselves from enemies, get or create aquantity of food, establish a currency, and develop a trade with others. In America weview life as a sacred and very precious thing . In other countries death is viewed as themost sacred thing. However you see the idea or the application of being civil willdetermine what is a civilization.Mythology falls under the category of supreme being. Man has conceptualize theidea of a supreme being controlling and dictating what he can not explain. In today’ssociety the supreme being is Allah to some, Jesus Christ to others , and the virgin Mary toothers. These “supreme “beings gives us an explanation to whatever happens in our lives.They are our guides, our protectors and our mentors. In roman times the supreme beingswere Athena Goddess of wisdom, Zeus father of the gods, Aphrodite Goddess of beautyand love. These beings help control the ideas and the theories of the roman’s .By havingthese ideas and theories they help to shape the civilization of roman times. The differencebetween the supreme beings of today and the supreme beings of yesterday when there is asupreme being to believe today there is only one supreme being not a supreme being foreverything that happens.Religion is a belief in a ultimate supreme being who is responsible for your wellbeing and welfare This being is responsible for instilling the moralistic values of life.This belief this belief has instilled the correct beliefs according to your standards andacceptances . This belief has also helped install a dedication on how you view your lifeas well as you can have a better on earth and in an after life. The ultimate goal for thebelievers of many religions is the glorious after life. In the after life there is no worry , orpain .The problem with this whole idea of religion comes when people try to push theirideas and theories of religion upon some one else. I have a belief and you may haveanother belief the only way we can tell which one is correct is in the after life if oneexists, and if it does will I meet you, there and if so on which side?

Pop Star Image and Influence of Video

Pop Star Image and Influence of VideoI’m not saying that I like pop music or what they stand for, but I respect the fact that they influence media, videos, and people with the images that they convey. For example Britney Spears has fifty-nine websites that are dedicated to just HER. Can you believe that? Most of them are fan sites too. That is ridiculous. But you have to hand it to those pop stars; the way that they dance in their videos and the sexy clothing that where makes people want to be like them. The way that camera angles are set up in videos creates a very sensual atmosphere in a lot of videos. Also on the other hand a lot of pop stars grab public attention by singing about a controversial subject for example Christina Aguilera’s song “Beautiful” talks about the openness of homosexuality. It is not just pop stars however that sing about controversial topics other genres of music do the same thing, but the point I’m trying to make is that pop stars can influence their followers through music videos and image that they have the right opinion on certain topics that affect everyone. The messages pop stars show in their videos and the image that present affect everyone in both positive and negative ways.For one thing many pop musicians have a strong influence on charitable organizations. You see them out there on celebrity Jeopardy playing for charity. Pop stars also convey the message of a drug free environment. These aspects of the pop star pertain to image. The public sees these great deeds being done and wants to be the same way. Many teens are influenced to make a difference in good way by pop stars. But is there a down side to these images? I say yes.The fact that female pop stars walk around with barely any clothes on doesn’t sound like a very good message to be sending to younger girls who admire them and want to dress like them. That spells trouble in most cases especially the sex content in video that a lot of pop stars convey. This sends a negative message to people that it’s ok to just go around having sex with whoever they can. Another negative aspect of pop star video image is the fact that it dominates MTV and other music video playing TV stations. The songs just get over played to the point where people get sick of it and don’t listen anymore.In conclusion I would like to reintegrate the fact that pop music and the people that associated with it can influence the media and the thoughts of the youth in a very significant way. They can start a fashion trend with the clothes that they wear in their videos making the image seem most important to the viewer. Or they can send a message to someone that may not be necessarily being positive. Either way you look at it pop has become an integral put of the American society, and the world. It affects the media and the video through image and lyrics.References:Billboard Magazine (March 2003). Top 50 chart in 2003 p. 46.Rolling Stone (1999). Pop Star Success and Sex. March (101). Available online: http://www.rollingstone.comMTV. February 23.

Men and Women in The Withered Arm and Other Stories by Thomas Hardy and Men and Women in Turned by Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Men and Women in The Withered Arm and Other Stories by Thomas Hardy and Men and Women in Turned by Charlotte Perkins Gilman“The Withered Arm” and “Turned” are both focused on relationships
between men and women. “The Withered Arm” was about the relationship
between Rhoda Brook and Farmer Lodge and also who he married later on
called Gertrude. “Turned” was about the relationship between
Mr.Marroner and Mrs.Marion Marroner but Mr.Marroner also had an affair
with his servant Gerta Peterson and made her pregnant. Thomas Hardy
when writing his stories focuses mainly on tradition where as
Charlotte Perkins being a woman herself has represented other women as
being strong and independent.
The men in Thomas Hardy’s stories are represented in an extremely
traditional way as they are being represented as powerful and
emotional. In “The Withered Arm”, Farmer Lodge is represented as
strong, powerful, unemotional and degrading towards women. He somehow
changes throughout the story. At the start of the story he had
superficial feelings and also neglected his son as he was born through
the affair with a low class woman. He then marries Gertrude as he
wanted a young pretty wife. He therefore was represented there as
being selfish because he never cared about other people’s feelings
except for his own.
“O yes. You must expect to be stared at just at first, my pretty
Gertrude”. (pg 5)
In the middle of the story, Gertrude’s arm becomes more and more
disfigured which makes Farmer Lodge become more obsessed with the
women’s appearance. He then starts neglecting her just like he did to
Rhoda Brook and all just because of her wither arm. But towards the
end of the story he eventually changes for the better and appeared as
a thoughtful and chastened man because after his wife Gertrude died,
he bequeathed the whole of his not inconsiderable property to a
reformatory for boys.
Other examples of characters like Farmer Lodge are Humphrey Gould in
“The Melancholy Hussar of the German Legion” and Tony Kytes in “Tony
Kytes, the Arch-Deceiver” because they are represented as being
shallow, unemotional and someone who would not care about women’s
feelings. But I think Randolphin “The Son’s Veto” is the worst male
character in the stories because he only cared about his own happiness
and not his mother’s feelings. He always cared about his status as he
did not let Sophy marry Sam because he was a green grocer.
“I am ashamed of you! It will ruin me! A miserable boor! A churl! A
clown! It will degrade me in the eyes of all the gentlemen of England!”
(pg 49)
Women in Thomas Hardy’s stories were represented in the stereotypical
way as they were seen on those days. Phyllis Grove in “The Melancholy
Hussar of the German Legion” is a good example of this as she is being
represented as a soft, delicate and a physically weak woman. Rhoda
Brook in “The Withered Arm” is an exception to his writing as she was
strong minded and independent and also who was able to live her life
without the help of a man. But Gertrude Lodge was just opposite to
Rhoda Brook as she was weak, very delicate and would do anything to
satisfy her husband. All of the female characters were represented as
soft and elusive. The different aspects and key elements affect each
of the female character, one of which is social status and the other
being the problems that rise from this. Like for example Rhoda Brook
in “The Withered Arm” is a milkmaid (lower-class) and Sophy Twycott in
“The Son’s Veto” is a parlour maid which is lower-class too but the
difference between the two of them is that Rhoda is strong and
independent where as Sophy is weak and delicate even though she
changes at the end of the story after her husband dies where she
learns to live the life of her own by being strong enough to make her
own decisions. All the female characters were represented in a
stereotypical way including Phyllis Grove in “The Melancholy Hussar of
the German Legion” because she was soft, weak and followed social
conventions instead of her heart. Overall the women were represented
as physically weak and delicate.
In Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s story men are represented as being cold
hearted and someone who would not care about women’s feelings.
Mr.Marroner in “Turned” is a very good example of this because he has
an affair with his servant Gerta Peterson even though he has a wife.
His attitude to Gerta Peterson is that he thought she was child-like
and would not be able to take care of herself.
“And you must take care of Gerta, too”, he said. “I expect you’ll have
her ready for college when I get back”.
He had discussed Gerta’s visible limitations with his wife and also
gets Gerta pregnant and then goes away on business for seven months.
He also sends her a fifty dollar bill saying that he would take care
of her.
“You must bare it bravely, little girl. I shall be home soon, and will
take care of you, of course”.
Mr.Marroner is therefore being represented as cold-hearted and someone
who expresses no regret over his betrayal because when he gets home
and finds that his wife and Gerta have gone, he only looks for his
wife and not Gerta.
Mrs.Marroner is represented as being well off and of having a
“reserved, superior Boston-bred life”. She is a woman who loved her
husband before she found out about the affair. She felt jealous and
angry at first but controls her feelings of jealousy and realise that
Gerta should not be blamed for the affair with her husband. She was
also represented as a different woman character who was well-filled
and had a well-balanced mind because she had the patience to take into
account what her husband did to Gerta and also leaves her husband to
take care of Gerta and the baby born out of the affair. She stays
strong and thought what she did was right till the end of the story as
she never forgave her husband. Mrs.Marroner was also similar to Rhoda
in her independence because she had the mind to accept Gerta after the
affair and did not want anything to do with her husband as she lived
her own independent life where as Rhoda was the same as Mrs.Marroner
because she lived her own independent life too without the love of a
Overall I think the main differences in the attitude of the two
authors is that Thomas Hardy was being rather sexiest and wrote
stories which were more sympathetic to the offending male where as
Charlotte Perkins being a woman herself has represented other women as
being strong and independent. I think they are both different not
because of the fact that one of the writers is American and the other
English because I don’t think it is really important where the write
was born. But they might be different as to how they were bought up or
something that might have happened in their past life which might have
affected them and made them get a bad impression about men or women as
Thomas Hardy seems to support the male characters in his stories where
as Charlotte Perkins supports the female characters.

The Purpose of Lines 1 through 18 of Beowulf

The Purpose of Lines 1 – 18 of “Beowulf”     August 31, 2005“Beowulf” begins the British literature. As a classic heroic epic, it outlines the tribal history of the Jutes, providing a great insight into the Anglo-Saxons’ epoch. In the poem “Beowulf,” we meet the most heroic man in the time of the Anglo-Saxons; a man with all the extraordinary characteristics necessitated to being a true hero. Beowulf was his name. He slaughters the monster Grendel, a descendent of Cain, Grendel’s mother and a dragon. By including the mere first eighteen lines of the section The Coming of Grendel in the poem “Beowulf,” the anonymous author successfully reflects the various customs of the Anglo-Saxons, the magnanimity of King Hrothgar and the values of the Anglo-Saxons. It is perhaps the most suitable opening for a work of admirable heroism; revealing grandiose, powerful and gloriousness of the Anglo-Saxons’ period.As the King of the Danes, King Hrothgar is portrayed as a wise and generous leader of his people. Not only does he equally distribute the spoils amongst everyone, but also he grants mercy by “leaving the common pastures untouched, and taking no lives.”(10-11) By displaying compassion for those who do not fight in battles, King Hrothgar earns more respect from his followers. Such generosity is rarely found in the man of war. King Hrothgar’s grandeur temperament also pulls attention. When he is for something he truly desires, he has to make it grand and appealing. He built the “most beautiful of dwellings”(14) named Herot, a mead-hall where he can commemorate his victories and share the spoils from battle. When time comes to congratulate his victories in battle, he was glad to “[open] out his treasure-full hands”(18) for a banquet. The construction of the hall for the banquet was a desire of King Hrothgar; it was “built as he’d wanted,”(14-15) and King Hrothgar’s word was obeyed to name the hall Herot. There found no objection to his wishes. We can assume that he is receiving great respect from his people, both by fame and wealth, and as a king whom led his people to the golden age.During the golden days of their time, the Anglo-Saxons developed their own values. The value which Anglo-Saxons considered most vital is probably loyalty to their king. The comrades and kinsmen of King Hrothgar “swore by his sword, and young men swelled his armies”(3-4) to lavishly show respect of their leader in throne. Loyal courage and success in battle is their way of increasing their reputation. No one shows dissatisfaction of Hrothgar’s orders of building a hall, nor do they feel discontent of his choice of the name Herot. The loyalty of the followers is shown throughout the first eighteen lines of the poem. Another value of the Anglo-Saxons is religion. King Hrothgar “[builds] a hall that would hold his mighty band and reach higher toward Heaven than anything that had ever been known to the sons of men.”(5-7) The Jutes show respect to Heaven and endeavor to reach as close to God as possible. These brave men are thirst for victory, and are very courageous, showing acquiescence to the certainty of death.In just the first eighteen lines of the three thousand, the author of “Beowulf” illustrated the grandiose works of King Hrothgar, providing expansive information regarding the Anglo-Saxon’s battle customs, King Hrothgar’s personality, and traditions of the Anglo-Saxons. Though “Beowulf” is a poem of fiction and does not provide as a reliable source, it contains the primitive beliefs of the Anglo-Saxons and their life.

The Retail King Wal-Mart

Wal-Mart has quickly become the world’s largest company with its one stop shopping convenience and low prices. There is no debating that Wal-Mart is a dominating force in the American and world economy. However, there is a clash between two different views of how Wal-Mart achieved this status. The defenders of Wal-Mart say that they are so successful because they are market savvy and make good economic decisions. The other side argues that Wal-Mart only became successful by killing off all their competition with their low prices. The only thing that matters to those that like the company is that they save consumers money through their low prices, but you cannot tell this to all the owners of smaller stores that Wal-Mart has put out of business, such as Gary E. Hawkins. The CEO of a family-owned supermarket in New York, he said “It will be a sad day in this country if we wake up one morning and all we find is a Wal-Mart on every corner.” This is obviously a conflict of different interests, and it is unclear as to whether Wal-Mart is beneficial or harmful to the economy.
Wal-Mart grew to its enormous size mainly because of the low prices it offers its consumers, which seems to be an obvious benefit to the economy. New England Consulting estimated that Wal-Mart saved U.S. customers $20 billion in 2002 alone. With the price cuts other retailers make to compete with them factored in this total reaches $100 billion. When you combine these savings with the convenience of being able to buy ones food, clothing, electronics, gas, and almost anything else one could desire in one place you have a winning formula. The low prices they charge get them large percentages of the consumer’s money, which in turn allows them to charge such low prices. Many economists agree that even though some of Wal-Mart’s practices might offend some consumers, most will find it too difficult to resist the temptation of their low prices. People complain that these low prices kill off all other competition, but the American economy is based on competition, making it hard to fault them for being one step ahead of their competitors.
It is clear that Wal-Mart is a very market efficient company. They understand that a successful business must continually expand their market if they want to continue improving. They provide consumers with almost any good they could possibly need and are even expanding into banking and healthcare. They also have expanded overseas, often seeking cost advantages by buying finished goods and raw materials directly from foreign manufacturers, which allows them to sell their goods for less. Many will argue that this takes away money from suppliers here in America, but none can debate that this is a very successful tactic. Another reason they are so successful is their understanding of economies of scale. By increasing their size and production they can increase profits greatly. However, this is beginning to become an issue for them because they are growing too large for their own good. Eventually any growing company reaches a point where growing larger is basically impossible due to agency issues, which essentially means issues in the management of such a large group of people. A longtime supplier of the company said, “Their biggest danger is just managing size.” Although this has begun to become an issue for the company, good economic decisions have kept them still very successful.
Obviously Wal-Mart knows how to be efficient in the market, but it is still debatable whether they are good or bad for the economy. A study by UBS Warburg showed that Wal-Mart offered prices 14% percent less than their competition on average, which is the main reason that nearly 13,000 American supermarkets closed between 1992 and 2003. Economists have predicted that for every supercenter Wal-Mart opens, two supermarkets will close. This leaves thousands of people out of a job, with no other opportunities other than working at Wal-Mart. Then they are faced with making the average of $13,861 a year, in 2001, which is about a thousand below the federal poverty line for a family of three. They also have been accused of forcing employees to work off the clock and discriminating against females. Many employees have complained about performing mind-numbing tasks endlessly for very little pay.
Another problem many have is that since they are always trying to lower their prices they must get their goods from suppliers for a lower price. This means they must either get supplies from foreign markets, which take the money out of the American economy, or the suppliers here in America must lower the cost of their goods, which tends to deliver products of a lower quality. Also, since the company operates on such a large scale and buys such a large percentage of the supplies from companies, many worry that if Wal-Mart ever started to fail that it could take down most of the American economy down with it. Tom Rubel, the CEO of Retail Forward Inc., said “If [Wal-Mart] ever stumbles, we’ve got a potential national security problem on our hands. They touch almost everything…if they ever really went into a tailspin, the dislocation would be significant and traumatic.”
One can easily see that this is a very heated debate and now even the government has gotten involved in the battle. In Turlock, California the City Council passed an ordinance that banned retailers larger than 100,000 square feet. Wal-Mart planned to place a 226,000 square foot store there and sued to overturn the restriction. Maryland’s state legislature passed a law that would have forced Wal-Mart to pay more of its workers health benefits had it not been for the governors veto.
The animosity held towards Wal-Mart is obviously very great. The accusations of killing off other businesses and providing a less than desirable work environment have made many hold great vehemence towards the company. According to a study on Wal-Mart customers and those that were not customers, about 10% of all consumers hate the company and an additional 30% had “sincere questions about Wal-Mart.” However, through all this Wal-Mart continues to reign supreme in the retail market. They continue to thrive with their low prices and wide selection of goods. One could argue forever about which view of the company is correct, but none can deny their success. As Edward Weller of ThinkEquity Partners said, “I don’t think Wal-Mart can ever be underestimated, they are so very good.”

The Romantic Meal – Original Writing

The Romantic Meal – Original WritingMr Anderson makes his flamboyant entrance accompanied by his elegant
goddess who was dressed in a black halter neck, long flowing evening
dress that brought out the true beauty of her sapphire coloured eyes.
The couple both looked a million dollars.
The ravishing looking couple were greeted at the entrance by the
maitre d’hotel, who gave them a welcoming bow. As they made their
grand entrance, their eyes darted from wall to wall as they inspected
the dazzling surroundings. Towards the back of the restaurant, were
silk, royal red curtains which overlooked the stunning sunset.
Dangling above them was a sumptuous chandelier which had diamonds
suspended from it. Classical French music flowed through the
restaurant, which was played by a pianist in a darkened corner.
Mr Anderson and his fellow beauty, Amelie were introduced to the head
table which was covered in a beautiful satin cloth with candles and
fresh flower petals disbursed over the table setting a truly romantic
James and Amelie sat down and made themselves comfortable as they
gazed into each other eyes. The couple received the menu and at a
quick glance Amelie instantly saw what she wanted and was overwhelmed
to see the Lobster Thermador on the menu, her favourite.
‘Merci and for you Monsieur?’ asked the garcon.
’Ah, it all looks splendid, but I think I shall have to go for the
pot-roasted belly of West Country Pork, with aubergine caviar, baby
spinach, lightly creamed onions and bacon’.
’Merci, an excellent choice Monsieur, and would you like wine with
your meal?’
‘Oh yes please, so what’s on the list tonight?’ asked Mr Anderson. The
sommelier handed James the wine list and James was pleased to see that
the Cotes du Rhone 39 was available.
’Monsieur, do you approve of a starter? Asked the garcon.
’Ah yes, I will go for the pressed smoked Gloucester ham hock and
confit pullet de Bresse. That sounds splendid.’ Ordered Mr. Anderson.
‘And for Madame, what would you like?’ Questioned the garcon.
’It’s a hard choice, it all sounds magnificent, but the Veloute of
baby turnips with a fricassee of cepes, artichokes and rocket salad
sounds marvellous!’ replied Amelie.
The garcon was a great help, he had an infectious charm and was a true
Moments later the couple were settled down with their exquisite meals
and wine. James truly led by example as he expertly held his wine
glass and inhaled the pleasant fumes deeply which had a hint of oak
and heated to perfection. The food was absolutely sensational. The
smoked Gloucester ham hock was set in its own jelly of piccalilli. The
lobster was lavishly set out on a platter, with fresh vegetable
garnishes, which were artistically carved into delicate little
flowers. James’ meal was superb; the pot-roasted belly of West Country
pork was lightly crisped and lusciously dressed in delicious caviar.
James and Amelie were absolutely delighted at the standard of the
The garcon reappeared at their table, and asked if everything was to
their satisfaction.
‘Ah, the 1939 classic, it’s glorious, that was a great year!’
expressed Mr. Anderson.
‘Mmm…… yes, I totally agree, it is fantastic.’ Said Amelie.
Soon came dessert, Amelie had the delicious Valrhona chocolate
fondant, whilst James went for the succulent Bailey’s crème brulee
with caramelised pears and honeycomb ice-cream.
The conversation flowed easily between them as they discussed the
events of their day.
The time at the restaurant soon had to come to an unfortunate end. Mr
Anderson asked for the bill and generously left a fine tip.
James took Amelie home in his Bentley who kindly invited him in for a
hot and creamy coffee which lead to the obvious ………… The couple shared
a night of passion together. By the end of the night everyone truly
was satisfied.

Afghanistan: America’s Attempt to Abolish the Taliban

Afghanistan: America’s Attempt to Abolish the TalibanIt is hard to say exactly how I feel about the war that the United States is waging against the Taliban. I feel that war should always be a last resort when dealing with problems between countries, especially in today’s age. Because of remarkable technological advances over the past few decades, armed forces now have the capabilities to kill their enemies with incredible accuracy and destroy entire cities with superhuman precision. War brings out the brutality in men and leads to the death of soldiers and innocent bystanders. War is expensive and has historically led to the failure of stable economies. However, I do believe that the United States is justified in going to war in Afghanistan. The Taliban’s terrorist acts against us have completely stripped Americans of a sense of security that, in my opinion, they, as human beings, are entitled to. Tens of thousands lost relatives and loved ones in the bombings of September 11th. Many commuters now feel unsafe using planes as a mode of transportation. Business executives in large cities now think twice before going to entering their offices in the top of skyscrapers. So although I do not agree with a country murdering its enemies, I think that America has no other choice at this point.I think the first thing that America needs to do in order to bring peace to Afghanistan is to stop the spread of the Taliban. Whether or not the war will accomplish this or not is hard for anyone to say right now, but if it does not, something must be done to end the radical Islamic group’s tyranny. This would improve the quality of life for many Afghanis; women would not be forced to wear full-body garments, innocent people would not be beaten in the streets for disobeying the Taliban’s rules, and people would not be publicly executed in gaming fields. Without the Taliban’s presence, the United States would be able to set up shelters for battered women and children of Afghanistan, thereby demonstrating a concern for the state of the country and it’s people. By showing such a beneficent attitude toward Afghanistan, the United States would hopefully earn a good name amongst the people of the country and be able to help them develop politically and economically.Helping to develop and stabilize the government of Afghanistan should be the next step that America takes after abolishing the Taliban. In the past, Afghanistan had been ruled by leaders that forced their ways into power. With help from a lasting government like that of the United States, Afghanistan can establish a political system that allows its inhabitants to choose a leader who represents a majority of them. At this point, the United Nations should focus on bringing the newly emerged Afghan government to an economically stable situation. This should allow the country to find other sources of money than the sales of narcotics. In time, the Afghan government could grow into a more safe and thriving entity.

Varying Arguments for the Existence of God

Varying Arguments for the Existence of God(2) Not everything can depend on another for its existence.(3) Therefore, there is some self-existing being, and that being is God.The Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) maintains that “there must be an explanation (a) of the existence of any being, and (b) of any positive fact whatever” (Rowe 24). Thus, there is an explanation for why I exist (PSRa), and also an explanation for every feature of my life (PSRb).
Second, what is the meaning of the argument and how is it based on PSR? Premise (1) stems from Anselm’s division of beings “into the three cases: ‘explained by another [dependent beings],’‘explained by nothing,’‘and explained by itself [independent/self-existing being]’” (Rowe 22). The first rule of PSR holds that every being must have an explanation for its existence. A being that is “explained by nothing” violates this first rule, and as a result, is left out of premise (1). This allows for only two possible types of beings — either dependent or self-existent. If you hold PSR to be true, them premise (1) is uncontroversial. Because it is an “either, or” statement, only one of the two types of beings needs to exist for the premise to be true. We know that there are at least dependent beings, so premise (1) is true. Premise (2) states that everything cannot be a dependent being. Why is this the case? William Rowe does an excellent job of explaining why if PSR is true, then premise (2) is also true. He (Rowe 24-25) says let’s suppose that there has never been a self-existing being, but only an infinite series of dependent beings. In this series, every being has an explanation, because it is explained by the being that came before it and that caused its existence (follows with PSRa), but what caused the series? PSRb says that the fact that the series exists requires it to have an explanation, but if there have only existed dependent beings, the series will not have an explanation. “It won’t do to say that As [where As equal dependent beings] have always been producing other As — we can’t explain why there have always been As by saying that there have always been As” (Rowe 25). Thus, a self-existing being is the only explanation for the series, and premise (2) is true. Thus, because premise (1) shows that there are only two kinds of beings (dependent or self-existent), and everything cannot be a dependent being, it follows that there must be some self-existing being.
So far, it seems that the Cosmological Argument indeed proves the existence of a self-existing being. Both of its premises have been shown to be true, so it passes the premise test, and also, the conclusion follows from the premises — it passes the inference test. But has anything been overlooked? Yes, it has. The only way that premise (1) and (2) can be true is if the Principle of Sufficient Reason is also true. The question, of course, is whether or not PSR is true. What reasons for its truth could we offer? Rowe suggests two traditional reasons offered in favor of accepting the truth of PSR. The first reason is that “some have held that PSR is (or can be) known intuitively to be true” (Rowe 29). Just as we know that two plus two equals four is true, the defender of PSR claims that the same sort of thing is true about PSR. Once PSR is understood, the understanding in itself reveals that it is true and must be true. The problem with the first defense of PSR is that while everyone who understands 2+2 knows that it does and must equal 4, very few people who reflect on PSR find that it must be true, “and some even claim that the principle is false” (Rowe 29). Why couldn’t the world be such that there were things and positive facts that had no explanation? The second reason traditionally offered for defending PSR “is by claiming that although it is not known to be true, it is, nevertheless, a presupposition of reason, a basic assumption that rational people make” (Rowe 29). The defender of PSR suggests that all of us presuppose that PSR is true, and that we couldn’t engage in our everyday activity if we took seriously the possibility that it might be false. The problem with this second defense of PSR is that it even if it were true that we all presuppose PSR to be true, that wouldn’t show that it was true. “Even if PSR is a presupposition we all share, the premises of the Cosmological Argument could still be false. For PSR itself could be false” (Rowe 29).
Ultimately, if we want to use the Cosmological Argument to prove the existence of God, then we need more evidence to prove that the Principle of Sufficient Reason is true. PSR is the basis for the premises of the Cosmological Argument, and Rowe has shown that the traditional arguments in favor of the truth of PSR are unsound. Until there is evidence to prove that PSR is true, the Cosmological Argument is not able to provide support for the existence of God.Bibliography:Feinberg, Joel and Russ Shafer-Landau, ed. Reason and
Responsibility: Readings in Some Basic Problems of
Philosophy. 10th ed., Philosophy of Religion, by William
L. Rowe. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1999.

