Analysis Essay

George Orwell’s 1984 Human Nature Essay

George Orwell’s 1984 is a novel which describes utter and total hate- hate of those who are different, hate of evil and hate of all other humans. It is where love is described as absurd, and totally unnecessary. People are bred to hate, and hate is the primary emotion that people feel. The lack of love and kindness is what brings the society to such a complete totalitarian state. Human beings instinctively crave love and care to thrive and without it no one can truly be happy or free. This works well for 1984 because it is a hate driven society, but the lack of love causes unrest with those who can see the importance of love. By seeking out a relationship in this society it is a certain death sentence and no moral conviction or emotional loyalty is strong enough to withstand torture or betrayal. Physical pain and fear will always cause people to betray their convictions if doing so will end their suffering.

It is extremely important for the leaders of this society to control relationships and emotions; the society breeds hatred and disapproves of love in its citizens. There is no way to successfully rebel against this control as the Party surmises. The traitors against the Party belief that love is nonexistent “[imagine] that there is something called human nature which will. . .turn against [the Party]” (Part 3. Ch. 3, Pg. 282). Unfortunately, the Party has created human nature and it despises those who believe they can fight against their control. They utilize torture to suppress loyalties that attempt to surface between rebels. The potential for loving relationships in this society is highly improbable, because of the oppressive rule and the fear of being found out by the Party bosses. The Party knows that love cannot bloom or should not because they govern emotions. It is accepted that “men are infinitely malleable.” (Part 3. Ch. 3, Pg. 282) and no one should be able to feel close to another. The Party allows people to get close perhaps, but then uses torture to have them betray each other- which is what will ultimately tear people apart. No one can allow themselves a relationship ruined by betrayal.

Not only does the Party make romantic loyalties a crime, it also creates loveless familial relations. Children in families do not show love or affection towards their parents. They are taught by the Party to spy on their mothers and fathers; to be miniature investigators for treason. The society has become one where “it was almost normal for people. . . to be frightened of their own children. (Part 1, Ch. 2, Pg. 27) The Party creates a system where children who betray their families are rewarded and so mothers cannot show any love towards their children without fearing treason- which would result in torture. No family can be close to each other as families of the past- everyone has reason to be afraid of each other and worry that they may be turned in by their offspring. A family is not an organism strong enough to bond together without fear of conviction. The Party creates spies in youth, who are afraid of what will happen to them if they do not obey the Party. No longer do families create the rules and impose authority- it is the government that raises children, and families must become terrified of their own progeny.

The most important aspect of human nature is that people can bond with each other to create loving relationships. One must find someone to fight with, to rebel against the oppression but in this society any thought of love is shadowed by the knowledge that everyone could be able to betray everybody. The Party does not permit emotional attachment and threats of torture affix themselves to any relationship- if someone loves someone, might the object of their affection just as easily be a spy than a lover? No one can honestly maintain a relationship under the pressure of the Party. In the end, betrayal is the only way to go and it overcomes even the basic human instinct to seek out love. It ends up that eventually love does not conquer all and one can only love their saviour- even if they are Party commanders. Romantic love is an ideal that cannot prevail because it is slowly bred into the hearts and minds of the rebels that this love will only end in misery. The once loving will turn into bitter misers and betray whomever that they believe put them in the torture chamber. Love may be worth “risking everything for” (Erica Jong) but unfortunately what happens in the end is that “you don’t risk anything, [and find yourself risking even more]” (Erica Jong). And by risking everything it is an admittance to die. Love and loyalty are not strong enough factors in this society- betrayal is, and by this betrayal one accepts condemnation to die.

Love and emotional attachments, the underlying components of human nature, lead one to fear pain and betrayal, as well as separation, ultimately causing one to accept the oppression and fear that allows the Party to thrive. In this society to survive one cannot allow a relationship to be formed. One must be solitary and isolated because it is necessary to have love, yet it is fatalistic to seek it out. Love has become a tool for the Party to manipulate. Human nature demands that families are loving and kind; that a couple can spend time together and that love should freely abound in a society. Yet, human nature is controlled and to love is to fear the torture and threats from the Party. Love is betrayal and human nature is to fight against this betrayal. People may wish to have relations with each other, yet the ultimate realization that comes from the novel is that no emotional ties or moral convictions are able to withstand extreme suffering.

School Uniforms – persuasive essay This is a persuasive essay on why kids should/shouldn’t have school uniforms.

In 1996 President Bill Clinton promotes a dress code following his demand for school uniforms. This is when school uniforms became the “hype” of the nation. That is also when many people came to the conclusion in their own minds that school uniforms should come to affect, which is because it SHOULD take affect!In 1999 two armed students killed 13 people within class coarse. Those two boys were able to bring in weapons because they had long, baggy clothes on which hid the weapons. This made the nation thinks highly of protecting schools and school uniforms/dress codes. (Cruz 14) This is also an example of why school uniforms should take affect.

Then in 2001 the case of Teshana Byers et al v. City of Waterbury et al. took place. This was about a girl (Teshana Byers) who wore baggy clothes to school. The school accused her of hiding drugs and weapons in her baggy clothes. (School Uniforms) This could have been a big potential harm to her school. But the City of Waterbury ended up winning. Once again this is an example of why school uniforms should take affect in order to make schools safer. (Brunsma 25)Although many school districts think that uniforms and dress codes should apply, most students disagree. “Students across the nation DO NOT like school uniforms.” (Cruz 22) But the students do not understand that school uniforms are for their own safety. Most students also do not know the potential harm regular clothes could bring to school. And almost every student believes that school uniforms violate the freedom of expression, but it doesn’t because if those students want to enroll at that school they have to listen to the rules. (School)This “situation” is not just happening in America, but it is also happening around the world, such as Iran! Iran has dress codes for girl students. Their dress codes are that girl students must wear bright and peppy colors. The students must wear bright, happy, and peppy colors because studies have shown that those colors can improve psychological health. (“Iran”) Those studies also affect America’s school dress codes. If you look at most uniforms at schools, they are bright and happy, not dark and boring. This is because the schools want to improve psychological health. (Kelly)Over the years many people have been debating over school dress codes and school uniforms. Some people say that school uniforms would save parents money. But then some people would reply to that statement and say that uniforms wouldn’t save parents money because parents would still have to buy clothes for after school and weekends. Those uniforms may cost a family more money, but they ensure the safety of the students. (Meg)Both sides of the argument are pretty reasonable, because they both have reasons to back up their statements. But school uniforms keeps kids safe and protected and that is what schools need the most! So even though uniforms may be a pain to students and parents… the uniforms still keep students safe emotionally and physically.

A Creative Research paper on Abortion

On a Monday morning, about two years ago, a boy named Joseph woke up and got ready for school just like any other day, but little did he know his life was about to change. That day while he was at school he saw his girlfriend Jennifer like he did every other day, this time she had a strange look on her face and said, “Joseph we need to talk after school.” So, two o’clock came around and the bell rang for school to let out. Joseph went and found Jennifer so they could walk home together and talk. As they started to walk Jennifer said, “I think we should sit down to talk.” As they sat down Jennifer began to cry and put her hands on her face. Joseph asked, “What’s wrong baby.” She responded, “I’m pregnant.” She told him that she wanted to keep the baby, but he didn’t want to. He did not want to have a kid at sixteen and ruin his life but there was nothing he could do because only a woman can choose to have an abortion. So he finally decided to agree with her since she was going to have the baby either way. So he went to talk to her about what they were going to do once the baby was born, but she said she was going to make all the decisions about the baby without him. Now she would get to decide whether to keep the baby after it was born or put it up for adoption and Joseph once again could not do anything.

Nine months later the baby was born and Jennifer decided to put the baby up for adoption. For that Joseph could not forgive her no matter how much he loved her. This devastated him physically and mentally. For months he just sat in his room alone and cried wishing he could have done something. He never tried in school anymore, causing his grades to drop severely, and eventually dropped out. He no longer had trust in anyone, and did not date for more than 2 years after that. His entire life was changed because he had no reproductive rights.

Some people say that all this could be prevented by having the male where a condom during intercourse, but condoms are not 100 percent effective. These people also say when the condom is ineffective and a girl gets pregnant she should get to make all the decisions. Also strong feminists feel that the morning after pill is wrong because it is stopping a baby that would be conceived from ever making it that far. First she gets to decide whether or not to have an abortion. Then she gets to decide whether to keep the baby or put it up for adoption. According to them women should get to decide because she has to carry the baby and women are more nurturing than men. So, if the girl wants to she can choose not to let the father have a voice in any of her decisions.

When some people talk about abortions they refer to it as “the right to choose.” “The right to choose” just means that a woman has the right to choose whether or not to keep a baby. An abortion is the killing of a fetus medically. The term pro-choice refers to people who believe that women should be able to get abortions, while pro-life refers to people who are against abortions.

When people think of the word abortion they think of a woman’s choice to have a baby or not, but two people should be involved in this decision. If women can choose whether or not to have babies, so should men. Men should have an equal part in the decision making about abortions because it is sexist for them not too, it affects both people, and it could affect the child’s life. After the child is born it is harder for the male to get custody of the child over the mother. The mother can also put her baby up for adoption with out the consent of the father. Men must have the same reproductive rights as women or no longer be obligated to father the baby.

When it comes to reproductive rights, women have all the power, while men have none. If feminists really believe in equality, then they must agree that the power must be shared equally among both men and women. One out of every four children is born out of wedlock. While 1.6 million women have an abortion and decline parenthood each year, half a million men have their paternities established in court. About 33 percent of births may be unintended according to fathers. Men have been treated as an under class without reproductive rights. Denying men reproductive rights is humiliating, oppressive, and offensive to the basic principles of human dignity.

Men are entitled to as much reproductive “choice” as women, and should be allowed to terminate their paternal rights and responsibilities under the same conditions governing women’s rights to terminate their pregnancies. Unplanned fatherhood can completely disrupt a man’s life. It disrupts his education, mental health, and entire family life. Psychological harm and heartbreak may result along with that his mental and physical health may suffer. For example a twenty five year old man got is twenty year old girlfriend pregnant. She said she was going to have the baby, but then she decided to have an abortion without telling him. After that happened he didn’t date anyone for over a year and lost all interest in sex. The unwanted child may also suffer distress. And the man involved may have to carry a social stigma as a result of being an unmarried father.

Unlike Feminists, advocates of choice for men seldom assert a man’s right to terminate is absolute. They just advocate that the decision as to whether a particular man will terminate his parental rights and responsibilities is a decision that should be made by that man, in the same way a woman decides whether she is going to have an abortion. Although, this position is not without ethical problems, what is a child going to feel like when it grows up and finds its own father disowned and rejected it? In the case of an abortion, at least the child is dead and does not know that it has been rejected and killed. On the other hand, at least the child whose father has exercised his “choice” is still alive. The pro-choice groups favor choice as long as it’s for women, only. When it comes to men, they use the same arguments that the pro-life lobby does. This demonstrates their hypocrisy. They say women must have choice as to what to do with their own fertility, but men have no rights except to pay for the choices women make. If a woman signs an abortion form, then she has robbed the father of his child, whose existence he may not even have been aware of. If she does not sign an abortion form, then he is saddled with a child whom he has to bring up, or whose upkeep he has to pay for. While all along he may have thought she was infertile or protected by contraception. Also while the man does make a fifty percent contribution to conceive a child, he should be absolved of his responsibilities if he has no decision making power. Such is the dominance women have over western society that their rights override the rights of both unborn children and fathers. The Feminist slogan “her body, her choice” is so widely accepted that anything inside her is hers to do with as she likes. This ignores the fact that a fetus is only inside her body because a man helped put it there. That man has rights over the fetus as well. After all, there is no widely available alternative at present for a man who wants to have his own natural children he has to persuade a woman to bear it for him.

The father may have strong views as to whether he wants the child to be born or not, and they should be taken into account. After all, once the child is born the father may well be obliged to rear it, make payments to the mother in cases of separation or divorce, have some of his estate go to it when he dies, and so on. Simply put, it is inequitable for the mother to have the unilateral right to decide whether to thrust these duties and liabilities on the father.

There is a very strong resemblance between reproductive rights and an old Roman family law. In Ancient Rome, the father was head of the household, and had power of life and death over his slaves, and also over his other people, such as his children and his wife. If this was still in effect today it would be widely viewed with moral outrage. But, the reproductive rights of mothers are almost the same as that old Roman law. Mothers have the power to choose whether their child lives or dies, while men have no say in it. Mothers also have the ability to force a man to pay child support for eighteen years to take care of a child he will never see.

When the word abortion comes up people need to think of men and women. Men should get to help in the decision of whether or not to have a baby when there is an unplanned pregnancy. Also after a baby is born men should get to help decide what to do with the baby. If the mother wants to put the baby up for adoption the father should be able to take the baby if he wants. Men should have equal rights in every decision made involving having a baby, or they should have the choice to no longer be obligated to caring for the baby.

The Causes of Terror

Throughout the history of this world, numerous differences have occurred, within ethnicity, cultures, religions, and philosophies. There are contradictions, similarly as there are agreements. There are similarities, there are differences. People, tribes and nations have been defined by their traditions and cultures, but cultures have not always produced such a positive effect. Many cultures have subconsciously indoctrinated a simple, yet multifaceted theology of hate and bias. More prejudice than actual hate. People are taught to associate with one kind, and to fear others. Terror is an emotional feeling of extreme fear, generally caused by another person holding power, naiveness, and the use of force toward another person.

In Martin Luther King Jr’s Letter from Birmingham Jail he strongly supports his belief, it is important to establish hope for those in need and fear to those who suppress the idea of equality for all humans. King address the fear that the blacks endure in the following sentence, “Where you are hurried by day and haunted by night by the fact that you are a Negro, living constantly at tiptoe pace” (King 218.) He describes how they must always be aware of what might happen to them or their families. King also addresses fear when describing the blacks at a speed that they should not take. They feel obligated to let the white people go first in line, sit in the back of the bus and give their seats up to the white, and not make quick movements because of the fear that they would be lashed out against. “We stiffly creep at horse and buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter” (King 220.) They fear the punishment, therefor in result, they obey the rules the society has set up regarding the whites and the blacks despite how cruel and unfair they might be.

Yet, according to Machiavelli in his essay The Qualities of the Prince the most important quality a Prince needs is the capability to establish fear. He believes that it is better to be feared than loved and safer as well (Machiavelli 47.) However, being feared is not the same thing as being hated. “Not to be hated or despised by the body of his subjects, is one of the surest safeguards that a Prince can have against conspiracy” (Machiavelli 42.) The prince must be in control and have followers. When one person fears the prince, it will start a chain reaction.

Additionally, Plato, a western philosopher primarily concerned with the nature of perception, believes despite the time period everyone at some point will experience fear, pressure, happiness, and learn to adapt to ones surroundings. In his essay Allegory of the Cave, Plato provides a basic understanding that while or after we educate ourselves, and experience things for ourselves. It is then our obligation to help others become educated. If given advice from one who has already experienced something it is more believable than someone with no experience. Plato describes this experience as coming out of the cave and into the light (Plato 451). Compare Plato’s cave to a person’s childhood. Someone who is constantly at home, not experiencing life could be considered being in the cave. And coming into the light would be the college life/ adulthood solely because it is a whole new world that one eventually learns to adjust to. The Fear of change in this essay is represented by the prisoners angry reaction towards the freed, enlightened prisoner. This in a way resembles my life because I just came out of the cave by entering into the college life. While in middle and high school I became accustomed to these daily routines and always having the support of my parents. This lifestyle I have been living can be compared to the cave. The decision of whether or not I wanted to attend college was solely based upon me. I decided to see the light on my own instead of being afraid to leave the protected cave. It is my obligation, according to Plato’s philosophy to share my college experience with others as an attempt to help them see the light on their own and aid them in the right direction for experiencing things for themselves. If I chose not to go to college, I would be naive of what it is like, I wouldn’t know of anything else. In Plato’s philosophy, the people who don’t come out of the cave and see the light know nothing else besides what is being told to them they are naive of the fact there is life outside the cave.

Furthermore, from Machiavelli’s essay, “A prince must not worry about the reproach of cruelty when it is a matter of keeping his subjects united and loyal” (Machiavelli 39.) When executing cruelty onto others and admonishing mercy, it is important that the conditions create a sense that will avoid hatred from the people. The bases of terror is to maintain this balance. In the basic principals of totalitarianism, terror is the use of force to make its will and movement on the population. According to Hannah Arendt in her essay Total Domination, “In the fundamental belief of totalitarianism that everything is possible is being verified” (Arendt 124.) It is the ultimate problem to the enemy state and is “the essence of the total government” (Arendt 129.)

So what are the causes of terror? There are many factors that causes terror. For example many people might fear someone else holding power and follow their rules and expectations such as King and Machiavelli demonstrated in A Letter From Birmingham Jail and The Prince. Naiveness might cause fear because you don’t know what else is out there, and you fear the unknown, as Plato stated in The Allegory of the Cave. Lastly, as Arendt stated in Total Domination, the use of force causes fear because its a change for the whole population.

The Negative Effects of Television

In the argumentative essay “T.V. Addiction” by Marie Winn, Winn relates watching television to having an addiction with drugs and alcohol. The television experience allows us to escape from the real world and enter into a pleasurable and peaceful mental state. When it comes to television, Marie asks the following question: Is there a kind of television viewing that falls into the more serious category of destruction addiction? To my perspective, I think there is. If you think about it, why do so many people watch so many hours of television and instead of doing what they’re supposed to be doing, they put everything else on hold and just focus on television? I think this is because they want and or need an escape from their problems or just need to clear their minds. In my opinion, I agree with Marie Winn 100%, and I think she does have a valid point. Television is a major addition in society and people are so blind-sighted by it that they don’t even realize that they’re being hypnotized into a trance. Television is brainwashing the minds of everyone, and there is no stop to it. It’s mainly up to the person who is watching the television to decide to turn it off, without having any regrets about it. According to Jerry Mander’s book, For Arguments for the Elimination of Television, Mander describes how many excessive television watchers described the experience of sitting in front of the television (Chapter 8). Listed below are some of the descriptions:
• “ I feel hypnotized when I watch television.”
• “Television sucks my energy.”
• “I feel like it’s brainwashing me.”
• “ I feel like a vegetable when I’m stuck there at the television.”
• “Television spaces me out.”
• “Television is an addiction and I’m an addict.”
• “My kids look like zombies when they’re watching.”
• “TV is destroying my mind.”
• “Television is turning my mind into mush.”
• “I feel mesmerized by it.”
• “If a television is on, I just can’t keep my eyes off it.”

Anyone who has spent a significant amount of time watching television would be able to relate with some, if not all of these statements. Based on these responses, Mander proved the following: The people who described themselves as being “spaced out” said that television helped them forget about their busy lives. Some people found television relaxing because it helped them forget about the world. Others who used the terms “brainwashed” or “addicted,” felt that television provided them with good information and entertainment. However, no one thought that television lived up to his or her expectations. In chapter 16 of For Arguments for the Elimination of Television, the chapter shows how people form poor judgments when watching television. Some of these judgments are as follows:
• Death is more important than life.
• War is more interesting than peace.
• Raw materials are more interesting than natural environment materials.
• Hierarchy is more interesting than democracy.
• Lust is more interesting than satisfaction.
• Quantity is more interesting than quality.

Television offers neither rest nor stimulation. In the book Mander quoted: “Television inhibits your ability to think, but it does not lead to freedom of the mind, relaxation or renewal. It leads to a more exhausted mind. That’s as far as television goes with the human mind.” The worst part about television is that the mind is never empty. The mind is always filled with someone else’s obsessive thoughts and images. According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, American children and adults spend 22-28 hours per week viewing television, more than any other activity except sleeping. By the age of 70 they will have spent 7-10 years of their lives watching television. Television programs, commercials, news reports, and talk shows are all designed toward blind acceptance by the viewer. Mainly because if you see it with your own eyes, then it must be true and real. To society, flashing images on a video screen is considered reality inside a box. What’s the matter with our modern technologically based society anyway? Why isn’t it more satisfying? Why do so many of us now feel that television makes us into something less than we should be? Do we really use television—or does it use us? While watching television, the viewer is not seeing the world as it is. Television is known as a way of influencing people either positively or negatively. Most of the time, when people watch television, it is usually for entertainment and educational purposes. However, when it comes to violence on television, that’s when things really become negative. In fact, the reason why society is mostly violent is because of the media. According to statistics, a child’s risk of getting involved in violent acts increases when they are exposed to violence on television. Children tend to mimic what they see or even hear on television. Children tend to mimic their role model or a famous person that they idolize. Also, if a child has parents who neglect him/her chances are most likely that violent behavior would most likely increase with that child because that child wasn’t taught how to act in society and wasn’t taught how they should present themselves amongst others. Boys have more of a tendency to be affected by bad television than girls do. Violence in the media is a very popular topic in society. In fact, it’s so popular that a lot of people especially children have easy access to it. Both boys and girls who tend to watch a lot of violence on television have a huge risk of aggressive behavior when they become adults, such as spouse abuse and criminal offenses. The way people act as children is how they most likely are going to be when they get older, because people act based on the environment that they were raised in. People watch an average of 3-4 hours of television everyday, and everyday people are being influenced in ways that shape their behavior. Since most television programs today consist of violence, studies show that this has negatively affected some children and teenagers. Some of those negative effects are as follows: becoming immune to the horror of violence, accepting violence as a way to solve problems, imitating the violence they see on television, and become like the negative characters that they see on television. Frequently watching violence on television can cause people to become more aggressive. In certain cases, watching just one violent program can increase toughness especially if violence seems to be very realistic or repeated often. Violent television causes children to behave more aggressively with their peers because television tends to provide programs with offensive language and violent actions. There are many ways that parents could protect their kids from being exposed to frequent violence. Some of these ways are as follows: parents should pay more attention to the programs that their children watch, set limits on the amount of time children watch television, refuse to let their children see shows that are violent, change or block the channel if something inappropriate comes up, etc. Television is a form of media that has great power to influence yet brainwash society into doing stupid things, such as violence. Practically everyday people fall in a trance because watching violence on television influences violence to either start or continue. Statistics show that television is considered to be the form of media that influences shaping ideas of sex roles the most. Television, is shown to have a tremendous impact on the lives of children. Studies show that children who are in preschool spend approximately 30 hours a week watching television. Statistics also show that children spend more time watching television than they spend on anything else except sleeping. Research has shown by the time children are sixteen years old, they spent more time watching television than going to school. Television in the home is the greatest source of visual violence for children. Children are exposed to 20,000 advertisements a year. The average child watches 8,000 televised murders and 100,000 acts of violence before finishing elementary school. By the time children graduate from high school, those numbers more than doubles. Furthermore, television is shown to influence attitudes about race and gender. Pro-social and anti-social behaviors are influenced by television. Even though violence is apart of our lives, I think society can limit the amount of violent programs that they watch. If people limit watching violence on television maybe the world wouldn’t be as involved with violence as it is now. Based on this data, I have concluded that Marie Winn is correct about television being a serious addiction. Bibliography Mander, Jerry For Arguments for the Elimination of Television. New York: Quill, 1978.

College Essay

It was a gloomy day anyway so I did not mind being home sick, I only wish they would show some television programs worth watching. So I did what I normally did, channel surfed. My choices seemed to be soap operas, children’s programs, of talk shows; I decided to go with the talk show. They brought out their favorite stars from some up coming Elizabethan movie; it seemed to be the same old thing, “how have you been, have you lost wait?” “Thanks your looking lovely as ever.” They started to talk about all the costumes they wore during the filming, and showed a few clips. I was stuck on the intricate beading and ruffle design. The next guest on the talk show was the costume designer herself. I guess I had never really given it much thought before that where garments came from. I am not sure what I assumed but it never accrued to me that people went to school to become fashion designers.

As a child, I had always loved art classes. In kindergarten, my parents left it up to me to decide whether I wanted to attend both morning and afternoon kindergarten. On the down side the long day of school would mean and nap, put on the plus side it meant twice the art classes. I considered my options closely and went with the long day of kindergarten. All throughout my schooling I would always look forward to the days, we had art class. It did not matter to me what we were making, as long as I got to do something. The doors to the art room were almost magical to me. As soon as I walked through them nothing else mattered, the fact that the boys were teasing me and I defiantly just bombed that spelling test were forgotten. Although at the time I saw not art in my future, I still enjoyed it. See at the time I was still daddy’s little girl and wanted to be just like him, a computer engineer.

By the time high school, came around I was still daddy’s little computer geek, but art was my second favorite. The art room, though cold, has these amazing windows; they must be ten feet wide and 16 feet high. The art building is actually the old boys basketball gym, so the natural light that comes in that room is perfect. Sophomore year it hit me, I hate computers. Why would I subject myself to a lifetime of something I hate anyway? I spent the first term of junior year aboard a sailing vessel by the name of “The Spirit of Massachusetts” myself and nineteen of my classmates sailed her from Fairhaven Massachusetts to Puerto Rico on an ocean classroom program. Not a computer in site. During those two months I did a lot of growing up, I determined the difference of want and need. I realized that I wanted to please my father by following in his footsteps, but I needed to please myself. Those moments I could find to myself, were all hands were not called to deck, and I was not on watch, I would sketch and paint in my journal. I realized that no matter what if I was going to please myself I would have to in some field of art throughout my life. When the trip ended, I was thankful for being given the opportunity and the tools to sort that part of my life out. What took me two months to sail to me six hours to fly home for thanksgiving.

During thanksgiving break, I received e-mail from my college counselor; reminding me that my summer homework was to pick out some colleges, I was interested. I panicked and complained that it wasn’t fair to make a seventeen year old deiced what she wanted to do with the rest of her life in a one-week period. Well I knew I wanted art so Rohde Island School of Design was on my list right away. While doing a back to school shopping trip, for clothing of course, I found myself saying, “I wish this skirt were a little longer and a darker blue.” “Why aren’t store showing cowl neck sweaters this year?” “If I were in charge these close would be much better.” That was it, I realized that I could be in charge, I could become a fashion designer and create the clothes that I wanted to see, and that I knew people would want to wear. After the shopping trip ended, I continued my college research on the Internet. While looking at a school called Pratt Institute, their page was advertising a summer program for high school juniors. I realized that this would be the perfect way to make sure that fashion design and art school was for me.

For the first time in my life, I was not pressing the snooze button on my alarm clock. I would rush to class to get the best seat. I enjoyed each and ever assignment. In addition, as soon as the academic day was over I would head back to my dorm room and start on the assignment. We learned about the fashion figure, and how to deal with fabric salesmen. Each week we had a specific collection due. I loved every minute of it. Moreover, I knew during those four weeks in New York that fashion design was what I wanted to do for the rest of my life; I finally found what makes me happy.

I hope to continue that joy I found this summer at an art college such as Rohde Island School of Design. I want to wake up every morning with excitement for what the day has to offer to me. I want to engage myself in every opportunity, and use all the tools that the school has to offer to further my education in art. I hope to take as many classes as possible to push myself to achieve my own personal greatness. I want to find the limits I have today and blow them away by the end of my four years.

Now I lay awake in bed at night, dreaming of how my fashion shows are going to go. I want to do one summer season like a ballet, and have all my models be ballerinas dancing down the runway in Pointe shoes.

A Comparison and Contrast Essay Between the Book A Child Called It, by Dave Pelzer, and Three Other Articles on Child Abuse and Neglect.

The book, A Child Called It, by Dave Pelzer is an astonishing inside look at the life of an abused and neglected child. His journey allows the reader to see a horrible situation through the eyes of a helpless child, and has a profound impact on the emotions of his audience. After reading this book I felt compelled to read a bit more about the subject of child abuse and neglect. I have reviewed three different articles, which can be compared and contrasted with the writings of Pelzer. The articles that I read covered topics such as attachment styles and aggression in children who are abused, child maltreatment as a precursor to peer rejection, and the importance of neighborhood-based child neglect reporting. Each one of these articles touched upon topics that were significant issues in Dave Pelzer’s story.

The first of the articles that I read, entitled “Attachment Styles and Aggression in Physically Abused and Neglected Children.”, dealt with the issue of increased aggression and development of a healthy attachment style in children who are victims of child abuse and neglect. The results of study that was conducted indicate that the tendency toward physical aggression is significantly increased in physically abused children. “According to a model positing aggression as a mediator between maltreatment and peer rejection, experiencing maltreatment leads children to become more aggressive, and their aggressive behavior in turn causes them to be disliked and rejected by peers.” (Bolger 550). The model of social conflict resolution, which is displayed to the child through the parent, is a template that the child uses in their future social conflicts. They have learned

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to solve problems through physical violence or force, and use this method in their own social interactions. This theory, though it holds water as indicated by the empirical data, is a contrast to the situation of Dave Pelzer in his book. Dave was a more timid personality, who experienced peer rejection and underwent severe bullying. Dave’s reaction is touched upon in another side of this theory, which is more commonly associated with neglected children. Rather than increased aggression, these children experience increased social withdrawal. The model of social interaction that the parents have displayed is insufficient for the development of secure attachment and functioning in a social context for the child. According to this article, “Chronically maltreated children are likely to have had fewer opportunities to observe and experience empathy and responsiveness in their interactions with parents, which could impede their ability to develop pro-social skills such as helping, sharing, and cooperation.” (Bolger 551). In his book for instance, Pelzer recalls numerous occasions in which he was ignored, ostracized, and humiliated by his peers. Pelzer began to believe that no one cared about him and that he was better off dead. There were even instances when Dave states that he was allowed to play with the other children and chose not to. Even when faced with the opportunity to interact with his peers, he withdrawals of his own volition, because he is used to being alone and has become accustomed to this way of life. “On the way home from the bowling alley, Mom stopped at a grocery store and bought each of us a toy top. When we got home, Mom said I could play outside with the other boys, but I took the toy top to the corner of the master bedroom and played by myself.” (Pelzer 124). This act is what the article refers to as social withdrawal. Dave has accepted the fact that he will never be an

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equal, and he gives up trying. Hence, as supported by the results of the study, Dave’s social withdrawal can be traced back to his child maltreatment.

The second article that I read, entitled “Developmental Pathways from Child Maltreatment to Peer Rejection.”, dealt with the issue of child maltreatment as a precursor to peer rejection. It’s really a “which came first, the chicken or the egg?” kind of a situation. Does the social withdrawal cause the peer rejection?, or does the peer rejection cause the social withdrawal? This article defines physical abuse as “acts of commission”, or using excessive force beyond normal discipline, and child neglect as “acts of omission”, or failing to meet the emotional and nutritional needs of the child. Dave Pelzer was a victim of both types of abuse. Not only did he not receive adequate nutrition and emotional support, he was physically tortured. Cleanliness, a concept most take for granted, was not a luxury that Dave was provided with in his youth. In fact, his childhood nickname was “Pelzer-Smellzer”. Pelzer recalls, “Aggie’s mother taught my fourth-grade home-room, and on the last day of school Aggie came into our room acting as though she were throwing up and said “David Pelzer-Smellzer is going to be in my homeroom next year.” Her day was not complete until she fired off a rude remark about me to her friends.” (Pelzer 138). The word play used in this nickname indicates that the children disliked Dave, at least on one account, because of the way that he smelled. Body odor is an incurable problem for Dave because his it is undeniably a result of his lack of hygiene care that he receives at home. Thus, the results of the study support the idea that Dave’s peer rejection can be traced back to his mother’s “acts of omission”, in this case a nice shower with soap. The article also discussed the topic of attachment

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styles. “…the physically abused children were significantly characterized by the avoidant attachment style and manifested significantly higher levels of aggression, and the neglected children were significantly characterized with the anxious or ambivalent attachment style.” (Har-Even 769). This theory is supported by Pelzer’s writings in that he displays many of the symptoms of a neglected child. The article states that neglected children are anxious, socially withdrawn, unpopular, posses little social competence are more dependent and have a blunt affect. All of these symptoms are prevalent throughout the story of David Pelzer. He writes about his mutual love and hate for his father, how he doesn’t care about life anymore, he stresses that he has no friends and he is constantly anxious, waiting for the torment to begin around every corner. Unfortunately, David Pelzer is like the poster child for neglected children.

The third article that I read, entitled “The Role of Neighbors and the Government in Neighborhood-based Child Protection”, dealt with the issue of neighborhood-based reporting of child abuse. The article touched on the many different issues that a perspective child neglect reporter must deal with. Dave writes about so many people who failed him by not reporting his situation to someone who could help. Teachers, the school nurse, his mother’s friend Shirley, the friends of his brothers, and the neighbors on their street who never saw him outside; they all had the power to intervene, but lacked the courage. “Mother rarely spent much time with the neighbors, so it was not natural for her when she and Shirley became friends…..Shirley asked Mother why David was not allowed to play with the other children. She as also curious why David was punished so often……In time, the relationship between Shirley and Mother became strained…Mother

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ran around the house calling her a bitch.” (Pelzer 123). The article discusses the reluctances of neighbors in a potential report situation. They know that if they turn this person in for child neglect, and they are set free, they will have to remain living next to that person for the rest of their lives. “…whether or not neighbors would report child maltreatment was tempered by two primary concerns. The first was the neighbors would be angry or upset, putting a strain on daily living and harmony in the neighborhood…..the second was that the neighbor might report them in retaliation….they could end up being wrongly accused, and risk losing their own children.” (Coulton 166). It is a situation that a lot of people are hesitant to become involved in, and perhaps this is the same reason that Dave was left to fend for himself for so many years. If any one of these people had taken that step to help Dave, he may have had a few extra years of his youth returned to him.

David Pelzer is a success story because he was one of the lucky survivors of child abuse who could get therapy, deal with his childhood issues, and begin to lead a normal and successful life. Many victims of child abuse and neglect are not as fortunate to have a happy ending to their story. That is why it is important for us, as advocates for social welfare, to learn the signs, symptoms and repercussions of child maltreatment. Peer rejection, and avoidant or ambivalent attachment styles are some of the proven indicators of potential child maltreatment. Mandated reporters, friends and neighbors should learn to recognize these indicators, and attempt to determine if action is necessary. Once we are able to identify the problem, we can then take the steps to combat it. We have learned

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that there are risks involved, but surely the long-term benefits would far outweigh the consequences.

This is a presuasive essay on Capital Punishment. This essay has a pro-capital punishment stance. Argues against common statements used to challenge the death penalty.

Capital punishment is a difficult issue to address and has been the subject of highly controversial debates over the decades. The United States Supreme Court decided in Furman v. Georgia that the death penalty was a form of cruel and unusual punishment. However, just three years later in 1975, the Supreme Court reversed their decision, and executions resumed under state regulation. The death penalty is considered the harshest from of punishment enforced today. The most common method used to implement this task is lethal injection; although, the electric chair is still used in some states. The large debate over the death penalty comes from liberal fanatics who use deception and falsehoods to further their cause.

Supporters of the death penalty consider capital punishment the only way for true justice to be executed for the severest of crimes. Supporters also claim criminals that commit such harsh crimes, including murder and rape, deserve to be punished to the fullest extent of the law. Preventing future crimes and deterring criminals from committing such harsh acts also play key roles in support of the death penalty. Concrete proof of deterrence alone is not a valid reason for capital punishment, nor is it the underlying principle in use by astute death penalty advocates. Criminals ought to be punished for their crimes committed and not merely to deter others. That said however, the death penalty unquestionably “deters” the murderer who is executed. Strictly speaking, this is a form of incapacitation; similar to the way a robber put in prison is prevented from robbing on the streets. Vicious murderers must be eliminated to prevent them from murdering again, either in prison, or in society if they should get out. Both as a deterrent and as a form of permanent incapacitation, the death penalty helps to prevent future crime.

The argument against capital punishment relies on myth, propaganda, and misplaced emotion. Many people against the death sentence claim that the justice system is discriminatory. This statement is blatantly false. African-Americans and other minorities are not impacted unfairly by the justice system. The fact of the matter is the majority of those executed since 1976 have been Caucasian males. If the death penalty is truly discriminatory, then it is biased against white murderers and not blacks, because figures show that African-Americans make up a majority of those convicted of murder. According to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, blacks committed 51.5% of murders between 1976 and 1999, while whites committed 46.5%. The latest of hate crime laws are likely to only exacerbate the hypocrisy. A “hate crimes” frame of mind translates into tougher sentences for interracial crimes. Since Caucasians are killed by African-Americans 2.6 times more often then the other way around, more killers of Caucasians will be predisposed to receiving the death penalty.Finances are also argued frequently on the topic of capital punishment. “It costs more to execute a person than to keep him or her in prison for life. A 1993 California study argues that each death penalty case costs at least $1.25 million more than a regular murder case and a sentence of life without the possibility of parole” (Deathpenalty.org). This statement deserves no response, because the figures are not perfect, and are dubious at best. Nevermind the fact that justice should not be up for sale. Serving justice is not about saving money, and should not be treated as if it were an item being contracted, trying to get the “lowest bid.”Retribution is an additional reason for capital punishment, which some opponents of capital punishment confuse with vengeance. As a sound principle of natural law and common sense, the punishment should fit the crime. For example, if someone had been convicted of the assassination of the president, and the judge had sentenced him or her to only five years in prison, the nation would have been properly outraged. Having a fit punishment for the crime committed has been around since the beginning of civilization. Hammurabi’s Code of Law, developed long before the birth of Christ, claims retribution as, “an eye for an eye, life for a life”. Retribution makes capital punishment justifiable because it is an injustice to tolerate such unimaginable horror.If one commits a crime, he or she should be ready to accept the consequences. Murder is a crime that involves the loss of innocent life, and that act needs to be rightly punished. Murderers should not receive an overextended welcome in a prison. Those who commit these serious offenses do not belong in society. Realistically there is no solid argument against the death penalty. If society were to take capital punishment away, the public would not have an effective justice system and crimes against innocent people would continue. Opponents of the death sentence need to accept the fact that capital punishment is fair and just. Using lies and deceit will only go so far. The people of this country are smart enough to realize the difference between fact and fiction, and the truth is capital punishment works.

Discursive Essay on Whether the Fashion World Causes Eating Disorders.

Is it fashionable to be so skinny you’re ribs stick out? How far is too far to go for fashion? Is it beautiful to starve yourself? Studies have shown that girls as young as 8 are dieting or have tried to diet. This short essay will, look at the two main illnesses of anorexia and bulimia, and also have a look at some examples from the media, where fashion inadvertently causes these illnesses in youths. Firstly, the two main disorders are anorexia and bulimia.

Anorexia is an eating disorder, which mostly affects girls in puberty, although men and boys can be affected by it as well. If you have anorexia you become obsessed with your weight and refuse to eat. You can become obsessed with exercise, become very weak and unable to concentrate and the simplest tasks become impossible. Sufferers usually lose 15% of there weight. People suffering from anorexia are very skinny but are convinced that they are overweight. Anorexics have an intense fear of becoming fat. Their dieting habits develop from this fear. Anorexics are very ill or near death. Often they will develop strange eating habits such as refusing to eat in front of other people. The disorder is thought to be most common among and people involved in activities where thinness is very important, such as dancing, theater, and modelling. Bulimia is similar to anorexia. However the main difference is that sufferers binge on crisps and chocolate etc, and then make themselves sick to get rid of the calories. The main question we have to ask ourselves is – are these disorders caused by the fashion world or are they just illnesses that cannot be avoided?

Websites are appearing up all over the internet explaining of how ANA – ANorexiA and MIA- BuliMIA are goddesses and to be beautiful you must be as thin as celebrities such as Mary-Kate Olsen-who has been diagnosed with anorexia, and Nicole Richie. Girls compete against each other to be the “thinnest of all.” They wear bracelets to show their loyalty to the cult and perform rituals. Rather then believe that they are ill, girls believe that they have chosen to live their lives this way and it is simply a lifestyle choice.

Another article, which features on CNN, is about how Mary-Kate Olsen was admitted to a “treatment facility” for anorexia.1 This is another example of the media highlighting anorexia, but at least this highlights the issue as a problem, and focuses on the idea that there is help available.

Many angry parents argue that the reason their daughters have turned like this is that they try hard to copy skinny models such as Naomi Campbell and Kate Moss.2.

“Doctors have hit out at the media and advertisers for encouraging anorexia by portraying skinny supermodels as the beauty ideal instead of ‘more buxom wenches’.

a motion condemning the media obsession with ultra The British Medical Association’s annual conference in Cardiff voted overwhelmingly for thin supermodels.”