The Spanish Inquistition

Ferdinand and Isabella used the Inquisition to eliminate opposition in Spain. Their thoughts were that by eliminating the Jews, Muslims, and New Christians in Spain they would gain unity, wealth, and power. They wanted to make a Christian and only a Christian Spain.
     Since Ferdinand and Isabella were married they strived to make Spain a whole. With Ferdinand ruling Aragon and Isabella ruling Castile they united Spain as one. Soon Ferdinand and Isabella had the regions of Granada and Portugal as part of Spain. But Ferdinand and Isabella wanted to increase their authority over their kingdom through religion as well. Ferdinand new that the church controlled large amounts of land and also served significant roles in the political system, he took these very important things into major consideration. Isabella on the other hand, “…had a genuine concern for religious reform and believed in their responsibility for the spiritual life of their subjects and people.”(Ovid 3). Ferdinand and Isabella didn’t think of using the Inquisition to purify Spain until a priest named Tomas de Torquemada brought it to their attention. Torquemada was Isabella’s confessor or spiritual leader. Torquemada convinced Ferdinand and Isabella that once the Inquisition was in place they could eliminate all non-Catholic believers. He bribed them with the thought that they,“…could use it to solidify the supremacy of Catholicism in Spanish life…the inquisition would promise them consolidation on their political control over the country and would increase the wealth of the crown through confiscation.”(The Inquisition 50-51)
Ferdinand and Isabella were now convinced that by putting the Inquisition to action they could gain wealth, power, and full unity of Spain. The Inquisition was so closely associated with the government that it became a department of state. (The Inquisition 43) The Jewish population in Spain was a very large one that caused lots of envy. Jews held very important roles in the all parts of Government in Spain. There were also many Jews who were part of very wealthy and important Christian families. When the Inquisition was put out, all Jews and Muslims or basically anyone who wasn’t part of the Catholic religion had to either convert to the Catholic religion or leave Spain. By doing this Ferdinand and Isabella gained all the land and any business as well that all non-Christians used to obtain. Soon most of the population had become New Christians. New Christians were people who were Catholic by baptism. By then the anger arose towards them as well and any New Christian who was suspected of practicing their old religion by any means was questioned and usually found guilty, which meant that they were either exiled or their land and belongings were taken away. The Inquisition did indeed bring Ferdinand and Isabella wealth to their precious Spain but its economy had gone down and so did its advancements. With the Inquisition in place foreign presence was eliminated which meant no interaction to any t new advancements or wealth in the outside world.
Ferdinand and Isabella thought that the Inquisition would help purify Spain and make it all Christian, they thought that by doing this is would unite Spain more and make their reign more powerful. Though many problems occurred during their reign you could say that they did fulfill their desires, they gained wealth from all the land and money that they confiscated from all the people who fled Spain. They also gained power and unity for their belief in making a pure Spain. In the end they did in a way unite Spain as whole…at least in their minds.     Netanyhu, B. The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth Century Spain.New York: Random House, 1995.Ovid, Jacob. The Alhambra Decree ( Followed by Isaac Abrabanel’s Answer).Online. http://home.earthlink.net/~bnahman/Alhambra_Decree_Abrabanels_Answer.htmFeb. 2002.

The Irish Potato Famine

The Irish Potato FamineBibliography:WORKS CITED:1. The University of Kansas, Irish History and Culture (Kansas, University of Kansas, 1976). 194
2. http://www.bms.utexas.edu/
3. ibid.
4. Sir James O’Connor, History of Ireland (New York: Johnson Reprinting Co., 1971). 274
5. Kansas. 234

gospel music

Gospel Music     Gospel music is considered to have begun in the United States, sometime in the nineteenth century. The first time that appeared in print was in 1874. The English term “gospel” translates to the meaning of good news, or a joyous message. This is a form of American religious music. A lot of its origin is from the Christian conversions of West Africans who were enslaved in the American south. Gospel music gradually developed partly from the songs that slaves sang while they were working on the plantations down in the south. These songs were sung as work songs. As the slaves worked on the plantations they sung these song to make their time working more enjoyable. Gospel songs were also part of Protestant hymns that were sung in churches. A form of music that is so very close to gospels is spirituals.
     Spirituals are religious folk songs. In general, black spirituals are rhythmic and very emotional. Spirituals are usually sung in-groups of people; large groups more than small. An example of a group is a church congregation. A leader such as a pastor, minister, preacher, or a choir director usually starts the spirituals off by singing a phrase of the song and the choir or the whole congregation will join in singing. A lot of spirituals such as “Nobody Knows the Trouble I’ve Seen,” express sorrow and despair. These songs usually have a pretty slow tempo and have a lot of slurring. On the flip side, other songs such as, “Didn’t my Lord Deliver Daniel?” and “Little David Play on your Harp,” are joyful and usually more up beat. Some of the spirituals have multiple meanings. Slaves used these songs as they planned their escape. For example, the song “Steal away” was used to signal an escape was planned.
     Gospel music is more emotional and triumphant. Gospel music, as spirituals, is sung by a group such as a choir or a congregation, in a call and response fashion, with a leader starting and then others joining in. This became quite common in black churches. The songs are sung with enthusiasm and spiritual inspiration. As people sing gospel music in churches, it is common for people to actually be able to feel the Holy Spirit through singing. Some examples of churches that are most likely to sing gospel music are the COGIC churches. These are the churches of God in Christ. Also Baptist churches and non-denominational churches sing gospel songs. In black culture gospel music is rarely sang in non-religious settings. Some important gospel performers have been Mahalia Jackson, Alex Bradford, James Cleveland, Arethra Franklin, and Ray Charles. The greatest era of gospel is considered to be c. 1945-1965.
     In the world today gospel music is widely spread and is loved by many people. It has been around for a very long time and as long as churches and religion bound people stay around, it is guaranteed that gospel music will stay around for a lot longer.

New Zealand

NEW ZEALANDSmelt, Roselynn. The Cultures of New Zealand. New York. Times Books      International. 1995.Sinclair, Keith. The Oxford Illustrated History of New Zealand. Auckland. Oxford University Press. 1996
Population of New Zealand, 4,000,000 peoplepercent of population     number of people
under 15 years-19.4%     776,00015-24 years old-16.7%     668,000
25-39 years old-23.6%     944,000
40-64 years old-26.7%     1,068,000
65 years and up-13.6%     544,000Jobs and Employment in New Zealandkind of job     percent of people employed with job
Manufacturing     19.8%
Resteraunts and hotels     24.8%
Insurance and business      12.4%
Social and personal services     29%
other     14%

Gore and Bush

On Reading Poems to a Senior Class at South High

On Reading Poems to a Senior Class at South High

‘The Lizard King’, Jim Morrison

The Lizard King: Jim MorrisonJim Morrison was an American poet who played a major role in the revolution of rock music in the U.S. throughout the late sixties and part of the seventies. His music has influenced millions and changed the way that people looked at rock as a whole. His poetry, often written under the influence of mind-altering substances captured the minds of his listeners allowing his vivid imagery to be displayed in every piece of music he wrote.
Born in Melborne, Florida in 1943 as the son of Stephen and Clara Morrison, Jim, along with his two younger siblings, lived under the harsh command of his parents and was often subject to his father’s military-style discipline know as “dressing down”. “This consisted of yelling and berating Jim and his siblings until they were reduced to tears and acknowledged their failings” (Jim Morrison, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia). Though this had a serious effect on his siblings, Morrison himself always seemed to be unfazed by it. This could possibly be the root of Morrison’s blatant disrespect for authority during his adolescent and short- lived adult years.
Upon entering high school, Morrison, like many teenagers at the time quickly familiarized himself with drugs and alcohol, with his grades suffering tremendously as a result. His once honorable grades had dwindled down to far below his potential, and when he actually attended class he was often loud and disruptive leaving the teacher with no other option but to exclude him from any lessons. By the end of is high school career Morrison was forced to move out of his parents house, and was sent to live with his grandmother in Clearwater, Florida. From this point on Morrison “embarked on a life long pattern of alcoholism and substance abuse” (Jim Morrison, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia), which inevitably lead to his tragic death.
Though he was far from a good student in high school, Morrison managed to get himself into a junior college, and later into FSU and then to the film school at UCLA to finish his undergraduate degree. It was here that Morrison was first recognized for his artistic abilities when he came out with two short films; “First Love”, and “Obscura”. They instantly gained the attention of his professors and would become useful later on in his career when he directed music videos for his band. However, Morrison’s academic success was rather short-lived and in 1965 Morrison decided to leave UCLA and further pursue his other dreams-dreams that would eventually become reality.
After dropping out of UCLA’s film school in 1965, Morrison moved to Venice Beach where he followed his dreams and led a Bohemian lifestyle for a few years. He was a perfect example of a starving artist, often spending his nights sleeping on rooftops or on the beach, or sometimes, if he was lucky at a girlfriends house. He spent most of his days doing drugs and writing poems, and reading books. Something that many people may not be aware of is that Morrison was an avid reader with a large collection of books that traveled with him, wherever he chose to live. one of which caught the eye of one of his former classmates Ray Manzarek. He was so impressed with Morrison’s work that he decided to start up a band with him. It would be Morrison as the front man and Manzarek on the keyboard. Soon after, the two got together with drummer John Densmore, and guitarist Robby Krieger to form The Doors, which would later go on to become one of the most influential Rock n’ Roll bands of all time.
The Doors used many of Morrison’s original poems and turned them into Rock n’ Roll classics. Such songs like “People are Strange”, “Hello, I Love You”, and “Break on Through”, which were all original poems by Morrison, helped them climb to the top of the charts and become immortalized in the world of Rock. Morrison’s poems have a unique blend of sex, mysticism, drugs, murder, madness and death which entices listeners to closely examine his words to discover their actual meanings. For instance, in the song “Break on Through” Morrison writes:
“You know the day destroys the night
Night divides the day
Tried to run
Tried to hide
Break on through to the other side”(Lyrics.com-The Doors).
Here Morrison is conveying his thoughts about being trapped in time. He explains how there is no escaping time, and no matter how hard you try, time is going to catch up to you. And when “it” decides that it’s your time to go…Then it’s your time to go. He is also saying that while you’re here on earth you should try to look past your reality and explore “the world of the unknown” via mind altering substances. He wants you to “break on through to the other side” and experience the side of life that isn’t visible under a normal state of mind. The term is Morrison’s way of letting people know that drugs aren’t as bad as they are perceived to be, and if you want to further your imagination, and learn to view life from a whole new perspective, drugs will be essential. Morrison even went as far as saying, “Drugs are a bet with your mind” (Jim Morrison, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia), meaning that drugs help you look into the unknown parts of your brain and understand things that you normally wouldn’t be able to understand if you weren’t high.
There were also songs such as “Love Me Two Times” which didn’t take as much thought to understand. The song is simply about sex… A man is going away for a little while and he wants to have sex with his girl before he leaves because he doesn’t want to be unfaithful while he’s gone. He explains that if they have sex one time before they leave it would be nice, however if they did it twice, it would last him the whole time he was gone. The lyrics to the song start out as:
“Love me two time baby, love me twice today
Love me two time girl, I’m goin’ away” (Lyrics.com-The Doors).
Morrison then continues to say, “Love me one time, I could not speak. Love me one time baby, yea my knees got weak. Love me two time girl, lasts me all through the week. Love me two times, I’m goin’ away” (Lyrics.com-The Doors). This song was one of the Doors biggest hits and can be
Morrison was influenced by the works of many dark poets of the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Artists like William Blake from England and Charles Baudelaire, and Arthur Rimbaud of France. People often compared the work of Morrison with the work of Rimbaud since “Both men symbolized the bravado and the rebellion of youth against a conservative society that seeks to squelch the individual through social control.”, and Morrison himself even said “I am Rimbaud with a leather jacket” (Jim Morrison, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia). Both artists were extreme non conformists who were looked down upon by members of high society, and worshiped by their followers. They both also sustained a legacy that continued far beyond their deaths.
“Writers, such as Jack Kerouac, also had a strong influence on Morrison’s outlook and manner of expression; Morrison was eager to experience the life described in Kerouac’s On The Road. He was similarly drawn to the works of the French writer Céline. Céline’s book, Voyage au Bout de la Nuit (Journey to the End of the Night) and Blake’s Auguries of Innocence both echo through one of Morrison’s early songs, “End of the Night.” Eventually Morrison got to meet and befriend Michael McClure, a well known beat poet. McClure had enjoyed Morrison’s lyrics but was even more impressed by his poetry and encouraged him to further develop his craft” (Jim Morrison, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).
In 1971 after moving to Paris to focus on his writing, Jim Morrison was found dead in his bathtub after a long night of partying (Jerry Hopkins, 159-189), he was only twenty-seven. Though he lived a relatively short life, the legacy of Jim Morrison will stand the test of time and his work will be admired by future generations to come. He was a living example of rebellion, and will always be admired by his fans as a man who stood up for what he believed in and lived life the way it should be lived…Your own way. His work will carry on like that of his many influences, and he will always be remembered as the man who shaped rock into what it is today. He was a living legend during his time and he died with a bang. There is nothing more for me to write except for Thank You Jim Morrison, cuz you’re the man!(True to his own spirit)
Work Cited
“Jim Morrison.” Wikipedia. 2006. 15 Dec 2006 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Morrison>.
“The Doors.” Lyrics.com. 15 Dec 2006 <http://www.lyrics.com/Lyrics.aspx?AlbumID=988>.
Hopkins, Jerry. The Lizard King, The Essential Jim Morrison. New York: Fireside, 1992.

Marketing Comparison

Marketing ComparisonSo you’re thinking of doing some online advertising to drive traffic to your Web site – good idea! It’s the new way to advertise and gain new supporters. Forget billboards in Times Square or commercials during the Super Bowl; using online text ads to promote your organization is extremely affordable (usually $5 to get started) and simple.Since you’re going to start advertising online somewhere, it’s kind of nice to get some free advertising money to play around with. On Google, the most free advertising money offer I’ve seen is $50.Google Adwords offer a nice little feature that displays lots of keywords for you when you enter a few basic words about your organization. This eliminates the thinkingneeded to come up with search terms that people would normally use to find your Web site.Google AdWords lets you add an unlimited (or at least I haven’t found a limit) number of keywords to an ad group. Yahoo! limits you to 50 — a major negative.It’s vital to know who is searching for what keywords and who clicks on which ads. Google AdWords stats are in real time,Google AdWords accumulates your advertising clicks, then bills your credit card once a
month. This makes for easy accounting (especially if you have to run this expense by your board of directors).Profile 2:Compare proposition on advertising in Vanity Fair magazine vs Google: Vanity fair has circulation of around 1 million, and a full-page ad for a Prada bag costs around $100,000. So that ad in Vanity Fair costs 10¢ per impression. How about paying about 20¢ per impression for a link to a Web site where you can buy the bag? In truth, Vanity Fair’s ad is cheaper per impression if you measure by the magazine’s total audience, but Which gets you closer to commerce, and how much do you pay for that?Google provides an automatic return-on-investment measure for a marketing world increasingly obsessed with ROI. If someone clicks on a company’s link, it pays; if someone doesn’t, the company doesn’t. This comes as corporations are demanding better accountability for their massive ad spending.Google is a product with zero switching costs; if a different and better search site comes up tomorrow, there’s nothing stopping a mass consumer migration.At the Google Analyst Day in early March this year, CEO Eric Schmidt outlined the company’s priorities for 2006. Numbers one and two, respectively, were to continue improving search quality and end-user traffic, and the quality of advertisements as perceived by end users. “Notice I didn’t say advertisers, I said end users,” Schmidt emphasizes.Sandberg, vice president of global online sales and operations, recalls, when one man wanted to know why Google wouldn’t let his ad accompany a certain search term. “He had bought an ad, but very few people had clicked on it, so his click-through rate was below our minimum to stay alive,” Sandberg says, “which says to us, no one was interested in it.” Sandberg had to explain to the advertiser that he needed to pick other terms that users would find more relevant to his ad.“We value the white space on our page…and we are willing to forgo short-run revenue to build a long-run program,” Sandberg says. “And that’s how we’ve run it from the very beginning.”
The “what’s good for the user is good for the advertiser” philosophy extends to the ads’ look and feel — a primary reason why Google has resisted pressure to resort to more gimmicky offerings.
“Having the uncluttered interface really gives the advertisers the opportunity to shine with their ads,” says Marissa Mayer, vice president of search products and user experience, and the internal champion of keeping Google’s products as visually simple as possible. Although the company has ventured into image and graphical ads, most of what you’ll see next to search results is four lines of text.
“You don’t see cars driving across our home page, you don’t see us cluttering the user experience with annoying pop-ups or ads that don’t work,” says Patrick Keane, director of field marketing and head of sales strategy, whose team supports the direct salespeople who call on large advertisers. “What we really want to do is focus on a great user experience, and all else follows.One satisfied user of Google’s AdWords program is Harrisdirect LLC, a Bank of Montreal unit that provides investor services. The company bids against competing advertisers for some 1,000 keywords, says Eric Frenchman, Harrisdirect’s marketing director, vying for top billing in “sponsored links” lists that Google generates for those search words. It works like this: Harrisdirect gives Google a list of search terms it wants to bid for, along with the maximum bid it is willing to make for each term. For example, it might tell Google that it wants to display an ad on results pages for the search term “invest” and that it’s willing to bid as much as $100. Google would then look at the bids from all companies that want to advertise on the word and rank them according to their final bid, with the highest bidder at the top of the list. But that’s only half the equation: Google also factors in an ad’s actual click-through rate, the percentage of times users who draw the ad on a search-results page actually click on it. “It’s a complicated process, one that requires us to analyze which search terms are most relevant,” says Frenchman. “We use real-time reporting to track people as they click on a keyword to a ‘landing page’ and then to an online application.”

Funding for AIDS

Funding for AIDSBibliography:
Fumento, Michael. ” The AIDS Lobby: Are we giving it too much money?.”
Perspectives on Contemporary Issues: Readings Across the Disciplines.
Fort Worth: Hartcourt, 1997. 528-533.
Freundlich, Naomi. “No, Spending more on AIDS isn’t unfair.”
Perspectives on Contemporary Issues: Readings Across the Disciplines.
Fort Worth: Hartcourt, 1997. 533-535.
Thurman, Sandy. “AIDS czarina.” Hospitals and Health Networks 72.4 (1998): 26

Exploring the Mormons

Exploring the MormonsWho were the Mormons?
The Mormons were a very different to other people they had a communal
life and this means they try to get other people to follow there
religion. The man who founded the Mormons was Joseph smith a son of a
poor family in Vermont. Joseph smith claimed he saw a vision of an
angel in 1823 called Moroni. The vision he had told him to find some
secret hidden golden plates in a hillside called Cumorah in Palmyra,
in the New York state. The plates were then kept hidden for four
years, smith found the plates and four years later he translated what
it said on them behind a curtain, the inscription was written in the
book of Mormon published in 1830. There were witnesses which went to
see the plates and confirmed they exist. The Mormons believed in no
individual ownership of property, and in return for there good deeds,
Mormons would be gods the chosen people from heaven. There were no
limits to converting Mormonism. Any man who followed the Mormon race
could have more than one wife (polygamy). The leaders of the Mormons
could make knew laws and have total authority over everyone. The first
objective smith was to accomplish was to build theHOLYCITY(city of
god). This was not going to be an easy task, Catholics attacked the
Mormons because of there different beliefs. Joseph smith plotted there
first temple, after smith founded a bank for Mormons and non-Mormons
but through a financial crisis the bank collapsed. The Mormons were
driven out by the non-Mormons to Kirtland; Joseph smith led the
Mormons to Missouri where missionaries had already created a small
village. At first the Mormons wasn’t accepted for there religious
differences, the people in the community were suspicious of the Mormon
leaders which they believed in communal ownership of there property.
Most Mormons came from the north so they didn’t like slavery, and the
farmers in Missouri owned slaves so there were a lot of problems in
the community. Violence increased in the area and fights broke out, so
the Mormons created a police force called the Danites, they believed
they were going to win the support of the Indian tribes. When the
Mormons left Missouri they went to Nauvoo Illinois led by smith. In
1842 the Mormons army was at the size of 2,000. Some rumours were
spread that the Mormons would take over the United States of America
because Joseph smith made a run for president. In the month June 1844
smith and his brother, Hyrum were sent to prison. From then on the
race was run by Brigham Young.
When Joseph smith died it worried the Mormons they didn’t carry on
there massive move across America, most of the Mormons left the areas
and broke up into separate groups which lowered there population.
Brigham young set a plan to trail to Salt Lake City, but it was a long
journey they needed plenty of supplies and a team of leaders to hold
them together. They started at the Nauvoo Carthage and made a
settlement at the winter quarters, then past through the Platte r.
slowly then went through the Rocky Mountains, then to there surprise
they were at the Salt Lake City , but some carried on to make
settlements in the pacific area like san Diego. Brigham young’s
organisation, determination and discipline had got the Mormons to the
Great Salt Lake. Finally Brigham young could fulfil Joseph smith’s
dream to build the holy city so the Mormons could live in a good
community. The first months of living at the salt lake was very hard,
people died of cold and not enough food, in winter the grass hoppers
ate all the crops so there was no food all winter, some winters. The
population grew steady and they lived through struggles, and pulled
through them. Brigham young’s 23 recorded wife had 49 children.

Global Globalization

What is Globalization? Globalization is the growing integration of economies and societies around the world, whether it is a country or a multi-national corporation. The process of Globalization centers itself on the idea that everyone inside the globe is affected by one another; this means that everyone is interlocked within the world we live. International Systems effect the way nation-states run. Globalization affects the culture and society that we live in which ultimately affects the individual.Today’s world is driven by industrial capitalism; therefore, multi-national corporations such as LG and Disney have great effect on Globalization. The dynamic spread of culture from Disney alone is significant enough in that the company itself is more powerful and globally influential than some Nation – states. “Along with economic interdependence that globalization reinforces, the nation-state’s sovereignty is being overridden. The rapid and free movement of goods, services, capital, information and people is diminishing the importance and purpose of state boundaries; thus reducing the power of the government to control these traffics.” (Onursal 2) In service and manufacturing companies such as Wal-Mart or LG, they are spread globally around the world through provisions of employment and products. The company is holding up society due to the dependence of their company to the economy and people who do business with them.The Globalization of companies is a historical process in my opinion. Without historical events, the world would not be what it is today. Starting from point `A’, things develop to point `B’, then to point `C’ and so on. Without point `A’ or `B’, we’d never get to `C’. Looking at history, if the Spanish never sailed to South America, they would never had open ties with South America nor East Asia. Companies are the ones who are going out into other countries around the world, spreading their products and ideas. Disney’s culture as a whole changes the way people live and think everywhere in the world.Though trading and the exchange of goods have an important role in globalizing the world, it would not have been possible without advances in technology. As Flynn mentioned in “Cycles of Silver”, the world becomes “smaller” as technology advances. Innovations include faster transportation and more efficient ways of communication. Prior to navigation of the sea and air, trading overseas was virtually impossible. What multi-national corpora rations do is spread the ideas and products around the world. With the spread of ideas and products, the world globalizes.As we know, history tends to repeat itself. As long as the process of exchange of goods is carried out, people will always have a reason to globally explore and interact. Important ties are made between the parties that are trading; therefore, trade influenced by supply and demand is the main driving force that globalizes our world today and the future. Globalization will always persist from the influences that people have on other people. As Anthony Gidden explains in his book, globalization will be the same for many years. “Whatever its benefits, its trials and tribulations, the global economy isn’t especially different from that which existed at previous periods. The world carries on much the same as it has done for many years.” (Giddens 8)Globalization is a topic that is heavily growing among scholars. The fact that the topics of globalization is spreading around the world proves that our world indeed is a globalized one. As people start to spread ideas and influence others around the world, it changes how the cultures and society affects the individual. The dependence people have of one another is important to analyze when looking at globalization. Certain multi-national corporations change the way the world works. In this global world we live in, we as individuals don’t drive the society, but society drives us.As for my own performance in this class, though I have not participated in class discussions much, I have engaged myself in the critical analysis of globalization and how our world if affected by it. Also, I have taken careful notes on lectures and discussions well.As a group, we all mutually contributed to the project. Everyone seemed to know what they were doing and was committed in completing the assignments on time as planned. Specifically, I think Andrea contributed the most by keeping everyone in check and making sure we all were clear on our work.