Some examples from the media where fashion has had an involvement with teenage anorexia. The first is from the BBC News, published 5 years ago, in May 20003:

“The media’s obsession with painfully thin fashion models has contributed to the growth in eating disorders among young girls, according to the British Medical Association.

A report by the association published on Tuesday identifies a link between the images of “abnormally thin” models which dominate TV and magazines, and the rise in conditions such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia. ”

What this article shows, is that stick thin models are being portrayed as beautiful and causing teenage girls to diet to copy them.

A report was published by the British Medical Association saying that there has been recently a trend in increasing numbers of people getting anorexia and the number of images of really thin girls on TV and magazines.

The report goes on to say that models in the 1990s had 10% less body fat than what is normally healthy for women. Without properly doctor-assigned diets, these levels of body fat are unhealthy especially in young girls.

The media also has images recent example of this was the controversial bill-board advert featuring Sophie Dahl nude for, for the Yves Saint Laurent perfume. The advert sparked over 1000 complaints to the Advertising Standards Agency.

Sophie’s large figure is used to say that not only thin girls need to be the main image for models.

“The posters were banned after the ASA ruled they were offensive and degrading to women.”

However, the authority, didn’t see the message hidden in the advert that you don’t need to be really thin to be a model4.

A Report by the University of Michigan in the USA tells that thin characters in TV shows directly influences anorexia and bulimia in some of their audience.5

“Being attracted to “thin” characters in shows like “Melrose Place” and “Beverly Hills 90210″ positively predicts general eating disorder symptoms–anorexia, bulimia, drive for thinness, perfectionism and ineffectiveness–whereas attraction to “average ” and “heavy” media personalities do not.”

This report claims that the media does indeed promote thinness and causes anorexia and bulimia in teenagers. The report neglects to mention that there are also some media publications that highlight the things that other media and fashion statements say about the problems of anorexia.6

“There are many teenage fashion magazines available, all telling us to eat the right foods, and to exercise to stay healthy. Almost every issue of any teenage fashion magazine will contain a real-life story on anorexia, bulimia, or drug abuse. The writers of these articles all tell us that being thin is not important, instead we should be healthy.”

The report mentions that there are efforts my media publications to show that there are issues in the public fashion world about influences to teenagers, but also that they should pick good role models for these articles. These attempts by the media are worthless if they use stick-thin models and basically say “don’t end up like this!”

All these sources show that thinness is very important in the fashion world, but even if illnesses do develop, treatment is available and as in the case of Sophie Dahl, who sadly went on a crash diet to lose all her weight, which made other models comment on how she was losing her looks as well as her weight, you can still have a figure and still be a model.

Essay about the charactor Madeline from the Fall of the House of Usher, by Edgar Allen Poe.

The Gothic short stories of Edgar Allan Poe are characterized by an unexpected, usually twisted, occurrence at the end. In the middle of The Fall of the House of Usher, for example, the narrator helps a school friend, Roderick Usher, entomb his twin sister Madeleine in a vault in the family home. At the end, however, not only does the supposedly dead Madeleine come back to life, her reappearance seems to bring about both the death of her brother and the literal collapse of the family home. What exactly the narrator sees in the form of Madeleine, however, is not clear. He may see a hallucination, a ghost, or a real person.

The narrator may of shared a join hallucination with Usher. The fact that both were going insane and shared a strong bond of friendship makes this possible. The narrator spent a long time trying to cheer up Usher, and his insanity might of affected him. “We painted and read together; or I listened, as if in a dream, to the wild improvisations of his speaking guitar.” Having such close contact with a mad man could of thrown the narrator over the edge. It isn’t likely that the house suddenly just collapsed at the end of the story, perhaps it was all just in the man’s head. “…my brain reeled as I saw the might walls rushing asunder.” A reeling brain could of been the cause of the apparent collapse of the House of Usher.

It is more possible that the narrator saw a ghost or some form of reincarnation of Madeleine’s spirit. After all, Madeleine was locked in the vault for at least seven days without food or water. It is hard to believe that she survived such a long period of time and even if she was still alive at that point, it is hard to believe she could manage to open the door by herself in such a weakened state. Because both of them heard the noises and then saw Madeleine at the same time, it is highly unlikely her appearance was a hallucination. More proof can be found in the quote following: “Suddenly there shot along the path a wild light, and I turned to see whence a gleam so unusual could of issued…” This light seems to have a supernatural origin as described by the narrator. Although less than a sentence later the light is revealed as coming from the moon, it still does not seem to have an entirely physical origin. “The radiance was that of the full… moon, which now shone vividly through that once barely discernible fissure, of which I have before spoken as extending from the roof of the building… I saw the mighty walls rushing asunder… and the deep and dank tarn at my feet closed sullenly and silently over the fragments of the ‘House of Usher.’ The entire house collapsing could of been caused by something supernatural.

However, it is more likely that the narrator did not see a hallucination or a ghost, but instead Madeline herself. The fact that she had epilepsy makes it possible that she could of appeared a corpse. Perhaps her pulse slowed down or stopped for a short while, enough for the doctor to declare her dead. She had “…frequent although transient affections of a partially cataleptical character…” Before her appearance, both Roderick and the narrator hear the noises of her approach. It is not very likely a ghost or hallucination could of caused these sounds. That’s beside the proof that she was physically there. She opened the door: “…but then without those doors there did stand the lofty and enshrouded figure of the lady Madeline of Usher.” She fell on Usher, knocking him down: “…fell heavily inward upon the person of her brother, and in her violent and now final death agonies, bore him to the floor…” A ghost or hallucination just doesn’t fully explain the events that happened, Madeleine must of been a real person.

Brief Essay on Rennaisance

The Renaissance was the time period in European history in which Europe went though a

rebirth of ideas from the times of classical antiquity. According to my definition, I believe that a renaissance did occur in Europe. The Renaissance consisted of many ideas from science and from the “Studias Humanitas”. The Studias Humanitas is Latin for the “studias of humanities”. According to the text book A History of the Western World, “The studia humanitatis were the group of scholarly disciplines including grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and moral philosophy, but excluding theology, metaphysics, logic, the natural sciences, law and medicine”. In addition to the Studias Humanitas, the renaissance was filled with growth of logic. The power of logic led to many other advancements in other fields. For example, the discovery of optics led Filippo Brunelleschi to the discovery of perspective. The discovery of tomography led to the discovery of new countries and routes around the World. The discovery of Perspective enabled artists to express there visions extremely accurately, as the book The Agony and the Ecstacy says, “His David would be the incarnation of everything Lorenzo de Medici had been fighting for, that the Plato Academy had believe was the rightful heritage for man”. In addition to all of the discoveries, the scholars wished to share there information with others through Universities, those extremely similar to the Greek Universities. “The medieval university was a “community of scholars” with the authority to confer degrees.” These Universities would teach younger men information in order to further the discoveries of life. In conclusion, I think there was very much a Renaissance in Europe in which the people of that time took ideas from ancient cultures and implement them in their day and time to discover amazing things that would further the progression of life.

Works Cited

“The Greeks had carved bodies from their write marble of such perfect proportion and strength that they could never be surpassed; but the figures had been without mind or spirit. His David would be the incarnation of everything Lorenzo de Medici had been fighting for, that the Plato Academy had believe was the rightful heritage for man: not a sinful little creature living only for in his own kind, with a breain and will and inner power to fashion a world filled with the fruits of man’s creative intellect…”-Stone, The Agony and the Ecstacy, 388

“A History of the Western World- Glough, Harrison, Hicks, and Gay. Discusses the limitations of humanist thought. “In point of fact, the word ‘Humanism’ is an invention of the nineteenth century, Renaissance men spoke only of ‘humanists,’ teachers and scholars of the studia humanitas, the study of the humanities. The studia humanitatis were the group of scholarly disciplines including grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and moral philosophy, but excluding thrology, metaphysics, logic, the natural sciences, law and medicine. By definition then, humanism was limited to those subjects that treat of man and his life on earth.”

Impact of Information Technologies on Leadership A short survey of E-Leadership

Grenoble Graduate School of Business: Organizational Behavior AssignmentImpact of Information Technologies on LeadershipA short survey of E-LeadershipPatrick PetitFaculty Lecturer: Carmelo Mazza professor at Grenoble Graduate School of BusinessKey Words: Leadership, Executives, Information Technology, Organizational behavior, e-business, eleadership,Industrial Age, Information Age, Participation AgeNumber of Words not including references: 967IntroductionBusiness conduct in the workplace has been deeply transformed in less than a decade by theinformation technology revolution of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Organizations modeledon the industrial age paradigm of control and hierarchy have been replaced by a network ofdecentralized and agile functional groups, which can adapt their structure and direction fast enough toaccommodate the continuously changing needs of the e-business economy. This radical changesuggests that managers have been facing a serious discontinuity challenge in the way organizationsare managed today, which has resulted in the emergence of a new leadership style called the eleadershipor the virtual leader.

The goal of this short essay is to underline the motivation and main attributes of the e-leadership styleand describe how it has deeply affected the transformation process of the leaders of the e-businesseconomy.

E- leadership attributes and skills in the Participation AgePerhaps one of the most interesting aspects of organizational behavior and leadership power in theearly 21st century, revolves around the question of what kind of new leadership attributes and skillsare required in times of cataclysmic changes driven by the Internet revolution. The informationtechnology boost currently under way has introduced a new set of tools and communication schemeswhich have redefined people’s interactions in the organization. For instance, the leader’s role that wasbefore relatively clearly defined as a set of tasks to keep the organization running in a rigid and stableorganization structure, has now changed into managing an ecosystem of self-organized business unitsrunning decentralized or even externalized business processes. Forester Research calls these extendednetworks e-business networks, which are structures of inter-connected players cooperating in realtime over the Internet.

In a sense, organizations have somehow followed the same evolutionary pattern as the computersystems that moved in the 1990s from big central computers to a distributed and resilientinfrastructure of inter-networked smaller computers.

As a result, the organization’s flow chart has flattened to less hierarchical structures. Today, anyonecan communicate with anyone in an organization, regardless of rank, through e-mail. This wasprobably unthinkable a little more than ten years ago. The technology has allowed workers totranscend the limited role and relationships they used to have during the industrial age. For instance,traditional conversation barriers standing between employees, customers, partners and suppliers have03/28/08 1 © Petit P. 2008Grenoble Graduate School of Business: Organizational Behavior Assignmentfallen. People stand out and collaborate genuinely on the Internet – in what the Cluetrain Manifesto:The end of business as usual calls voices – to make businesses build better products and services. Themanifesto makes the point that today markets themselves are conversations and that employees andcustomers are organizing and becoming better informed faster than public relations departments couldever control (Levin & All, 200). Communication technologies have enabled a new economic eraknown as the Participation Age in less than a decade.

The speed of doing business, using broad access to information and knowledge, has increasedsignificantly. Pulley, McCarthy and Taylor (2000) states that between 1997 and 2000, the averageproduct development cycle had dropped to six months and the pace continues to accelerate.

These disruptive factors forced a profound paradigm shift from controlling and managing discreteresources to influencing loose networks of self-driven people outside the traditional boundaries ofdirect reporting groups. The degree to which communication technologies have flattened andcircumvent traditional channels of communication and information may have been terrifying forconventional managers who placed their authority on rank and position, instead of skills, personalitiesand interests.

Few researchers have studied the field of e-leadership, but over the years, a remarkably similar set ofqualities or attributes required for successful leadership has emerged, and there is no reason to believethat self-awareness, empathy and influencing attributes will be any less relevant for e-leadership(Kissler, 2001). However, among these attributes, the ability to build and retain talent as well as theexpertise in building and leading networks outside of their own organization are essential attributes ofthe e-leader. The ability to develop emotional intelligence skills are also considered pivotal to thesuccess of e-leadership (Zaccaro and Bader, 2003) because the human element is one of the mostimportant factors in e-leadership (Pulley, McCarthy, Taylor, 2000).

E-business leaders need to foster an environment that promotes open communication to achievecollective efficiency and keep people moving in the same direction because leadership initiatives cancome from anywhere in virtual teams, which were estimated to involve one employee in five in theUnited States in 2003 (Trotier, nd). E-leadership focuses on collective tasks and perspectives thatmove an organization in strategic directions as opposed to the entrepreneur’s individualcharacteristics, charisma or traits (Pulley, McCarthy, Taylor, 2000) as virtual teams create their ownleaders.

E-leadership must be able to screen out what is important from what is not, so that a meaningfulpattern can emerge as the flow and quantity of interwoven information can become quicklyoverwhelming.

Perhaps one of the most important capabilities is the capacity to continuously form new relationshipsthat span distance, time and other organizations while always listening to customers and promotingthe interests of one’s organization. To perform this task, e-leadership requires fluency with a variety ofcommunication tools ranging from the old telephone to e-mail, and videoconferencing or whatevermay emerge, and use them appropriately.

This is an essay on using humor in presentations. When to and when not to. Icludes examples of healthy humor and unhealthy humor.

”Humor is the best entertainment you can add to an event, because it relaxes people and makes them realize that the whole world isn’t coming to an end after all. The use of humor, at the right time with the right inflection, can be extremely effective.” (Page 611 Para. 3) The question is when is the right time? According to Using Microsoft® PowerPoint® 2002 (Custom Edition), opening lines are not the best place for humor. Rather the opening line, structure the key issues around the jokes. Using this principle, the humor offsets the serious tone of the subject. This is especially helpful when the audience is required to attend, or not looking forward to the subject of the presentation or just

the presentation itself. However in an article found within this site: http://www.funsulting.com/just_humor_them.html, it recommends using humor in your introduction, stating “Your introduction as a presenter can be a great way to set the stage for your message.”

I don’t believe the placement of humor is as important as the type of humor used. Clifford C. Kuhn, M.D. explains the difference between healthy and unhealthy humor, http://www.3m.com/meetingnetwork/presentations/pmag_share_humor.html, “Unhealthy humor usually has a victim. It plays on the differences between people, perpetuating ignorance and prejudice. As such, it has a divisive, often malicious, spirit. The laugh produced by this kind of humor is likely to be out of anxiety. Healthy humor, on the other hand, is drawn from our common experiences-frustrations, fears and triumphs. It emphasizes the ways we are alike, increasing understanding and empathy. Its spirit is one of acceptance and support. In healthy humor we laugh with, not at, one another. The laughter produced by this kind of humor is from the recognition that we are all in the same boat and not as isolated as we sometimes fear.” In order for humor to have the appropriate reaction you must ensure it will not offend or discriminate anyone.

I am originally from a small town outside of Jasper, Texas, where James Byrd, Jr., was beaten unconscious, chained to the back of a pickup truck and dragged for miles over rural roads on June of 1998. After the incident, one of the officials gave a statement to the students in our school. In the statement, he tried to use humor, which turned into a disaster. The statement was to inform the students of what was happening. At the end of the statement he cut what was considered by many as a racial comment. This is clearly an example of unhealthy humor and how it can affect others, especially those offended. After the statement, the comment was all over local papers. An excellent example of healthy humor can be found at http://www.funsulting.com/just_humor_them.html. “Once when Barbara Bush was asked to speak at the Wellesley College graduation ceremony, a large number of the all-female graduates-to-be felt that she was not the appropriate speaker since her accomplishments had been a result of her husband George Bush’s presidency. However, in spite of the protests, the school kept Mrs. Bush on the program. Immediately after being introduced, Mrs. Bush said this, “Someone in this audience may someday preside over the White House as the spouse of the President and I wish him well.” Her comment was met with overwhelming applause and she quickly won back the audience.” In this instance the comment was not only used at the right time but with the appropriate audience.

Instead of using humor I would try using a personal story or add my opinion. By doing this you are not setting yourself up to insult or criticize anyone and the information provided would be true to the topic. This would show that you are serious concerning the issue and have had some experience, which will immediately catch the audience’s attention.

Is globalization good for the LDCs?

The wars fought in the past two decades and the increasing threats of terrorism and Aids are quite dramatic and have reshaped our world. Other forces though less dramatic are also reshaping our way of life in an even more dramatic fashion. Such a force is, globalization, which though less dramatic is undoubtedly reshaping our world today and will set a platform for future generations. In an ideal situation, globalization aught to benefit all those involved and whereby the result is win-win for all. However, globalization also has big potential for fuelling political, economical and social problems if some parties are affected negatively by this force. The ultimate natural outcome of globalization could be a mixture of races and culture resulting from a melting pot as that of the United States. In such an environment it would be highly possible for the world to adopt similar political systems or even one global system because with globalization we imagine a world converging towards the same social, political and economic structures.

Globalization can easily achieve the above due to technological advances in communication and transportation; the only missing link is reaching a shared ground on the way forward between different cultures and nations. To achieve the above scenario, globalization has to be a force that takes into account the needs of all people and countries. Globalization has to push every one towards better economical situation, better political systems and at the same time avoid allowing some culture and ideologies to murder other ones. The question then becomes: is globalization as structured today a fair force and one which does not favour some while being detrimental to others? This essay will explore globalization by examining whether the structure as stands today is favourable to some regions or nations while being destructive to others in the short or the long run. Specifically, we will discuss this phenomenon as it relates to its benefits for the developing countries versus the richer and more developed countries which are actually the initiator and staunch supporters of the movement. In short, we will attempt to asses its expected benefits for the developing nations versus what the developed countries are set to gain.

The structure of the essay is as follows, definition and history of globalization will be outlined and then arguments of proponents to globalization and their counterparts’ arguments will be highlighted. Then an analysis of the arguments of the two sides followed by a summary of the discussion will be provided in the form of a conclusion.

Globalization

The term globalization is new but the phenomenon has been ongoing for a long period. It has in fact been around longer than modernization and capitalism. It has become widely known for only about two decades and many observers attribute that fact to the advancements in technology, especially the information technology sector. It is a phenomenon that entails giving up domestic way of doing things locally which in turn become as reflectors of global markets and political systems (Poverty and Development, 2000). The most crucial element of globalization is its ability to normalize the way business is conducted and the way the political seen is run. It entails openness and freedom to trading and investing for anyone and anywhere around the world (Globalisation and the Post Colonial World, 2001). The promoters of globalization assert that it is the only process capable of facilitating improvements in economic situations of the developing countries, increasing political stability and eventually open doors for social dialogue which will ultimately lead to a more harmonious world. The following segment discussed whether globalization is a force for good or it is just the beginning of economic, political and social meltdown in the developing world.

Advocates of Globalization

Many arguments are presented by supporters of globalization and some of the arguments are quite compelling. Proponents argue that because rules that regulate entrance into the globalization playfield are by nature conducive of development, anyone who enters will benefit. For example, some of the rules precondition the removal of trade barriers as prerequisite for becoming globalists. This they argue will open doors for many countries to increase their exports and because the barriers are lowered cost of importables will go down as well. This they argue is a direct side effect of relaxation and simplification of tariff systems.

Moreover, since the cost of imports will be cheaper the effect will be more selective and efficient production by reallocation of domestic resources towards the production of exportable (Global Shift, 1999). As a matter of fact, proponents argue that since developing countries entered this globalization ride their global market share soared by ten percent for the period between 1971 and 2000. More specifically, some countries started benefiting from globalization in less than one decade; namely Uganda who managed to increase not only the production of coffee but also its production capacity. East Asia, they argue, is another region that had visible successes attributable to globalization. As a matter of fact some countries from this region benefited so much from globalization that they are now globally recognizable economic forces (http://www.imf.org).

It is also argued that capital flows from richer countries towards the developing countries has been phenomenal during the globalization era. They also contend that investment increases and bank credits during the 1990s has been a major force in the creation of more jobs for the citizens of the LDCs and increased tax revenues for the host governments that result in more international corporation entrance and higher incomes of the locals (Globalization and Dev. Study, 2001).

Other effects of globalization are less visible but are quite impact-full, they argue. For instance, globalization made it possible for people to seek work in developed countries, this transfer of the workforce will facilitate means “through which global wages converge”. Furthermore, the exportation of workers will automatically help the transfer of skills from the advanced nations to the less developed countries (Globalisation and the Post Colonial World, 2001). Technical innovations and more know how of advanced production methods and management skills are also some of the expected benefits of workforce transfer. By the same token projects such as “Motorola’s low earth orbit” satellites will provide cheaper methods of knowledge transfer through live talk and video conferences and wireless Internet access (Globalisation: the Reader, 2000).