The Age of Anxiety

organizational communication

The Three Mile Island Disaster – An Organizational Communication Study     The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 nuclear power plant near Middleton, Pennsylvania, on March 28, 1979, was the most serious in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history. Even though it led to no deaths or injuries to plant workers or members of the near by community, it did bring about sweeping changes involving emergency response planning, reactor operator training , human factors engineering, radiation protection, and many other areas of nuclear power plan operations. It also caused the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to tighten and heighten its regulatory oversight. Resultant changes in the nuclear power industry and as the NRC has the effect of enhancing safety.
     The accident began at about 4:00 am on March 28, 1979, when the plant experienced failure in the secondary, non – nuclear section of the plant. The main feed water pumps stopped running, caused by either a mechanical or electrical failure, which prevented the steam generators from removing heat. First the turbine, then the reactor automatically shut down. Immediately, the pressure in the primary system (the nuclear portion of the plant) began to increase. In order to prevent the pressure from becoming excessive, the pressurizer relief valve (a valve located at the top of pressurizer) opened. The valve should have closed when the pressure decreased by a certain amount but did not. Signals available to the operator failed to show that the valve was still open. As a result, the stuck open valve caused the pressure to continue to decrease in the system. (Stencel p2)
Another problem began to occur as the emergency feed water system was tested 42 hours before the accident. As a part of the test, a valve is closed and then reopened at the end of the test. But this time through either an administrative or human error, the valve was not reopened, which prevented the emergency feed water system from functioning. This was discovered eight minutes into the accident and was corrected, allowing cooling water to flow into the steam generators. As the system pressure began to decrease voids in water began to occur causing portions of water to redistribute and the pressurizers began to become filled with water. This caused false readings in the level indicator, causing the operator to stop adding water, which cause inadequate cooling and the nuclear fuel overheated. This caused hydrogen to be released into the reactor containment building. Worries of a “meltdown” began, and small leaks I the reactor coolant system which caused high radiation in parts of the plant and also a small amount released into the environment. (Stencel p2)

Understanding Cashflow

Understanding CashflowWithin an organisation, money comes in and flows out. This is called
the organisation’s cashflow.
From time to time, business managers may pose questions such as:‘Can we afford to buy x?’
‘Are we going to be able to pay that bill?’
’Wouldn’t it be nice if we could develop y?’
To answer such questions, they will often have to carry out some form
of financial planning, and often to seek additional finance from
outside the company. The key issues are:What is the finance for?
How long will it be needed?
Is it affordable, i.e. can the firm keep up with the repayments?
Common methods of finance
Sources of finance fall into two main categories. Short-term finance
is designed to be paid back quickly, while long-term loans may be paid
over many years.
Short Term
Long Term
Trade credit
Profit retention
Leasing and hire purchase
Venture capital
Trade credit
This is a useful source of finance provided by suppliers. With trade
credit, a business can use the goods or service provided by suppliers
before they are paid for.
The credit period is simply the period between receiving a good or
service and paying for it. Although no charge or rate of interest is
attached to trade credit, cash discounts may be lost if payments are
not made within the agreed time.
An overdraft is probably the most frequently used solution to cashflow
problems. The bank sets an agreed limit on the customer’s bank
account, beyond which they will not draw. This is called an overdraft
facility. The amount the customer borrows is called an overdraft.
A special charge is made for setting up the overdraft on a daily
basis. Businesses often depend on customers paying bills promptly.
Given that customers like Ron Rust may delay payment as long as
possible, an overdraft can be a useful form of short-term business
Trade debts mean that money can often be tied up for as much as sic
months. For a business requiring cash quickly this can be a real
problem. A factoring company may offer immediate payment of part of
the amount owed to a business – normally around 80% with the balance
being paid when the debt is settled. This provided an immediate way
for a business to improve its cashflow. In return, the factoring
company will charge a fee which includes interest and administration
Leasing and hire purchase
There are many different ways for customers to receive goods and make
payments over time.
Goods on hire purchase remain the property of the finance company
until the customer has made all the payments. Other credit purchasing
schemes enable the goods to belong to the customer from the first
With leasing, the lessee uses the asset while making regular payments
to the lessee, who owns it. An operating lease is for a small amount,
and a capital or finance lease is for a large item over an extended
Most businesses need to borrow in order to trade successfully. The
charge for borrowing is called interest. The key to calculating
interest is usually risk involved. For example, a longer-term loan or
a loan to a business with no track record may carry higher rates of
Banks may offer a variety of types of loans. These include business
started loans, franchise finance and the Small Firms Guarantee Scheme,
offered by banks and supported by theDTI.
Large public limited companies may issue debentures. A debenture is an
acknowledgement of a debt made to a company for a fixed rate of
interest which specifies the terms of repayment at the end of a
period. Debentures are bought and sold on the Stock Exchange.
A mortgage is a loan secured on a property. The size of the mortgage
payment will depend upon factors such as the amount of the loan, the
age of the property and the income of the borrowers.
Profit retention
Probably the most important source of finance for many businesses is
profit which is ploughed back from one year to the next. Although
managers must first satisfy shareholders, they will also be conscious
of the need to put some of their profits back into the business.
Government grants
Important sources of finance for many businesses are soft loans and
subsidies from the EU or from central or local government. Soft loans
are loans at lower rates of interest. Subsidies help to reduce the
price of products and encourage producers to produce more.
Examples of this type of help include the Enterprise Allowance Scheme
for people st5arting up in business, development agency loans in areas
of high unemployment or regional selective assistance.
Venture capital
A venture capital company may help small firms to get established by
providing investment capital in return for shareholding in the
business. 3i us the largest venture capital company of this type.
This means finance provided by the owners of the business. How easily
equity can be raised will depend upon the type of business. For
example, a sole trader may rely on personal sources, and extra sums of
money may difficult to raise. Sole traders may even take in partners
to inject some capital into the business.
A private limited company has certain restrictions on the rights of
members to transfer shares, and there are limits on their ability to
extend share ownership.
A fully listed public limited company may have many different
opportunities to raise fresh capital from the financial markets.
However, the problem with issuing more shares is that it dilutes the
control of the original shareholders.

The Journalist, a Rare Breed Indeed

The Journalist, a Rare Breed Indeed“Hello?” The police dispatcher answers the phone. “Hi there,” I say brightly. “My name is Aaron Mesh, and I’m from the News Chief. Could you please transfer me over to Major Thomas? I need to ask her a few questions about the wreck over on Havendale Drive this morning…” This is my job. I’m an intern reporter at the News Chief, a daily newspaper in east Polk County, Florida. I’ve been on the job for the past 27 months. Once a week, I come into the Chief’s newsroom and get to work: conducting interviews, gathering information, writing stories. Most of my life, I’ve had a strong interest – some would call it an obsession – with newspapers and journalism. From a young age, I was drawn to the paper, running out to grab it off the driveway and devour the contents. I may be the only 17-year old with an edition of the Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual sitting in his bedroom for light reading. Working for a newspaper has helped develop one of my best skills: working with information. I’ve always enjoyed gathering facts, interpreting them, and explaining to others what I’ve learned. My internship at the News Chief has let me discover what it takes to find out what’s going on in the world, and to understand and relate events to people in a fair, objective way. Weaker areas have also been strengthened by my News Chief work. I have become much better at working in a group setting, making friends and generally being socially adept. (On the other hand, I still haven’t learned to type properly. We all have our faults.) Although my News Chief employment is far from my only interest – I could spend multiple paragraphs relating my love of the 4-H program, for starters – working with a newspaper has been a unique and defining facet of my high school experience. Perhaps most importantly, it has helped solidify my goals for the future. My love of the print media has congealed into a desire to work in that media. My goal, at least at this point of my life, is to become an educated, well-rounded journalist – one with a strong grasp of history, philosophy and literature. This understanding will allow me, while recording and dispersing the facts about current events, to communicate the truth in a deep in meaningful way. I want to become an editor or reporter who can report fairly and objectively, while still standing for absolute morals and truth – without succumbing to dogma and rhetoric. In simpler terms, I want to be a good journalist, part of a rare breed. That’s where Hillsdale comes in. I’m looking for a school that can provide me with a deep understanding of history, with all its intricacies and twists. I’m looking for one that will help me develop my writing and reporting skills. And I’m searching for a college with professors who will work with me one-on-one, sharpening my mind and preparing me for the future. Hillsdale, I believe, may be that school. I’m hoping higher education at “the most politically incorrect school in America” will help guide me on a career path that has begun with work at the News Chief. And, of course, you can bet I’ll be on the student paper.

Michael Dell

Michael Dell, born in February 1965, is the chairman and chief executive officer of Dell, the company he founded in 1984 with $1,000 and an unprecedented idea – to sell computer systems directly to customers. The company employs approximately 44,300 team members worldwide and reported revenues of $39.7 billion for the past four quarters.Dell is a premier provider of computing products and services to the world’s largest corporations, including many of the companies on the Fortune 500. With the addition of Dell to this list in 1992, Mr. Dell became the youngest CEO of a company ever to earn a ranking on the Fortune 500 and is now the longest-tenured CEO in the computer industry. The company currently ranks No. 4 on Fortune magazine’s “Most Admired” lists, both globally and in the United States, and in 2003 was named among the top 10 most trusted and respected companies by a Wall Street Journal poll.Mr. Dell attended The University of Texas at Austin. In 1999, he wrote the best-selling book, Direct From Dell: Strategies That Revolutionized an Industry, his story of the rise of the company and the strategies he has refined that apply to all businesses. Mr. Dell is an IT governor of the World Economic Forum, serves on the executive committee of the International Business Council and is a member of the U.S. Business Council. He is also a member of the Computer Systems Policy Project, serves on the U.S. President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and sits on the governing board of the Indian School of Business in Hyderabad, India.

The Truman Show and Pleasantville Review

The Truman Show and Pleasantville ReviewThe Truman Show, a comedy/ drama was directed by Peter Weir (nominee
for Best Director in 1998, Academy Awards). The film was scripted by
Andrew M. Niccol, including last years “Gatttaca,” a similarly themed
tale, Niccol delivers optimism and affection for the human condition.
Jim Carry plays the role of Truman Burbank who is a charming and
unwitting star, the world’s most popular, 24 hour non-stop soap called
‘The Truman Show’.
Pleasantville is a winsome and witty comedy/ drama starring Tobey
Maguire as ‘David’ and Reese Witherspoon as ‘Jennifer’. This film is
the work of director Gary Ross, known for ‘Big’ and ‘Dave’ who both
won him Oscar Nominations.
Any film that has a concept of ‘fly on the wall’ is bound to get
streams of people flowing into the cinema; this is the concept that
was used during the Big Brother series which was a success; this is
also the same case with both the films, Pleasantville and The Truman
Both the films have a comedy based genre making it fun and enjoyable
and they both contain reality TV themes, being stars of TV shows in
quaint and not so quaint hometowns. The opening sequences of both
films are confusing and not much is actually revealed to the audience
and so they are left in uncertainty of what the storyline truly is.
The opening sequences are different. The Truman Show starts off with
short interviews of the cast and the creator of Truman’s world,
Christof. Christof (Ed Harris) says that people are tired of ’phoney
emotions’ and ‘phoney actors’, they need something real. Marlon (Noah
Emmerich) and Meryl (Laura Linney) describe the show and give their
own views about how everything is ’all true, all real, nothing here is
fake,……….., things are just merely controlled’, and how close their
relationship is within the show and there is ’no difference between
private life and public life, my life is my life, my life is the
Truman Show’.
The TV screen within which you can see Truman gives you a perspective
of how people see Truman living his normal and daily routined life in
a happy hometown, whereas in the film Pleasantville it starts off with
someone flicking through the channels and coming to rest on an advert
promoting the ‘Pleasantville Marathon’ a 24 hour back-to-back
marathon. You can see the contrast within the two worlds of
Pleasantville and David and Jennifer’s world full of complications and
difficulties and the world seems like a negative place as they learn
about famine etc in school. Pleasantville has happy family life but on
the other hand there is the mother arguing over the phone with her
ex-boyfriend. Another contrast is black/white and colour, portraying
that the 50’s were the good old days and that the present days are
So in Pleasantville and Seahaven, where Truman lives, there is not
much difference, as their life is lived like a routine over and over
again and life is good as there are no negative points due to the fact
that things are perfect.
Media is portrayed negatively in The Truman Show as Truman is never
given a choice about his role; he is tricked into believing that his
life is real. The scenes of people watching The Truman Show are shown
as being silly and fixated by what happens to Truman, showing that
they are obsessed with other people’s lives. The Truman Show is a
typical 50’s sitcom with no violence and no swearing, which is nothing
like the real world, this is fake reality to Truman which Christof
created for him.
Media is also portrayed negatively in the reality of David and
Jennifer’s world as they mainly focus on the bad things that happen to
the world E.g. famine, in the real world things aren’t so negative,
whereas in Pleasantville, which is set in the 50’s, shows that
everyone is friendly, living their happy lives, and they live their
life like a routine similar to The Truman Show.
The main storylines and themes of the two films are quite different.
In Pleasantville people fear what they don’t understand; sexism and
racism are also themes of the film. Sexism is shown in the way that
women should stay at home and do the domestic things in the house,
where the male figure goes out to work and fends for the family; in
this case The Truman Show is different as both Truman and Meryl work.
Racism was part of the film when the Pleasantville community were
separated into coloured and non-coloured communities just because they
were afraid to mix. From racism, hatred started to grow within the
people and the society became ‘evil’.
The main storyline for The Truman Show is a life story of Truman
Burbank (Jim Carrey) who is the star of a reality TV show, but he
doesn’t know that everything around him is fake, including the people
closest to him. We soon learn that there are other doubts in Truman’s
heart, a lost love Sylvia (Natascha McElthone) – a girl who tries to
reveal the reality to him before being mysteriously transported to
‘Tahiti’. It was this lost love that drove him to discover the truth
about the world he lived in. The main themes expressed in this film
are romance/love, adventure, truth and reality. These main themes are
completely different to Pleasantville’s themes.
Music is used in Pleasantville as a way of showing when people started
to change, emphasizing that something special was happening, they
stated listening to pre-rock ‘n’ roll 50’s music and therefore the
characters started to become more open minded, and the music also
gives us an idea of the year. In The Truman Show music was used
effectively by changing with the emotions within the scenes and by
dramatizing the characters emotions. Music was used to create tension
and suspense in the audience and as it was a reality TV show music
played in the background all the time and there was theme music to go
with the show.
Character wise in the Truman show Truman is a nice, naïve, naturally
curious, funny and quite a rebellious person like Jennifer as he wants
to move away from the perfect world and Jennifer wants to change the
people around her and she changes the natural balance of things in
Truman’s wife Meryl (Laura Linney) plays a bubbly character and seems
like a very fake character because she is so into her character that
she tends to over do it and she finds it hard when Truman begins to
change as he starts to realise the things going on around him. Truman
believes that everyone is against him, not telling him anything and
the people closest to him start acting out of the ordinary, he begins
to become aggressive and obsessive.
Truman’s best friend since early childhood is Marlon (Noah Emmerich)
and they see each other like brothers, Marlon’s character is very
manipulative as he begins to influence Truman with an intention to
deceive him telling him things that are not true, this is because he
is an actor in the false world created for Truman. The creator of the
show Christof is very domineering and likes things to be done his way
at any length; this controlling thought has led him to believe that he
owns Truman.
The characters in Pleasantville are quite similar. David is a shy and
quiet boy, fairly geeky but as he started to change into his character
Bud he was outspoken like Jennifer.
Jennifer is very outwards and always has been, her character is a
sleezy teenager and the relationship between her and David is edgy as
she is always rude to him and it is this rebellious attitude that
causes the unevenness of the natural balance in Pleasantville. Towards
the end, Jennifer who plays the role of Mary-Sue does eventually start
to change. Bud and Mary-Sue’s mother is played by Joan Allen who is a
housewife. Once things start to change she changes as well, you can
see this as she has an affair with the diner owner played by Jeff
Daniels and in due course leaves her husband. Within her character she
is not very confident but is naive.
Looking at the good things of both films we can say that it shows a
good comparison between real life and TV life although in The Truman
Show it might not have been so evident. Pleasantville highlights some
of the issues from the 50’s like racism and some moral issues.
Both films were directed skilfully and the costumes were well
researched, and both images of the ‘perfect world’ were set out
marvellously. And of course the acting cast were superb showing
emotions and ambition. The Truman Show is suitable for the whole
family but some might say that a few of the scenes in Pleasantville
are unsuitable for young children due to sexual contents.
Some of the bad points of the films were that in Pleasantville the
black/white scenes might have been a bit off putting for some
audiences as it created an outdated look, things in the past, and that
the ending of the film was quite predictable. In The Truman Show the
opening sequence and the beginning was rather slow and it was
difficult to follow as it gave certain hints at the beginning of it
being a TV show and there were different shots of the characters doing
their own thing and talking, e.g. Truman playing with the soap in the
bathroom and Meryl talking about how The Truman Show was her life.
I think that Pleasantville will attract teenagers as an audience.
They’d probably like the film because there are teenagers involved in
the film but might have found it a bit boring during the black/white
periods but started to get a bit more interested when it was in
colour. A good point about the film is that it keeps the audience in
suspense and this is what teenagers like and enjoy. They can also see
how the teenagers in the 50’s were like and for them to establish the
differences between now and then.
Although teenagers might not have been the target audience for The
Truman Show it would interest them because of Jim Carrey who is known
as a comedian and also because they like the aspect of live TV and
looking at someone continuously.
On the whole I think that both films were beautifully produced,
directed and acted.

Scopes Trial

Microsoft Corporation

(Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, www.microsoft.com) The most successful and influential software company. Microsoft’s software and Intel’s hardware pioneered the PC and revolutionized the computer industry. Founded in 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen, its Windows operating systems are the de facto standards on the desktop and major contenders in the server arena. Microsoft Office is the most successful application suite in history. The company also has a thriving business in programming languages, which are its roots, as well as in numerous other software categories.Gates and Allen were two college students when they wrote the first BASIC interpreter for the Intel 8080 microprocessor. MBASIC was licensed to Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems to accompany its Altair 8800 kit. By the end of 1976, more than 10,000 Altairs were sold, and versions were licensed to Radio Shack, Apple and others. Although the company became a leader in microcomputer programming languages, its outstanding success was caused by fitting IBM PCs with DOS in 1981 and non-IBM PCs with MS-DOS. In 1990, Windows 3.0, its third version of Windows, was enormously popular. Later, Windows 95 and Windows NT cemented Microsoft’s leadership.

A Guide to Doing Business in Russia

A Guide to Doing Business in RussiaIntroduction
====The five most important of these to consider when doing business in
Russiaare discussed in more detail in the following section. These 5
points must be comprehended before doing business in Russia otherwise
vital mistakes may be made which could jeopardise the transaction and
even long term relationships between you and your business partner.
Customs and actions: Similarities and Differences
Language Differences-————————-
Language is the key barrier you need to break before doing business in
a foreign country. Your foreign business counterparts may speak
English as a first language, which will help greatly in your dealing
with their business. There still might be a small difference with
pronunciation and accent, which might slightly hinder proceedings. If
English is your counterpart’s second or third language, they might not
think in English, which means they must translate everything from
their native language to English by themselves. During this process
words might become incorrect or jumbled, as terms used commonly in one
culture may have no equivalent in another. To overcome this downfall,
a translator or interpreter may be required when conducting business
with foreign countries that don’t have English as a primary language.
Influence of Religion-—————————
An understanding of their religions will help to appreciate why they
behave in certain ways. Knowledge of their primary and even secondary
religions and its effect on their population and working hours would
be considered very advantageous to doing business with their country
and succeeding in the international arena. Understanding the impacts
of religious beliefs on personal behaviour, working hours and public
holidays, will help you to prepare to do business in foreign
Currency and Exchange Rates-————————————
When trading with foreign countries & international marketplaces,
knowledge of currencies is essential. To conduct business in an
international marketplace you need to know what their foreign currency
is and what the current exchange rate is in relation to Australian
Dollars. The exchange rate foe every country in the world, changes
every day. For example one Australian dollar today is worth $0.6108 US
dollars. But theAUDhas fluctuated fromUSD$1.46 to as low asUSD$0.479. Many international contracts are quoted with one or more
well-known currencies to avoid a misunderstanding of the amount being
Written Communication-—————————
Written communication between international businesses is a regular
occurrence, and is used to arrange business meetings, lunches and
requests of information and so on. This occurs through the use of
letters, reports, facsimiles and email. There is one risk of using
mainly written commutations, which is accidental miscommunication.
This may occur when a sentence or paragraph was incorrectly translated
to the specified language, which can be normally be avoided by
face-to-face interaction. Written communication can also be thoroughly
checked to ensure it is non-offensive to the receiver.
Oral Communication-———————-
The ability to speak foreign languages enables easier communication
face-to-face or by telephone. It also enables the speaker to check the
receiver’s understandings and to receive immediate feedback. This
gives your business a competitive edge over others who only speak
English. Knowing their language indicates respect for buyer’s culture
and heritage, and also allows the trader to engage in conversation
before and after the meeting. After learning another language, learn
the proper terminology & slang of that language.
To successfully learn another language, their culture must be studied
and learned.
Non-Verbal Communication-——————————-
Non-verbal communication refers to the unspoken physical language,
gestures for example. This type of communication is part of everyday
interaction in all cultures. Because of language and cultural
barriers, non-verbal is heavily relied upon, in some business
“Aspects that should be looked into include hand gestures, posture &
stance, facial expressions, clothing & hair styles, walking behaviour,
touching, graphic symbols, silence, smell, eye contact & gaze,
symbolism of food & colour, timing & pauses, jewellery ect.” (Beck H.,
To interpret and understand non-verbal communication gives you
competitive edge. Approximately 60% of what is communicated is
non-verbal, which is not to be underestimated. Don’t confuse personal
space with being friendly. A personal space requirement is important,
so never invade other people’s personal space.
Time Zones-———-
Awareness of global time differences is essential when communicating
internationally. The two sections per day times, am and pm, aren’t
used, as they are easily confused. In replacement for this, 24Hr time
is used. The International Date Line needs to be taken into
consideration and is situated between Australasia / east coast of
Asiaand the west coast of the Americas and it occurs at approximately
180o longitude. Businesses benefit by having computerized program/map
showing international time zones. Businesses must take time zones into
consideration when calling overseas countries, as it may be late night
or early morning where they are calling.
Cultural Differences-————————-
Customs vary widely from one country to another. A gesture, word or
strategy with one meaning in Australia may have completely different
meanings in other countries. Understanding and accommodating these
cultural differences is vital for a long-term business relationship.
“Some of the cultural distinctions that Australian firms most often
face in the international business arena include differences in;
business styles, attitudes toward the development of business
relationships, power, role and status issues, attitudes toward
punctuality, negotiation styles and the decision making process,
social behaviours, communication styles and strategies and working
hours” (Shannon T., p269)
Knowing some information about the culture of the country you’re doing
business with is a show of respect and is usually deeply appreciated
by the firm you are associated with. Business behaviour must be known
before a transaction takes place. You need to know things like the
appropriate handshake, eye contact, voice projection and hand
In Australia and most other industrialised countries females are
considered equal to men in the business world. When doing business
with non-industrialised countries, or countries very dependant on old
traditions, it would be wise to inquire about wether or not females
are considered equals to men. If a woman were to be sent in to a
business meeting with another country that considered females as a
lesser species, they would be very reluctant to do business with your
company, and would hinder any further business transactions.
[IMAGE]The difference between a bribe and a gift differs between
cultures and countries. Before doing business in your selected
country, it would avoid embarrassment and a possible jail term, to
research their views on gifts. For example in Arab countries it is on
offence to present a gift to the lady of the household, whereas it is
a sign of generosity to give gifts to their children.
Maximum Impact: Top Five Evaluation
The following section outlines the five most important aspects to know
about doing business in Russia. The five topics below are the most
important to discuss because they have the most potential to cause
insult in Russia. These topics are specific to Russia only and
therefore are relatively unknown to the general public, whereas
currency exchange rates and time zone difference, are still important,
but apply to every country and are well known differences.
Addressing Others with Respect-—————————————-
Whilst doing business in Russia, you must know how to address people
you meet. You would only address people using their first name if they
are very intimate friends or relations. When meeting someone for the
first time, it is perfectly appropriate to simply state your family
name without any additional greeting. Ensure that you learn the titles
of everyone you plan to encounter, as these distinctions are extremely
important in this culture.
Usually, Russians have three names. The first name is a given name,
while the last name is the father’s family name. The middle name is a
version of the father’s first name, known as a patronymic; for a man,
it ends with the suffixes ‘vich’ or ‘ovich’ meaning ‘son of’. For a
woman, the patronymic is also the father’s first name but with
suffixes ‘a’ or ‘ova’ added, which means ‘daughter of’. When you
become well acquainted with a person, you may be invited to refer to
him or her by the first name and patronymic.
Gift Giving-————
Russians take pleasure in giving and receiving gifts. Be sure to bring
an assortment of gifts, so that you will always have something
appropriate to give. Cheaper gifts do not have to be wrapped, while
more expensive ones should be. Gifts for children are usually opened
in private, while gifts for adults are generally opened in the
presence of others. Russians spend a lot of money on gifts. Avoid
giving gifts such as pencils, pens, lighters (unless they are
expensive ones), cheap wine or vodka, notebooks, etc.
When invited to a Russian home, bring a gift of chocolates, dessert
items, good wine, or other alcohol (try to select something other than
vodka, which is very widely available). Bringing a bouquet of flowers
for women you are visiting is a good idea. Make sure you have an odd
number of flowers. Even numbers usually are for funerals. Gifts are
expected for social events, especially as ‘thank-you’s. For private
dinner parties or an overnight stay in someone’s home.
Thank-you notes and holiday cards are not considered appropriate
because they have no practical use. If there are children in the
family, it is thoughtful to acknowledge them with a small gift, such
as a toy or candy. It is considered bad luck to give a pregnant woman
a baby gift until after the baby is born. If these simple guidelines
are followed you won’t insult your Russian business partner.
Business Dress-—————-
A large part of your non-verbal communication is the way you dress.
Russian business people pay a lot of attention to how they are
dressed. Russian people in general probably spend more money from
their family budget on clothing than any other nation in the world.
Those who can’t afford to buy top fashion brand clothing (such as
Versace, Armani, Gucci, Calvin Klein or Hugo Boss) prefer to be
dressed in cheaper but still well made suits rather than wear the fake
products widely available in markets across the country.
If you’re a man, your best bet will be to wear a suit and tie for your
meetings, whether it’s in an office or restaurant. Dark colours and
white shirts are only for special occasions. Otherwise, choose tones
in light blue, grey, or brown. If you go to Russia during the winter,
bring very warm clothes, including hats and gloves. In addition, pack
a well-insulated pair of boots with good treads. Women must wear a
long-sleeved blouse, a long skirt below the knees, and a head covering
such as a scarf or hat, when undertaking business in Russia.
Knowing the acceptable way to be introduced in Russia will avoid being
considered rude and impatient. Generally speaking, Russians are most
comfortable with third-party introductions. Consequently, you must
wait a moment before introducing yourself to a new group. If, after a
few minutes, no introduction is made, you may then take the
initiative. The handshake is a common greeting in Russia. The Russian
version is a firm grip with several quick shakes between two men. This
is a daily procedure, as just saying ‘hello’ isn’t enough, even if you
know somebody really well.
Between men and women or two women, however, the handshake is much
softer. Men should wait until a woman extends her hand before reaching
for it. Between women, the older woman extends her hand first. Eye
contact during the introduction is very important, and must be
maintained as long as the individual is addressing you. Only during
greetings do Russians display affection in public. Relatives and good
friends will engage in an animated embrace and kiss each other on the
Business Behaviour-———————-
Part of your oral and non-verbal communication, which is essential in
Russia, is how to conduct your self in a business meeting. Your
Russian business partner will judge the way you act before, during and
after a business transaction. As a foreigner, you are expected to be
on time to all business appointments. However, your Russian
counterpart may be late, as this may be a test of your patience, as
patience is an extremely important virtue among Russians, punctuality
is not. Do not expect an apology from a late Russian, and do not
demonstrate any kind of attitude if your business appointments begin
one or two hours late. This may also be a test of your patience.
Social events are more relaxed. It is acceptable for foreigners to be
15 to 30 minutes late.
[IMAGE]Some ‘hard-line’ Russians still view compromise as a sign of
weakness, as most Russian did before World Word II, and often refuse
to back down. To these individuals, compromising is bad business. To
do business with these people you should give them a proposal and
stick to it for the entire meeting. Negotiations can take place after
the meetings over, either on the phone or at another meeting.
This guide for doing business in foreign countries will help aid you
in your business relationships with overseas partners. The first
section including ten general topics is for your use with all
countries all over the world. The second section consists of five
specific topics, which all focus on business relationships within
[IMAGE] Bibliography
http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/russia.htm, Last Accessed 10 May 03
Beck H., Harvey J., Mylonas A., Rasmussen R., “Business Communication
& Technologies in a changing world” Macmillan Education Australia Pty
Ltd, Australia, 1998.
Shannon T., Heinemann M., “Business Communication & Technologies 2”
John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, Australia, 2000.
Microsoft Encarta 2001, Russia.
The Morning Bulletin, 14 May 03, Currency Exchange Rate.

Hamlet : Fortinbras Importance

Fortinbras: An Important Character in HamletFortinbras’ father, King of Norway, was killed during battle for control of “a little patch of ground”(4.4, 19). Fortinbras’ uncle claims the throne of Norway just as Hamlet’s uncle takes the throne at Denmark. The deaths of Hamlet Sr. and Fortinbras Sr. directly link the common destiny of Fortinbras to that of Hamlet, to avenge the death of his father. It is because of this that the two young soldiers can be compared to each other. Fortinbras’ taking action after his reasoning is contrasting to Hamlet’s continual lackadaisical steps towards revenge. Hamlet realizes this and comtrasts himself to Fortinbras in his “How stand I then”(4.4, 59) speech and labels Fortinbras as a man of action and labels himself as a procrastinator whose words lead to no action. Hamlet calls him “a tender prince”(4.4, 51) after speaking with a captain in his army and hearing of Fortinbras’ progress. It is inspiring to Hamlet and it pushes him forward in carrying out his plan to kill Claudius. Hamlet’s last lines, “How all occasions…my thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth!”(4.5, 34-69) say that Fortinbras has won him over from any further doubts and Hamlet, too, wishes to become a man of action who is ready to take his revenge at any cost.It can be said that Fortinbras is an energetic leader and soldier with clear intentions from the way he can quickly assemble his men to attack Poland. Although Fortinbras says that Hamlet was a soldier, too, “and for his passage, the soldier’s music…”(5.2, 444-445), the reader sees Hamlet only as a scholar because he seems to only think things out rather than take action. Though, Fortinbras’ statement helps us understand that Hamlet was once indeed a good soldier. Scene two of the last act of Hamlet reveals the true character of Fortinbras. After arriving at Elsinore, he immediately acts upon seeing the disturbing scene, much like he acts in battle, “Let four captains bear Hamlet like a soldier…”(5.2, 441-450).Fortinbras is necessary to the storyline and he is important to the resolution of the corruption in Elsinore Castle, “Something rotten in Demark”(1.5, 100). He is needed to correct the corruptness, as he is the only noble left to claim the throne, the task he had ironically set out for, and because he desires to fight for glory and to expand his empire, he is fitted by character to inherit the Kingdom of Sr. Hamlet. This action completes the play and brings all loose ends together.

Advertising essay

AdvertisingAdvertising is a process and mechanism usually used by some people or some companies trying to sell us products, services and others using different ways of publishing to attract their own customer advertising is an important source of income
In some developed countries such as United States, where the advertisers job is based on media
(Newspapers, Television, magazines, radio) used to push people to drive thru their own
The advertisers use media to get people to use their products, Points at issue are:
_How ads are developed
_How the world of advertising touch our life and our community.
Long time ago, the advertising mechanism appeared in newspapers. The advertisers tried to find their customers.Conclusion:
Finally, advertising became a very interesting subject in our life changing our traditions
Involving in our community trying to sell a huge numbers of products by touching in specialty teenagers and attract them.
A massive competition has been in issue among these companies spending billions of dollars to realize their personal targets by changing people?s lives

The Egocentric Predicament

Chapter 11 The Skeptic: David Hume     
3.      What is Locke&#8217;s &#8220;Egocentric Predicament?’;7. Why does Hume draw a distinction between &#8220;facts’; and &#8220;values’;?     Hume draws this distinction in recognizing further our own subjective and objective world. In this, through our own personal experience we associate certain facts with moral judgments and values. For example, there may be the fact that the sun will rise tomorrow. However, we place a judgment whether we dislike or like the sun rising tomorrow. Hume has merely recognized the distinction between the fact (sun) and values (likes/dislikes) of the sun. Hume&#8217;s link between facts and values was a push to further understand moral philosophy and our understanding of it.8.     What is the &#8220;empirical criterion of meaning’;?     It states that meaningful ideas can be traced to sense experience (impressions). This relates to us having to question the very things we may believe are true. We may explore the idea of fate and conclude based upon experience that fate does not exist. What impressions do we have that fate exist? This causes us to look closely at the idea of fate because nothing from our experience may, or may not match fate to our experience of it. We must ask the question whether there are any impressions to sense experience regarding Fate, if we cannot find any valid impressions it would be worthless or meaningless utterances.9.      What does Hume have to say about the limits of science and theology?     In science, Hume recognized a problem with scientific causality. He saw science as being based on inductive reasoning, which results in generalized rules or principles. Therefore, these principles are never found on experience with every single cause and effect. Science sees them as reliable because they are &#8220;causal patterns’;. However, Hume recognized that there is not always a connection between the cause and effect. We cannot perceive the actual connection. According to Hume one event does not necessarily follow exactly the other, it just &#8220;happens’; to follow the other. Hume figured that our mind creates the ideas of cause and effect, we cannot directly see them.

The Rise of the Manchus

The Rise of the Manchus
Incomplete EssaysEver suspicious of Han Chinese, the Qing rulers put into effect measures aimed
at preventing the absorption of the Manchus into the dominant Han Chinese
population. Han Chinese were prohibited from migrating into the Manchu homeland,
and Manchus were forbidden to engage in trade or manual labor. Intermarriage
between the two groups was forbidden. In many government positions a system of
dual appointments was used—the Chinese appointee was required to do the
substantive work and the Manchu to ensure Han loyalty to Qing rule.The Qing regime was determined to protect itself not only from internal
rebellion but also from foreign invasion. After China Proper had been subdued,
the Manchus conquered Outer Mongolia (now the Mongolian People’s Republic) in
the late seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century they gained control of
Central Asia as far as the Pamir Mountains and established a protectorate over
the area the Chinese call Xizang () but commonly known in the West as Tibet. The
Qing thus became the first dynasty to eliminate successfully all danger to China
Proper from across its land borders. Under Manchu rule the empire grew to
include a larger area than before or since; Taiwan, the last outpost of anti-
Manchu resistance, was also incorporated into China for the first time. In
addition, Qing emperors received tribute from the various border states.The chief threat to China’s integrity did not come overland, as it had so often
in the past, but by sea, reaching the southern coastal area first. Western
traders, missionaries, and soldiers of fortune began to arrive in large numbers
even before the Qing, in the sixteenth century. The empire’s inability to
evaluate correctly the nature of the new challenge or to respond flexibly to it
resulted in the demise of the Qing and the collapse of the entire millennia-old
framework of dynastic rule.Emergence Of Modern ChinaThe success of the Qing dynasty in maintaining the old order proved a liability
when the empire was confronted with growing challenges from seafaring Western
powers. The centuries of peace and self-satisfaction dating back to Ming times
had encouraged little change in the attitudes of the ruling elite. The imperial
Neo-Confucian scholars accepted as axiomatic the cultural superiority of Chinese
civilization and the position of the empire at the hub of their perceived world.
To question this assumption, to suggest innovation, or to promote the adoption
of foreign ideas was viewed as tantamount to heresy. Imperial purges dealt
severely with those who deviated from orthodoxy.By the nineteenth century, China was experiencing growing internal pressures of
economic origin. By the start of the century, there were over 300 million
Chinese, but there was no industry or trade of sufficient scope to absorb the
surplus labor. Moreover, the scarcity of land led to widespread rural discontent
and a breakdown in law and order. The weakening through corruption of the
bureaucratic and military systems and mounting urban pauperism also contributed
to these disturbances. Localized revolts erupted in various parts of the empire
in the early nineteenth century. Secret societies, such as the White Lotus sect
() in the north and the Triad Society () in the south, gained ground, combining
anti-Manchu subversion with banditry.The Western Powers ArriveAs elsewhere in Asia, in China the Portuguese were the pioneers, establishing a
foothold at Macao ( or Aomen in pinyin), from which they monopolized foreign
trade at the Chinese port of Guangzhou ( or Canton). Soon the Spanish arrived,
followed by the British and the French.Trade between China and the West was carried on in the guise of tribute:
foreigners were obliged to follow the elaborate, centuries-old ritual imposed on
envoys from China’s tributary states. There was no conception at the imperial
court that the Europeans would expect or deserve to be treated as cultural or
political equals. The sole exception was Russia, the most powerful inland
neighbor.The Manchus were sensitive to the need for security along the northern land
frontier and therefore were prepared to be realistic in dealing with Russia. The
Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) with the Russians, drafted to bring to an end a
series of border incidents and to establish a border between Siberia and
Manchuria (northeast China) along the Heilong Jiang (
or Amur River), was China’s first bilateral agreement with a European
power. In 1727 the Treaty of Kiakhta delimited the remainder of the eastern
portion of the Sino-Russian border. Western diplomatic efforts to expand trade
on equal terms were rebuffed, the official Chinese assumption being that the
empire was not in need of foreign—and thus inferior—products. Despite this
attitude, trade flourished, even though after 1760 all foreign trade was
confined to Guangzhou, where the foreign traders had to limit their dealings to
a dozen officially licensed Chinese merchant firms.Trade was not the sole basis of contact with the West. Since the thirteenth
century, Roman Catholic missionaries had been attempting to establish their
church in China. Although by 1800 only a few hundred thousand Chinese had been
converted, the missionaries—mostly Jesuits—contributed greatly to Chinese
knowledge in such fields as cannon casting, calendar making, geography,
mathematics, cartography, music, art, and architecture. The Jesuits were
especially adept at fitting Christianity into a Chinese framework and were
condemned by a papal decision in 1704 for having tolerated the continuance of
Confucian ancestor rites among Christian converts. The papal decision quickly
weakened the Christian movement, which it proscribed as heterodox and disloyal.The Opium War, 1839-42During the eighteenth century, the market in Europe and America for tea, a new
drink in the West, expanded greatly. Additionally, there was a continuing demand
for Chinese silk and porcelain. But China, still in its preindustrial stage,
wanted little that the West had to offer, causing the Westerners, mostly British,
to incur an unfavorable balance of trade. To remedy the situation, the
foreigners developed a third-party trade, exchanging their merchandise in India
and Southeast Asia for raw materials and semiprocessed goods, which found a
ready market in Guangzhou. By the early nineteenth century, raw cotton and opium
() from India had become the staple British imports into China, in spite of the
fact that opium was prohibited entry by imperial decree. The opium traffic was
made possible through the connivance of profit-seeking merchants and a corrupt
bureaucracy.In 1839 the Qing government, after a decade of unsuccessful anti-opium campaigns,
adopted drastic prohibitory laws against the opium trade. The emperor dispatched
a commissioner, Lin Zexu ( 1785-1850), to Guangzhou to suppress illicit opium
traffic. Lin seized illegal stocks of opium owned by Chinese dealers and then
detained the entire foreign community and confiscated and destroyed some 20,000
chests of illicit British opium. The British retaliated with a punitive
expedition, thus initiating the first Anglo-Chinese war, better known as the
Opium War (1839-42). Unprepared for war and grossly underestimating the
capabilities of the enemy, the Chinese were disastrously defeated, and their
image of their own imperial power was tarnished beyond repair. The Treaty of
Nanjing (1842), signed on board a British warship by two Manchu imperial
commissioners and the British plenipotentiary, was the first of a series of
agreements with the Western trading nations later called by the Chinese the
“unequal treaties.” Under the Treaty of Nanjing, China ceded the island of Hong
Kong ( or Xianggang in pinyin) to the British; abolished the licensed monopoly
system of trade; opened 5 ports to British residence and foreign trade; limited
the tariff on trade to 5 percent ad valorem; granted British nationals
extraterritoriality (exemption from Chinese laws); and paid a large indemnity.
In addition, Britain was to have most-favored-nation treatment, that is, it
would receive whatever trading concessions the Chinese granted other powers then
or later. The Treaty of Nanjing set the scope and character of an unequal
relationship for the ensuing century of what the Chinese would call “national
humiliations.” The treaty was followed by other incursions, wars, and treaties
that granted new concessions and added new privileges for the foreigners.For people interested in knowing more about the history of opium in China and
its effect on the opium user, please check out Cliff Schaffer’s Opiates page
which includes a brief history of the Opium Wars. You might also be interested
in a Brief History of Hong Kong.The Self-Strengthening MovementThe rude realities of the Opium War, the unequal treaties, and the mid-century
mass uprisings caused Qing courtiers and officials to recognize the need to
strengthen China. Chinese scholars and officials had been examining and
translating “Western learning” since the 1840s. Under the direction of modern-
thinking Han officials, Western science and languages were studied, special
schools were opened in the larger cities, and arsenals, factories, and shipyards
were established according to Western models. Western diplomatic practices were
adopted by the Qing, and students were sent abroad by the government and on
individual or community initiative in the hope that national regeneration could
be achieved through the application of Western practical methods.Amid these activities came an attempt to arrest the dynastic decline by
restoring the traditional order. The effort was known as the Tongzhi Restoration,
named for the Tongzhi ()Emperor (1862-74), and was engineered by the young
emperor’s mother, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi ( 1835-1908). The restoration,
however, which applied “practical knowledge” while reaffirming the old mentality,
was not a genuine program of modernization.The effort to graft Western technology onto Chinese institutions became known as
the Self-Strengthening Movement (
). The movement was championed by scholar-generals like Li Hongzhang (
1823-1901) and Zuo Zongtang ( 1812-85), who had fought with the government
forces in the Taiping Rebellion. From 1861 to 1894, leaders such as these, now
turned scholar-administrators, were responsible for establishing modern
institutions, developing basic industries, communications, and transportation,
and modernizing the military. But despite its leaders’ accomplishments, the
Self-Strengthening Movement did not recognize the significance of the political
institutions and social theories that had fostered Western advances and
innovations. This weakness led to the movement’s failure. Modernization during
this period would have been difficult under the best of circumstances. The
bureaucracy was still deeply influenced by Neo-Confucian orthodoxy. Chinese
society was still reeling from the ravages of the Taiping and other rebellions,
and foreign encroachments continued to threaten the integrity of China.The first step in the foreign powers’ effort to carve up the empire was taken by
Russia, which had been expanding into Central Asia. By the 1850s, tsarist troops
also had invaded the Heilong Jiang watershed of Manchuria, from which their
countrymen had been ejected under the Treaty of Nerchinsk. The Russians used the
superior knowledge of China they had acquired through their century-long
residence in Beijing to further their aggrandizement. In 1860 Russian diplomats
secured the secession of all of Manchuria north of the Heilong Jiang and east of
the Wusuli Jiang (Ussuri River). Foreign encroachments increased after 1860 by
means of a series of treaties imposed on China on one pretext or another. The
foreign stranglehold on the vital sectors of the Chinese economy was reinforced
through a lengthening list of concessions. Foreign settlements in the treaty
ports became extraterritorial—sovereign pockets of territories over which China
had no jurisdiction. The safety of these foreign settlements was ensured by the
menacing presence of warships and gunboats.At this time the foreign powers also took over the peripheral states that had
acknowledged Chinese suzerainty and given tribute to the emperor. France
colonized Cochin China, as southern Vietnam was then called, and by 1864
established a protectorate over Cambodia. Following a victorious war against
China in 1884-85, France also took Annam. Britain gained control over Burma.
Russia penetrated into Chinese Turkestan (the modern-day Xinjiang-Uyghur
Autonomous Region). Japan, having emerged from its century-and-a-half-long
seclusion and having gone through its own modernization movement, defeated China
in the war of 1894-95. The Treaty of Shimonoseki forced China to cede Taiwan and
the Penghu Islands to Japan, pay a huge indemnity, permit the establishment of
Japanese industries in four treaty ports, and recognize Japanese hegemony over
Korea. In 1898 the British acquired a ninety-nine-year lease over the so-called
New Territories of Kowloon ( or Jiulong in pinyin), which increased the size of
their Hong Kong colony. Britain, Japan, Russia, Germany, France, and Belgium
each gained spheres of influence in China. The United States, which had not
acquired any territorial cessions, proposed in 1899 that there be an “open door”
policy in China, whereby all foreign countries would have equal duties and
privileges in all treaty ports within and outside the various spheres of
influence. All but Russia agreed to the United States overture.Emergence Of Modern China: IIIThe Hundred Days’ Reform and the AftermathIn the 103 days from June 11 to September 21, 1898, the Qing emperor, Guangxu (
1875-1908), ordered a series of reforms aimed at making sweeping social and
institutional changes. This effort reflected the thinking of a group of
progressive scholar-reformers who had impressed the court with the urgency of
making innovations for the nation’s survival. Influenced by the Japanese success
with modernization, the reformers declared that China needed more than “self-
strengthening” and that innovation must be accompanied by institutional and
ideological change.The imperial edicts for reform covered a broad range of subjects, including
stamping out corruption and remaking, among other things, the academic and
civil-service examination systems, legal system, governmental structure, defense
establishment, and postal services. The edicts attempted to modernize
agriculture, medicine, and mining and to promote practical studies instead of
Neo-Confucian orthodoxy. The court also planned to send students abroad for
firsthand observation and technical studies. All these changes were to be
brought about under a de facto constitutional monarchy.Opposition to the reform was intense among the conservative ruling elite,
especially the Manchus, who, in condemning the announced reform as too radical,
proposed instead a more moderate and gradualist course of change. Supported by
ultraconservatives and with the tacit support of the political opportunist Yuan
Shikai ( 1859-1916), Empress Dowager Ci Xi () engineered a coup d’*tat on
September 21, 1898, forcing the young reform-minded Guangxu into seclusion. Ci
Xi took over the government as regent. The Hundred Days’ Reform () ended with
the rescindment of the new edicts and the execution of six of the reform’s chief
advocates. The two principal leaders, Kang Youwei ( 1858-1927) and Liang Qichao
( 1873-1929), fled abroad to found the Baohuang Hui ( or Protect the Emperor
Society) and to work, unsuccessfully, for a constitutional monarchy in China.The conservatives then gave clandestine backing to the antiforeign and anti-
Christian movement of secret societies known as Yihetuan ( or Society of
Righteousness and Harmony). The movement has been better known in the West as
the Boxers (from an earlier name—Yihequan, or Righteousness and Harmony
Boxers). In 1900 Boxer bands spread over the north China countryside, burning
missionary facilities and killing Chinese Christians. Finally, in June 1900, the
Boxers besieged the foreign concessions in Beijing and Tianjin, an action that
provoked an allied relief expedition by the offended nations. The Qing declared
war against the invaders, who easily crushed their opposition and occupied north
China. Under the Protocol of 1901, the court was made to consent to the
execution of ten high officials and the punishment of hundreds of others,
expansion of the Legation Quarter, payment of war reparations, stationing of
foreign troops in China, and razing of some Chinese fortifications.In the decade that followed, the court belatedly put into effect some reform
measures. These included the abolition of the moribund Confucian-based
examination, educational and military modernization patterned after the model of
Japan, and an experiment, if half-hearted, in constitutional and parliamentary
government. The suddenness and ambitiousness of the reform effort actually
hindered its success. One effect, to be felt for decades to come, was the
establishment of new armies, which, in turn, gave rise to warlordism.The Republican Revolution of 1911Failure of reform from the top and the fiasco of the Boxer Uprising convinced
many Chinese that the only real solution lay in outright revolution, in sweeping
away the old order and erecting a new one patterned preferably after the example
of Japan. The revolutionary leader was Sun Yat-sen ( or Sun Yixian in pinyin,
1866-1925), a republican and anti-Qing activist who became increasingly popular
among the overseas Chinese and Chinese students abroad, especially in Japan. In
1905 Sun founded the Tongmeng Hui ( or United League) in Tokyo with Huang Xing (
1874-1916), a popular leader of the Chinese revolutionary movement in Japan, as
his deputy. This movement, generously supported by overseas Chinese funds, also
gained political support with regional military officers and some of the
reformers who had fled China after the Hundred Days’ Reform. Sun’s political
philosophy was conceptualized in 1897, first enunciated in Tokyo in 1905, and
modified through the early 1920s. It centered on the Three Principles of the
People ( or san min zhuyi): “nationalism, democracy, and people’s livelihood.”
The principle of nationalism called for overthrowing the Manchus and ending
foreign hegemony over China. The second principle, democracy, was used to
describe Sun’s goal of a popularly elected republican form of government.
People’s livelihood, often referred to as socialism, was aimed at helping the
common people through regulation of the ownership of the means of production and
land.The republican revolution broke out on October 10, 1911, in Wuchang (), the
capital of Hubei () Province, among discontented modernized army units whose
anti-Qing plot had been uncovered. It had been preceded by numerous abortive
uprisings and organized protests inside China. The revolt quickly spread to
neighboring cities, and Tongmeng Hui members throughout the country rose in
immediate support of the Wuchang revolutionary forces. By late November, fifteen
of the twenty-four provinces had declared their independence of the Qing empire.
A month later, Sun Yat-sen returned to China from the United States, where he
had been raising funds among overseas Chinese and American sympathizers. On
January 1, 1912, Sun was inaugurated in Nanjing as the provisional president of
the new Chinese republic. But power in Beijing already had passed to the
commander-in-chief of the imperial army, Yuan Shikai, the strongest regional
military leader at the time. To prevent civil war and possible foreign
intervention from undermining the infant republic, Sun agreed to Yuan’s demand
that China be united under a Beijing government headed by Yuan. On February 12,
1912, the last Manchu emperor, the child Puyi (), abdicated. On March 10, in
Beijing, Yuan Shikai was sworn in as provisional president of the Republic of
China.Republican ChinaThe republic that Sun Yat-sen () and his associates envisioned evolved slowly.
The revolutionists lacked an army, and the power of Yuan Shikai () began to
outstrip that of parliament. Yuan revised the constitution at will and became
dictatorial. In August 1912 a new political party was founded by Song Jiaoren (
1882-1913), one of Sun’s associates. The party, the Guomindang ( Kuomintang orKMT—the National People’s Party, frequently referred to as the Nationalist
Party), was an amalgamation of small political groups, including Sun’s Tongmeng
Hui (). In the national elections held in February 1913 for the new bicameral
parliament, Song campaigned against the Yuan administration, and his party won a
majority of seats. Yuan had Song assassinated in March; he had already arranged
the assassination of several pro-revolutionist generals. Animosity toward Yuan
grew. In the summer of 1913 seven southern provinces rebelled against Yuan. When
the rebellion was suppressed, Sun and other instigators fled to Japan. In
October 1913 an intimidated parliament formally elected Yuan president of the
Republic of China, and the major powers extended recognition to his government.
To achieve international recognition, Yuan Shikai had to agree to autonomy for
Outer Mongolia and Xizang (
). China was still to be suzerain, but it would have to allow Russia a free
hand in Outer Mongolia and Britain continuance of its influence in Xizang.In November Yuan Shikai, legally president, ordered the Guomindang dissolved and
its members removed from parliament. Within a few months, he suspended
parliament and the provincial assemblies and forced the promulgation of a new
constitution, which, in effect, made him president for life. Yuan’s ambitions
still were not satisfied, and, by the end of 1915, it was announced that he
would reestablish the monarchy. Widespread rebellions ensued, and numerous
provinces declared independence. With opposition at every quarter and the nation
breaking up into warlord factions, Yuan Shikai died of natural causes in June
1916, deserted by his lieutenants.Nationalism and CommunismAfter Yuan Shikai’s death, shifting alliances of regional warlords fought for
control of the Beijing government. The nation also was threatened from without
by the Japanese. When World War I broke out in 1914, Japan fought on the Allied
side and seized German holdings in Shandong () Province. In 1915 the Japanese
set before the warlord government in Beijing the so-called Twenty-One Demands,
which would have made China a Japanese protectorate. The Beijing government
rejected some of these demands but yielded to the Japanese insistence on keeping
the Shandong territory already in its possession. Beijing also recognized
Tokyo’s authority over southern Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia. In 1917,
in secret communiques, Britain, France, and Italy assented to the Japanese claim
in exchange for the Japan’s naval action against Germany.In 1917 China declared war on Germany in the hope of recovering its lost
province, then under Japanese control. But in 1918 the Beijing government signed
a secret deal with Japan accepting the latter’s claim to Shandong. When the
Paris peace conference of 1919 confirmed the Japanese claim to Shandong and
Beijing’s sellout became public, internal reaction was shattering. On May 4,
1919, there were massive student demonstrations against the Beijing government
and Japan. The political fervor, student activism, and iconoclastic and
reformist intellectual currents set in motion by the patriotic student protest
developed into a national awakening known as the May Fourth Movement (). The
intellectual milieu in which the May Fourth Movement developed was known as the
New Culture Movement and occupied the period from 1917 to 1923. The student
demonstrations of May 4, 1919 were the high point of the New Culture Movement,
and the terms are often used synonymously. Students returned from abroad
advocating social and political theories ranging from complete Westernization of
China to the socialism that one day would be adopted by China’s communist rulers.Opposing the WarlordsThe May Fourth Movement helped to rekindle the then-fading cause of republican
revolution. In 1917 Sun Yat-sen had become commander-in-chief of a rival
military government in Guangzhou () in collaboration with southern warlords. In
October 1919 Sun reestablished the Guomindang to counter the government in
Beijing. The latter, under a succession of warlords, still maintained its facade
of legitimacy and its relations with the West. By 1921 Sun had become president
of the southern government. He spent his remaining years trying to consolidate
his regime and achieve unity with the north. His efforts to obtain aid from the
Western democracies were ignored, however, and in 1921 he turned to the Soviet
Union, which had recently achieved its own revolution. The Soviets sought to
befriend the Chinese revolutionists by offering scathing attacks on “Western
imperialism.” But for political expediency, the Soviet leadership initiated a
dual policy of support for both Sun and the newly established Chinese Communist
Party ( CCP). The Soviets hoped for consolidation but were prepared for either
side to emerge victorious. In this way the struggle for power in China began
between the Nationalists and the Communists. In 1922 the Guomindang-warlord
alliance in Guangzhou was ruptured, and Sun fled to Shanghai (). By then Sun saw
the need to seek Soviet support for his cause. In 1923 a joint statement by Sun
and a Soviet representative in Shanghai pledged Soviet assistance for China’s
national unification. Soviet advisers—the most prominent of whom was an agent
of the Comintern, Mikhail Borodin—began to arrive in China in 1923 to aid in
the reorganization and consolidation of the Guomindang along the lines of the
Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The CCP was under Comintern instructions to
cooperate with the Guomindang, and its members were encouraged to join while
maintaining their party identities. The CCP was still small at the time, having
a membership of 300 in 1922 and only 1,500 by 1925. The Guomindang in 1922
already had 150,000 members. Soviet advisers also helped the Nationalists set up
a political institute to train propagandists in mass mobilization techniques and
in 1923 sent Chiang Kai-shek ( Jiang Jieshi in pinyin), one of Sun’s lieutenants
from Tongmeng Hui days, for several months’ military and political study in
Moscow. After Chiang’s return in late 1923, he participated in the establishment
of the Whampoa ( Huangpu in pinyin) Military Academy outside Guangzhou, which
was the seat of government under the Guomindang-CCP alliance. In 1924 Chiang
became head of the academy and began the rise to prominence that would make him
Sun’s successor as head of the Guomindang and the unifier of all China under the
right-wing nationalist government.Sun Yat-sen died of cancer in Beijing in March 1925, but the Nationalist
movement he had helped to initiate was gaining momentum. During the summer of
1925, Chiang, as commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army, set out
on the long-delayed Northern Expedition against the northern warlords. Within
nine months, half of China had been conquered. By 1926, however, the Guomindang
had divided into left- and right-wing factions, and the Communist bloc within it
was also growing. In March 1926, after thwarting a kidnapping attempt against
him, Chiang abruptly dismissed his Soviet advisers, imposed restrictions on CCP
members’ participation in the top leadership, and emerged as the preeminent
Guomindang leader. The Soviet Union, still hoping to prevent a split between
Chiang and the CCP, ordered Communist underground activities to facilitate the
Northern Expedition, which was finally launched by Chiang from Guangzhou in July
1926.In early 1927 the Guomindang-CCP rivalry led to a split in the revolutionary
ranks. The CCP and the left wing of the Guomindang had decided to move the seat
of the Nationalist government from Guangzhou to Wuhan. But Chiang, whose
Northern Expedition was proving successful, set his forces to destroying the
Shanghai CCP apparatus and established an anti-Communist government at Nanjing
in April 1927. There now were three capitals in China: the internationally
recognized warlord regime in Beijing; the Communist and left-wing Guomindang
regime at Wuhan (); and the right-wing civilian-military regime at Nanjing,
which would remain