Opponents of Globalization

The arguments on this side as might be expected denounces globalization and see in it a force for the destruction of the poor countries while making the rich even richer. Simply put, they contend that, there is no way that the formulators of the movement which are the developed countries would advocate it simply because they wish to improve the lives of others. Indeed, globalizations is seen as a control less phenomenon whose main drivers are major powers such as the United States which are indeed the major engineers of the globalization policies which tend to favour their interests.

The playing field is viewed as being by default unbalanced as argued by Gowan, Peter. He stresses that private financial markets are directly related to the United States monetary policies. The argument is that since the US government has authority over the Wall Street which is in turn afforded influence on world markets because the USA has control over the World Bank and International Monitory fund, it is to be expected that the policies would be pro West or at the very least pro America. For instance, the USA dollar “enjoys unrivalled dominance in the global financial markets”. Specifically, in 1995 the dollar comprised sixty one percent of entire central bank foreign exchange reserves (Globalisation and the Post Colonial World, 2001).

Since globalization implies survival for the fittest, competition between the developed countries which have a significant head start in terms of technological specialization and their developing countries counterpart is not a possibility. It is argued that, it is simply impossible for the developing countries to make a face off where the production of durable and technology demanding goods are concerned. This leaves the developing countries with only the agricultural arena in which to compete. This is argued to be a grossly uneven exchange of goods between the two spheres. An uneven trade is likely to result in even more accelerated devaluation of currencies of the developing countries involved. This is in turn likely to result in even larger borrowings by the developing countries. Maintaining agricultural competitiveness on the global level might even initiate greater and speedy exploitation of land and natural resources which could also lead to massive damages to the environment (Structure Adjustment: 1998).

There are also concerns about Trans National Corporation’s abusiveness of local labourers in the struggling third world countries. It is believed that corporations of economic powers view people in the developing countries as more manipulable and controllable. The sheer economic situation of the workers in the third world countries make them easy pray for large Trans National Corporation’s. Add to that the fact that the vast majority of them lack legal protection for either mistreatment or when faced with dangerous working conditions (Dicken, P 1999). Furthermore, local government being weakly and seeing multinational corporations as a big source of revenues through taxation and often through bribing officials, this leaves the workers with no protection from any effective source.

Other dangers of globalizations come in the form of the inability of local businesses to compete with huge international companies. Failing to compete will inevitable lead to the dying off of local industries and could lead to total economic domination of foreign companies which is a strong pretext to political domination. With politicians eager to receive bribes and governments eager to receive evermore increasing revenue sources, one might expect the unprecedented breakdown of economic situation of locals and render them in need of the multi national corporation.

While proponents argue that globalization will open doors for the developing countries to gain knowledge and skill from the developed countries, exponents argue that it will actually make it easier for developed countries to drain the former of its much needed educated sector and/or skilled labour populations.

Cultural domination of some economically powerfull countries over the developing countries cultural identities are another worry expressed by opponents of globalization. To be global, one must adopt global languages, lifestyles and even spiritual affiliations. Global ideologies are often those of the cultures with the means to transmit their ideologies and lifestyles and that requires educational and financial powers among other things. An obvious example given is the influence of Hollywood in the world arena and its effects on shaping others lifestyles and ideologies. The overpowering of local cultures would inevitably undermine local spiritual affiliations and traditions which is believed to be a fuelling factor to cultural and religious conflicts which could widen violence and terrorism (Globalisation: Reader, 2000).

Verdict

As is the norm with any hot topic the arguments of both sides are often equally compelling. In deciding on whether globalization serves the developing countries or is likely to drive the poverty stricken region deeper into poverty’, it is crucial to look at all the historical facts before the judgement is made. In assessing the situation, the most important factor to be analysed is the potential motives behind the push by developed countries towards globalization. If the conclusion is that the motives are pure and there is evidence that globalization has been a positive force for all then it would be possible to get everyone on board.

As has been seen in the discussion above, there is a sizable division between the supporters of globalization who view it as the way forward and is bound to benefit all and the opponents who view globalization as a sinister tool which the developed countries wish to utilize to make their position even more stronger to the detriment of the poorer regions. The truth is that globalization does not seem to have a middle ground; it is either highly empowering or unbelievably coercive. Foreign Direct Investments are the face of globalization and hence an analysis of statistics related to it is likely to provide true insight into the benefits or lack of in relation to globalization. The following discussion focuses on Foreign Direct Investments to the developing countries. First, as we look into the FDI phenomenon into LDCs we realize that it is a sporadic phenomenon which is concentrated in only some regions. For example, more than 70% of the FDI are received by less than 20 countries and none of the recipients are from Africa. “China alone receives 1/4 of the FDI” (OXFAM, 2002: 177). More worrisome is the fact that according to Oxfam report FDI per head is still greater towards richer countries.

However, FDI inflows into LDCs have been on the increase but that in itself is not enough indication that it is positive force. In order to assess the benefits of this force of globalization (FDI) lets look into its benefits and to achieve that we need to consider three factors. First, statistics show that for every $1 received by the LDCs in the form of FDI a third leaves in the form of repatriated profits (UNCTAD, 2003). . “According to UNCTAD, the high import costs and remittances associated with FDI had a negative overall effect on the balance of payments” (OXFAM 2002: 178). That fact alone has resulted in financial collapse of some countries as happened in Mexico in the 90s.

In jumping unto the globalization band wagon, many LDCs take further steps to attract FDI and some of these actions are in themselves detrimental. For example, some LDCs divert much needed resources towards campaigning for the purpose of attracting FDI and executing other globalization support mechanisms. Some countries even offer tax incentives in order to attract investors. These efforts often divert scarce resources from sensitive public services without achieving the expected goals. Furthermore, due to the facts that LDCs view industrialization as advancements, they sacrifice even the environment and local cultural norms in the rush for the expected development (Hansen, 1998).

Of course, globalization could have positive effects on the LDCs if it is fair and carefully managed. Globalization can result in attaining financial resources, more jobs, acquisition and knowledge of new technologies, strengthening export sector, widening market share, and increase collection of taxes, etc; however, that requires intense study and commitment before adaptation. If the environment is such that developing countries create regulations by consulting the LDCs and come up with policies that result in a win-win situation for all, then globalization can help the LDCs. If the process is dominated by the developed countries and the LDCs are inactive recipients, then they risk being led into detrimental situations for them. Costa Rica has been a positive example in that it has adopted globalistic approach that is careful in nature and is well calculated and by 1996 the result was that “Costa Rica exports more software per capita than any other country in Latin America. Unlike Mexico, export growth-exceeding 10 per cent a year has increased demand for skilled labour, and increased real wages” (OXFAM, 2002, 183).

Globalization can be an incredible empowering tool but it also has the potential for and coercion. It can create opportunity but it can also breed panic. It can be the process through which small fish become whales or whales become even bigger. It can take a country forward very fast or it can leave it behind even faster. (http://globalization.about.com/cs/whatisit/a/gzgoodorbad2.htm). Socially, it has the potential to allow humanity to share values while maintaining their cultures but it can also be the avenue for killing some cultures while affording others domination. It can result in harmonization of different religions and create an environment where people have wider choices for their religious affiliations but it can also ignite a religious infernal that will be impossible to extinguish. It can open doors for developing countries to achieve technologically advanced capital but at the same time it could achieve that by making the indigenous under the mercy of the alien.

Conclusion

So is globalization a force for good and which everyone should stride to embrace with an open chest or is it a sinister phenomenon that represents a disguised destruction factor? Is it the latest tool the former colonizer wish to utilize as the new tool to subdue their former colonies or is it an innocent movement which will benefit all?

This discussion shed light into the fact that globalization can truly be a two edged sword and it is not inherently bad; its goodness or badness is fully dependent its application. It could indeed be the tool that will open doors for increased exports, attract investors and foreign capital and increase knowledge base. However, it could also be a tool that is designed to serve its designers, namely the developed countries. Opponents to the movement worry that globalization will lead to more domination of the advanced nations and could indeed lead to reinventing imperialism. So the question remains, is globalization designed to drain developing countries even further and reinstituting last centuries practices or perhaps it is a tool that gives a much needed helping hand to the LDCs. My impression after careful analysis of the matter is that globalization is only being promoted so strongly because stronger nation see in it more benefits for themselves. It is not possible to envision strengthened position of the developing countries while at the same time benefiting the Developed regions.

Macbeth.

The tragic downfall of Macbeth was not determined by one single cause. It was rather caused by a combination of three dark forces: supernatural, external and internal. The three witches represent supernatural forces and dark powers behind them. Lady Macbeth is an outer force that pushes Macbeth towards the bloody deeds. Macbeth’s own ambition acts as deciding power in brining him to his downfall.

The very beginning of the play indicates that dark supernatural forces will be involved. Three weird sisters are preparing a surprise for Macbeth, surprise that will eventually cost him life and the salvation of his soul. Witches’ predictions play very important role in leading Macbeth to the evil deeds. Witches are the first to unleash Macbeth’s “black and deep desires” by promising him crown in the near future. They trick Macbeth making him to believe that he was fated to be king by promising him the title of thane of Cawdor and fulfilling this promise. After this almost impossible prediction becomes true Macbeth decides that he should become king as well. His royal dreams and ambition begin to take over his good side. He is convinced that “Two truths were told/As happy prologues to the swelling act/Of the imperial theme.” The dark forces “win him with honest trifles to betray in deepest consequence.” Not only they make Macbeth thinking about murdering Duncan; they also bring him to the decision to kill Banquo and his son by saying that Banquo’s children will be kings. Throughout the whole play dark supernatural powers trick and deceive Macbeth. In Act IV the apparitions playing with words convince him to continue to walk along the bloody path by advising him to be “bloody, bold, and resolute” and to “have no fear.” These predictions give Macbeth confidence to murder more victims, so that he has got absolutely no hope left for retaining any virtues and opportunity of remedy.

After the witches awaken Macbeth’s desires of becoming king, his wife begins to push Macbeth towards the real act of murdering Duncan. Lady Macbeth thinks she knows exactly what Macbeth wants–becoming a king–and decides that she has to force her husband to do what he would never do without her support–to kill Duncan. She never really tries to gain much for herself and never mentions that she wants to be queen. She wants Macbeth to be king; she wants glory for him, not for herself. Lady Macbeth acts like a mother who forces her silly child to do the homework he doesn’t want to do because she wants him to be successful in his life. She never questions the necessity of Macbeth becoming king and never pays attention to Macbeth’s thoughts and opinion, just as mother would never care about her son’s opinion about the ‘stupid’ homework. Macbeth’s decision to “proceed no further in this business” (I.vii) was not even considered as a possible outcome by her. Lady Macbeth uses all the methods she can to convince her husband to murder Duncan. She uses Macbeth’s love to her as an instrument saying that if he will not kill the king he really doesn’t love her. She asks him if he is a man, tells him that he will be “so much more a man” after murdering Duncan. She gives Macbeth an example of how resolute and cruel he should be telling him that she–woman who is supposed to be kind and compassionate–would be able to kill her own child:

I would, while it [baby] was smiling in my face,

Have pluck’d my nipple from his boneless gums,

And dash’d the brains out, had I so sworn

As you have done to this.

(I.vii.61-64)

Lady Macbeth used the Macbeth’s feelings towards her, his bravery, his ambitious nature, his vague desires as tools to make Macbeth to do what she thinks will bring him success and satisfaction.

Witches and Lady Macbeth definitely tried to force Macbeth to kill Duncan and to continue the sequence of terrible murders. However, Macbeth was not a weak-willed puppet that others could easily control. He was a brave and strong man who could resist outside influences and make his own decision. Why did he allow his wife and witches to convince him to do what he thought was wrong to thing to do? The answer is that he wanted to be convinced. In fact, Macbeth began to think about becoming king even before he met the witches. This explains his strange reaction after he have heared the witches’ prophecies. Banquo noted with surprise:

Good sir, why do you start, and seem to fear

Things that do sound so fair?

Macbeth is afraid and feels guilty after he receives great predictions of becoming thane of Cawdor and king! The only explanation is that witches guess his own thoughts and catch him thinking about such an evil thing as killing Duncan. Another evidence to support the idea that Macbeth wanted to murder Duncan is the reaction of Lady Macbeth after she reads Macbeth’s letter. Her thoughts immediately jump to murder, even though murder was not even mentioned anywhere in the letter. It seems that Macbeth had been cherishing the idea of murdering Duncan for a long time and discussed it with Lady Macbeth many times. In their dialog in I.v neither lady Macbeth nor Macbeth himself mentions the word ‘murder’. The only hint that Duncan will never leave the castle alive is given in the following lines:

MACBETH

My dearest love,

Duncan comes here to-night.

LADY MACBETH

And when goes hence?

MACBETH

To-morrow, as he purposes.

LADY MACBETH

O, never

Shall sun that morrow see!

If Macbeth were an innocent lamb before witches and Lady Macbeth had turned him to a ruthless criminal, he wouldn’t understand what Lady Macbeth was talking about. However, because his dark side had begun to fight with the good side even before the beginning of the play, he gets instantly what his wife’s plans are. He still has doubts, but he wants to believe that he is fated to be king. He wants to get support and advice for murdering Duncan from both witches and Lady Macbeth and gets them. Macbeth needs this push from the external forces to suppress his conscience and begin committing bloody crimes. After the evil side of Macbeth’s character receives help from the witches and Lady Macbeth it completely takes over his good side and can now act by itself with no help from the outside. Macbeth’s next murder after killing Duncan and grooms–murder of Banquo–is never advised by the weird sisters or supported by his wife. There is absolutely no reason of murdering Macduff’s family.

In conclusion, even though Lady Macbeth and the witches played an important role in convincing Macbeth to kill Duncan, internal force was the most important of all three. It was Macbeth who agreed with them, Macbeth who committed the murder, Macbeth who decided to continue walking along the bloody path. However, it’s very unlikely that all the events in the play would have happened, if there had not been help given by the witches and Macbeth’s wife. The fatal combination of the three combined forces produced the tragic result.

Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck. why i liked reading this essay.

The book that I have read that has really stayed with me is Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck. I really enjoyed reading it which is unusual because I usualy don’t enjoy reading to much. There was something about George and Lennie’s friendship that really made me think. Seeing how they were and how they shared life was really intresting. George didn’t have to bother with Lennie, he could have abandoned him and gone on his own way. But he did not do that, he stayed with Lennie watching over him almost like a parent to a child. Even though Lennie always got Georege in trouble, George never stoped loving him and always stood by him. The friendship they shared went beyond what was transparent they each shared a dream and both knew they ment the world to each other. I felt that if these totaly different people could get along and look out for each other, why can’t we get along with people who are differnt than us. They made me realize that I could learn something from how to treat people who are differnt than me. What I also liked about it was the way they never stopped trying to reach their dream. This made me think that if they could work hard for there dream why can’t I. It showed me that it does not matter were you come from or what you do, it is okay to dream and work as hard as you can to reach it . For all it shows for friendship and loyalty it also shows how sometimes you have to do things you never thought you would do. For example in the end when George is forced to shoot Lennie in the head you would never have thought he would do that, but you can see that under the circumstances he had no other choice. He only had two choices let the other people get to him first and watch them torture Lennie while he died a long horrible death or do it himself and get it over quick were Lennie did not know what hit him. This is also true in life, many times we are faced with tuff choices and even though they may be the hardest you will have to go through, you know that that is the only way. You come to the realization that everything you thought you was about, can all change with a blink of the eye.

Problem-solution essay on child labor

Child labor is an increasing problem in the world. The children who work in factories are more likely to become physically and mentally underdeveloped than children who go to school. Asia and Africa have over 90% of the children who work in the world. These places also have the highest death rate for children 10-16 years old. That isn’t a coincidence due to the fact over 60% of children who work at factories die before they earn $1,000. The major reason for these deaths is they live in poverty. Major companies (i.e. NIKE) take advantage of this by hiring children and paying them less money than adults. This is a major problem and it can be solved.

To solve this problem, we, the people of the world, would need an international restriction on the working age. With these restrictions in place worldwide, we would be able to enforce them better. The enforcement must come from an unbiased group with delegates from every country ( a group much like the UN). By using an unbiased group, it would be harder to have a country not obey and enforce the law. We would also have to have developed countries, such as England and America, help the undeveloped countries by supporting schools and giving children a valid reason to go (i.e. free food and free textbooks). We have to do this with the realization that the child’s income is equal to ¼ of the families income and that some children work in order to go to school. By giving them a free meal and books for education, you alleviate the reason they work.

Underdeveloped countries around the world have children working in factories to help support their families. Many of these children don’t have a childhood filled with fun and games because they are caught in the nightmare of child labor. This simple solution can change the lives and dreams of the many children who work for just $0.11 a day or less by giving them an education and hope for a brighter future.

Narrative Essay- Role Model Mom

Nobody really understood. They didn’t understand what they were talking about when they told me my mom was “perfect”. Sure she was beautiful, intelligent, successful, and rich as well. But, everyone always seems to forget about the past. The scars. It didn’t show on her surface, but my mom had at least one hidden scar that she now covered up. And, because she covered it up, nobody knew about it, and she became the “role model” person in my life.

She had always told me she left him out of love. He always told me he had left her out of guilt. Being young and naive, I didn’t understand that. I had thought love was when a boy and a girl got married because they liked each other a lot. And, my mother and father had gotten married once. While they were married, they had me. I don’t remember very much from my childhood but I can expect it was fine. I always asked to hear the stories, because I loved hearing them. My aunt Jemma was always so eager to fill my ears with the pleasing tales. “You were the perfect family,” she used to say. “Young and new and happy,” she would say. But it didn’t stay like that for long. I now realize that it was my father’s actions that caught up with him, and my mother’s realisations that caught up with her. Whether they split out of love or out of guilt, I might never know. All I know is that I continued living with my mom, and I thought nothing could have been better.

We lived in a clean penthouse apartment that looked out over the rest of the city. It was a beautiful house, and was much too big for just the both of us. We were like the only two fish swimming in the whole ocean- in that place. Our modern furniture and expensive appliances barely accounted for the smallest amount of the luxury in our lives. I guess my mom had played the cards right. I had never seen a woman more successful in my life, and neither had my friends.

At first glance, I didn’t look any different than they did, and certainly didn’t act differently either. I was just like any of the other kids in my 5th grade class. Worn overalls, animated shirts, dark brown hair. And, there was certainly nothing wrong with my personality. I was generous, witty, and adventurous enough, for my age. I wasn’t really any smarter, prettier or athletic than anyone else; I was pretty average. That is probably why my friends were the most shocked when they got the inside peek on my family.

I know that I was very lucky to have such a comfortable life. Most of my friends only dreamt about having a housekeeper. It was usually the housekeeper that babysat me before school, after school, and well, most weekends too. That was only because my mom worked late shifts every night except Friday and Sunday, but on those nights would go to the gym, or out to dinner. In my head, I would forgive her for not spending time with me. Sure, it got a little lonely sometimes, but I didn’t want to be selfish. She had to work so much to support me, right?

That was how I thought, until I met Katrina’s mom. I met Katrina in my new class in grade 6. I usually was a little shy to talk to someone if I didn’t know them, but I couldn’t help but ask Katrina what was the matter that day, because she was crying. Her fish had died that morning, the first day of school. Having two dollars in my pocket, I asked her to come to the pet store after school with me that day, and I bought her a new fish. Proud, I came home that night, eager to tell my mom what a good deed I had done. Remembering it was Tuesday, I laughed at myself and shrugged for even thinking my mom would be home.

I got to know Katrina better and I spent more and more time at her house. I started to realize how truly lucky I was to have what I did, because Katrina’s family seemed to have a lot less than I did. They lived in a small, charming wooden house on an acre of farm. It wasn’t a bad thing to live on a farm- it was just different than what I was used to- but I loved it. I loved coming to their house because each time, a new smell filled the air. Sometimes it would be apple pie, sometimes a roast, and sometimes the aroma of fresh baked chocolate cookies. Sometimes, it was just lovingness that filled the air, but it was that ingredient that I couldn’t help forget when I returned home each day. They made me feel at home, away from home.

The one big difference I found between my house and Katrina’s, was that her mom was always home to give us hugs and food and help with our homework. Katrina and her mom really got along. Sometimes it made me wonder: if my mom were around that much, would we be getting along so well? Did all mothers and their daughters get along that well? My mom had never been there like that for me.

One night I learned a lot about her family. Katrina had lost her dad a long time ago, just like I had. The only difference, was that she lost her dad to cancer when she was 3. Her mom had had to raise Katrina and her two brothers single-handedly, and almost went broke. Katrina’s mom told us about the Christmas after her husband died. “It was pathetic,” she said. “It made me want to cry. All that I had to feed my children was a small miserable turkey that a neighbour brought over for us. The only thing I really was thankful for that day, was my kids.”

When she said that, two impressing words sprang into my mind. I couldn’t help but say it, right there and then, “You’re my Role Model”.

She didn’t need to be the smartest, richest, or prettiest. She was amazing simply because she took the time to do the most important job of all. Love her children.

Free Argumentative Essays: Oregon’s Euthanasia Program

Since 1998, due to a legal opinion by U.S. attorney general Janet Reno, Oregon physicians have used their federal prescribing licenses from the Drug Enforcement Administration to order controlled substances – usually secobarbital – for use in terminally ill patients’ suicides. However, new attorney general John Ashcroft was an outspoken critic of the Reno opinion when he served in the U.S. Senate. He authored a 1997 letter to Reno signed by seven other Senators urging a contrary opinion, and criticized her final ruling as “bending the law” to facilitate assisted suicide. George W. Bush also criticized the ruling and endorsed a bill to reverse it, the Pain Relief Promotion Act, during the presidential campaign.

The Oregon Health Division’s third annual report on operation of the “Death with Dignity Act,” summarized in the New England Journal of Medicine, was said by the law’s supporters to offer “compelling evidence” that the Act “has given Oregon citizens comfort and control at the end of their lives.” Said Estelle Rogers, executive director of the Death with Dignity National Center: “Oregon is a model for the nation, a place where doctors and patients alike approach end-of-life issues with due seriousness and compassion. We believe it’s time for President Bush and the Attorney General to do the same” [U.S. Newswire, 2/21/01].

But the same report hailed by Rogers as “a third year of good news” was said by a prominent critic of Oregon’s law to confirm that “the assisted-suicide experiment has failed.” Dr. Gregory Hamilton of Physicians for Compassionate Care says that Oregon officials monitoring the practice of assisted suicide “have neglected to report meaningful results.” Case reports are chiefly self-reporting by the physicians involved, and no effort is made to find “complications” or problems not reported by those assisting the suicide [pcc press release, 2/21/01].

The Oregon Health Division reported 27 deaths from physician-assisted suicide in 2000, the same number as in 1999. The only case it found of incomplete compliance with the Act was one in which a physician submitted a consent form signed by one witness instead of two. Dr. Hamilton notes, however, that the chief case of assisted suicide to receive extensive news reporting in 2000 showed more irregularities than this.

The case of Joan Lucas received feature-length coverage for two days in her local newspaper in June. Suffering from Lou Gehrig’s disease, she originally tried and failed to commit suicide by herself on January 16 – but she and her family soon found more expert “assistance” and she died on February 3. The doctor who wrote the lethal prescription says he requested a psychological evaluation “because I wanted to cover my ass” – and that evaluation consisted of a mailed “personality inventory” questionnaire which the family filled in together, “cracking up” with laughter as they read some of the questions. While the survey showed signs of depression, the psychologist felt that depression was a “normal response” to Joan’s terminal illness and so approved the suicide request [Medford Mail Tribune, 6/25/00 and 6/26/00].

The state’s official report shows no sign of such problems. It does indicate that only 19% of the patients in 2000 received any psychological evaluation (compared to 37% in 1999). And while 26% of the patients cited a concern about being a “burden” on others as a reason for their suicide in 1999, that figure jumped to 63% in 2000.

”Indian Camp”: A Character Analysis

Growing up can vary from country to country, from city to city, and from family to family. In this case, we have a boy named Nick, who is the main character in “Indian Camp”, and who is under the process of gro-wing up and he is experiencing it the hard way. The other main theme of the story is life and death, as the sick Indian woman gives birth to a child, and her husband commits suicide because of her sufferings and maybe some other reasons.
There are three main characters in the story: Nick, a young child, Nick’s dad, a medical doctor, and Uncle George, Nick’s uncle. Nowhere in the story is it stated that they are white (Caucasian) nor that they are related to each other. The reader might get a different impression due to the use of the word ‘Uncle’. However let us assume that they are of Indian descent. In Indian societies, words like ‘uncle’ and ‘auntie’ have the same meaning as words in American societies ‘mister’ and ‘misses’.
Assuming that Nick and his Dad are Indians, this might explain why Nick’s dad doesn’t have anesthetic or proper cutting tools, such as scalpels or sutures nor does he have any proper nostrum. He operates on her using precarious ways.

“Oh, Daddy, can’t you give her something to make her stop scream-ing?” asked Nick.
“No. I haven’t any anesthetic,” his father said. “But her screams are not important. I don’t hear them be-cause they are not important.”

It is because Native Americans do not always agree with modern society technologies; they rely on their strong faith when it comes to medical curing and rejuvenation. Regardless of how one would interpret Nick’s dad’s job, it is unarguable that although he is very good at his job, he has also limited equipment, meaning that he and his son might indeed be of Indian descent.
As stated before, Nick’s father appears to be an educated person that is helping his under-educated society. For a very long time ago a doctor was just as important as the leader of a tribe. In some cases even more so. Everybody followed his directions without question even though the methods were in most cases ridiculous. Nowadays this authority has been minimized and doctors’ ways often become questioned and they are simple ordinary people. In “Indian Camp” Nick’s father is presented as an ordinary person rather than an authoritative or eminent one, with nobody bowing down or kneeling to him.
Nick’s father appears to be a very simple person with ordinary hobbies such as fishing. This is shown in the text by Nick operating the woman with a jack-knife, which is normally used for gutting a fish.
“That’s one for the medical journal, George,” he said. “Doing a Caesarian with a jack-knife and sewing it up with nine-foot, tapered gut leaders.”
Another example in the text that emphasizes this is when Nick’s father rows the boat back home, just like people after a long day of fishing. Nick rowing the boat is also another proof of them being Indian, although this is not presented directly in the text. It is because if Nick and his father were white, the guides would have surely rowed them back home. Where did they go, by the way?
Uncle George is a slightly controversial character. Everybody seems to know him around the camp. It is known that when women give birth and the father is near them, they usually scream at the father. In “Indian Camp”, the mother bites George, reflecting the mentioned behavior in some way. In return, George calls her “squaw bitch” which could be a sign of intimacy. If all this evidence isn’t enough to prove my point that George might be the father, he also gives out cigars, which is a well-known “tradition”. Last but not least, the reason the husband commits suicide is not just the screaming but because his wife is giving birth to a baby that is not his.

The Indian lay with his face toward the wall. His throat had been cut from ear to ear. The blood had flowed down into a pool where his body sagged the bunk. His head rested on his left arm. The open razor lay, edge up, in the blankets.

The last sentence of the citation above can be confusing. The presence of a razor is uncanny. This cutting tool is fairly newer than a jack-knife, what is it doing in hands of a person that is apparently poorer than the doctor? Could Uncle George have had relations with the mother for money? If so, he might have been able to afford a razor and then give it to the poor Indian, knowing that he would use it to kill himself.
In conclusion, I would like to state that there are many ways for the reader to interpret the story. Hemingway consciously wrote the story in a way that only a little percentage is being exposed to the reader, meaning that we have to assume a lot and close Hemingway’s thoughts to make the story complete. According to me, the two main themes are growing up and life and death. The story gives two different messages: horrors of growing up, and reasons for committing suicide. In both messages, Hemingway warns us indirectly against the mistakes parents can make unknowingly while raising their children, and what cheating can lead to: if my theory was right, the husband committed suicide in an atrocious way because the mother cheated, the suicide therefore results in another child’s life being destroyed.

A detailed essay on the works of Joseph Mengele, a scientish from Auchwitz Germany during World War II.

Education/training.

Josef Mengele was born on March 16, 1911 in a Bavarian village of Gunzburg, Germany. He was the eldest of two brothers; his parents were Karl and Walburga Mengele. His parents were deep believes in the Catholic faith, his family was raised accordingly. His father was a founder of a farm machinery factory called Firma Karl Mengele. In the 1920′s he graduated from college and was promptly accepted into the University of Munich in Bavaria.

He studied philosophy there under the influence of radical, racist ideology of Alfred Rosenberg. He then took a medical degree at the University of Frankfurt am Main in 1930. In 1933 he enlisted in SA ‘Assault Division’ as a passionate Nazi. One year later he joined the Research staff of the newly founded Institute for Hereditary Biology and Racial Hygiene. He was selected for Chief Doctor at Birkenau, an accompanying extermination camp near Auschwitz by Heinrich Himmler. His job included selecting Jews for labour or extermination and working on his own private experiments. His chief interest however was research on twins. In 1935 he mostly dealt with racial differences within the structure of the lower law.

Experiments

His experiments were vast and broad; most of the information regarding them was stolen or destroyed during and after liberation. Most of his experiments revolved around twins are they’re abilities. He also worked on finding ways to make Jews appear to be German, by changing their hair colourings and eye colours. This also extended to fertility research where he tried to find a way to expand the German population.

He would commonly do experiments on Jews to attempt to raise their fertility rates. This would sometimes include castrating the twins and deforming their genitales or making them have incest. The babies were destined to be deformed so they were generally thrown in a furnace or terminated during the mother’s pregnancy. The word terminated is used loosely in this context, as Dr Mengele commonly jumped on the mothers until the baby came out.

His demeanour during these acts was also very interesting, many of the surviving twins commented on how calm and charismatic he was during the most horrific procedures. Perhaps this charisma was a pre-requisite to be a high-ranking Nazi. Dr Mengele could regularly be seen handing out candy to children and stroking their hair lovingly. One child remembers seeing him generously hand out candy to a small child right before throwing him into the furnace. His decisions were rash, when a block of the camp was infected with lice, he would gas all 750 women.

Dr Mengele had an intriguing persona, some of the surviving children described him as “Uncle Mengele” and hand out candy and clothing. He would then have them sent for in trucks painted with Red Cross emblems or in his own car. He would sometimes do cruel things to keep up his legend, one of his murderous policy included drawing a line on the wall and any child that could not reach that high would be gassed.The memory of this slightly built man, scarcely a hair out of place, his dark green tunic tidily pressed, his face well scrubbed, his Death’s Head SS cap tilted rakishly to one side, remains vivid for those who survived his scrutiny when they arrived at the Auschwitz railhead. Polished boots slightly separated, his thumb latent on his pistol belt, he surveyed his prey with those dead gimlet eyes.

When he selected patients for research his behaviour was also very calm and orderly. He would easily flick his cane held by a gloved hand to signal the Jew’s fate. Death to the left, life to the right.

Although his experiments went under the guise of Biological Research but were far from it in reality. Experiments like sex changes and castration had little or no relevance to Biological Research. He would also draw large amounts of blood from the patients, sometimes bleeding them to death. If you went into his office you would have found hundreds and hundreds of human parts stacked up in jars and tubs.

Eye Research.

Dr Mengele’s research on eyes mainly consisted of the experiments attempting to change the colour to aryon blue, in the hope that one-day the Jews could pass of as Germans.

The chemicals would include methyl blue and other chemicals with colouring agents. He would try to change the colour of their retina so he had to inject it right into their eyes. It would cause immense pain for the patients and they would seldom have any anaesthetic. The injections would usually end in blindness. Occasionally Dr Mengele would be able to receive slight results in changing their eye colour, but this meant bad news for the victim, as their eyes would end up in one of many jars on his wall.

Twins

Twins were Dr Mengele’s main interest was on twins. He did thousands of experiments on twins during his time as a Nazi Doctor. They would range from infecting one twin with a virus and then dissecting and see the difference, to testing to see if they had supernatural abilities and could feel one another’s pain.

When he was selecting the twins, parents would try to separate the children to avoid detection, when this happened and they were caught the consequences would be dire. Sometimes mothers would try and attack SS soldiers; this would result in the mother and child being shot and the entire transportation of people who had been selected for work to be gassed.

Dr Mengele was fascinated with twins; one reason for this was that if he infected or damaged one twin in a certain way, he could then see the difference it caused in relation to the ‘healthier’ twin. He would meticulously note each and every part of their bodies.

To try and expand the fertility of Germans many of the experiments were sexually based. Many twins came out of operations with no sexual organs or with a sex change. He would also mutilate their sexual organs in hope of increasing fertility although that was seldom the result.

One sickening story coming from Auschwitz was of two Hungarian twins of 18 years old. Dr Mengele found these men to be very handsome and was fascinated by their body hair. After he had spent days examining their heads he ventilated gases through their lungs. The twins coughed so hard they had to be restrained. He made them strip nude for days on end and photographed their hairs in great detail. He then made them sit in hot vats for hours until they passed out, then their hair was plucked carefully to make sure the hairs kept their roots. This would happen over and over again until Dr Mengele was satisfied. After this the twins were given several liter enemas which caused immense pain and suffering.

The following day their rectums were hyper descended after which they received an extensive lower gastric intestinal examination. This extensive procedure was performed without any anaesthesia. The young men were crying so loud that Doctor Mengele ordered they be gagged. The next day they received a painful and humiliating urological examination. In this examination tissue samples were taken from the kidneys, prostate, and testicles. Several semen samples were forcefully taken over two days. After several weeks the twins were finally simultaneously, lethally injected. Unfortunately stories like this one are not uncommon and were allowed to go on because of a strict veil of secrecy, which enabled Dr Mengele to perform experiments much more efficiently.

After Auschwitz.

The actual information over how Dr Mengele managed to flee the camps is very controversial. Some say he was aided by the American Government in return for his scientific findings and research. He escaped Liberation by posing as a regular member of the German Infantry. He then moved to the work camp, Gross Rosen, and left well before it was liberated on February 11, 1945. He was then seen at Matthausen and shortly after he was captured as a POW and held near Munich. He was released by the allies, who had no idea that he was in their midst.

He then moved onto Argentina in which several questionable transactions were made by his father Karl Sr. It is believed many Nazis escaped and travelled to Argentina as there was a great sympathy there. Mengele gave an Italian residency document with a false name and permission to enter Argentina. He received his passport in 1949. So Josef Mengele fled to South America, but moved from country to country afraid of being caught. There were many warrants, rewards, and bounties offered, but he was lucky.

In South America Mengele divorced Irene Mengele. In 1958, he married his brother Karl’s widow, Martha, and later she and her son moved to Argentina to join Mengele. Mengele’s life had now established itself into the comfortable and secure routine of a family man in a 9-to-5 job with good prospects.

Despite international efforts to track him down, he was never apprehended and lived for 35 years hiding under various aliases. He lived in Paraguay and Brazil until his death in 1979. One afternoon, living in Brazil, he went for a swim. While in the ocean he suffered a massive stroke and began to drown. By the time he was dragged to shore, he was dead.

COMPARISON ESSAY: The Lord of the Flies(William Golding) vs. Sympathy of the devil (Mick jagger)

The Lord of the Flies vs. Sympathy of the devil

Did you ever asked yourself who or what is the devil? What it represents in human

Society and whether it exists in any form or not. The book “The Lord of the Flies” by William

Golding is compared to the song ” Sympathy for the Devil ” by Mick Jagger in this essay, to show

that the devil is in everybody where and how he appears in front of us, that the devil is deadly and

whether we can resist him when he faces us.

In “The Lord of the Flies ” Jack represents an evil figure that leads the hunters group against

the original group led by Ralph which gets smaller and smaller. Because of Jack’s evil actions,

like putting a pig’s head in font of the monsters hole. His whole group follows him because they

have always enough to eat and drink and they basically do what they want to, but if someone

disobeys Jack’s orders he will be punished. Fear is a factor that makes his whole

group do whatever he says, even to kill. Similarly in ” Sympathy for the Devil ” the devil himself

explains that he is around us and can be in everybody. The phrase: ” I shouted out “”who killed

the Kennedy’s?” “When after all it was you and me.” Tells us that the person that murdered the

American president john F. Kennedy was influenced by him as is anyone who does not right and

which leads to death.

In “The Lord of the Flies” the devil appears in one form. The pig head that Jacks’s group stack on

a stick and placed on the island. Simon is the one that seeks contact and faces him, but he can

not answer because his tongue is frozen from the shock. He listens to the devil that is the Lord

of the Flies and falls unconsciousness. On the other hand in “Sympathy of the Devil” The devil

appears as the criminals and terrorists of our history who done bad and still exist in everyone of

us, although we see the devil only on occasions when we can not control our violent feelings we

can against the people we live with.

The temptations of the devil often end in death or some kind of punishment which are brutal and

violent. In “The Lord of the Flies” the devil is deadly. Simon who sees the devil himself and listens

to him, dies when he runs back to tell his friends about what he saw. The pig was killed by Jack’s

group and turned from an animal into a beast and devils head. The boys become violent and

aggressive over a period of time being led by a tyrant who does not scare from killing people and

animals. History repeating itself in a small society without any hope of going back, and tempted

by the devil to kill. Jack who is led by the devil kills the symbol of last civilization, hope, brains,

and logic. Piggy gets stone on his head from the devil and to wash away and not let this all

remain he pulls him off a mountain so he will be forgotten by all . As in the ” Sympathy of the Devil” all encounter with the devil ends deadly as he explains it. When Jesus gets killed by the Romans in the name of Pilate, when the Russian revolution started in St.Petersburg he saw the kill of the Russian Tzar in WW1. He lived through the fear and bloodiness of WW2 where over 30 million people got killed. ” I rode a tank held a general’s rank. When the blitzkrieg rages and the bodies sank”. He also mentions that he is not only in normal people but also in very good people that prevent him from his business like policemen and priests. “Just as every cop is a criminal and all the sinners, Saints …”. In many cases no one can resist the devil because his temptations are too strong for anyone and that the good offers not as much as the bad, though it is the best.

In the book from by William Golding no one, except Ralph and Piggy, even tries to resist the bad because it offers them too much and when the time comes to take the responsibility for whatever you have done to acquire all this then, and only then u think what and how u could have done it right, but still the next time if there is a possibility you do not do anything other then the last time. in the song by Mick Jagger there is no resists the devil owns everything and everyone even the timeline that is under his control , and we are the ones who give him this control through our emotions and feelings towards the desirable and to fulfill our nature of being happy for any price.

Out of this we learn that the devil surrounds us and can be in everyone, even the happiest, cutest and nicest girl or boy can be the devil himself, which always is true. Everyone who encountered the evil did not survive long, Simon is a good example what happens to people.Not many can resist the devil, because even the purest and good individuals have something to do with him.

”Stunning Description”: Essay on Chapter 19 of the book “My Antonia” by Willa Cather

Willa Cather’s style in Chapter XIX of My Antonia is very descriptive. The language used by the author paints a vivid, living picture of the scene in the reader’s mind. This beautiful description enables the reader to feel as if he or she were actually a part of the story, standing in the middle of the corn fields.

Throughout the paragraph, Cather uses a combination of simple sentence structure and diction and thought-provoking, intriguing writing that allows the reader to feel as if he were a character in the novel. Cather writes, “It seemed as if we could hear the corn growing in the night; under the stars one caught a faint crackling in the dewy, heavy-odoured cornfields where the feathered stalks stood so juicy and green” (88). This passage makes the cornfields seem real to the reader by stimulating the reader’s sense of sound, sight, and smell. This type of prose allows the reader to experience the stalks of corn rather than simply reading about them. It opens up the reader’s imagination, letting him feel like he is a part of the scenery, a part of the story. Cather also writes, “The cornfields were far apart in those times, with miles of wild grazing land between” (88). This sentence continues the raw description given previously in the paragraph and also carries a personable shade to it. The simple, yet descriptive prose employed in the passage makes the reader feel at home in the setting. Without need for more complex words, Cather simply writes, “far apart,” and “in those times,” a style of writing that more closely might approximate the reader’s thoughts he would have as he viewed the scene in person.

Cather’s style of writing in this paragraph is extremely personally descriptive and yet simple and concise. Although Cather wastes no time with complicated diction and sentence structure, Cather describes the scene in such a way as to invoke a feeling upon the reader of actually being present in the story. This writing style proves efficient and yet descriptive; simple yet effective; facile yet concise. The reader is able to picture himself standing in the middle of a vast cornfield, smelling the odors of the vegetation, hearing the crackling of the rigid stalks, and gazing upon the grand, alluring corn fields.