Nazma’s Story

Nazma’s StoryNazma was sitting in her living room on her reclining chair. She was
sitting next to the fire with her feet resting on a stool. The fire
was gently flickering away. It was raining heavily outside and shadows
of the fire were playing on the wall. She was alone and she was
drifting off into her past. She remembered her eighteenth birthday and
everything that happened afterwards.
Nazma woke up feeling excited. She did not sleep much during the night
as she was thinking about her birthday. It was her eighteenth birthday
and she was looking forward to celebrating it with her family. Nazma
had two brothers she was the youngest in the family. Her parents and
family had spoilt her as she was the only girl. Her family had been
living in Bristol since her father immigrated to the United Kingdom.
Her father had retired from running the family business a grocery
store. Nazma’s brother had taken over the running of the family
business. The family business was only breaking even now. Nazma had
recently finished her A-level exams and was waiting for the results.
She wanted to go to university but she had not decided upon which
university or which course. It depended upon the results she would
receive next month. Her older brother had been married for many years
.He had three children, two daughters, and one son. He appeared to be
happily married. His wife was from India, his parents introduced him
to his wife. Her older brother lived on the same road as Nazma and her
parents. Nazma’s father had decided to arrange a holiday for the
family. He thought it would be a good idea for the family to spend
time together before Nazma started university.
Nazma started thinking about going to the local university to do a
degree in accountancy. She thought she would go on holiday with her
family first. For the first few days of the holiday, Nazma was having
a lot of fun. The weather was very hot and pleasant. They went to a
trip to a hill station, which was a tourist attraction. They went on a
trip to the sea, which was a lot of fun as it was very popular and
hot. She went to visit the Taj Mahal. The white marble building
impressed her. Every single day she was busy with her cousins Whilst
in India Nazma’s parents had decided to retire to India.
One pleasant evening Nazma was sitting with her mother and brother on
the porch and chatting. Her brother told her that there was someone
suitable for her to marry.Nazma was angry, as she did not want to get
married. She talked to her mother and said she wanted to return to
Bristol. She said she would go back by herself.Nazma was unable to
find her passport. When she asked her brother where her passport was
he said, “I have taken it!”
Her mother said “Jamal your third cousin, a very hard working person
is going to marry you”.Nazma replied, “I want to go to University.”
Her mother said, “After you get married you can go to
university”.Nazma met Jamal at a meeting which turned out to be the
only contact they had with each other. Everything happened so quickly
that she did not get a chance to think about him. Soon afterwards, she
got married to Jamal and they returned to the UK. Meanwhile her
husband had started work as a taxi driver. Nazma started a course at
her local university, which was what she had always wanted to do. Her
husband continued working during the nights as a taxi driver. He
started work at 7pm and worked until four or five the next morning.
When he returned home, he was very tired, and he would just fall
asleep, they started neglecting each other and the children. Nazma
would go out to her classes during the day. They hardly saw one
another for many months, as Jamal was asleep during the day and Nazma
was at university during the day. Meanwhile Nazma and her husband were
continually arguing with each other. Nazma managed to finish her
degree course and graduate. She was lucky in finding work. A local
company hired her as a trainee accountant. The training at this firm
went well for Nazma and they were able to move to a larger house.
Jamal was suffering trying to keep up with their mortgage as he was
working five nights a week. During the weekends when Nazma was not at
work, she would argue with her husband. Jamal was very tired of this
situation. Jamal was in a catch 22 situation , where he could not
leave his job. It was impossible for him to progress and there were no
training opportunities available to him because of the hours he
worked. He did not have the basic skills in English to do any training
course. Nazma and her husband reached a point where they could not
bear to live with each other and mutually agreed to get a divorce.
Nazma carried on living in the family home and Jamal bought a home for
himself. Jamal went back to India and remarried. Jamal returned to
England from India and is now living with his new wife and children in
Bristol. Nazma’s parents are still living in India.Nazma has continued
working and is bringing up the children by herself though her husband
gives her what support he can afford.
I decided to write this story because I am interested in conveying to
the reader a very common problem in Asian families and culture.
However, my story is just one angle on this situation and is not
representative of all of these types of marriages. It is a normal
practice for some Asian parents who have brought their children in a
traditional and cultural way to try to arrange their children’s
marriage within their own Asian community. However, it is now becoming
increasingly difficult for parents to find suitable or available
marriage partners for their children in the United Kingdom. Arranged
marriages are becoming less common in Britain and hence a shortage of
prospective marriage partners. To combat this there have been many
marriage agencies set up for this purpose. Many parents as a last
resort are turning towards India or Asia in an attempt to get their
children married to suitable partners.
Many Asians who are born in the United Kingdom, and have been educated
here find it worrying their parents would want too choose their life
partners from Asia. The children feel their parents have no authority
to do this. Many young British Asians feel it is hard to accept their
life partners when they are married who they have never met apart from
a brief time in their lives.
It is also very hard for the Asians who are from Asia to adjust to
life in England. They have to start life again in a completely
different environment. They cannot help their wives straight away by
getting a job, as they have to obtain some qualifications to get a
good job. If they have started families and have children, it is very
hard to study. They are usually left with no choice as Jamil was in
the story where he started taxi driving.Jamil did not have enough time
to settle down or obtain any qualifications. Nazma started her studies
to try to obtain a good job. She obviously started neglecting her
children and husband. Then conflict started in their family lives,
their children become uncontrollable, and bad mannered as the parents
do not have time to spend with them. Arguments and disputes started
between Jamal and Nazma. In the story they started blaming each other
for all their faults, but they were frustrated with each other as they
were not spending enough quality time with each other and their
In this story both parents were leading different lives. Both parents
were only thinking of themselves. At the end of the story Jamal
decides to go back to India to remarry with an Indian girl. He returns
to the United Kingdom with his new wife. Jamal and his wife ended up
misunderstanding each other. This story is a reminder to Asian parents
who don’t fully discuss their children’s wishes or offer them any
advice to the difficulties they would have to overcome to have a
lasting marriage In the Buddha of Suburbia there is a character Anwar
an Asian girls father who makes her marry someone through an arranged
marriage, she refuses so her father goes on a hunger strike. This
provided part of the inspiration for the story1.1Inspiration Buddha of Suburbia Faber and Faber 1991.

Film Analysis of Jaws

Film Analysis of JawsThe film that I will be analyzing will be Jaws. The filmJAWSwas a
trend in the summer of 1975 smashing all box office records. Over
taking many box office hits and collecting in more than $100million in
its initial theatrical run, and launched the career of director Steven
Spielberg. The reason why it is set on 4th of July is because it is
one of the busiest days of the community and a lot of tourist come
down onto the beach.
At the beginning of the film the music that’s plays at the back ground
is soft and quiet. This makes the audience feel suspicious that
something is going to happen, as the shark swiftly moves through the
weeds in the deep murky water the tension on the audience builds up.
The instrument that is playing the music at the background is a cello.
This instrument is mostly played at a funeral. The director Steven
Spielberg has used the instrument to frighten the audience when ever
they hear the music kick in. on the beach when the second attack took
place everybody was having fun and playing around. The people on the
beach were all relaxed and they were all chilling out by listening to
the radio. This makes the audience fill safe and less tense from a
shark attack. When the shark attacked its victim there’s always a
pause of silence. This shows death because there’s no more noise of
the victim crying for help and crying in pain. It also shows how
soothing the ocean is and how piece full it is.
The second shark attack was when everyone went onto the beach even
though chief Brody said that they should shut down the beach. Alex
walks up to his mother which is wearing a yellow hat and asked her if
he could stay in the water for a bit longer and she replies 10 more
minutes. This shot was a close up this is because the director of the
film wanted the audience to focus on the boy. This could mean that the
boy must be a main character or either a victim. Brody watches the sea
from the beach nervously if there was going to be another shark
attack. A man dressed in a yellow shirt and trunks throws a stick in
the sea for his dog to fetch this was a long shot as we see the pupil
in the sea having fun. The dog runs in the water as well as Alex both
very exited playing in the water. Alex gets onto his lilo which is
yellow as well and starts to swim (medium shot). Brody continues to
watch the sea nervously. He sees a black object coming closer to the
kids and he believes it’s a shark he gets tensed and starts to fear.
Afterwards sees that the black object coming closer was an old man
swimming with his swimming hat. This shot was shown as a long shot
because it looked like a shark coming in to the beach as we couldn’t
see it properly. The sun burnt man talks to Brody blocking Brody’s
view of the sea. This shot was a close up and you can see the tension
on Brody’s face as his sweated like a pig in the scorching weather.
He’s watching a girl in the distance (long shot) as the man came and
sat in front of him. He sees the girl screaming and also panicking
this makes the audience feel tensed but then realizing that here
boyfriend was playing around with her and picked here up from his
shoulders under the water.
The opening scene was when there was a party going on at beach with a
bonfire in the middle and everybody was having fun drinking, talking
etc. There was a boy drinking alcohol looking at the girl sitting in
front of him as she looks back she smiles at him. She runs away
telling him to follow here to the sea. She wanted to go swimming in
the deep murky water as she jumps in the boy tries to take of his
clothes but it was a struggle as he was drunk and tied so he falls
down and falls to sleep. As the girl swims there is no music you only
here what the girls says and then the camera goes in the shark’s point
of view and then the music kicks in. This is two perspectives and it
develops tension for the audience. The camera then changes the shots
for example it changes between the sharks view and the worlds view. So
it shows what’s happening as the sharks sees it and how the world
would see it from above the water. We see the girl kicking here legs
under water because she is frightened. We see this by the shark’s
point of view but we never see the shark this is because the human’s
imagination is the most powerful thing that we can have and imagine,
so different people can imagine how the shark looks like. In this
shark attack there pause such as they show the boy on the beach passed
out from drinking. They show this because the boy was the only person
that could have saved here but he was passed out and they also trying
to tell us about the gender rule which is women are weak and helpless
and they need a man to protect them and look after them. After the
sharks has ripped open the girl there is a sudden silence which shows
that there’s been a death and that the attack has ended and also ended
a life. At the end of this gruesome attack we hear the sounds of the
sea which are natural and soothing. This shows that nothing has
happened and it like a normal day.
The second shark attack was when everyone went onto the beach even
though chief Brody said that they should shut down the beach. Alex
walks up to his mother which is wearing a yellow hat and asked her if
he could stay in the water for a bit longer and she replies 10 more
minutes. This shot was a close up this is because the director of the
film wanted the audience to focus on the boy. This could mean that the
boy must be a main character or either a victim. Brody watches the sea
from the beach nervous and scared if they might be an attack. A man
dressed in a yellow shirt and trunks throws a stick in the sea for his
dog to fetch this was a long shot as we see the pupil in the sea
having fun. The dog runs in the water as well as Alex both very exited
playing in the water. Alex gets onto his lilo which is yellow as well
and starts to swim (medium shot). Brody continues to watch the sea
nervous as it is his first date. He sees a black object coming closer
to the kids in the water he gets tensed as well as the audience do but
then the black object was a old mans swimming hat. This shot was shown
as a long shot because it looked like a shark coming in to the beach
as we couldn’t see it properly. The sun burnt man talks to Brody
blocking Brody’s view of the sea. This shot was a close up and you can
see the tension on Brody’s face as his sweated like a pig in the
scorching weather.

Fate in William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

Fate in William Shakespeare’s Romeo and JulietWhen William Shakespeare wrote ‘Romeo & Juliet’ he told a tale of “A
pair of star crossed lovers”. The role of fate plays an important role
in the play. The themes of conflict, love, revenge, religion & destiny
all tie in with the role of fate. Romeo & Juliet were both born into
and “ancient grudge” fuelled by two formidable families, the Capulets
and Montagues.
Fate plays a very important role in the play, and at the end of the
play we come to the tragic deaths of Romeo & Juliet. During Act 1,
scene 5, illustrations of death are prompted by fate; Juliet seems to
know what would happen. “My grave is to be like my wedding bed”. We
also see this in the speech of Romeo in Act3, scene 3. “Thou cuts my
head off with a golden axe”, “No sudden mean of death” and “Hadst thou
no poised mixed, no sharp-ground knife”. William Shakespeare uses
symbols of death and this gives us some ideas about what may happen in
the end of the play.
This play is filled with the “what ifs” What if the servant never met
someone else, instead of Romeo? What if the family ball was planned
for a different night? And what if Rosaline never met Romeo? Or what
if Rosaline wasn’t invited to the ball? If any of these never
happened, then Romeo wouldn’t have met Juliet and the play would not
have ended as a tragedy. All these things were for fate to decide.
This is why the love of Romeo and Juliet is prompted by the role of
fate. However, fate is feared by the characters. Romeo is afraid of
what fate has lead him up to, “is love a tender thing? It is too
rough, too rude, too boist’rous and it pricks like thorn”, “I fear too
early for my mind misgives” and “shall bitterly begin his fearful
date”, which can be found during Act 1, scene 5. These quotes
symbolizes that what fate has been trying to tell Romeo if he goes to
the Capulets Ball. In Act 1, scene 5, Romeo happens to have a sense of
his own fate, “is love a tender thing?” This quote shows that love
will not be so “tender” if he does go to the feast. Juliet is afraid
of what fate would lead her too “as one dead in the bottom of a tomb”.
Juliets speeches contain illustrations and ideas of death as well as
The love relation ship we see in Romeo & Juliet is not the love which
has the feelings of freedom & happiness in their lives, but is full of
emotions of separation and the thought of never revealing their love
to their families “Alas that love, whose view is being muffled still”.
Words such as “muffled” bring together things that are temporary and
diminished, which reflects back to the way love is shown in Romeo &
Juliet. In Act 3, scene 2, Juliet is unsure whether she loves or hates
Romeo. We know this, because we see it in her speech. Juliet describes
Romeo as, “serpent heart”, “beautiful tyrant”, “fiend angelical”,
damned saint” and “honorable villain”. This is the part of the play
that symbolizes the nature of love throughout the play. However,
love during the play, is shown as having power over something or
someone, we can see this clearly when Romeo falls in love with
Rosaline when he first meet her but is convinced that he is in love
with Juliet when he meets her at the family ball, “Then plainly know,
my hearts dear love is set on the fair daughter of rich Capulet”. This
quotation includes words, which associate with the language of love,
“heart, and “dear”. Shakespeare uses “rich Capulet” in a very
interesting point of view because Romeo is placing himself lower than
the Capulets but both feuding families are of the same standard &
Conflict is a very important part in the play. In Romeo & Juliet, the
feuding families are in constant feud, so much so that when they
arrive at the same place, a brawl would begin, corrupting the streets
of Verona. The feud contributes to the idea of fate. From the
beginning, Romeo & Juliet are kept back from loving each other in a
natural way. Because of the role of fate, in Act 3, scene 1 (the
turning point of the play) we see four men, Benvolio, Mercutio, Romeo
& Tybalt. Two of these men are attempting not to begin a fight while
two of them wish to begin a duel. This is shown when Benvolio speaks
“By my head, here comes the Capulet” and “Either withdraw unto some
private place”. Although the word “withdraw’ gives us two very
different definitions, in this quotation it means to give up and run
away from the Capulet. Mercutio acts as a character that is fond of
looking for trouble and starting duels, “By my heel, I care not” &
“”make it a word and a blow”. These quotes give metaphors or threaten
violence, anger and conflict. The conflict shown at the beginning of
the play show the diversion of the society and it’s clear that because
of the feuding families, conflict runs throughout different levels.
Although the theme of conflict plays a very important role in this
story, religion is seen as the opposition to the family’s feud in
Verona and the church allows the secret marriage of the two lovers.
Friar Lawrence said “Holy saint Francis, what a holy act” and “Amen,
amen! But come what sorrow can” In the play the only character that
represents religion whatsoever is Friar Lawrence. In Act 1, scene 5,
Romeo compares Juliet with religious terms. Religious imagery runs
throughout their conversation. “holy shrine”, “pilgrim”, “saints”,
“prayer” and “sin”. This shows us that the society in Verona that is
divided by the feud, still uses ideas of religion to describe their
surroundings and we know that religion plays an important part in the
As we can see status is important in the text and Shakespeare’s
language reflects this, noble characters, such as the Prince, speak in
blank verse. This type of language, used by Shakespeare, is set out in
ten syllables per line and has an unstressed sound followed by a
stressed one. This type of writing gives us the illusion of a natural
rhythm of speech. Elite people speak in verse form,
“Which is as thin of substance as the air,
And more inconstant than the wind, who woos
Even now the frozen bosom of the north,”
People who are in a lower rank speak in prose, “Tis all one, I will
show myself of tyrant: when I have fought with men, I will be civil
with the maids; I will cut off their heads”. This shows the division
of the people of Verona. The autority of a person isn’t only based on
a persons gender but also a persons status. We can see this in Sampson
& Gregory who are the servants of Capulet, at the beginning of the
play when they had to duel with the servants of Montague. The duel
between the servants could only be stopped by a person who has a
higher status, like the Prince, Mercutio, Benvolio or Tybalt.
Images of death are always prompted by the role of fate by the
characters in the play, “And world’s exile is death; then banished”.
The illustrations of death grow as we go towards the denoument, where
the play pcikcs up the pace. In Act 4, scene 1, Friar Lawrence’s
speech is filled with illustrations of deat, such as the words,
“fear”, “cold” and “stiff”. In scene 5, we see that Shakespeare used
dramatic irony to hint images of death, “black funeral”, “solemn
hymns” as “sullen dirges change” and “buried coarse”. During Act 2,
scene 6, death is personified by Romeo, “Then love-devouring death do
what he dare”. The ideas and images of death go throughout the text,
this backs up what fate has led the characters to their destiny, “To
Juliet’s grave, for there must I use thee”.
As we can see from the story, the entire play covers common ground,
that is the themes of fate, love, conflict, status, gender and death.
The role of fate is the most important of all themes because all the
themes tie into the role of fate. Shakespeare has explored the
concepts of destiny by exploring different themes and the fact that
“two star-crossed lovers” have no free will. Fate has threatened the
two young lovers through their actions and speeches. Most of their
soliloquies include illustrations of death to which fate has destined
them. Shakespeare has explored the themes interestingly and thoroughly
smart. As we can see from the prologue, the entire play was based on
what the information the prologue has presented us and that the people
of Verona is divided because of the fued of two formidable families,
the Capulets and Montagues.