Environmental pollution concerns come to forefront in this essay which tells of the importance of the environment.

Environmental pollution concerns come to forefront

Reports that the state finds El Dorado Irrigation District’s drinking water system primitive, outdated and an avenue for hazardous pollutants sent El Dorado County residents scrambling for more information Wednesday.

The message that pregnant, elderly and sick residents should boil their water or buy it bottled was buried in fine print in the 28,000 notices mailed in September to EID customers. Dozens of residents called EID offices Wednesday after The Bee obtained a copy of a state report showing photographs of manure piles, animal carcasses, mats of algae and other contaminants in and near EID’s open reservoirs.

“That article made me a firm believer that I’m not crazy,” said Sue Reimer, who was seven months pregnant in 1996 when she was diagnosed with giardia, a water-borne virus that causes intestinal problems. The El Dorado engineer said she was drinking only EID water — and lots of it, at her doctor’s suggestion.

There’s no confirmed connection between EID’s water and illness in El Dorado County, county officials say.

The problem at EID, state health officials say, is that after the district filters water drawn from the American River, it stores the water in small reservoirs open to the elements.

Most other water districts use closed steel or concrete tanks. Only a few other California water districts currently store treated water in open reservoirs, including those in McCloud, Santa Barbara, Montecito, Carpinteria and Los Angeles. None of those has as many as the 11 used in EID.

The El Dorado reservoir water consistently meets state health standards on bacteria, EID officials say, because the district constantly bubbles chlorine from nearby tanks into the reservoirs and sends the water on to homes. But they admit their open reservoirs expose the water to contamination by disease-causing agents for which there are no health standards or required testing in small water districts: giardia, viruses and cryptosporidium.

“We are more vulnerable because they are not covered,” said Marjie Lopez Read, EID water quality superintendent, “even though the treatment is complete at the water plants.”

William Hetland, EID general manager, said the district hasn’t ignored the problem of covered reservoirs. Several years ago, he said, it began buying rubberized membrane covers for the reservoirs. Seven had already been installed when, in July, the California Department of Health Services ordered the district to either build steel tanks or put concrete lids on all of its reservoirs. The rubber covers, the state decided after a 1997 investigation, allow too much contamination of treated water by animals, vegetation and rain.

“We’ve been addressing this problem,” said Hetland. “Maybe not as fast as they’d like, but we have been addressing the problem.”

Until 1990, he said, the district didn’t even filter its water. It simply pumped American River water to the reservoirs and treated it with chlorine.

The state put EID on a four-year schedule to cover its reservoirs, a job that EID board member Raymond Larsen estimated would cost $30 million to $40 million and force the district, with an annual water supply budget of $10 million, to raise rates 50 percent.

The state also ordered the district to advise customers that if they’re elderly, pregnant, ill, HIV-positive, undergoing cancer therapy or otherwise suffering from a compromised immune system, they should either use bottled water or boil their water.

A flier titled “EID News from the Water Front” was mailed to all customers and sent home with school children, Hetland said.

But several residents said they either didn’t notice it or didn’t realize its significance. The warning about boiling water appeared on the third page.

“I never saw this notice,” said resident Reimer. “I always look.”

To back up its enforcement order, the Department of Health Services prepared a vividly photographed report that didn’t circulate much beyond the EID board of directors. It shows bird droppings, dead frogs and birds, beer bottles, the footprints of human swimmers, runoff from horse and cattle pastures and animal skeletons in the reservoirs.

“If an infected cow, while grazing, defecates into the drinking water stored in this reservoir,” states the caption to one photo in the report, “the water becomes contaminated with literally millions of Cryptosporidium organisms.”

Water quality experts say chlorine does not kill cryptosporidium, an intestinal parasite that was responsible for an outbreak that infected 400,000 people in 1993 in Milwaukee. Chlorine generally kills viruses but does not completely kill giardia.

El Dorado County health officials say that so far this year they documented six cases of giardia and two of cryptosporidium, some of them from Lake Tahoe, which is not in the EID service area. Those numbers are no higher than documented in previous years, they said, and investigations usually show that victims have been swimming in rivers or drinking from streams while backpacking.

But Reimer said she hadn’t been backpacking in five years when she got giardia. It made her “sicker than a dog,” too sick to even care for her 2-year-old for two weeks.

“I lost 10 pounds and I got to the point where I was having contractions,” she said. “I called EID and said the only water I drank is your water. How did I get giardia? They said we treat all our water. … They told me I was crazy.”

Other EID customers say they’re regular drinkers of bottled water.

“We haven’t drunk any of that water for four or five years,” said Wave Baxter of Diamond Springs, whose groceries at a Placerville Lucky store included a large bottle of water. “The last time I set a glass on the container and turned around to look the bottom was full of sand.”

But board member Larsen, who lives in Camino, said he drinks the water with no qualms.

“I know the pictures are rather graphic but if you go out to most of these reservoirs it looks nothing like the pictures,” said Larsen. “We have fences around these things. We can’t keep ducks out, of course, but there are precautions taken so that if e coli (bacteria) does get into the system, the chlorine is added as it leaves the reservoir to solve that potential threat.”

EID’s water system, centered around Sly Park Reservoir, was built in the 1950s by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for drinking water and agricultural use.

Thoreau Reaserch Paper

Nature in this day and age is one of the most disregarded subjects to people. Factories have no problem disposing of waste and smoke into our air and water. Builders also have no problem chopping down trees and tearing up the land as if it were an endless resource that could be restored at anytime. Nature back in the time of the new country was very beautiful. The air was pure and clean so every breath you took was of fresh air and the rivers, lakes, and ponds were so clear and blue you could walk up to them and take a good drink without having to pay for it. Back in that time especially in the New England area people were quite close to nature. The people would bath in the ponds and only use what resources they needed. Another group of people though called the Transcendentalists took their love for nature much further. Two big names in the group are Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. Each man was very close to nature and also wrote about it. In Emerson’s essay about nature he wrote “To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society.” (Emerson- Nature Essay) Thoreau proved this true when he went to live at Walden Pond alone. Here Thoreau possibly did his best writing. Thoreau though he had a knack at writing he also had a gifted talent in relating. Thoreau perhaps may be the only man to go and live in the woods deliberately and “to front only the essential facts of life” (Thoreau-72) showing that no other man could relate to nature like Thoreau could.

Thoreau was born in Concord, Massachusetts on July 12, 1817. He was born David Henry Thoreau but later switched it to Henry David. (The Grolier Libraries-223) Around that time about 2,000 people lived in Concord, most of them were farmers. Thoreau lived most of his life in Concord, but he did travel to the states New York, Maine, and even Minnesota, which was quite far for that time, but the nature of Concord is where Thoreau got his inspiration to write his works. (Otfinoski-60) Thoreau’s parents John and Cynthia were two very different people but as the saying goes “opposites attract.” John and Cynthia were both from Boston. John was the son of an immigrant family from the Isle of Jersey. John was a gentle, kind, and well-mannered young man who moved from town to town working as store clerks, a general store owner, shortly as a teacher in Boston, and finally as a pencil factory owner when he settled down in Concord. Cynthia the other hand was a strong, outspoken social activist, of English and Scottish descent whose parents were Tories during the Revolutionary War. (Gale Network-1) The Thoreau’s were a hard working family but struggled to get by.

Thoreau was not the only child though; he had two sisters and an older brother who he was very close to. The two boys loved the outdoors, Henry especially. When the two boys were younger they built a small boat and sailed down the Concord River. (Otfinoski-60) Thoreau loved sports like swimming and hiking. Thoreau also enjoyed fishing, were he would build fires on the waters edge because he thought it attracted the fish. Thoreau had a very athletic body but had a large nose and soft Grey-blue eyes.

Thoreau was quite intelligent as a child. After some schooling in Boston, Thoreau’s parents sent him to the Concord Academy, which was the best school in the town. (Cantwell-80) When he was at the Academy he learned to speak Greek and Latin quite well. Thoreau also learned to play the flute, which made him very happy.

With a great sacrifice by his parents and the help of a scholarship from Emerson, Thoreau was able to go to Harvard University. Thoreau was a good student there but he was not nearly the best among his peers. Thoreau went to Harvard to learn though, he just chose not to use his knowledge to get ahead. At his graduation ceremony Thoreau suggested that “every person work only one day and spend the remaining six days enjoying the sublime revelations of nature.” (Thoreau-?) After Thoreau graduated he took on the job of teaching in the New England public schools. These schools at the time were much better than any of the other schools around. Thoreau did not last long though because school officials criticized him for not beating students if they were causing trouble. (Sullivan-35) Thoreau quit the job and him and his brother John opened their own school. Students here were not beaten if they were bad and the classes often took field trips to the countryside to learn about it. In their school they encouraged students to “think for themselves” and “learn by doing.” (Gale Network-1) Although it was a great school, when John got ill Henry could not manage the school on his own so it closed down.

After the school closed down Thoreau had more time to relax and enjoy himself. He did some work in his parents pencil factory, surveyed land for neighbors, and was also a handyman. (Encarta-1) Then finally Thoreau got his break, Emerson offered him a job to move into his house and become the caretaker and handyman. It was perfect for Thoreau because he could then write and study nature all he wanted to.

Having a job that let him do what gave him pleasure, writing, was finally beginning to pay off. Thoreau’s writings were starting to appear in the transcendentalist magazine The Dial, which he even got the chance to edit while Emerson was away. Thoreau also got a job tutoring Emerson’s brother’s son in New York. (Cantwell-81) Thoreau tried to make publishing connections in New York but could not in the fast paced and crowded streets of New York City so he left home for Concord.

Not long after Thoreau borrowed an axe and went on the adventure of a lifetime, which was to live simply in the Walden Woods. Not far from Walden Pond Thoreau built a small cabin that he would live in for two years, two months, and two days. At Walden he could live outside the world and “confront the great facts of existence” (Thoreau-?) by living close to nature.

“Every morning,” Thoreau said, “brought him a cheerful invitation from nature to make his life simple.” (Thoreau-?) Thoreau woke up early each morning by “Natures alarm clock,” (Thoreau-72) he did not believe in waking up with mechanical devices, he would bathe in the pond to cleanse his soul of the bad, ate breakfast and sat in the sun watching the birds. It was not all that easy though. Thoreau spent days working hard. He planted and tended two acres of beans, potatoes, corn, peas, and turnips, (Sullivan-46) fished in the pond (He ate no red meat although he did experiment with woodchuck), (Thoreau-?) cut firewood for his stove, and plastered his cabin for the winter. At night Thoreau read and wrote in his journal and sometimes, for entertainment, played his flute.

When Thoreau left his “life in the woods” he wrote one of the best pieces of transcendentalist literature ever, it was called Walden. In it he wrote his purpose for living in nature alone, his daily life, the survival skills he developed, (The Grolier Libraries-224) spoke of each of the seasons, and even talked about the visitors and animals he encountered. This was a time where Thoreau wrote his best, in the woods. He brought such insights like: “Time is but a stream I go a-fishing in. I drink at it; but while I drink I see the sandy bottom and detect how shallow it is.” (Thoreau-?) And “No man ever stood lower in my estimation for having a patch in his clothes;” (Thoreau-?) These are a couple of Thoreaus more recognized quotes but what Thoreau got most out of his excursion in the woods was the relationship that he gained from nature.

Thoreau’s relationship with nature is what fueled him to live. He showed people that it is possible to be one nature, he also brought out the beauty of nature in his works like Walden. If people could in some way follow Thoreau’s example of living simply the world might turn out to be a better place. If people would only take the time to get outdoors and get away from their TV’s, Computers, and Nintendo’s people would understand somewhat Thoreau’s ideas and how great the outdoors is. Nature is beautiful and everyone should “live each season as it passes; breathe the air; drink the drink; taste the fruit; and resign themselves to the influences of each

Essay on separate peace

ESSAY ON “A SEPARATE PEACE” John Knowle’s A Separate Peace is novel that focuses in on characters and their reaction to the world around them. Since the book was written in the forties the reader knows that the backdrop is WWII. The author uses the backdrop of war to show how young boys develop bonds of friendship. So, therefor, the two themes of war and friendship are intertwined throughout the novel. One major theme that Knowles uses is friendship, a friend is someone that you have personal regard for, and in this novel the two characters that experience the bond of friendship are Gene and Finny. Throughout the novel Gene and Finny are searching for their own needs, but for that they are drawn to each other. So, they sought out each other to fill their void. As the events unfold their bond is put to the test. For example, one true test to see if their bond would last was when Finny was pushed out of the tree by Gene and broke his leg. Their attachment was strong because of the trust and loyalship they shared. Not only were these boys’ friends but they were friends of each other’s classmates. For insistence, the reader can see that friendship does develop when Gene is asked by Lepper to come done because he escaped. Leppers trust toward Gene is shown especially because Gene understands his emotional state. However all of these boys are drawn to each other because of the fo! rces surrounding them. So, for Gene and Finny, unlike Lepper, they realize their dependency on each other. Thus their friendship would not have evolved if it were not for war. Both Gene and Finny experienced an inner and outer war. Internally the protagonists are searching for their own separate peace, and that is found At Devon Prep. School. There they are safe from the harsh external around them. Unfortunately the war becomes a reality when Lepper enlist. Before that all they saw about war was newsreels and pictures in the newspaper, and it didn’t seem so real. However, when Lepper enlist it becomes clear that war is inevitable for them. Additionally, the boys experience war when they play Blitz Ball because they work as indivisual units like in war. Like wise, then Lepper and Finny become the causalities of war. Through fate and error each was lead to disaster, for Finny it was death, while for Lepper it was Temporary insanity. With their experience at Devon the boys realize that death and disaster are real, then war must be real as well. So in the beginning of the novel the characters romanticized about war, but now they have dreaded it because! it has become a reality. John Knowles carefully intertwines the themes of war and friendship carefully for the reader. Without the settings of war these boys would not have been as significant. In peace times friendships would not have as many rough edges. So throughout the war the boys realize what friendship is really about. They come to terms with trust, confidence and loyalty and these are emotions that are learned by experience of being together. Thus in searching for each separate peace, they found not only those, but a bond of friendship that can not be broken, not even by death.

Water and Air Pollution Analysis – This is a short essay on pollution issues in Dayton, Ohio

Ohio is ranked as one of the worst states on air pollution. It remains a serious public health problem for the Greater Dayton area. In 2005 there was 19 days of unhealthy levels of ozone, or smog. Ozone has proved to be a public health problem; asthma attacks amongst children, increased emergency room visits and has also been linked to many premature deaths.

There are eight counties in the Dayton area that has failed to meet the federal health standards for ozone. The American Lung Association, in its State of the Air, 2005 report, looked at official records of pollution from 2001-2003. In the report, Hamilton, Butler, Warren, Clermont, Montgomery, Clark, Clinton and Miami counties in Ohio all rated an “F” for bad air quality. American Lung Association of Ohio (2005)

Ohio has done away with the emissions test on motorized vehicles. In doing so this has only increased the intensity of “bad air quality”. Emissions test is a huge concern because there is no way of knowing how many pollutants a vehicle is giving off. This issue has not done Ohio any favors when it comes to solving the air pollution in this state.

In Dayton, Ohio there is an Ozone Action Day, this day consist mainly of weather conditions. They implement this day when temperatures are above eighty-five degrees, cloudless skies, low wind speed, and lack of precipitation. On this day, the city lowers bus fares to get people to ride the bus instead of driving. Also, they stress carpooling and have cab discounts of up to eighty-percent for employees, in the Dayton area.

Underground petroleum storage tanks has polluted Ohio’s drinking water. These leaks are of major concern because Petroleum products have chemicals and substances that cause many health problems, including cancer and brain/heart/lung damage. Young children are mainly vulnerable to these diseases. Almost half the dinking water in our nation comes from groundwater. Dayton Ohio gets most of their drinking water from underground. A tiny pinhole leak of a gallon of gasoline could possibly contaminate up to a million gallons of groundwater.

Ohio has 3,460 confirmed releases of gasoline and other petroleum leaks that have not been cleaned up, the nation’s 11th worst backlog. Nearly 700 are in northwest Ohio, including 179 in Lucas County and 76 in Wood County. Henry(2006). After twenty-two years, the most aggressive action known in history to prevent these underground storage tanks from further polluting the drinking water, $2.5 billion in gas-tax money is the start for a backlog of cleanups.

There are many affects on the people and the environment due to water and air pollution. Air pollution alone will cause thousands of premature deaths in United States within the next year. It can also affects a persons health through acid rain, causing pollution to drinking water and entering America’s food chain. Also, Global warming and climate change and seal level rise are caused from air pollutants. The nation needs to change its way of doing things and come up with better remedies to control the air and water quality, the lives of many people depend upon these changes.

What Makes A Good Essay

What makes an essay good? There are many elements that go into a well written comprehensible paper. A quality essay contains elements such as description and detail, thesis statement, exemplification, irony, and knowledge of your audience. A good essay is one that grabs the imagination of the reader. Anyone can write a quality essay following simple guidelines and steps.

I think that description and detail are one of the most important elements in writing an essay. If you have good description and supporting details you will develop and present a word picture for your reader. This makes for a far more interesting story. In “Thirty Eight Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call The Police”, the author Martin Gansberg got the story across in a descriptive way. He told the story three times with all different details leading up to the same ending. He wrote it so that the stabbing was clear and you could picture Catherine Genovese laying there at her apartment doorway, “At the second door, 82-62 Austin Street, he saw her slumped on the floor at the foot of the stairs.

(Pg. 99)” If you don’t have a good thesis your paper will not have structure. A thesis is always more than a title; it is an announcement of your intent or statement of fact. Although a descriptive title orients your readers, it is seldom detailed enough to reveal your essay’s purpose or direction. The essay “On Fire” has a well-written thesis that covers the whole essay. “You learn that you are only human flesh, not Superman, and that you can burn like a candle. (Pg. 243)” Another writing tool to make an essay good would be to have exemplification. Exemplification uses a single extended example or series of shorter examples to support the thesis. If you support your points with specific examples it makes it easier for the reader to follow. In “Just Walk On By” by Bent Staples, the author starts by describing a situation when he first started realizing people were affair of him. “To her, the youngish black man- abroad six feet two inches with a beard and billowing hair, both hands shoved in his pockets of a bulky military jacket- seemed menacingly close. After a few more quick glimpses, she picked up her pace and was soon running in earnest. (Pg.197)” Having irony in your paper makes it move interesting. Irony can be language that points to a discrepancy between two different levels of meanings. In “English I A Crazy Language”, the author Richard Lederer shows irony in the fact that he is making fun of the English language but he devoted his whole life to it. An example of this would be, “Why is it that a women can man a station but a man can’t women one, that a man can father a movement but a women can’t mother one, and that a king rules a kingdom but a queen doesn’t rule a queendom. (Pg. 193)” Knowing your audience is an additional important quality in essay writing. If you know your audience you can direct your language towards that group of people. Writers who are sensitive to their audience will carefully choose examples and illustrations that their reader will understand and respond to. In a “Peaceful Women Explains Why She Carries a Gun” the author directs her story towards women. She explain that most women might have to work hard to convince themselves of their abilities. Also handgun ownership need not turn into gunslingers but it can be part of believing in, and relying on ourselves for protection. “A pistol is not the only way to avoid being raped or murdered in today’s world, but, intelligently wielded, it can shift the balance of power and provide a measure of safety. (Pg. 301)” A good essay can capture your audience bring them into you’re world captivating and educating readers. Any writer can create quality essay by simply following steps and guidelines using your own creative ideas will read a good essay.

Technical manuals this essay have comcompared two different game manuals in communication techniques and in meeting its purpose.

Manual is a major channel for transmitting the information about the functions of the product and how to use it, and so on. Users buy the product for job or for fun, but the product does not do users any good unless users can understand how to use it to get a job done or have fun (Slatkin 1991, p1). It can be seen that the manual of a product is essential for the application of this product. If it’s a good manual, it may make full advantage of the product, even develop it and promote the sales. On the other hand, if it is a manual offering insufficient or wrong information, it may cause low productivity even accidents. In order to achieve the purpose of a manual, manuals are various from product to product in different areas, such as style, target, and so on. The purpose of a game manual is to enable its readers to perform certain actions, so that readers can play the game properly. This paper will discuss the differences between two game manuals, namely, Checkered Flag and Soccer Kid, by using Lockyer and Kaczmarek’s PAIBOC principles (Locker, KO. & Kaczmarek, SK, 2004, p2).