Macbeth as a Cold Blooded Murderer or a Man Possessed by Supernatural Events Beyond His Control

Macbeth as a Cold Blooded Murderer or a Man Possessed by Supernatural Events Beyond His ControlIs Macbeth a cold blooded murdered or a man who cannot control his
actions. Macbeth was a brave soldier who fought for his country but
everything changed when he met the witches. Are the witches
responsible for the murders carried out by Macbeth? I am also going
to look at the evidence of the witches influence. Did the witches
really know what was going to happen? Was Macbeth responsible for the
murder of King Duncan? What part did Lady Macbeth play in the
murder? In doing this essay I am going to find out if Macbeth was a
cold heartless murdered or if he was controlled by the witches.
Macbeth was a brave and ambitious soldier who fought for his country.
He showed a lot of strength and courage. At the beginning of the play
there is a war going on. Macbeth and his good friend Banquo are
fighting for their army. The Scottish army have won the war and new
gets back to the King that Macbeth showed bravery. King Duncan asks
Ross to call Macbeth over as he is going to be titled ‘Thane of
Cawdor’ Act 1 scene 2 65 – 67 “No more that Thane of Cawdor. And with
his former title greet Macbeth.” The King appreciates what Macbeth
has done.
In Act 1 scene 3, there is a sign of evil as there is thunder on the
moor. The witches are preparing the meet Macbeth who is travelling
with Banquo towards the King’s camp. Macbeth doesn’t know he is going
to be given the title ‘Thane of Cawdor’, but the witches tell him.
The witches tell Macbeth and Banquo that Macbeth will be King and that
Banquo’s children will be Kings too. Macbeth is very excited and
wants to know more “speak, if you can: what are you?”. His response
is the witches calling him the Thane of Cawdor. Banquo thinks that
the witches are talking rubbish and are not making much sense. He
doesn’t believe that Macbeth will be King one day.
The witches disappear and Macbeth and Banquo meet up with Ross. Ross
tells Macbeth that he has been given a title. Banquo and Macbeth are
very surprised. They realise the witches do have real powers.
Macbeth is slowly becoming influenced by the witches. He says that
the greatest of the three prophecies is the last of them. Macbeth is
very excited. He feels that the witches prophesise that the Thane of
Cawdor was true maybe he will become King.
In Act 1 scene 4, Duncan tells Macbeth and Banquo that his son Malcolm
is the next heir to the throne of Scotland. Macbeth is very shocked
to hear this as he believes he will be the next King. The witches
influence on Macbeth is already very big. “Thou shalt get kings,
though thou be none: So, all hail, Macbeth and Banquo.” He believes
their prophecies and is very determined to become King.
In Act 1 scene 5, Macbeth writes a letter to Lady Macbeth and tells
her everything. He tells her about the title Thane of Cawdor.
Macbeth also tells his wife about the witches and the prophecy. They
are very close and they tell each other everything. Macbeth has asked
King Duncan to stay with him and Lady Macbeth for the weekend. He
asks her to greet him when he arrives.
As Lady Macbeth reads the letter from Macbeth she thinks about how he
could become King quicker. She feels that Macbeth has somehow hinted
to get rid of Duncan in the letter.
When Duncan arrives Lady Macbeth greets him. She is having doubts
about the murder as when she sees the King she remembers her father.
The King reminds her of her father. She has a soft spot for the
King. Although she has a soft spot for the King she still wants
Macbeth to murder the King. Lady Macbeth has to persuade Macbeth to
do the deed as he is in two minds “We will proceed no further in this
business”. Macbeth is worried about the consequences. Macbeth shows
weakness and he doesn’t seem as strong as his wife
Macbeth is preparing for the murder. He doesn’t want to murder the
King as the King trusts him. He knows it a great sin but Lady Macbeth
forces him to do the deed. At this point, Lady Macbeth doesn’t seem
very feminine. It would normally be a man’s idea to murder someone or
plot something as bad as this. Macbeth seems to do whatever his wife
tells him to do.
Lady Macbeth hasn’t really thought of the consequences of getting
caught. In Act 1 scene 7 line 59, Macbeth brings up the subject of
everything going wrong “If we should fail”. Lady Macbeth replies by
saying “We fail? But screw your courage to the sticking – place, and
we’ll not fail”. Macbeth is really frightened and doesn’t want to
murder King Duncan. Lady Macbeth tells him to screw up his courage
like a guitar string that is strong and man like. Lady Macbeth calls
Macbeth a coward. He feels that by killing Duncan it will prove to
her wrong.
Lady Macbeth is forcing Macbeth to do the deed because she might want
Macbeth to become King. If Macbeth did become King, she would become
Queen. She might want Duncan to be murdered because she wants to be
powerful and respected by everyone.
Macbeth waits for the signal to murder King Duncan. While he is
murdering the king, Lady Macbeth hears an owl scream. The owl
screaming and crickets crying is a symbol of Duncan being murdered as
someone lower has murdered him. It is a great sin for someone to kill
the King because everyone is lower than the King except for God.
Duncan is stabbed, the owl screams and the crickets cry. “I heard the
owl scream and the crickets cry. Did you not speak” line 16.
After the murder of King Duncan Macbeth has changed a lot. King
Duncan’s somn Malcolm has left the country as he is scared that he may
be murdered too. Now that Malcolm has gone, Macbeth takes his place
and becomes King of Scotland. Now that Macbeth is King, he doesn’t pay
much attention to his wife. He has almost forgotten that it was her
idea to get rid of Duncan. If she hadn’t brought up the idea, Macbeth
wouldn’t be King. The witches second prophecy has happened.
As Banquo was with Macbeth when he first met the witches, he knows
about the prophecies and what they were. Banquo thought it was a
coincidence when the witches knew about Macbeth becoming the Thane of
Cawdor, but now that the second prophecy has come true, he is becoming
suspicious. Banquo wishes that his prophecy will also come true for
Macbeth feels that Banquo knows too much and he begins to plot the
murder of Banquo. Macbeth has not discussed this with Lady Macbeth.
He plans the murder and asks three murderers to do the deed. Until he
has everything planned, this is when he tells Lady Macbeth. Macbeth
has changed a lot as he has become very independent, confident and
manly. He has started making his own decisions.
In Act 3 scene 4, Macbeth and his wife hold a banquet they have
invited many guests. Everything is going well until Macbeth sees the
ghost of Banquo. He is the only one who can see the ghost. Macbeth
is seeing Banquo’s ghost as he feels guilty. His strange behaviour
shocks the guests. Some of the guests think Macbeth is unwell
“Gentlemen, rise; His Highness is not well” line 52. The guests seem
to be worried about Macbeth. They are very concerned and they want to
know what he sees. Macbeth seems to be showing signs of madness.
Macbeth is hallucinating as he is guilty and he thinks Banquo is going
to haunt him.
An Elizabethan audience would believe that Macbeth could see a ghost
as they would be more superstitious than a modern day audience. They
would fell sorry for Macbeth as he was being haunted. A modern day
audience wouldn’t believe in ghosts coming back to haunt people as
they wouldn’t be very superstitious or believe in ghosts and witches.
Lady Macbeth criticises Macbeth and says he is weak. She doesn’t seem
to be very understanding or sympathetic. She is much more masculine
and emotionless. She doesn’t have any feelings. She is cold blooded
at times “Feed, and regard him not you a man?” line 59.
In Act 3 scene 5, the witches meet again. This time their Queen
Hecate is present. She scolds them for speaking to Macbeth.
Later on in Act 4, Macbeth meets the witches on the moor. He makes
them promise to answer his questions. The witches tell Macbeth to
beware of Macduff “Macbeth! Beware Macduff. Beware the Thane of
Fife” line 71. This is because they know something will happen and
Macduff is a threat to Macbeth. They also tell Macbeth that everyone
not born of a woman naturally can harm him “The power of man, for none
of woman born shall harm Macbeth” line 80. The last of the prophecy
is that “Macbeth shall never vanquish’d be until great birnam would to
high Dunsinan Hill shall come against him” line 92 – 94. This means
that he will only be destroyed when the woods move to the hill. He
thinks the witches are talking rubbish. He thinks that he is
invincible and cannot be destroyed. Macbeth has become very big
headed. He is being driven by greed and power.
In Act 4 scene 2, Macbeth orders murderers to kill Macduff’s family.
Macduff’s wife and children are innocent. They haven’t done anything
wrong but are still murdered. Macbeth is heartless and cold blooded.
The witches seem to control Macbeth as they give the prophecies. The
prophecy was to beware of Macduff so Macbeth killed his family.
Macbeth is a murderer because he has killed innocent children. He has
also planned the murder. He is controlled by the witches and was
under the influence of his wife so he could be a murderer.
Macbeth hasn’t discussed the murder of Macduff’s family with Lady
Macbeth. She has not idea what has happened. Macbeth has turned from
good to evil.
Meanwhile, Macduff is in England meeting Malcolm. He has abandoned
his country but he wants to get justice. Malcolm and Macduff have
talked about all the things that have happened in Scotland. Malcome
has sent an army of 10,000 men to march up to Scotland. These men are
led by Old Siward. England is a symbol of power, justice, growth and
strength. England shows signs of strength and courage. Scotland is a
symbol of evil and dying “O nation miserable”. Macduff tells Malcolm
that Scotland is in a state and that Macbeth is not the true heir for
the throne.
In Act 4 scene 3, Macduff finds out his family have been murdered “My
children too?” line 211. He is shocked that someone could be so cold
blooded and heartless enough to kill children.
In Act 5, Lady Macbeth is showing signs of illness. She is tormented
by all that has happened. When she sleepwalks she rubs her hands as
she can’t get the blood off them. Lady Macbeth cannot forget what has
happened. The bloody hands connect with Macbeth’s bloody hands in Act
2 scene 2 “This is a sorry sight” line 22. As Macbeth looks at this
hands he know he has done something terrible. Now that she has found
out about the murder of Macduff’s family, she is very upset, line 41
“The Thane of Fife had a wife: where is she now?”. She is very upset
and shocked how Macbeth could kill innocent people. Lady Macbeth is
showing signs of becoming mentally ill. In the beginning she didn’t
seem to care about the murders. Now she is extremely bothered and you
can almost feel sorry for her. “This disease is beyond my practice”
line 56. The doctor is shocked at Lady Macbeth’s illness. She has
never seen anything like this before. She is now showing her feminine
side and emotions. She has lost the control over Macbeth and is less
In Act 4 scene 3, Macbeth hears about Lady Macbeth’s illness. At
first he shows concern. He wants her to be well. He doesn’t
understand that Lady Macbeth could die. He feels powerless as he
knows he cannot help her “I’ll have none of it” line 48. Macbeth wont
have anything to do with it as he cannot do anything to help her.
When Macbeth hears about the death of his wife he doesn’t show any
emotion. He is not surprised about her death. He feels that it would
have happened sometime. Macbeth doesn’t see to show any emotion, but
he could be hurting and crying inside. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth have
always been very close, so when he heard about her death, a little
part of him dies inside.
He doesn’t seem to show any guilt about Lady Macbeth’s death. He is
cold blooded. Macbeth hasn’t acknowledged that he himself is partly
responsible for her illness. He killed Macduff’s innocent family
which disturbed Lady Macbeth a lot. She might have made Macbeth into
this monster as she called him a coward a lot of times. He might have
been proving to her he wasn’t. Lady Macbeth only wanted him to murder
Duncan. She didn’t ask him to murder any one else, that was his own
decision. She wanted him to act as a real man, but she didn’t want
him to turn into a cold blooded heartless murderer.
When Macbeth finds out that an army of men are marching to the castle
he doesn’t seem to be worried “Give me my armour” line 33. Macbeth
will fight to the every end. He is still courageous. Macbeth is a
tragic hero. Macbeth will fight to the end no matter what his outcome
will be. He believes in the prophecy and that he is protected.
Macbeth is very strong and determined.
As Macbeth gets ready to fight, Seyton brings news to Macbeth that his
wife has died. “The queen, my lord, is dead” line 17. Macbeth is not
surprised at all. He feels that because the army is coming everything
will be over in the end, everything will die. He doesn’t seem to care
anymore. Now that Lady Macbeth has died, everything seems nothing to
him. Its fate why Lady Macbeth died.
The soldiers decide to disguise themselves with trees and branches
from Birnam Wood. This looks like the wood is moving. “The wood
began to move” line 35. Macbeth is shocked by what his messenger has
seen. He calls him a liar (line36). Macbeth is shocked at the
prophecy coming true. The witches do seem to be controlling the
events, but not in Macbeth’s favour. From the castle it would look
like the wood was moving. This shows that the witches do have power.
Macbeth meets young Siward and they fight. Macbeth kills him.
Macduff enters the room and sees young siward dead on the floor.
Macbeth doesn’t seem to care. Macbeth and Macduff fight. While they
are fighting, Macbeth is boasting about his knowledge. He has killed
young Siward and believes that he had been born by a woman.
“Brandish’d by man that’s not of a woman born” line 12. Macbeth
remembers the prophecy that anyone not born from a woman can only kill
him. Macbeth doesn’t know that Macduff is not a natural born child.
He was born by caesarean. The prophecy is to be beware of Macduff and
someone who was not born of a woman. Macduff can kill him and he
does. The prophecy is fulfilled.
Although Macbeth carried on fighting he died in the end despite
realising the prophecy will not protect him. He shows a lot of
courage. “Yet I will try the last” line 61. He carried on fighting
until the end. He was very strong and brave. Evil is finally
defeated when Macbeth dies.
Macbeth was a cold blooded murderer because he killed Banquo and
Macduff’s innocent family and wasn’t bothered at all. He didn’t show
any emotional guilt. Macbeth was also influence by the witches as
when he was given his prophecy of becoming King he became greedy. He
wouldn’t have killed Duncan if he hadn’t had the witches. After the
witches first prophecy had come true he thought they had real powers
and met up with them again. This time the prophecy is to beware of
Macduff, so he murders Macduff’s innocent family. Macbeth was
influenced by the witches a lot as he did whatever he had to by
murdering people who were in his way to get what he wanted. Macbeth
really thought the prophecy was real and the witches had power.
Macbeth was also influenced by his wife too, but after becoming King
of Scotland he became confident and decided things for himself.
Overall, I think that the witches influenced Macbeth as in Elizabethan
times people believed in witches. Macbeth would have never believed
that the witches had powers and that they knew what was going to
happen in the future. As they believed in witches he would have been
influenced by them.
A modern day audience wouldn’t believe in witches and would think
witches are superficial. They wouldn’t be able to understand why
Macbeth would think that witches had powers.
Humans that are very greedy and too ambitious can ruin their life like
Macbeth did. He died in the end because of his greed and ambition.
He was a tragic hero.

The Rise of Civilization and Writing

The Rise of Civilization and WritingOne civilization that developed writing was the Sumerians in Mesopotamia which is located in present day Iraq. The Sumerians impressed wet clay with the end of a reed leaving a wedge-shaped form. This kind of writing on clay is called cuneiform, from the Latin “cuneus”, meaning “wedge.” Cuneiform owes its origins to the need arising from public economy and administration. With the rise in production of the country, accumulated surplus were sent to the cities. This necessitated a method of keeping account of all the goods coming into the cities as well as of manufactured goods leaving for the country. However before the first tablet was written, the Sumerians used an uncomplicated but inefficient system of recording transactions. It involved enclosing clay tokens signifying certain commodities and their quantities in a round clay object called a bulla. Seals of the individuals involved in the transaction were placed on the outside to validate the even. However to check the honesty of the deliverer, the bulla had to be destroyed to reconcile the goods with the tokens inside thereby destroying the record of the transaction as well. So to preserve the record, they impressed the tokens on the outside of the bulla before sealing them in. As time passed the bulla became the tablet and the impressions of tokens became symbolized by wedge-shaped marks. Eventually these marks came to denote distinct words and syllables of their spoken language. The purposes for writing also evolved. Sumerians wrote literature, philosophy, religion events, and about their every day lives. In fact, the Sumerians were the first to recorded a codified system of law.Another civilization that developed writing was the Egyptians. They had a similar system to the Sumerians in that both began as a pictographic form of writing. Hieroglyphics were used largely for religious purposes. The ancient Egyptian word for hieroglyphs means “language of the gods” indicating their importance. Priests used hieroglyphs to write down prayers, magical texts, and texts related to life after death and worshiping the gods. Moreover, many Egyptians had autobiographies and directions to the afterlife written in their tombs. Civil officials also used hieroglyphics to record historical events, and to document calculations, such as the depth of the Nile River on a specific day of the year. For everyday practical life, the Egyptian used two forms of cursive writing, first the hieratic and then the demotic. These two type of script were basically an abbreviate word-syllabic script based off of the hieroglyphic form. Little is known about the development of the hieroglyphics for they appeared in such a developed form that anthropologist and archeologists cannot see the full transition.Writing , for these two civilization as well as the other three civilization where writing was present, served many important purposes. First, it helped to insure the continuity of the continuity of civilization by expediting the flow of information in an increasingly large and stratified society. Secondly, it facilitated administrative activities and enabled the further growth and canalization of the society. Finally, it crystallized and preserved cultural and bureaucratic traditions so that they outlive the hegemony of single rulers or dominant power-bases. However the Andeans in South America developed a highly complex society without a written language. They were very similar to the Egyptians and Sumerians in that they were a sedentary people that invented agriculture, pottery, weaving, metallurgy and domesticated animals. They also had full-time specialization of labor, a class structured society with a well-defined ruling class who held control over a concentration of surplus good and labor which they deployed towards their own ends and monumental “public” works. So how were they able to insure the continuity of their civilization without a tangible record? The answer is that they did in fact have a system of keeping records but it is not in a form that is immediately recognizable least likely decipherable.The Andeans used a system of knotted cords, called the Quipu, that functioned as mnemonic devices to remember or rather record information. The concept is very similar to writing in that writing records data by using abstract symbols drawn on a surface which serve as mnemonic devices. Through the Quipus, they were able to encrypted detailed records of resources such as items that were need or available in storehouses, taxes owed or collected, census information, the output of mines, and the composition of work forces as well as important historical events.It is because of the existence of the Quipu that many anthropologist are re-thinking the role of writing in the development of civilization. Instead of thinking in terms of writing, anthropologist are revising their view to a system of record keeping. Writing, after all is a method of recorded keeping in the broadest sense of the word. Therefore, despite the fact that writing has been a major influence in the development of five out of the six civilizations that first appeared on the face of the Earth, writing does not need to be present for a society to progress into complexity

Influence of Boethius on Troilus and Criseyde

Influence of Boethius on Troilus and CriseydeAround 524, the Christian philosopher Boethius awaited his death. During the last stage of his life, he composed one of the most influential writings of the Medieval period: The Consolation of Philosophy. C.S. Lewis says of the work, “To acquire a taste for it is almost to become naturalized in the Middle Ages” (Lewis 75). Over 800 years later, Geoffrey Chaucer, one of the most highly praised authors in the English language, would draw upon Boethius to compose his finest work, Troilus and Criseyde. The most important Boethian influence Chaucer extracts is the intensity of something being increased or decreased by the knowledge of its opposite. Boethius’ main discussion of this concept is in books three and four deal where he deals with the problem of evil. The question at hand is, “How can evil exist in a world with an omnibenevolent and omnipotent God?” If God is all-powerful, is anything impossible for God? If God is all-good, can God commit evil? After much discussion, Boethius concludes that evil is a lack of good and those who commit evil lack something. He writes, “so it is plain that those who are capable of evil are capable of less” (Boethius 110). He continues, “Therefore the power of doing evil is no object of desire” (110). Thus “the power of doing evil” is a lack of “the power of doing good.” Boethius can know what evil is only when he first realizes how to determine good. Chaucer states problem in this way: “Everything is known for what it is by its opposite”(Chaucer 14). Chaucer’s main examples of this phenomenom deal with the sweetness of joy and the bitterness of suffering. First, sweetness is made sweeter when one has tasted the bitterness of suffering. “And now sweetness seems sweeter, because bitterness was experienced” (79). When one experiences extreme bitterness, the slightest fading of that suffering brings ecstasy. On the other hand, bitterness is all the more bitter when one has tasted the sweetness of delight. Pandarus says, “For of all fortune’s keen adversities the worst kind of misfortune is this: for a man to have been in good times and to remember them when they’re past” (86-87). If one has tasted a high degree of sweetness, a lower degree sweetness is not as satisfying. This line of thought seems to be directly from Boethius. Philosophy tells Boethius, “If I have thoroughly learned the causes and the manner of your sickness, your former good fortune has so affected you that you are being consumed by longing for it” (25). Philosophy believes Boethius would not be as distressed by his current stature if he had not experienced such high degrees of gratification. Another subject in which Boethius may have influenced Troilus is the question free will and predestination. He states, ” . . . God sees all things in His eternal present” (164). Thus, God sees all things in the present whether they are in the past, present, or future. Boethius continues, “Wherefore this foreknowledge is not opinion but knowledge resting upon truth, since He knows that a future event is, though He knows too that it will not occur of necessity” (164). But then Boethius states, ” . . . a thing will occur of necessity, when it is viewed from the point of divine knowledge; but when it is examined in its own nature, it seems perfectly free and unrestrained” (164-165). Thus, in some sense, Boethius believes there can be a foreknowledge of the indeterminate. Boethius takes comfort in this conclusion. One is free to act because God watches the future in the present. Thus Boethius does not ask whether foreknowledge necessitates whatsoever comes to pass but whether all human actions must have been necessary (Lewis 88). On the other hand, Chaucer writes very little on this question directly. Yet Troilus gets to the heart of the matter in a couple of paragraphs. Troilus expresses a dichotomy between predestination and free choice. He measures the two options and concludes, “Therefore I say that if from eternity He has foreknown our thoughts and our deeds as well, we have no free choice” (Chaucer 108). This conclusion brings Troilus to utter despair. He laments, “For everything that happens, happens by necessity: thus, it is my destiny to be lost” (108). He loses hope because he believes in absolute determinism. Another important subject in both works is Fortune. Both Boethius and Troilus desire to blame Fortune for changing. Her joys pass away and are replaced by sorrows. Her sorrows pass away and joy replaces them. She is forever inconstant. Yet both characters love her when she brings joy but lament her cessation of good tidings. Both characters are rebuked. Philosophy reminds Boethius, “Wealth, honours, and all such are within” the rights of Fortune” (29). Pandarus reprimands Troilus expressing, “For if her wheel stopped turning, she would immediately cease to be Fortune” (18). Finally, both characters see death as a means to end suffering and unhappiness. Boethius bemoans, “Sad is it how death turns away from the unhappy with so deaf an ear, and will not close, cruel, the eyes that weep” (1). Perhaps drawing from Boethius, Troilus articulates, “For, to tell the truth, happy is the death that, often summoned, comes and puts an end to pain” (100). Moreover, he later expresses, “For through death my unhappiness would have an end, where everyday I now reproach myself with being alive” (143). In their lowest moments, death seems like the only escape for these two characters. Both men will die, but only at their appointed time. So Boethius influenced Chaucer’s finest work in at least some measure. First, Chaucer draws upon Boethius’ belief that the measure of something can only be gauged by its opposite. The most important way this influenced Chaucer is his explanation of suffering as the lack of good. Furthermore, Boethius seems to have influenced Troilus on the question of free will and predestination. Yet because Troilus does not agree with Boethius’ logic, Troilus opts for a more fatalistic world-view. Moreover, both Boethius and Troilus wish to use Fortune at their own disposal. Yet this is an insult to Fortune who would cease to exist if it were possible to be manipulated by men. Finally, both Boethius and Troilus wish to die to end their suffering and pain. Both get their wish.

What Time is It?

What Time is It?Life in the United States is fast-paced. There are fast food restaurants, overnight delivery services, shuttle services, instant cash machines, fast weight loss plans, and even instant minute rice. Avidly following such sayings as, “The early bird gets the worm,” and, “First come, first served,” North Americans even have their meals in an efficient manner. Microwaves help nuke their early breakfasts, noon lunches, and five-o’clock dinners.“Time is money” for big businesses. Everyone follows set agendas. Minutes are taken at meetings that are precisely scheduled. North Americans take pride in juggling busy work schedules and still finding time to spend with family and friends.Latin Americans stroll leisurely through life. They amble past open-air restaurants, across shaded patios tucked behind walls of Bougainvillea. In the cafes, the service is slow but courteous. Outside on the streets, people walk by, not for weight purposes, but to get somewhere. Buses arrive and depart on their own schedule, sometimes sooner or later than their printed times. And if you miss the bus, wait. One will come along eventually. Mid-morning breakfasts are homemade. Lunch is around three in the afternoon and dinner could be anytime after the arranged time. No one follows a set agenda, but business is accomplished at a gradual and comfortable pace. Watches are not followed precisely, and one barely ever hears the question, “What time is it?”This cultural difference has proven to be a problem for many North Americans visiting Latin American countries and vice versa. For example, this problem has escalated on the issue of adoption. While in Honduras the summer of 1989, I translated for couples from the United States who were looking for children to adopt from Central America. All legal procedures were transacted between a lawyer from the U.S. and a Honduran lawyer. Legal matters on the North American end were handled almost immediately. The Honduran lawyer, however, was considerably slower with field work and paper work and was unable to give definite dates or times for the completion of the adoption. This created a cultural barrier and added to the confusion of the situation.Without understanding these cultural differences, one could eventually feel offended. Having lived for five years in the Dominican Republic, I am able to understand the two concepts of time but am torn between them. People in the United States, while accomplishing much, need to live less by the clock and stroll through more of their days. Although Latin America can sometimes be very frustrating and remind us that, indeed, patience is a virtue, one should slow down long enough to enjoy life’s simple pleasure. So whenever I am asked, “Why are you late?” I simply reply, “According to whose time?”

The Guitar

The GuitarAbout five hundred years ago the guitar was invented. Since then, the guitar has played a crucial role in music. It serves as the heart for song, from Jazz, to Blues, to Heavy Metal. The guitar is perhaps the most important instrument in modern music. The two types of guitar most popular today, are the acoustic and electric guitar.The twentieth-century came with the arrival of new guitars, and new guitar manufacturers. These new guitars were mostly coming from Germany, England, and America. The new innovative design used better woods in the body, and neck. With a new kind of soundboard, the guitar now sounded superior. The wood, which is the most important material out of all, had to be allowed to “settle”, or loose its natural moisture. Many varieties of woods were used and still are, to make guitars, from cedar to rosewood. Each provides a different tone. These new acoustic guitars, along with there great sound, also had a sleeker design. This new sleeker design allowed for greater playability. New guitar manufacturers began to emerge in the early nineteen hundreds. These new manufacturers perfected the construction of acoustic guitars. Gibson, Martin, and National are some examples. The acoustic guitar then became the main instrument in country, and folk music. One famous guitar player that used acoustic guitars was Roy Rogers, a southern country singer.
Later, in the late 1940’s to early 1950’s the most revolutionary variation of guitar appeared. The electric guitar, which is a solid-body guitar with tone, volume control, and pick-ups, soon brought on a musical revolution. Gibson and Fender made some of the first electric guitars. One of Fenders first solid-body models was the Telecaster. The Telecaster had all the features that a solid-body guitar should have with a sleek design. A short while after the Telecaster made its debut, the Gibson Les Paul model was introduced. With a fixed tailpiece, raised pick-guard, and two single coil pick-ups, it became very popular among rock and blues musicians. Another Gibson model that made a huge impact on guitars was the Gibson double-neck that reached its peak of popularity in the seventies. The double-neck was one six-string guitar on the bottom, and one twelve-string guitar on the top. Guitarists like Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin used this guitar. These guitars added another dimension of sound to the musicians work.Hardware is also very important in a guitars sound. You could have the best guitar there is, but if your amplification is bad, your sound will be too. Companies such as Marshall and Mesa Boogie make top of the line amplifiers. The early amps used tubes, like the ones in radios at that time. Later effects came along, such as reverberation and distortion. With out these effects modern rock music would be very different. The distortion pedal was invented by Gary Hurst, and made famous by Jeff beck, and Eric Clapton. Distortion allowed for a fuzzy, heavy sound that if used right could add depth to a guitars sound. The wah-wah pedal, made famous by Jimi Hendrix, allowed for a sound that almost sounded like a cry or a “wah”, hence the name. By the 1950’s the electric guitar was becoming very popular. With many guitar companies making electric and acoustic guitars, a few guitars became more popular than others did. Some of these guitars were the Fender Telecaster, the Fender Stratocaster, and the Gibson Les Paul. The Stratocaster came after the Telecaster but had an even greater effect. With what we now call a “popular” body design the Stratocaster is the most popular guitar today. Another popular guitar was, and still is, the Gibson Les Paul. Used by guitarists like Neil Young, and Slash of Guns n’ Roses. An old Gibson Les Paul today can sell for over fifty thousand dollars. The guitar is a very important part in music today. Without it, music as we know it would be completely different. From B.B. King, to Eric Clapton to Jimi Hendrix, the electric guitar was the basis of their fame.The guitar is now one of the most popular instruments in the world, and will probably remain one of the most popular. It is a billion-dollar industry that is always changing, and bringing new advancements. It is difficult to imagine the world of music without the guitar.Bibliography:B I B L I O G R A P H Y“30 Players that Changed the Way we Sound.” Guitar One. December 1997 Burrows, Terry.
“The Complete Encyclopedia of the Guitar.” Schirmer Books, 1998. New York The Electric Guitar. Lemelson Center for the study of Invention and Innovation. 12-21-99. http://www.si.edu/organiza/museums/nmah/lemel/guitars/ Gore, Joe “Elements of Cheese: a Crash course in 6-String Tackiness.” Encarta 1996 “Guitar Player Greats.” Guitar Player. March 1997 “Guitar Player Scrapbook.” Guitar Player. January 1997

munipulation in the media

Manipulation in the media     There are numerous ways people are manipulated by the media, but the concern of outward appearances has always been one of the main portals the media uses when advertising. Everyday, people come across some type of advertisement, wither it be watching television, seeing billboards, reading magazines, or listening to the radio. These advertisements all instill into people’s heads, what they are is not good enough. Most advertisements show photos of women and men with no wrinkles and flawless skin, no fat and built bodies, or stylish clothes and trendy accessories. These types of advertisements give men and women an unrealistic perspective of what they “could” look like, not suggesting the people being shown are naturally beautiful to begin with, but implying the allusion; one could look like this if this product is used. These types of strategies are used by companies continuously, manipulating the world into believing they can change themselves just by buying their product. Advertisements with reference to outward appearances commonly focus on three different aspects of societies concerns; stopping signs of aging or reversing it, losing weight or getting into shape, and wearing certain clothes, in turn, allowing a person to fit into societies superficial view of how one should appear on the surface.
     Most women’s worst fears involve growing old and part of that process is inevitably gaining and loosing certain qualities. Qualities gained are wrinkles, gray hair, cellulite, and even weight. Qualities lost are firmness, smooth skin, hair, and even perkiness in areas. All these stages of aging are irreversibly going to happen to everyone, yet slowing it down or putting it on pause has become an obsession with today’s men and women. This obsession has derived form the constant commercials, magazine articles or ads, music videos, movies, televisionthat reality and ran with it. By showing beautiful teens in their clothing line and suggesting, “You too can be cool,” the clothing store, “Wet Seal” suggests that just by buying their product one can become “cool.” By tapping into what teens care about the most, the media has once again allowed advertisements to manipulate, in turn, promoting yet another stereo typical image that is rarely achieved.
     There are numerous instances of manipulation in the media; advertisements concerning anti-aging products, weight loss promoters, and clothing lines are just a few of the many. Societies concerns with outward appearances and superficial judgments, have raised the sales of such products drastically and has assisted the market of beauty products in only increasing manipulating advertisements. By men and women not accepting who and what they are, a great deal of worry, unhappiness, and money is wasted on such unneeded necessities. Knowing this, the media will continue manipulating through advertisements until the world decides to quit attempting to live up to the world and just be themselves because to some, it’s manipulation but to others it’s good business strategy and a strategy that works, is a strategy kept.