This essay will first discuss the word expression in these two manuals. In the following part, it will talk about the implication of image in game manuals. Next, it will compare the layout of these two game manuals. In the forth part, it will express some details which are not effective. Finally, it provides some recommendations.

First, audiences of these two games may various from age to age. However, the target audience of these two games should focus on children and teenagers who are keen to play games. For this group of people, they are good at imagination and thirst for new things, but not necessarily have high-level reading and comprehension skills. It was mentioned by Slatkin, E (1991, p15), it is very important to make sure that manual can provide users with tools to use in thinking and practicing with the new product in the correct and efficient way. The application of appropriate language is an important communication technique for in meeting this purpose. The manual of Checkered Flag uses easy-understanding English which shows the obvious process that easy to follow. Also there are lots of “you” appear in the manual, which gives a feel to audiences that just like study at school. Because the target audiences are children and teenagers, so it is a more acceptable way for them.

The written style of Soccer Kid is a little bit complex. It does have long sentences in the manual, which needs more patience and reading skills to achieve the meaning of this manual, especially for children (Cweeuro, JM., 2003). They may need to ask their parents for help. It can be seen that the manual of Soccer Kid does not work well as the manual of Checkered Flag, because to certain extent, the users of this game can not get the information of what they want directly.

Second, according to Locker and Kaczmarek (2004, p493), the audience’s retention rate brought by using visual image is as much as four times of simply using words. It can not be denied that lively and appropriate image is effective and efficient for transferring information. Moreover, children are very good at imagination. They are more sensitive to interesting diagrams and pictures. So for children, images are more attractive and useful.

The information like game options, how to start game, game back ground, and how to play game are all included in the manual of Checkered Flag and Soccer Kid (Riordan, DG. & Pauley, SE. 1999). However, they used two different ways to describe the information. The manual of Checkered Flag uses more diagrams but the manual of Soccer Kid uses more words to illustrate. After scanning the manual including 18 diagrams, it is easy to get the conclusion that Checkered Flag is a racing game. Because each diagram lively describes some important details of this game,, and all those 18 pictures clearly shows the process of how to operating it. Even for the non-literate children, those images are obvious and clear enough to follow and enjoy this game.

On the other hand, there are ten pages word introduction in the manual of Soccer Kid with only one diagram. Although it shows the full information of how to play this game in words, it does not take non-literate children into consideration. Furthermore, it needs not only the patience to finish reading this long manual, but also requires the ability to analysis and application. For children even teenagers, if they have another easy-following game, they may give up this boring-reading game.

Third, the color and layout of these two manual are different. The manual of Checkered Flag only have two pages, one is cover page, another one is context, but it uses lots of pictures and beautiful color on it. It looks more like a cartoon book rater than a manual, which can appeal more children. The manual of Soccer Kid have ten pages, which are cover page, table of contents, and context. And it is printed with only black and white color. This is a normal common manual which looks like a book (Manalok E. 1998).

When users first see these two manuals, how do they feel about it? One is looks like a cartoon book and another one is looks like a book (Cerruto, JM. 2003). Of course the users are children and teenagers, not adult or professors. Most children and teenagers like to watch cartoon and colorful images. So suppose that there are two manuals are given to a group of children, almost of them will be interested in Checkered flag. In fact, they are interested in the cartoon character and color images of the manual, but not the context. However, the purpose of Checkered Flag is achieved, which helps audiences read and understand how to play this game.

Last, although the manual of Checkered Flag is lively and well structured, it still has some drawbacks. As what does O stand for in PAIBOC principle (Locker, KO. 2004), what objections can be expected by the readers. The disadvantage of the manual of Checkered Flag is that it just attaches more importance on the pictures, but ignoring to design and print the word clearly. If there are some details unclear in the pictures, words illustration are required. However, it has another edition of this manual which has the clearly word illustration. If users can not understand the meaning of the manual, they can use this edition as supply.

By analyzing these two game manuals, it will give some recommendations. The manual can be designed several versions. For example, the manual can be designed as an electronic version with high technology, like a video. It is more suitable for both children who do not have many reading and comprehension skills and adult who are busy with work.

In conclusion, this essay discusses about the differences about two game manuals and talks about the disadvantages and advantages from four points of view. Generally speaking, the target audiences of game are children and teenagers. Then based on this suppose, this essay analyzes the drawbacks and merits. Both of these two game manuals use word and graph to illustrate how to play this game. However, these two game manuals using different design styles and focus on different fields. Because the users of these manuals are different, so it’s rather hard to say which one is good and which one is bad to those various audiences. However, by comparison of these two game manuals with the audience of children, the manual of Checkered Flag is better. This manual uses sufficient word and lively pictures to explain the process of how to play this game. Furthermore, it has the second version which provides clear word explanations. On the other hand, the manual of Soccer Kid just has word illustration with few pictures. The only one pictures of this manual is like a cover sheet without word illustration. Although it may achieve the purpose of game manuals, it is boring to read for adult, not mention teenagers and children. So it’s good to use different methods to make the manual attractive, no matter what kind of manual it is.

Narrative Essay on An Unforgettable Experience

During the December festive season almost every shopping and business complex is a

hive of activity. The last few days before Christmas are exceptionally busy days. Many

last minute shoppers scurry along from shop to shop in a last bid to complete their

shopping. unfortunately mum and I were also completing our shopping at Margate on

the last Saturday before christmas.

Hundreds of people were in the complex. Parking was at a premium. Fortunately we

went early and got a parking. We went about to complete our shopping. Shortly after

midday we had just entered a jewellery shop when all of a sudden there was a

tremendous explosion. My first thoughts were that it was an earthquake. My hair was

standing on ends.

I turned around and to my horror there were several people lying down with blood

around them. Slives of glass were strewn everywhere. Babies were howling. People

were running in all directions. The place was in a devastating condition. The police

were on the scene within minutes. There cordoned off the area. The paramedics arrived

soon after and attended to the injured. We were lucky that we were not injured.

After some two hours the police managed to bring the scene under control. Those

severely injured were transported to hospital. The explosion occurred as a result of a

bomb being placed in one of the stores. The police questioned us and from that we

were allowed to go home. This was an unforgettable experience although we were not

involved in injury.

Personality Essay

Personality Essay Every human being has a personality that will determine the limits of success. In order to understand what personality is let first define personality. According to the dictionary the definition of personality is the stable difference between people in the social, emotional and motivational characteristics. We use the word personality when describing others and ourselves. Personality can limit or expand option and choices of lives. It has also been said that personality is shape through environmental, learning, parental and developmental factors.

People developed different personality that can be can be studied through forces, factor and influences that shape personality. Different theories believe that personality is build on different factors such as the genetic, environmental factors, learning factors, parental factors and developmental factors.

The environmental factor acknowledges that personality is influences by social environment. According to Alder personality is influenced by our position in the family relative to that of our siblings. Horney believed the cultures and time period reared different personalities. Fromm believed that historical forces and events influence people and as well as by the kind of society they construct. Ethnic background and culture influences our personality also differs in the gender and ethnic. According to Uba (1994) Southeast Asian cultures belief in supernatural spirits and in communicating with the deceased family members, is widely accepted there. While in the American cultures it is a disbelieve and lead to a misinterpretation of their personality to be delusional. Or gender, for example, it has been found that women tend to score lower than men do on test measuring assertiveness (Feingold, 1994). The difference may be that sex-role training in North American cultures traditionally teaches girls not to assert themselves. People from other countries have different values, religions and living standards and many more things that can affect their personalities which in effect can change our opinion about their personalities.

Other Theorist said that learning plays a major role influencing virtually very aspect of our behavior. According to Skinner learning variables influences personality such as positive reinforcement. Parental factors also emphasize personality. Freud believed in psychosexual stages of development influences once personality.

Theorists have their own ideas what personality is. The combination of all factors form personality. Each and every one of us develops our own unique personality. We can learn it from our parents, when we are imitating them, building relationship with them or observing them. From our experiences in the social world when we encounter a social situation that requires us to interact with new people, we forms a judgment about personality of other people while they are making similar judgments about us. These decisions are what shape our personalities and lives. Through these experiences is how we characterize people; by using words such as nice, affectionate, trusting, moody and tolerant.

Nevertheless everybody teaches or learns in different ways and constructs their own opinion about their personalities and it is that opinion and characteristic those can forms every once unique personality.

Racism And The Mass Media

”Identify an ideology dominant in Australian culture. Using specific print and broadcast media examples, articulate its message, assumptions and values as fully as possible to show how this ideology is reinforced.

Why (and to whom) might dominance of these values be a problem? Media, whether it be print or broadcast is eminently influential. This is largely because of the abundant nature of media in a developed society. Societies such as Australia particularly depend on media and more commonly television broadcasting as their primary reference to knowledge of current affairs in local communities, the state, country and on a global scale (Coupe, B et. al, 1992). Consequently, this dependence on media as a source of information can and has lead to the guidance of idealistic views (whether they be detrimental or meritorious) within a societal group. It is therefore perceivable why ideologies such as racism have been adopted by societies globally.

This essay will enquire into the ways in which, and the consequences of media influence on the ideologies of the world at large.

Racism in itself is difficult to define alone. Rather, there are two different definitions that should be incorporated into one. That is, racial prejudice (the views, perspectives and demeanor directed at those of disparate races) and racial discrimination (the refusal of equal treatment and rights to a specific racial group) should be combined to constitute the meaning of racism. Therefore, racism alone can be defined as a complete system of social organisation that operates upon the thriving philosophy of racial superiority (Dowdney and Michels, 1987).

Although racism may seem barbaric in nature and somewhat insignificant due to the small minority of those who practice it in a devoted manner, it is certainly a matter that is of large multitude. McGuinness (1999) makes certain that racism as an ideology in predominant in Australian society. He constructs a case study that comprises of a group of Aboriginals being denied taxi services by the driver. To the common Australian, the taxi driver is refusing his service as a result of his racial prejudice. However, it eventuated that the Aboriginals were being denied taxi services due to their drunkenness. Perhaps this is because of the drivers past experiences with Aboriginals. McGuinness then points out that “there is more than one form of racism; to assume that a group of Aborigines is being discriminated against by a taxi driver because they are Aborigines not because they are drunk is racist, too.” Thus, racism can now be seen as a dominant ideology (McGuinness, P, 1999) Racism as an ideology in Australian culture has been subject to manipulation by the print media. As the assumed audiences of newspapers such as “the Australian” are Anglo Australians belonging to middle to upper class societal backgrounds, indigenous persons are almost “shunned” from society by representations within various articles and pictures. For example, an article in the Australian on the 20th February 1993 called “Black Horizon” examines reconciliation between whites and Aborigines. However, photographic images displayed with the commentary depict inner city Aboriginal children who seem to be culturally uneducated along with a drunken Aboriginal man. This photograph is an “in-your-face” description of how Anglo Australians perceive Aboriginals to be. Thus, print media has made no attempt to portray Aboriginal views or renditions of, as they have only depicted images that further distance affluent Anglo-Saxon readers from “poverty stricken” and “uncultured” Aborigines (Jakubowicz and Senevirantne 1996).

The broadcasting facet of media also reinforces racism as a dominant ideology in Australia. According to a survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (1994) about how the “typical’ Australian occupies his/her time, we (on average) spend around two hours per day listening to broadcast radio. It was also observed in Cunningham and Turner’s (1997) works that about three hours per day are allocated to watching television or video. Thus, it is now obvious that broadcast television is extremely influential to society by noting the sheer amount of time devoted to listening and watching broadcast media.

John Ellis (1992) claims that broadcast television guides society’s idealistic views, whether they are racist, consumerist or any other ideology. He evidences his claim by addressing the notion of the nuclear family. The nuclear family consists of a mother (who is a homemaker) a breadwinning father and two school-aged children. This particular idealistic view of a family has influenced Australia in such a way that even in today’s contemporary lifestyle, one still envisions a typical family as that of a nuclear family that have been depicted in broadcast television shows such as “the Simpson’s.” On account of this, racism, which is also an idealistic view, can also be transmitted through broadcast media. This can occur through news media messages, advertising, sitcoms and other forms of broadcast.

Unfortunately, Australia’s dominant racist ideology is problematic and must therefore be adhered to immediately. The fundamental reason why racism is so damaging can be explained in two points of view. Firstly, “whites” may adopted a pessimistic view about those of other races and further, those belonging to ethic races may eventually accede to these views. However, it is erroneous to suggest that the mass media is the principal institution to blame for this social obstacle. Statistics about this matter often disguise the real facts in a bias manner. According to Dennis Howitt (1982), “It is, at the very least, clumsy and ill-conceived to take statistics about the content of the mass media as a sign of how the viewer will respond. The audience may not see the mass media’s content in the same way as the content analyst’s statistics.” Thus, it is important that we consider locating additional reliable and un-biased evidence before we accuse media of forcing racism as an ideology upon us.

It can now be observed that racism is definitely a dominant idealistic view within Australia and many other countries. However, it is arguable that these types of views are guided by or asserted upon us by the print and broadcast mediums. On the one hand, media is highly influential as it is exposed to Australians on a daily basis so much that it has become part of Anglo and Non-Anglo Australian culture. Yet, on the other hand, it is unreasonable to establish such an accusation on the basis of possible bias statistics. Instead of electing which argument is accurate, one must begin to consider how society should approach the eradication of such a fascist ideology.

Progress…this essay was used as the essay for college applications as well as the essay on scholarship applications…discusses the meaning of the word progress

America is a great country recording giant strides in social, economic, and cultural progress. America is a country in which every person has the opportunity to succeed and grow to improve from themselves and society. Today’s youth have learned from generations before us that it takes hard work, determination, and dedication to be successful in life. We are taught at an early age to set goals and try to improve our standard of living. Without continual progress in our American society we wouldn’t be able to further cultivate America’s future together.

Progress is best defined by Webster’s Dictionary as, “a forward or onward movement (as to an objective or to a goal) or gradual betterment.” Through progress America is still working to achieve a better life for its entire people.

Winston Churchill once said, “Everyday you may make progress. Every step may be fruitful. Yet there will stretch out before you an ever-lengthening, ever-ascending, ever-improving path. You know you will never get to the end of the journey. But this, so far from discouraging, only adds to the joy and glory of the climb.” I believe Churchill’s statement strongly reflects the view of American society in that every day, month, or year that goes by in some way people are looking to progress. America’s people are always looking for a better life for themselves, which makes America, progress as a whole. For example a team is only as strong as its weakest link, and if the weakest player doesn’t have the drive to work harder and get better then the team won’t be as successful. In the terms of American society, if the little factory man doesn’t want to work harder for more opportunity in life, the American society won’t be as strong.

In America, in order to live better life that, we have already been living one must progress day after day. We, as people, progress like a tree growing high on a mountain top. If we become anxious and grow too fast without first properly rooting ourselves, we become susceptible to being torn up and whipped by the winds of agitation. If, however we are content to grow slow and establish a proper foundation our roots will be strong and we will enjoy a long life and a lofty view.

Progress is the life-style of man. The general life of the human race is called progress, and so is its collective march. Progress advances, it makes the great human and their journey towards what is divine admirable. Through progress, we can cultivate America’s future together as past generations have already accomplished.

America is progressing day by day with new technology, better medicines, and even better education. I strongly believe that the society in which we live is gradual developing for the better. Take for example our computer systems, televisions, or telephones. 50 years ago people only dreamt of computers being a household product with the connection to the world at our fingertips. Televisions were once only a want, now Americans view the television as a necessity or way of life. In the past telephones were only a household need, but now America’s society has placed a high demand for cellular phones and people being able to reach people at any time during the day. It’s evident that America has the possibility to progress and develop in any way its just all dependent on the people.

As a youth of America in order to grow our future together, we must first realize what made us the country, we are today and how we intend to progress. Together our society will continue to grow technologically, socially, economically, and by our cultures. Only as a whole civilization will America’s future continue to develop and grow as time progresses. Thomas Edison once said, “Restlessness and discontent are the first necessities of progress.” Without our prior generations setting the stage for accepting nothing less than the best for our society, we wouldn’t be half the country we are today. It is our duty as the future of America to continue the progress of growth in molding our future generations as our ancestors has done. Without a struggle, we wouldn’t we able to progress leaving our future with the strong work ethic that has supported us.

Lord of the Flies by William Golding

Coursework “We’ve got to have rules and obey them. After all we’re not savages.” This essay is about the above statement which was said by Jack in chapter 2. The essay is going to be about Jack’s character, the move to savagery and how William Golding presents this book to us. The statement does not really portray the real character of Jack because throughout the first few chapters Jack is described to be the one who likes savagery, violence and power. The book constantly tells us that there are two sides to human nature: The instinct to follow rules and live in order or break the rules and live like savages. The boys arrived on a desolated island because their plane had been shot down and they had to be abandoned on this island. Two of the boys, Ralph and Piggy find a conch on the beach and use it to call the other boys on the island. A mass of black marched towards Ralph in a single file and their leader, Jack Merridew, stood out from the rest because of a golden badge on his cap. Right from the start we see Jack as being a natural leader as he is always in control of the choir and treats them like slaves. Jack snaps at them to stand at attention, “Choir! Stand still!” This quotation was said in chapter 1 and it supports the idea of him being in charge of the choir. Jack comes up with the idea of him being chief to lead the whole group of boys. He says that he ought to be chief because he is the leader of the choir and has the skills of being a leader, but the boys decide to vote for a chief. Only the choir votes for Jack showing their obedience towards Jack but all the rest vote for Ralph meaning Ralph was the chief of all the boys on the island. “The freckles on Jack’s face disappeared under a blush of mortification.” This tells us that Jack is very angry about this and it is very foreign to him that he is not a leader. The anger on Jack’s face gets to Ralph and he offers Jack to be the leader of the choir and they can be his army or hunters. This is the turning point where Jack wants to hunt and be savage. Jack starts to treat Piggy differently. The first thing Jack says to Piggy is “Shut up Fatty” and everyone starts laughing. His first impressions of him aren’t very good and Jack will keep treating him like this throughout the book because he isn’t the same as the other boys. Jacks’ behaviour changes from the point where the three boys find a piglet during their exploration of the island. Jack quickly draws out his knife but does not stab the pig. His failure to do so makes him angry and fills him up with fury. He says that that next time he will show no mercy and he stabs the knife into a tree trunk. This point in the book sets off the evil within Jack because from this point forward all he wants to do is hunt and be savage. The conch has a very big significance in the book. It is a symbol of safety, unity, democracy and a symbol of leadership. The conch is made as an item all the boys will give their attention to. During the second meeting the boys have decided that the conch should be in someone’s hand for them to have a right to speak. The conch is order and civilization and without it would be anarchy amongst the boys. The mountain is a place where the boys decide to make the fire so it is the place which could help them to be rescued from the island. The beast came into the boys’ minds when a mulberry birthmark boy told everyone about his fears about a “snake thing” or a “beastie.” This imaginary beast frightens all the boys and is a symbol of savagery which exists within every human being. As the boys grow more savage during the course of the book their belief in the beast grows stronger. Jack becomes a primal hunter and his desire for hunting gets very high as he tries to find a pig through the jungle. He spends all day trying to find a pig and gets very close to the island in doing so. “his nose only a few inches from the humid earth” This quote tells us that Jack has turned very savage and has drifted away from society. Since the beginning, the boys have bullied Piggy whenever they needed to feel powerful and important. By chapter 4, their bullying of Piggy intensifies and Jack hits him breaking one lens of his glasses and then mimics his voice to humiliate Piggy even further. “Jus’ you wait – yah!” Jack’s desire for killing a pig is fulfilled in chapter 4 when he and the hunters finally find a pig. They quickly surround the pig and Jack cuts its throat. During this little adventure the hunters’ language changes. When they killed the pig they spoke in tri-syllabic chants, “Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Spill her blood.” A tri-syllabic chant is a chant that is chanted in three parts. This change of language shows their potential of being savage. Jack’s behaviour changes during and after the hunt of the pig. He becomes more savage and gets drunk with bloodlust because of his obsession of killing the pig and the chants are another way to show him becoming savage. These kinds of chants produce a military rhythm and were chanted by wild men centuries ago. Jack is chanting them now which means that he is bringing savagery from the past into their lives today and it is going to turn them like the wild men. Jack, possessed with the idea of killing a pig, camouflages his face with dirt and mud from the ground to help him kill the pig. When he returns from the jungle he is covered with blood of the pig making him look barbaric. This sort of change in appearance is another type of move to savagery and atavism. Jack’s bloodlust and thirst for power have overwhelmed his interest in civilisation. In conclusion, the move from civilised to savagery is William Golding’s main message. The evil within a human soul can take over and move the person away from civilisation and into savagery. In the first meeting the boys chose a leader, Ralph, whom they would follow but after a few chapters most of the boys play or want to hunt like Jack. At the start everyone wanted to build society but after Jack overtook the camp everyone wants to go back to savagery. This implies in our communities and that everyone can be evil.