“Why did American nativist groups oppose free, unrestricted immigration in thelate nineteenth and early twentieth centuries”?

In Which Of The 13 English Colonies Would You Have Preferred To Live?

I would have preferred to live in Pennsylvania out of all the thirteen colonies. Pennsylvania was a very prosperous colony due to the fact that everyone had economic opportunity. Also, the people had civil liberty, allowing them to surpass the other colonies that had multiple restrictions. In addition, they had religious freedom unlike other colonies. Pennsylvania had many great features compared to the other colonies.In Pennsylvania, progress was made toward social reform. No provisions had been made in order to receive military defense. This colony promoted peace. Also, no restrictions were placed on immigration, and naturalization was made easy, making it easier for new immigrants to move there. Many people in the colony disliked the idea of black slavery. Therefore, all of the social characteristics made it easier for the citizens to grasp the concept that there was no need for contradictions in social status.
There were many economic opportunities in Pennsylvania. The soil was fertile and there was plenty of land. Grain was a big export here and earned Pennsylvania the title as one of the “bread colonies”. The water was also very clean, which helped to prevent diseases. The economic characteristics of Pennsylvania helped the economy to prosper.
Due to the fact that Pennsylvania was liberal, it helped it in politics, religion, and with ethnic ties. Pennsylvania had a representative assembly, voted by landowners. The colonists had freedom of worship and a “no tax-supported church”. The rich mix of ethnic groups helped the colonists learn more about other cultures and also helped to bring forth new traditions. Therefore, liberation helped gain strength in the political, religious, and ethnic ties in Pennsylvania.
The social characteristics of Pennsylvania made social reform easier. The various economic opportunities helped the land prosper. Also, liberation aided in political, religious, and ethnic connections. Pennsylvania, in my mind, was the best of the thirteen English colonies. In conclusion, I would have wanted to live in Pennsylvania rather than the other colonies.

Matrimony and Recompense in Measure for Measure

Matrimony and Recompense in Measure for MeasureSince 1970, when the Isabella of John Barton’s RSC production of Measure for Measure first shocked audiences by silently refusing to acquiesce to the Duke’s offer of marriage at the end of the play, Isabella’s response (or lack thereof) to the Duke’s proposal has become one of the most prevalent subjects for Shakespearean performance criticism.See, for example, Jane Williamson, “The Duke and Isabella on the Modern Stage,” The Triple Bond: Plays, Mainly Shakespearean, in Performance, ed. Joseph G. Price (University Park: Penn State UP, 1975), pp. 149-69; Ralph Berry, “Measure for Measure on the Contemporary Stage,” Humanities Association Review 28 (1977), 241-47; Philip C. McGuire, Speechless Dialect: Shakespeare’s Open Silences (Berkeley: U of California P, 1985); and Graham Nicholls, Measure for Measure: Text and Performance (London: Macmillan Education, 1986). However, attention to this issue has tended to overshadow another ambiguous aspect of the same stage sequence: the question of why the Duke asks Isabella to marry him in the first place. It is generally agreed that the text provides no evidence to suggest a romantic attachment to Isabella on the Duke’s part until the moment of his proposal, but the play’s stage history reveals a pattern of attempts to supply what the text lacks, either through stage business or interpolated declarations of love. Hal Gelb notes, “Critics and directors have so keenly felt a sense of the marriage as a tacked-on after-thought that they have sought ways to prepare it earlier in the play” (“Duke Vincentio and the Illusion of Comedy or All’s Not Well that Ends Well,” SQ, 22 1971, 31). These attempts, based on a culturally specific conception of matrimony as prompted by erotic desire, disregard other textually prominent motivations for marriage grounded in Renaissance moral, social, and financial concerns. Ann Jennalie Cook, comparing contemporary notions of marriage to those of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, writes, “Despite the romantic ideas expressed in plays and poetry, most marriages were contracted on the basis of interest rather than affect. Society demanded a legitimate male heir to preserve the family name and properties. Moreover, the financial arrangements of a marriage settlement were essential to insure that both parties could live securely until death. Marriage was also viewed as the safest outlet for the healthful discharge of sexual appetites. Finally, companionship was always mentioned as a reason for marriage, but in actuality most couples scarcely knew each other before the wedding and afterwards often spent much of their lives apart, as we suspect Shakespeare and his wife did. Clearly, then, the social customs dictated a marriage based primarily on wealth, status, or power and only secondarily on love, friendship, or sexual attraction” [“Wooing and Wedding: Shakespeare’s Dramatic Distortion of the Customs of His Time,” Proceedings of the Comparative Literature Symposium, 12 (1981), 84-85]. Most importantly, such productions overlook the issue of matrimony as a form of recompense offered by the husband to his future wife to atone for sexual offenses committed against her. Duke Vincentio’s proposal to Isabella, who has publicly renounced her chastity at the Duke’s request, can be seen as a self-imposed form of the same type of recompense he demands of the play’s other “virgin-violators”: Claudio, Lucio, and Angelo.At the Duke’s first appearance after having delegated his power to Angelo, Vincentio allays Friar Thomas’s suspicion that his secretive retirement is intended to facilitate a romantic tryst: “No. Holy father, throw away that thought; / Believe not that the dribbling dart of love / Can pierce a complete bosom” (1.3.1-3). Quotations from Measure for Measure refer to J.W. Lever’s Arden edition (London: Methuen, 1965). Given that other Shakespearean heroes, such as Valentine, Berowne, and Benedick, deride love only to be overmastered by it, such a statement sets up the expectation that Vincentio will also succumb to Cupid’s arrow. But as Richard P. Wheeler notes, “such an irony does not seem … to be effectively exploited, even when Vincentio abruptly proposes to Isabella in the last scene.” Richard P. Wheeler, Shakespeare’s Development and the Problem Comedies: Turn and Counter-Turn (Berkeley: U of California P, 1981), p. 124. For some critics, however, the fact that the Duke offers to marry Isabella is in itself proof that love has conquered him; for instance, J.M. Nosworthy writes, “The issue of the final Act clearly shows that Cupid’s dribbling dart has, after all, pierced that complete bosom. Precisely when this occurs is not made clear … ” J.M. Nosworthy, ed, Measure for Measure, New Penguin Shakespeare (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1969), p. 28. Indeed, at no point in the play does the Duke declare feelings of love, and to take his proposal as such a declaration assumes that an offer of marriage always issues from amorous passion. On the contrary, Measure for Measure provides several other instances of marriages prompted, not by love, but by the desire for money, the need to provide for bastard children, and the wish to repair the honor of a wronged woman.For example, Angelo’s original agreement to wed Mariana, which took place five years before the action of the play, was apparently impelled on his side by purely pecuniary motives, for when her dowry was lost at sea, Angelo called the wedding off without apology. Even Claudio and Juliet, the only couple in the play to express mutual affection, delay their nuptials, as Claudio tells us, “for propagation of a dower / Remaining in the coffer of her friends, / From whom we thought it meet to hide our love / Till time had made them for us” (1.2.139-42). For money’s sake, Claudio and Juliet decide to postpone marriage, but they do not elect to put off the “mutual entertainment” (1.2.143) of sexuality, which leads to Juliet’s pregnancy. For Claudio and Juliet, erotic desire alone is enough to justify a secret betrothal and conjugal relations, but without a dowry, love is not a sufficient reason to induce them to marry. In fact, Claudio must finally be compelled by the Duke to wed his dowerless bride at the end of the play and to take responsibility for his illicitly-conceived child. Similarly, the Duke also forces Lucio to take Kate Keepdown, the mother of his bastard son, as his wife: “If any woman wrong’d by this lewd fellow, / -As I have heard him swear himself there’s one / Whom he begot with child-let her appear / And he shall marry her” (5.1.507-10). As Marilyn L. Williamson notes, “This marriage is entirely one of the Duke’s will to provide for Lucio’s bastard, for the invisible, voiceless Kate Keepdown is never present to ask for marriage.” Marilyn L. Williamson, The Patriarchy of Shakespeare’s Comedies (Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1986), p. 103.The Duke harbors an abiding interest in the maintenance of bastards because, in the absence of other means of financial support, the care and sustenance of illegitimate children falls to the responsibility of the state. For a description of social problems in Shakespeare’s England resulting from the state’s duty to care for bastard children, see Williamson, pp. 81-85. In the case of Lucio’s bastard, Mistress Overdone has kept the child for “a year and a quarter” (3.2.195), but her arrest deprives the infant of the material means for its subsistence, and unless the father can be compelled to acknowledge it, the Duke himself, as the embodiment of the government of Vienna, will have to provide for it. Lucio unwittingly reminds Vincentio of this responsibility when he imputes to the “absent” Duke a lax attitude toward illegitimacy: “Ere he would have hanged a man for the getting a hundred bastards, he would have paid for the nursing a thousand” (3.2.113-15). Later, while Isabella explains the bed-trick to Mariana, the Duke muses on the vulner-ability of princes to such calumnious remarks:place and greatness! Millions of false eyes
Are stuck upon thee: volumes of report
Run with these false, and most contrarious quest
Upon thy doings: thousand escapes of wit
Make thee the father of their idle dream
And rack thee in their fancies. (4.1.60-65)Having listened to Lucio disparage him as being willing to nurse “a thousand” bastards, the Duke characterizes this slander metaphorically as a type of false paternity: a “thousand escapes of wit” unjustly make him “the father of their idle dream,” just as bastards force the state to become their foster parent. Lever (pp. xx-xxii) discusses the long-standing editorial assertion that this soliloquy was removed from its original place at 3.2.179 and moved to 4.1 to cover the withdrawl of Isabella and Mariana. If so, the speech at one time immediately followed the sequence during which Lucio points out that the state must nurse abandoned bastards. Given the prevalence of bastardy in Vienna (Constable Elbow laments that, the way things are going, soon “we shall have all the world drink brown and white bastard” [3.2.2-4]), illegitimacy constitutes a serious economic threat to the city government. The Duke combats this danger by forcing bastard-makers like Lucio and Claudio to accept their own financial obligations, which they do by marrying the mothers of their offspring, whether they love the women or not.However, at the heart of all three constrained marriages at the play’s conclusion lies the notion that the men must offer matrimony to their sexual partners to compensate for the damage they have done them through fornication. Victoria Hayne, referring to sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English legal practice, writes, “Although they were sentenced to penance, couples found guilty of fornication were never ordered to marry, even if they had an illegitimate child. Only couples who had previously betrothed themselves and, by consummating their union, created a legally irrevocable marriage would be ordered to complete with public ritual what they had enacted in private” (“Performing Social Practice: The Example of Measure for Measure,” SQ, 44 1993, p. 6). Hayne attempts to apply this precept to the play, but in order to do so, she must argue that Kate Keepdown is not a prostitute and that she and Lucio were betrothed before their sexual encounter (pp. 7-8), which is not clear in the text. Furthermore, in one of Shakespeare’s sources, Epitia’s story from Giraldi Cinthio’s Hecatommithi (1565), Claudio’s counterpart Vico is not betrothed to his partner but is instead “a boy of sixteen whose crime, the violation of a virgin, is ascribed to ‘la forza di amore,’ and may be set right by marriage” [Geoffrey Bullough, ed, Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, Vol. 2 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1958), p. 401]. Even though matrimony may not have been enforced upon unbetrothed fornicators in Renaissance England, such a practice exists in the source material and appears to have been performed in Shakespeare’s fictional Vienna. As Lucio must marry the woman he has “wrong’d,” so Claudio must carry out the Duke’s command, “She, Claudio, that you wrong’d, look you restore” (5.1.522). Angelo, who has unwittingly consummated his betrothal to Mariana, is ordered to “marry her instantly,” (5.1.375), fulfilling the Duke’s earlier prediction of one of the results of the bed-trick: “If the encounter acknowledge itself hereafter, it may compel him to her recompense” (3.1.251-53). N.W. Bawcutt, editor of the Oxford Shakespeare (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1991), glosses “acknowledge itself” as “reveal itself, become publicly known (perhaps by Mariana becoming pregnant).” Hence, the notion of recompense encompasses both the restoration of Mariana’s honor and Angelo’s responsibility for the possible bastard child of their union. For the argument that procreation is the result of every act of sexual intercourse in Measure for Measure, see Marc Shell, The End of Kinship: “Measure For Measure,” Incest, and the Ideal of Universal Siblinghood (Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1988), pp. 33, 213n. It is also worthwhile to note that Pompey accuses Elbow’s wife of having been “respected with him, before he married with her” (2.1.167-68), and she is also currently pregnant. Measure for Measure clearly circulates the idea that, although pre-marital sex may destroy a woman’s reputation, marriage to her seducer possesses the power to restore her honor. Shakespeare imports this concept of recompense from his primary source, George Whetstone’s The Historie of Promos and Cassandra (1578), in which Isabella’s counterpart Cassandra pleads to Promos, the substitute ruler, that her brother be allowed to marry the maid whom he has deflowered: “Way his yong yeares, the force of loue, which forced his amis, / Way, way, that Mariage, works amends, for what committed is “Promos and Cassandra is reprinted in full in the New Variorum Measure for Measure edited by Marc Eccles (New York: MLA, 1980). See p. 315. In a similar fashion, Shakespeare’s Isabella, upon hearing that Claudio has impregnated Juliet, cries, “O, let him marry her!” (1.4.49), but this solution is not imposed until the Duke steps out of his disguise in the final scene. Whetstone’s King, facing the fact that, in his version of the story, the sister gives up her virginity to save her brother’s life, inflicts marriage as a type of punishment upon Lord Promos: “On thee vyle wretche, this sentence I pronounce: / That foorthwith, thou shalt marrie Cassandra, / For to repayre hir honour, thou dydst waste” (356). As with Angelo in Measure for Measure, the seducer must wed his victim to rectify his sexual crime, and love has nothing at all to do with it.Plainly, romantic affection is not the only spur to matrimony in either Shakespeare’s play or its source, but for centuries, producers and directors have assumed that the Duke’s proposal indicates just such an emotion, and they have gone to great pains to convey it to their audiences. As the introduction to Oxberry’s acting edition of 1822 points out,is curious to remark how, in the closing lines of the acting-copy, the players have thought proper to swell the Duke’s hint of his attachment to Isabella, into a formal declaration of his passion. They were willing to compensate for the absence of love-scenes in the body of the play, by introducing a little courtship at the close. Measure for Measure, A Comedy; By W. Shakespeare. As it is Performed at the Theatres Royal. By W. Oxberry, Comedian (London, 1822), p. vi.The “little courtship” to which this comment refers is an epilogue of ten lines spoken by the Duke appended to several nineteenth-century acting editions, including that of Oxberry, Kemble, and Cumberland. It begins,“For thee, sweet saint—if, for a brother sav’d,
From that most holy shrine thou wert devote to,
Thou deign to spare some portion of thy love,
Thy Duke, thy Friar tempts thee from thy vow:[ISABEL is falling on her knees, the DUKE prevents her—kisses her hand, and proceeds with his speech.] This quotation refers to the Cumberland edition, Measure For Measure: A Comedy: In Five Acts. By William Shakespeare. As now performed at the Theatres Royal, London (n.d). The passage appears in substantially the same form in Shakespeare’s Measure For Measure, A Comedy, Revised by J.P. Kemble; and now first published as it is acted at The Theatre Royal in Covent Garden (London, 1803).As Oxberry’s edition suggests, this interpolated passage provides the “formal declaration” of the Duke’s “passion” that Shakespeare elects to withhold. In asking Isabella to spare some portion of her love, the Duke implies that he will receive it and return it in kind. Also, the added stage direction, which calls for the Duke to kiss Isabella’s hand, suggests a physical dimension to his appreciation of her virtues unsupported by the original text. Spectators viewing such a version of the play’s final scene could hardly help but conclude that the Duke’s marriage proposal is motivated mainly by his love for Isabella.While nearly all twentieth-century productions of Measure for Measure have resisted the temptation to interpolate an amorous epilogue, many have instead employed stage business to convey a growing romantic attachment to Isabella on the Duke’s part. The rationale for such a choice resembles that expressed by critic Charles R. Lyons, who writes, “At the end of the comedy, we assume that Isabella has also provoked the sexual desire of the Duke. The director of Measure for Measure and the actor playing the Duke must make a decision about the specific point at which Vincentio decides to claim Isabella for himself.” Charles R. Lyons, “Silent Women and Shrews: Eroticism and Convention in Epicoene and Measure for Measure,” CompD, (1989), 129. Several recent productions have chosen to locate the arousal of the Duke’s desire at the end of 3.1, after he proposes the bed-trick to Isabella. Herbert S. Weil, Jr. remembers her response in director Michael Bogdanov’s revival at Stratford, Ontario in 1985: “startlingly, the novice, after hearing the Duke’s plot, kissed him before she exited. No wonder the Duke, who took off his glasses when he first spoke to Isabella . . . now put them on again.” Herbert S. Weil, Jr., “Stratford Festival Canada,” SQ, 37 (1986), 248. On the same stage seven years later, Michael Langham’s production used similar business to achieve a comparable effect:Delighted by the Duke’s proposal to save Claudio’s life and Isabella’s “honor” through the help of Mariana . . . Isabella spontaneously thanked the Duke with a hug. While this worked with the jaunty music to create a happy, hopeful conclusion to the first half of the show, the interaction—particularly the look Brian Bedford gave the audience—also demonstrated that an excited expression of hope and gratitude on Isabella’s part was taken by the Duke as a sign of more intimate contact to come. C.E. McGee, “Shakespeare in Canada: The Stratford Season, 1992,” SQ, 44 (1993), 478-79.Although neither Bogdanov nor Langham implied that Isabella shared the emotions she unintentionally excited in the Duke, some recent revivals have suggested a growing mutual attraction between Vincentio and Isabella. Actor Daniel Massey, who portrayed the Duke opposite Juliet Stevenson’s Isabella in Adrian Noble’s 1983 RSC production, openly admits that “there is not one vestige of a syllable, line, or comma, even, until 5.1.491 to suggest that there is anything between them at all.” Daniel Massey, “The Duke in Measure for Measure,” Players of Shakespeare 2: Further essays in Shakespearean performance by players with the Royal Shakespeare Company, ed. Russell Jackson and Robert Smallwood (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988), p. 19. Nevertheless, he remembers how the players deduced the existence of a reciprocal affection from the conclusion of the play, projected it backwards into earlier scenes, and communicated it to their audience:We found moments, of course, scattered through the play, where we could build a growing awareness of each other. Isabella becomes so excited about the scheme of the bed trick with Mariana in Act 3 that she plants an impulsive kiss on the Duke’s cheek. There is more than a vestige of the adventure caper about the whole moated grange sequence which proved wonderfully useful, and at 4.3.142 where he must, in the short term, steel himself to put her through an awful emotional struggle, he plants a kiss upon her forehead. This is interrupted by the unexpected arrival of Lucio. They spring apart, and, in a long look across the stage at each other, during Lucio’s bitter-sweet speech, much seemed to be accomplished. But the decision to bring them closer together was accounted for largely by the Duke’s proposal at the end. Massey, p. 19.Nicholas Shrimpton’s eyewitness account confirms that Massey and Stevenson’s attempts achieved their desired result:In 3.1, as the Duke finished his explanation to her of the bed-trick, they grasped at each other in a momentary embrace of triumph. Seconds later, remembering their status as novice and friar, they nervously disentangled themselves, having set up with the greatest possible delicacy the erotic charge which would make their eventual marriage credible. Nicholas Shrimpton, “Shakespeare Performances in Stratford-upon-Avon and London, 1983-4,” ShS, 38 (1985), 204.Such efforts to establish a mutual “erotic charge” between Vincentio and Isabella may clearly succeed on the stage, but they are only essential if we assume that sexual love is a necessary condition to render “credible” the Duke’s offer of matrimony at the end of the play.An emphasis on the credibility attained through this strategy also occurs in Miranda Johnson-Haddad’s review of Michael Kahn’s 1992 production at The Shakespeare Theatre in Washington, D.C. Miranda Johnson-Haddad, “The Shakespeare Theatre, 1991-92,” SQ, 43 (1992), pp. 455-72. Unless otherwise noted, all quotations from this review appear on p. 466. She recalls that actor Keith Baxter “made us believe in the Duke’s love for Isabella, a love that . . . developed credibly throughout the course of the play, so that the Duke’s proposal in the final scene was surprising to no one except Isabella (and perhaps not much of a surprise to her).” As in Noble’s revival, the actors conveyed a shared affinity between Vincentio and the young novice:This Duke and Isabella were clearly much drawn to each other early on. In 3.1, when the Duke explains to Isabella his idea about the bed trick . . . she gave him her hands as she agreed to go along with the plan, and they stood smiling at each other and holding hands until they became aware of what they were doing and dropped their hands abruptly. She kissed his hand gratefully upon departing, and, after she had left, the Duke tenderly kissed his hand where she had kissed it.The Duke’s affection for Isabella was also underlined by Kahn’s amplification of the mythological reference in Lucio’s allusion to “Pygmalion’s images newly made woman” (3.3.44). In the opening scene of the performance, located in the Duke’s study, the set displayed “Jean-Leon Gerome’s nineteenth-century painting of Pygmalion embracing the magnificent nude figure of Galatea at the moment the statue comes to life.” Johnson-Haddad, p. 463. Angelo covered the nude upon assuming power, but he ripped the curtain off the painting in 3.2 in a display of his aroused passion. These forceful images caused Johnson-Haddad to meditate on the appropriateness of Kahn’s innovation:I found myself reflecting upon the painting of Pygmalion and Galatea that hung in the Duke’s study and that Angelo first covered up and then dramatically revealed. In this production the Duke brought Isabella fully to life, and the presiding image of Galatea turning from beautiful but cold marble perfection into warm and living flesh was apt.If, in this production, Galatea stands for Isabella, then Pygmalion represents the Duke, who “falls in love with his creation.” Richard Hillman, William Shakespeare: The Problem Plays (New York: Twayne, 1993), p. 120. Again, a modern performance of the play elects to motivate the Duke’s offer of marriage through the establishment of a love relationship, but as I hope to show, the text’s concern for the damaging effects of slander begs us to consider an alternative motivation.When the Duke as friar first presents the bed-trick to Isabella, he assures her that her cooperation will leave her “honour untainted” (3.1.254), but he later informs her that she must also declare openly at the city gates the false claim that she has sacrificed her virginity to Angelo in exchange for Claudio’s life. Although the postulant is reluctant to do so (“To speak so indirectly I am loth” [4.6.1], she admits to Mariana), at the Duke’s urging, she slanders both Angelo and herself:the vile conclusionI now begin with grief and shame to utter.
He would not, but by gift of my chaste body
To his concupiscible intemperate lust,
Release my brother; and after much debatement,
My sisterly remorse confutes mine honour,
And I did yield to him. (5.1.98-104)An understanding of the effect of this slander on Isabella herself requires an acknowledgement that virginity is as much a social as a physiological state in Vienna. Once a woman is charged with unchastity, she wears the social stigma of a fornicatress even if she has never actually engaged in sexual activity. For instance, when Mariana’s dowry is lost, Angelo, “pretending in her discoveries of dishonour” (3.1.226-27), proclaims her an unacceptable partner, and she withdraws humiliated to the moated grange. Moreover, as Marilyn French points out, when Isabella announces that she has visited Angelo’s bed, “She opens herself to public contempt for an act she scorns more than anyone else—and indeed, she receives it, immediately, from Lucio, who begins to joke at the expense of a woman he himself called enskied and sainted not too long ago.” Marilyn French, Shakespeare’s Division of Experience (New York: Ballantine Books, 1981), p. 193.Critic James Trombetta argues that Isabella’s “virginity is restored to her, in turn, when Mariana stands revealed,” James Trombetta, “Versions of Dying in Measure for Measure,” ELR, 6 (1976), 72. but, due to the persistent nature of slander, such is not the case. Over 150 lines after Mariana divulges that she supplied Isabella’s place in the bed-trick, Escalus cries, “Away with those giglets” (5.1.345), thereby referring to both girls as lewd, wanton women (OED 1a). Having admitted that she slept with Angelo, Isabella can never see her virginity truly restored in a communal sense; the act of slander itself is enough to deflower her in the eyes of society. For this reason, slander is associated in the play, and elsewhere in Shakespeare, with penetration by a phallic weapon. For example, early in the play, Vincentio explains to Friar Thomas one reason for his delegation of power to Angelo: “I have on Angelo impos’d the office; / Who may in th’ambush of my name strike home, / And yet my nature never in the fight / To do in slander” (1.3.39-43). In Richard II, Mowbray, arraigned for treason by Bolingbroke, complains that he has been “Pierced to the soul by slander’s venom’d spear” (1.1.171) (This quotation refers to The Complete Works of Shakespeare, ed. David Bevington, 4th ed. [New York: HarperCollins, 1992]). In Much Ado About Nothing, Leonato, the father of Hero, another betrothed bride unjustly accused of fornication, charges that Claudio, her accuser, has pierced her with his false allegations:Thou hast so wrong’d mine innocent child and me,
That I am forc’d to lay my reverence by,
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
I say thou hast belied mine innocent child;
Thy slander hath gone through and through her heart . . . .
(5.1.63-68) Quotations from Much Ado refer to the Arden Shakespeare edited by A.R. Humphreys (London: Methuen, 1981).Claudio has “wrong’d” Hero through slander, completing a symbolic defloration no less damaging to her reputation than the genuine seductions of Measure for Measure, in which Claudio and Lucio have also “wrong’d” their partners. Tellingly, Much Ado’s Claudio must also marry his betrothed at the end of the play, which atones for the sexual injury he has caused her.In Measure for Measure, the piercing effect of slander is also linked to the Duke, whose high position makes him the target of libelous remarks. After listening disguised to Lucio’s denigration of his character, Vincentio states,No might nor greatness in mortality
Can censure ’scape. Back-wounding calumny
The whitest virtue strikes. What king so strong
Can tie the gall up in a slanderous tongue? (3.2.179-82)Although the “dribbling dart of love” cannot pierce him, Vincentio does feel stabbed in the back by the “calumny” or slander of Lucio, who has significantly portrayed him as a sexually experienced and permissive ruler: “He had some feeling of the sport; he knew the service; and that instructed him to mercy” (3.2.113-17). Although Vincentio, disguised as the friar, protests, “I have never heard the absent Duke much detected for women; he was not inclined that way” (3.2.118-19), Lucio insists on depicting his liege as a lecherous old man: “The Duke, I say to thee again, would eat mutton on Fridays. He’s now past it; yet, and I say to thee, he would mouth with a beggar though she smelt brown bread and garlic” (3.2.174-78). Lucio’s slanders permanently besmirch the chaste reputation of the Duke; in effect, they take away his virginity in the public sense, for once spoken, they pierce and adhere to him like a prickly thorn. As Lucio, the embodiment of slander, admits, “Nay, friar, I am a kind of burr, I shall stick” (4.3.177).If we accept Lucio’s slander of Vincentio as a type of sexual crime, we may better understand how Lucio’s marriage to Kate Keepdown at the end of the play also serves as his punishment for disparaging the Duke:Lucio. I beseech your Highness, do not marry me to a whore. Your
Highness said even now, I made you a duke; good my lord, do
not recompense me in making me a cuckold.
Duke. Upon mine honour, thou shalt marry her.
Thy slanders I forgive, and therewithal
Remit thy other forfeits.—Take him to prison
And see our pleasure herein executed.
Lucio. Marrying a punk, my lord, is pressing to death,
Whipping, and hanging.
Duke. Slandering a prince deserves it. (5.1.512-21)Although Lucio is putatively forced to marry a punk to repair the damage he has done to her, the crime for which he is punished, according to the Duke, is “Slandering a prince.” Matrimony may act as the penalty for such an offense because slander is a metaphorical form of illicit seduction, which may only be remedied by “recompense,” or marriage to the injured party. Since Lucio may not wed the Duke, Kate Keepdown functions as Vincentio’s female surrogate, receiving Lucio’s act of atonement on the Duke’s behalf. Despite the fact that Kate never appears in Shakespeare’s text, both Trevor Nunn’s 1991 production at the RSC’s The Other Place and Kahn’s 1992 version have recently brought her on stage to accept Lucio’s restitution of the Duke’s good name. Reviews of Nunn’s production that mention Kate Keepdown’s presence include Robert Smallwood, “Shakespeare at Stratford-upon-Avon, 1991,” SQ, 43 (1992), 356 and Irving Wardle, rev. of Measure for Measure, Independent on Sunday 15 March 1992, p. 21. For Kahn’s revival, see Johnson-Haddad, p. 467.Like Vincentio, Isabella is a chaste figure dishonored by slander, and only matrimony can wipe away her stain. Yet who will marry her? In Whetstone, Promos is available to wed Cassandra, whom he has violated, but in Measure for Measure, Angelo must give recompense to Mariana despite the wrong he has also done to Isabella. As the Duke tells her, “For this new-married man approaching here, / Whose salt imagination yet hath wrong’d / Your well defended honour, you must pardon / For Mariana’s sake” (5.1.398-401). The Duke, responsible for Isabella’s shame in that he advised her to slander herself against her will, must now enforce upon himself the same act of recompense he has mandated for the citizens of Vienna. As Angelo asserts in relation to his condemnation of Claudio, magistrates must be judged by the same laws they impose upon their subjects: “When I that censure him do so offend, / Let mine own judgement pattern out my death, / And nothing come in partial” (2.1.29-31). Vincentio, defending the severity of Angelo’s judgement, agrees: “If his own life answer the straitness of his proceeding, it shall become him well: wherein if he chance to fail, he hath sentenced himself” (3.2.249-51). At the end of the play, the Duke must live up to the principle of measure for measure and answer the straitness of his own proceeding by offering recompense to Isabella. I am indebted to William Carroll for pointing out to me that, since Angelo and Mariana are substitutes for Vincentio and Isabella, the bed-trick represents a symbolic sexual union between the Duke and the novice, for which the Duke must take responsibility. Tellingly, Isabella imagines that such an encounter, if she were in Mariana’s place, would inevitably produce a bastard child: “I had rather my brother die by the law, than my son should be unlawfully born” (3.1.188-90).The phrasing of the Duke’s two proposals in the final scene suggests that his offer of marriage springs, not from erotic desire, but from a wish to look after Isabella’s best interests. After Claudio is revealed to be alive, Vincentio says to her, “If he be like your brother, for his sake / Is he pardon’d; and for your lovely sake / Give me your hand and say you will be mine” (5.1. 488-90). Here the Duke offers to take Isabella’s hand in marriage for her sake, not for the sake of his own passion. Moments later, he proposes again with a similar stress on what Isabella stands to gain through the match:Dear Isabel,
I have a motion much imports your good;
Whereto if you’ll a willing ear incline,
What’s mine is yours and what is yours is mine (5.1.531-34).With its emphasis on the “good” that Isabella’s marriage to the Duke would bring her, this second proposal echoes Vincentio’s explanation to Mariana of why he ordered Angelo to marry her:Consenting to the safeguard of your honour,
I thought your marriage fit: else imputation,
For that he knew you, might reproach your life,
And choke your good to come. (5.1.417-20).In fact, this speech applies equally as well to the novice: the imputation that Isabella has slept with Angelo has brought her reproach, and the Duke thinks her marriage appropriate to prevent the choking of her “good” to come. In this case, Isabella’s good includes not only the status and financial rewards associated with being a duchess (“What’s mine is yours”), but also the public restoration of her honor, something that a return to the nunnery cannot offer her, since the convent frequently offers a refuge to those women whose good names are damaged beyond repair. As the Friar in Much Ado tells Leonato, if Claudio will not repent his slander of Hero, “you may conceal her, / As best befits her wounded reputation, / In some reclusive and religious life, / Out of all eyes, tongues, minds, and injuries” (4.1.240-43). Thus, a return to the convent might shield Isabella from the public consequences of her “wounded reputation,” but only the Duke’s self-imposed act of recompense offers her a way to recapture her honor in the eyes of Viennese society.Even though the text of Measure for Measure does not offer evidence that the Duke’s proposal of marriage stems from love for Isabella, it is not surprising that modern productions often interpolate such feelings, given that our current conception of matrimony presupposes a mutual romantic attachment. The play allows, but does not demand, such a motivation, an ambiguity which implies that other textually supportable interpretations are also possible. Since the play insistently reiterates the Renaissance notion of matrimony as a form of recompense for sexual offenses, it seems worthwhile for directors to consider this alternative motivation and the performance choices that might make this impetus to marriage manifest in the theater. To conclude, I would like to offer an option for the staging of the final scene of the play that derives from a recent tendency in productions to bring the bastard children of Claudio and Lucio into the action.Before Isabella arrives for the first time to plead for her brother, the Provost questions Angelo about Claudio’s imminent execution and the disposition of his pregnant lover: “What shall be done, sir, with the groaning Juliet? / She’s very near her hour” (2.2.15-16). As Louise Schleiner points out, this passage indicates that Juliet is in labor, so by the end of the play, at least a day and a half later, she has probably delivered the child and “may appear [in 5.1] holding the new baby.” Louise Schleiner, “Providential Improvisation in Measure for Measure,” PMLA, 97 (1982), 234. Indeed, Juliet does appear with her child at the conclusion of the 1978 BBC-TV version directed by Desmond Davis:She entered carrying an infant, and her entrance came immediately after Lucio was taken off to be married [5.1.521]. That repositioning set up a contrast between Juliet’s silence, Lucio’s talkativeness, and the wail that announced the infant’s presence even before it was visible. Davis’ relocation of Juliet’s entrance also gave to the reunion of the two lovers . . . greater prominence than would be possible if she had entered with Barnardine and Claudio [at l.475]. Babe in arms, Juliet entered from the rear of the crowd and proceed-ed on her own down the lane they formed for her. As she approached the foot of the slightly raised platform on which the Duke sat, Claudio stepped toward her and they embraced. McGuire, p. 76. The promptbook for John Blatchley’s 1962 production at Stratford-upon-Avon (Shakespeare Centre Library Promptbook Meas. 9) includes a stage direction enjoining Claudio to take his sister to Juliet and show Isabella their child. According to Roger Allam, who acted the part of the Duke, the baby also appeared in Nicholas Hytner’s 1987 RSC production (“The Duke in Measure for Measure,” Players of Shakespeare 3: Further essays in Shakespearean performance by players with the Royal Shakespeare Company, ed. Russell Jackson and Robert Smallwood [Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1993], p. 40).Similarly, Michael Kahn’s 1992 production not only brought Kate Keepdown onto the stage, but also her illegitimate child: “In an amusing piece of business, Lucio’s punk, Kate Keepdown, appeared at the end of the play, with babe in arms, and she shrieked with delight when the Duke ordered Lucio to marry her.” Johnson-Haddad, p. 467. Although both productions embody the bastard children mentioned in the text, the child is not the focus of concern in either staging; Davis chooses to highlight “the reunion of the two lovers,” Claudio and Juliet, while Kahn uses Kate’s shriek to concentrate attention on her delight at her upcoming nuptials. Neither performance makes use of the text’s preoccupation with the financial support of bastards and the damaged but reparable reputations of their mothers.The following projected staging adapts some of the techniques used by Davis and Kahn but gears them towards the expression of the concept of recompense as the motive behind the Duke’s proposal. Near the beginning of the scene, Isabella enters and accuses Angelo of having blackmailed her into giving up her chastity. The Duke, pretending to disbelieve the charges, cries, “To prison with her!” (5.1.124), at which point Isabella is seized by guards and pelted with debris by jeering onlookers, staining her white garment. Isabella continues to wear these tainted robes even after the bed-trick comes to light and Claudio is revealed to be alive. When the Duke turns upon Lucio, announcing that he will be forced to marry the woman “Whom he begot with child,” Kate Keepdown emerges from the crowd and ceremoniously presents the ragged toddler to its father. Approximately ten lines later, Claudio is reunited with Juliet, who in turn hands over his bastard child to him while the Duke orders, “She, Claudio, that you wrong’d, look you restore.” The repetition of this gesture may help indicate to spectators that the enforced marriages at the end of the play are designed by the Duke to recuperate the image of the wronged women and insure that their bastard children have a father to support them. Moments later, Vincentio turns to Isabella to offer his second proposal of matrimony; before speaking, he looks at the other three couples, registering in his own mind the ways in which he has compelled the young men to live up to their responsibilities and therefore how he must, as a just ruler, accept his own. A photo of the Duke’s first proposal accompanying Roger Allam’s essay (p. 39) shows Vincentio and Isabella facing each other a few feet apart. In the background, framed by the two primary figures, Claudio and Juliet share an embrace in which they mutually cradle their newborn child. The placement of the figures in this tableau shows how easily the young couple’s actions can be used to comment visually on the nature of the relationship between the Duke and Isabella. As he wipes the stain from Isabella’s garment, he offers her marriage, a means by which the public acknowledgement of her virtue may be restored. The novice, with no other way to recapture her precious honor, accepts. As with any performance created in the mind of a critic rather than in the theater, there are material problems with this staging that might make it difficult to put into practice (i.e. the staining and wiping clean of Isabella’s gown). I put it forward, however, as an option that other critics and directors might consider and adapt in other, more practical ways (through lighting effects, for example) that I may not have imagined.Such a staging avoids one of the problems that plagues any production of the play that attempts to convince us that the Duke proposes to Isabella out of love: the stark contrast between those couples united by romantic sentiment and those thrust together without reciprocal affection. Much of the historically troubled reaction of critics and theatergoers to the conclusion of Measure for Measure stems from the way in which the juxtaposition of these disparate unions makes the ending in multiple weddings seem inconsistent and forced. As David Bevington writes in his introduction to the play,Of the concluding marriages, two are foisted on the bridegrooms (Angelo and Lucio) against their wills, whereas that of the Duke and Isabella jars oddly with his stoical teachings and with her previous determination to be a nun. The ending thus seems arbitrary; both justice and romantic happiness are so perilously achieved in this play that they seem inconsistent with the injustice and lechery that have prevailed until the last. p. 404.Plainly, if one assumes that matrimony is motivated by mutual desire, the marriages of Angelo and Lucio do not fit this mold, and a blatant disparity arises between those alliances and the “love-matches” obtained by Claudio and the Duke. Furthermore, as Bevington notes, attributing amorous passion to both Vincentio and Isabella at the end of the play clashes with everything the text tells us about them before, which makes us doubt that a sense of “romantic happiness” has been achieved in Vienna. To erase this disparity, I suggest that a production need not strive make the play conform to the conventions of romantic comedy, in which marriage represents the culmination of erotic desire. If one avoids importing the modern notion that a proposal of matrimony necessarily indicates love, one may see how all of the marriages that conclude Measure for Measure are equally rooted in a Renaissance acknowledgement of the need for recompense for sexual crimes, even in the case of Claudio and Juliet, where reciprocal affection also exists. The comic satisfactions that arise from such an ending lie, not in the joyous celebration of romantic love, but in the pleasure we as spectators receive from seeing the men of Vienna, including the Duke, justly accept responsibility for their own deeds.

University Foundation

University FoundationThe presentation I choose to summarize is Greg Gissendanner’s presentation on the university foundation. Like most of the other presentations in class, Greg used the standard outline of presenting the unit’s history, mission, organizational structure, funding and financial concerns, and current issues.
History. Greg showed that while many foundations look fairly similar today, the history of foundation development took on many different forms at different institutions. Greg’s primary examples of Harvard and Rutgers compared stories of how each foundation got its start with early donations (in a foreign currency!) as well as donations of other types – those that we might call in-kind today. These donations of materials and labor were instrumental in getting these two institutions the boost they needed for their continuing growth.
Mission. Greg went on to define a “shared” mission statement of university foundations in general. This shared mission, securing gifts and grants, maximizing donor interest and commitment, and distribution of gifts to the university community, came from five specific mission statements which Greg then shared with the class. These individual mission statements while variable, all seemed to contain this shared definition within them even though they came from a variety of large public institutions. It would have been interesting to compare these with the mission of some smaller publics and also private institutions.
Organizational Structure. Greg used a nice technique to discuss the organization structures of university foundations. Instead of just showing several examples, he asked the class to take a look at two universities which he had outlined some basic characteristics such as enrollment, location, cost of tuition, age of institution and endowment. He then asked us how we thought each of their foundations would be organized. It was a good tactic to make us think about what factors might affect the organization of a foundation and why. He went on to give details and his own explanation of why the foundations were organized the way they were.Greg discussed the three major financial concerns of the foundation. These are building the endowment, the foundation spending policy, and financial and endowment reporting. As would be expected, building the endowment is a very high priority for the foundation (and the university as a whole) as programs can be built and maintained from the interest of the endowment and, logically, the larger the endowment, the more programs that can be supported through this funding source. The spending policy of the foundation is important because it guides how the endowment as well as other funds are spent – especially the rate that they are allowed to be depleted. Lastly, Greg reported that reporting of the foundation’s business is a high priority issue and one that is currently being looked at very closely. Time was devoted specifically to discuss this in light of Iowa State’s recent controversies on reporting what money is being donated for (sole purpose) and who the money comes from (protecting donor anonymity).Current Issues. Greg also shared two other current foundation issues with the class. First, related to the financial issues he discussed, was that development be donor driven rather than need driven. He discussed how the foundation needs to balance this issue carefully because most donors have an intent to their gift, a priority that might not match the current priorities of the university. Second, Greg related that successful fund-raising programs cost more money than they raise. While I have a hard time believing this to be the case, I do see his point that fund raising is more than just dollars and cents but a lot of donor hand holding and attention that does cost the university extra time and money.The reason I chose this presentation to summarize is because I find the foundation to be a very unique and controversial piece of the university. This is shown by the nature of where the foundation fits organizationally within the university. Iowa State is currently working on this touchy subject as it tries to get its foundation further away from the core of the university and treat it as a private entity working in close cooperation rather than actually a part of the university. As you will see in my answer to questions 3 & 4 of this exam, I find this to be just one of the many nuances in the organization of a university and am very interested in the leadership ramifications that these organizational issues present. Greg’s presentation (along with some of the others) helped solidify the concept of higher education as a loosely coupled system in my mind and the fact that anyone who takes a leadership role in this kind of system must be someone who can master many different leadership and management styles.
Question #3. Refer to the paper your wrote related to the leadership exercise. Over the course of the semester, has your thinking about leadership changed or stayed the same? What are the most important things you have learned in this course about leading a post secondary institution? Have you integrated these learning points in your practice? If so, how? If not, why not?Looking back upon the leadership assignment from earlier in the semester, I think I can accurately say that what I wrote about my leadership traits has probably not changed all that much. I still see my strengths and weaknesses to be similar. I still see myself primarily as a servant-leader. What has changed dramatically however is my new understanding of the leadership environment where I put those traits to work developing my own leadership style.The material I have been introduced to throughout this semester has definitely made an impact upon my thinking about leadership, especially leadership in a university setting. Having spent ¾ of my professional career outside of academia, I had some pretty set ways that I thought my leadership and management styles worked. The organizations where I had worked were very hierarchical in nature and while I thought I had evolved very good leadership skills, they really were adapted to that structured environment. I think I spent the first four years here at Iowa State frustrated that the organization (especially the academic side) did not match well with my learned leadership style.While I knew what the problems were before taking this class (how to use my leadership knowledge in an academic and administrative setting), the last 4 months have given me tremendous insight into how I can use some of my leadership tools to work within the academic environment. I no longer feel the need to “change the system” of the loosely coupled university structure, a structure I found difficult up to this point. I now know that the system is not going to change for me but I must do what I can to match my leadership strengths with the academic environment. In fact I now find it a positive challenge to find out more about the detailed workings of the university (a challenge that sometimes has no answers) and to do what I can to make things work to their best (not the “perfect” because there is none) conclusion.Now, instead of feeling inferior about my qualifications on the academic side of the organization, I know what things to work on so I can become a “leader” more in the sense of a peer relationship. I now have a much better understanding of loosely coupled systems, and maybe even more importantly, why the university operates that way and also why this system won’t change very much during my academic career. I have come to a place of acceptance of an institution I knew little about and can now mold my strengths to it rather than the frustration (which would have been lifelong) that I can change the institution (or indeed any part of it) to match my strengths.I feel extremely lucky to be in a position to put this new implementation of leadership style to work right away in a situation I really like and can thrive in. Having a leadership role both in my office and within the Professional and Scientific Council I have put this new knowledge and understanding to work right away. For example, before this semester began, I sometimes had the mindset of the faculty as an adversary, especially during this time of severe budget constraints and an “us (faculty) versus them (P&S staff)” environment that seemed prevalent when looking at budget cuts. Because I was used to a certain way of an organization operating (that of a typical state government hierarchy similar to what can be found on the administrative side of the university) I wanted to see the academic side similarly constrained. Now I have a much better understanding of the system as a whole, not just my own niche, and can see why things are the way they are and how they came to be the way they are. This more balanced approach to working within the university structure is a direct result of ideas discussed this semester. Putting these ideas into a new, internal framework has allowed me to see all areas of the university, including faculty, staff, and students, in a more unified, if loosely unified, perspective. I now also have an enhanced understanding of the rigors of senior administrators who really must possess many leadership traits and know when to use each one for maximum benefit.Question #4. Identify the three most important things you have learned in this course. Why are these things this important to you? Have you integrated these learnings in your practice? If so, how? If not, why not? What didn’t you learn in this course that you plan to pursue in other courses or on your own? Why are these issues of importance to you?Most Important Thing #1 – Loosely Coupled Systems.After the readings and discussions concerning loosely coupled systems my perception of the university changed and things really seemed to fit. It was one of those “light bulb clicks on” moments where things that were frustrating and made little if any sense to me were suddenly more clearly defined and understood. One of those areas was how to be a leader in such an environment as I described in question #3 above. My perception of the university went from “why does it have to be this way – how in the world can I make it fit my understanding of how it should be” to “oh – now I see why it is this way and here are the things I can do to maximize my involvement.”
This understanding was extremely important to me because my position involves coordination of many technological areas of the university, both academic and administrative. Up to that point cooperation and coordination seemed to be something that would be non-existent in certain areas and this seemed to be my own failure to make things happen. So besides the leadership ramifications described above, I finally saw a system wide explanation of why things work the way they do and now have a much better appreciation on how to make things work where possible. I have taken in this new knowledge and applied it not only to my work situation but also in the more political situations of the P&S Council. This new perspective opened up new vistas to where I have a thirst for more detailed workings of the university including the faculty senate and departmental meetings (as an adjunct faculty member).Most Important Thing #2 – Academic versus Administrative Organization.Part of the class discussions that started with loosely coupled systems, chaordic leadership, and the differences of the tightness of structure in different areas of the university led me to a keen interest in the differences of academic and administrative organization within the university. I think I was drawn to this topic because my particular work situation allows me to live in both of these worlds and gives me a first hand look at the similarities and difference of each. In fact, I think this may have been where my frustrations with the internal structure of ISU started from because I was used to the more hierarchical structure of the administrative side and did not have a deep understanding of the chaordic structure of the academic side.Again, through our readings and class discussions, a more true picture developed for me concerning why things work the way they do and what I could do to incorporate what I needed from the system. I have implemented this knowledge so that instead of frustration I now have an appreciation for how the academic side of the university works and indeed have become much more positively involved in it with my home department, Landscape Architecture. I feel I have a much more balanced view of the university and my role and potential roles within it.Most Important Thing #3 – An Overall Picture of Different University Functions.The third most important thing I’ve taken from our class this semester is a much better and well-rounded view of just what this whole thing we call the university is. I knew of most of the units we discussed in class but only had a vague preconception of what each of the areas did and was responsible for. Through our in-depth discussions, readings, role-playing, and presentations I have a much better idea of what these units do, especially those in student affairs and related areas. In fact, it seems like our class was made up of mostly those looking to work in some sort of student affairs environment.This was helpful to me because while having a fairly good feel for academic affairs, I did not know very much at all about the role of student affairs. Learning about these various areas of the university will help me in understanding the bigger picture of the university and how any role I should be part of will affect or be affected by these areas. Just the knowledge of what these areas do has already made me more aware of how the current technology programs I work with can benefit by including them in our planning and communication efforts.Right now it seems there was nothing I didn’t learn in this class, as it was very inclusive. I know that is not the case however because of all the other classes in the curriculum that I have yet to take! In the area of organization and administration that we did cover I will be taking more time to investigate a couple things a bit further because my interest was sparked. These include governance including academic, professional and scientific, and merit; senior administration including specific duties of presidential cabinet level positions; faculty roles and others. These issues are especially important to me as I investigate future career paths within the university and what is available to someone with my experience. While my first priority right now continues to be the path to a chief information officer position, I am also interested in a senior level administration position (other than CIO), or possibly becoming a faculty member. The fun of the Higher Ed program right now is learning much more about how the university operates with almost an insiders point of view toward future possibilities while also being able to implement these new ideas to my current position. I really enjoy the fact that what I am learning now will help me in the future but that I can apply it right now as well.