Free College Admissions Essays: I’m Ready to Take English to the Next Level

It is with great excitement that I submit my application to your university’s

English department for the Bachelor’s degree program. Following is a brief

autobiography, submitted in fulfillment of part of the university’s application

requirements.

I began to study English over ten years ago, and rapidly developed a strong

interest towards the language. Soon after, I was introduced to an American-based

company, the Light House Bookstore, which provides our community with both English

instructional books, and language lessons. During one of my frequent visits to this

bookstore, I discovered that a small church occupied the second floor of the building, the

Lotung Church of Christ. After many visits, and my eventual conversion to the Christian

faith, I took every opportunity to attend church events and gatherings to speak with other

American members, and quickly became good friends with many of them.

I never lost my interest in the Light House Bookstore however. After many

months of study there, I quickly discovered how much easier it was to learn English in an

environment that provided many opportunities to converse with native speakers and share

different ideas. Unfortunately, my earlier studies in English were not very stimulating to

say the least. I and other classmates found many formal methods to be ineffective, which

only increased our frustration with learning process, not to mention making it a subject

increasingly difficult to pass. However, I attempted to make this experience positive, and

began to research other teaching methods that focused more on the primary interests of

the student of English, rather than any specific methods. Three years later I decided to go

abroad to pursue formal studies in English Language education, planning to improve and

develop the style and level of English teaching within Taiwan upon my return.

My work experience reflects a diversity of positions, and a dedication to learning

the English language throughout. After my high school graduation, I served as a clerk at a

company that supplied automated test equipment to computer manufacturers. In addition

to mastering all of my specific responsibilities, I was soon offered additional work as a

translator and interpreter for the company. Such duties eventually led me to attend one of

the state’s largest trade shows in 1993, and provided me with an invaluable opportunity

to test my language skills in a professional environment. At the date of this writing, I

have accumulated over three years of both hands-on work experience and use of the

English language in a diversity of situations, and feel I am now adequately prepared to

pursue my university studies abroad.

The majority of my American friends come from areas of the western United

States such as California, Washington and Colorado. Indeed, because I have heard so

much about this area of the country, and have the fortune to know many friends and

acquaintances there, it is been my goal to study in an environment with which I am

already somewhat acquainted.

My dedication and interest towards learning English is evidenced by over eight

years of study, both in formal and natural environments. Thus, I realize the importance

of my decision to continue studies at the university level, and would greatly appreciate

the opportunity to achieve my future goals at your university.

Compare and Contrast Essay about “Sunrise” by Claude Monet and other impressionists

For my compare and contrast essay I have chosen the painting “Sunrise” by Claude Monet. Claude Monet is an impressionist who painted with stress on color and light. Monet painted the “Sunrise” in 1872. This is during the time where impressionism was at its most potent.

The scene is of a body of water possibly a river, with row boats on it. The time of day seems to be dawn when the sun is just rising over the horizon. Monet uses brush strokes to make shapes but in contrast there are no real definite shapes. He uses shades of blue to capture the light on the earth as the sun rises. Orange is used above the sun to show the sun rays beaming through the darkness.

The texture of the painting seems to be rough because of the paint strokes and you can see the difference between the depths of each stroke. His stroke use in this work reminds me of the stroke work in Vincent Van Gogh’s, “Self Portrait with Gray Hat”. Van Gogh’s stroke work is very visible and seems to be of a rough texture.

There is a rhythm to the waves in the water apparently being produced by the boats. The painting is asymmetric in balance. Both sides of the scene are not exactly alike so the work is not symmetric. On the other hand, the colors used to depict the land, sky and water are balanced in a way that nothing looks out of place. If Monet were to put a green tree in the middle of all the bluish-purple trees then the painting would not be balanced and the tree would be out of place. However, all the colors used are uniformed and blend into each other. I believe that Monet was just giving us a glimpse of what he sees. In the morning I imagine that these boats are filled with fishermen going out into the waters to work all day and bring home food for there families.

The painting that I chose to compare Monet’s “Sunrise” with is Edgar Degas’, “The Ballet Class”. Edgar Degas is also categorized as an impressionist. Degas painted this work of art between the years of 1879-1880.

At looking at this piece compared to “Sunrise”, I immediately see that Degas’ subjects are more defined and more detailed, unlike Monet’s, where you assume the sex and the business of the subjects. Monet is not really focusing on the subject but the painting as a whole to tell a story, where Degas’ ballerinas, instructor and bystander tells the story of what is happening.

Strokes in the painting, “The Ballet Class”, are not as obvious as the stroke work in “Sunrise”. In Degas’ work, ballerinas are in class with an apparent teacher and an on-looker. This scene of the ballerinas is inside a building and looking outside the window in the painting it seems to be daytime. This is opposite of Monet’s work where it is obviously set in the outdoors and at sunrise. “The Ballet Class” is balanced asymmetrically because of the different groups people on each side of the room. The colors are a lot brighter in this work. He uses whites, yellows, light blues, browns and pinks. He also uses a wider array of colors than Monet.

Both of the works are oil on canvass. Obviously Degas had stretched out his work and Monet did not. You can tell this by comparing the details between the two pieces. Monet’s work is smaller than Degas’.

I personally like both works. I like Monet’s sunrise because of the natural colors of the sun rising. I like Degas because it is light and detailed. They are both successful in being works of art. No one artist is the exact copy of another. If all impressionists were the same, would it be art. I think not. Art is a way of expressing one’s self thoughts and feelings. If artists just copied each other there would be no expression. So, yes, each of these art works of art. Monet’s painting gives me the sense of serenity. It is always so quiet and calm in the morning especially before everybody wakes up. It is so very peaceful. Degas work gives me a sense of being an onlooker. I actually do not really get an emotion looking at this piece. I think that it is beautiful and very good. However, it gives me no emotion what so ever. I guess over all that I enjoy “Sunrise” more than “The Ballet Class”, that is if I had to choose. The reason I would choose Monet over Degas is because of the emotion that I feel. I am led by emotions when it comes to art and Degas’ did not lead me anywhere.

Critical Analysis of Business & Medicine Ethically

Abstract

In the book Taking Sides, authors Lisa Newton and Maureen Ford present an issue “Are business and medicine ethically incompatible.” Professor of medicine, Arnold S. Relman’s analysis of “What Market Values are doing in Medicine” is used to present a case for ‘yes’ they are incompatible. Assistant Professor of business, Andrew C. Wicks analysis of Albert Schweitzer or Ivan Boesky, “Why we should reject the Dichotomy between Medicine and Business is used to present a case for ‘no’ they are not incompatible. I will analyze these two works, noting credibility, thesis statement, facts and opinions, problems and propaganda, and logical errors in each individually. The argument against incompatibility is very compelling; nonetheless, it fails to address the possibilities for misconduct that a medicine and business model posses. Without resolving these specific concerns, we must be cautious about buying into Mr. Wick’s theory that they are not only compatible, but also similar.

Critical Analysis of Business & Medicine Ethically

Analysis of Albert Schweitzer/Ivan Boesky? Why We Should Reject the Dichotomy between Medicine and Business

Credibility:

Andrew C. Wicks the author is an assistant professor at the University of Washington School of Business. A work of his was originally published in the Journal of Business Ethics, volume 14 (1995). His profession and the respect afforded his work by the Journal of Business Ethics make him credible on the topic of ethics and business. He states early that his approach to this subject is that of an ethicist trained to reflect on normative issues.

Thesis:

Andrew Wicks outlines the premise his work is built on with his thesis statement, “My underlying goal is to help reconceptualize how we think about both medicine and business, and in doing so, reshape how we approach the ‘American healthcare crisis.’”

Facts and Opinions:

It is a well known fact that our healthcare needs reform through cutting costs, reducing waste, spurring innovation, recognizing scarcity, avoiding replication of services and expensive technologies, educating physicians to be more active gate-keepers of health services, increasing access and minimizing costs. After acknowledging the need for renovation and reform, the author moves on to refute the oppositions rejection of the business model by correcting misinterpreted terms. We are accurately reminded, “self interest is a concept different from selfishness and greed, and that the former is perfectly compatible with serving other moral ends while the latter is not.”

Mr. Wicks does an effective job in convincing us to share his opinion that the way people view medical ethics should be tempered somewhat, along with people’s view of business ethos. He does this by pointing out that very few physicians are capable of the altruistic ethic imposed on them and very few businesspersons are selfish and greedy, as some have implied. The truth about motives, regardless of profession, lies somewhere between the two extreme views, and it would be beneficial to the healthcare system and patients to recognize this reality. With this recognition we can begin to agree that combining ethics and self-interest is about rehabilitating our extreme views and adopt a new view or ‘moral code’ that makes trust, respect for others, decency and fair play central concepts that can and should be applied to both medicine and business individually and cooperatively.

Problems and Propaganda:

I want to say it is oversimplified – which is true if you try to apply this moral code as the solution to the specific issues of conflict of interest. However, the real problem is that it only addresses an individual piece of the issue. The author is working from the side of business to develop a kinder view of business; he does not address any potential conflict of interest issues.

Logical Fallacies:

A double standard exists as Mr. Wicks points out that the oppositions concerns regarding the cost of the commercialization of medicine create an over simplistic picture, while his own work is based on a single point that innately oversimplifies the medicine and business model issues. In addition, he has thrown a couple of meaningless statements into this work. Included in the meaningless statements is this one where he says the only difference between the medical model and the business model is that the medical model encourages over treatment whereas the business model encourages under treatment. This theory-based generalization is not supported by common knowledge or a single example. Later he makes the same error when he says that when treatments are being offered, they are also being denied, thus implying that there only a fixed number of any specific treatments available to the public. My guess is that he was intending to state that healthcare money is tight, too tight to give everyone every test and service.

Merk’s story was good to hear, though it offered nothing to disprove the opposition’s argument. It was an empty category. The debate is not about whether or not businesses can make humane decisions, it is about who should make healthcare decisions or healthcare facility decisions, doctors or business persons; and can physicians be objective clinicians when they have personally vested interests in healthcare facilities and research programs.

A selective sample is considered when saying the physician benefits which patients are provided aggressive and excessive care. Though this may hold true for some specialties, it does not hold true for most primary care providers’. Third party payers frequently give these physicians a flat fee based on the number patients they serve. This fee is the same regardless of the level of care or number of visits a patient receives. In addition, Mr. Wicks makes the procedural error of arguing in a circle; he does this by reaffirming the same argument throughout the essay.

Though Mr. Wicks notes that this new view of medicine and business is not a healthcare reform fix-all, he does imply that this modified mindset will fix a lot. However, the only points he makes an effort prove are the ones pertaining our views of medical ethics and business ethos. He shifts the burden of proof on all other claims made in this work.

Analysis of What Market Values Are Doing In Medicine

Credibility:

The author, Arnold S. Relman is considered credible, as he is both a physician and a professor of medicine. As a professor of medicine, he is expected to maintain a keen knowledge of clinical healthcare and the business of practicing medicine. Recognizing that to some extent, this critical analysis of nine-year-old work presents an unfair means of judgment and it’s own type of logical error, I will nonetheless move forward with the analysis.

Thesis:

Dr. Relman’s thesis statement is as follows; “Physicians have enjoyed a privileged position in our society, virtually assuring them of a high social status and a good living. They have been accorded these privileges in the expectation that they will remain competent and trustworthy and will faithfully discharge the fiduciary responsibility to patients proclaimed in their ethical codes.”

Facts and Opinions:

One fact noted in support of this incompatibility case is the declaration made by the American Medical Association in their Principles of Medical Ethics “In the practice of medicine a physician should limit the source of his professional income to medical services actually rendered by him, or under his supervision, to his patients.” Though not a law, this declaration, written in 1957, clearly exhibits the ethically belief among peers that physicians should not receive financial gain in the field of medicine beyond that received through their own patient care services. Dr. Relman also wanted the fact known that there is an absence of regulations and laws prohibiting physicians from becoming owners, investors and/or contract staff of healthcare facilities, services or allied healthcare businesses. This was of little concern many years ago, but has becomes a concern with technological advances, an increase in investor owned healthcare facilities, and pharmaceutical company inducements and contracts.

Dr. Relman begins his case for concern by prefacing it with the opinion that “professionalism among self employed private practitioners thrives when there is more than enough to do. When there isn’t competition for patients and worry about income tend to undermine professional values and influence professional judgment.” He then goes on to note that there is an excess of healthcare providers and facilities at this time. Having implied an open opportunity for misconduct, Dr. Relman goes on to state there is an abundance of proprietorship, investor, and contract opportunities available to these physicians. He plainly states his opinion that physician owned medical businesses create a conflict of interest that inhibit physicians’ ability to adhere to fiduciary relationships with their patients.

Problems and Propaganda:

Mine is better displayed in combination with resistance to change as the history of the Hippocratic oath, Maimonides’ prayer, the International Code of the World Medical Organization, American Medical Society guidelines, and the de facto contract with society are all offered up as supporting evidence for the case for incompatibility. In actuality, these sources display only two things, the historical and traditional ethic of medicine, and the adherence of that ethic by many peers and peer organizations. However, I do not believe the error of an illogical argument based on tradition is present since substantial cause for concern regarding the mix of medicine and business is noted throughout his work. In fact, enough cause for concern is presented to cast doubt on presence of the mine is better and the resistance to change problems if it were not for the obvious ‘either or thinking’ fallacy. This either or thinking is evident by the absence of any alternative solutions.

An unwarranted assumption was implied. It goes like this – without the medical ethic, many physicians’ motives could not be trusted, and many commercial vendors have no concern for anything beyond profitability. Though both implications may hold true for some, they by no means hold true for enough to warrant this implications.

Relevant information omitted in the accusation that consumers are unaware of conflicts of interests when physicians under contract with pharmaceutical companies present information or perform relevant patient care services. Federal and local medical associations require full disclosure to patients and audiences, thus any physician failing to do this makes himself liable for a lawsuit.

Logical Fallacies:

The statement “[i]f physicians are entrepreneurs and hospitals and healthcare facilities are businesses, then paying patients will get more care than they need and poor patients will get less” displays the logical error of absolutism and is not believable as stated. First, third party payers keep physicians in check through pre-authorization requirements and/or tracking of individual referral practices. Second, the poorest among us get full healthcare coverage through Department of Health and Social Services or Medicaid. The most likely to ‘get less’ is the uninsured patient.

An overgeneralization is made in combination with stereotyping when it is said “[o]ur

healthcare system is inadequate, inefficient, and too expensive.” I have spent years volunteering and observing the labor, pains, and victories of hospital staff as they utilize Total Quality Management, Continuous Quality Improvement, Statistical Process Control and Health Tracks to maximize efficiencies and quality of care in our current healthcare market. Therefore, I know some facilities are providing quality care while maximizing material and human resources in addition to charging appropriate fees for services.

The burden of proof shifts in several areas. In particular it shifts in the over generalized statement that not-for-profit community hospitals are reluctant to provide free services to the needy as they increasingly see themselves as beleaguered businesses. While it is true, these community hospitals are struggling, no evidence is provided to support this statement.

Hasty conclusions are made; some are due to concerns about commercial vendors and some are out of fear of deterioration of the fiduciary relationship society expects from their heath care providers. The overriding hasty conclusion is the one mentioned earlier; with the mine is better attitude the author assumes that there is nothing to be found in business that would be beneficial to the practice of medicine or patient care.

Conclusion:

Mr. Wicks makes a very good argument for reconsidering how we frame medicine and business and how a combined moral code could be a more realistic and appropriate way to approach both fields individually and in combination. He asks us to put on this new mindset as we look for answers on how to provide effective solutions to issues through healthcare reform. He falls short in achieving his goal of reshaping how we approach healthcare reform.

Dr. Relman shows us physician peer organizations recommend that physicians not become owners in medical businesses beyond their own practices; however there is nothing in place to ensure physicians complies with this recommendation. Physician owned businesses; shares of businesses and contracts create potential conflicts of interests for patients, and compromise physicians’ abilities to maintain fiduciary relationships with patients. Though he fails to convince me that physicians are altruistic, he did convince me that careful thought should be given to the regulation of physicians’ business activities.

Neither author was able to refute the others argument because one is discussing apples, the other oranges. I agree with Mr. Wicks’ reality check on motives. Physicians and businesspersons are more alike than different, however he paints a picture that implies most of us are trustworthy, so all of us should be trusted. This argument is appealing but naive and foolish. Physicians have within their hands the lives of our parents, our spouses, our children, our best friends, and our selves. The trust and power they hold calls them to a higher level of responsibility and caution. Opportunities for misconduct are plentiful, and measures should be taken to minimize them. Mr. Wicks’ concepts seem framed and tailored for the encapsulated health maintenance organization, but seem unsuitable for most of the issues discussed by the opposition, Dr. Relman.

In the following essay, I will examine the development of Plath’s poetry through analysis of major themes and imagery found in her description of landscapes, seascapes, and the natural world.

Essay about Reconciliation with the past in “the Lord of the Rings” trilogy by J.R. Tolkien

Reconciliation with the past is a major theme throughout Tolkien’s trilogy, and the gap between the powerful, undying beings of the past and the mortal men of the present and future is starkly evident when the characteristics of the ancient domains are held up against the kingdoms of men. In the first book of The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien creates a rhythmic fluctuation between pleasure and disquietude, which gives the novel an almost serial quality as the characters go back and forth from imminent danger to homely safety. As the story progresses beyond the breaking of the Fellowship in the next two novels, however, the distinction between peril and safety becomes increasingly blurred. The havens of western Middle Earth described in The Fellowship of the Ring are maintained by ancient, well-established beings like Tom Bombadil, Elrond and Galadriel whose power is strong within their own respective lands, but these figures of the past are only remnants of a dying age. Bombadil is at the extremity of natural history while Elrond and Galadriel represent the original adversaries of the Enemy, and the preeminence of all three, especially the elves, is destined to fade with the coming of the Fourth Age, the Age of Man.

When the Fellowship is intact, the elder havens that provide respite from their perilous journey are undisputed strongholds which no evil can penetrate, but the bastions farther east that the broken Fellowship encounters are much more unstable and guarded by mortal men rather than the ancient, powerful beings. At this point, the story enters fully into the world of men, where elves are viewed with suspicion and the balance between good and evil is in perpetual physical contention. The two great kingdoms of mankind, Gondor and Rohan, are susceptible to the evil powers of Middle Earth as their rulers, Denethor and Theoden, are indirectly influenced by Sauron and Saruman respectively. Compared to the Eden-like Lorien and Rivendell, “the Last Homely House east of the Sea,” (I, 272) the bastions of man seem pitiful, but they are to be the bulwarks of the new age. The relative inactivity of the archaic guardians is indicative of the fact that the past must be left behind so that the men of the future can forge ahead unfettered by atavistic nostalgia.

Tom Bombadil is the self-proclaimed eldest denizen of Middle Earth, “Mark my words my friends: Tom was here before the river and the trees; Tom remembers the first raindrop and the first acorn,” (I, 168) and his power is demonstrated by his ability to compel Old Man Willow to release the hobbits and the fact that he is unaffected by the Ring. At the Council of Elrond, Gandalf explains that Tom’s unique place in history does not give him power over the Ring, it is just that, “the Ring has no power over him,” (I, 318). Since Tom existed before the forging of the Ring, and even before Sauron himself, he is essentially a remnant of a long forgotten past. Even Elrond must jog his memory to recall the many names of the cheery creature who never took part in the wars against the Enemy. Bombadil provides an element to the story that goes back farther than the Elder Days, and he is, therefore, not an active participant in the War of the Ring, as he only helps the four hobbits while they are within the borders of his land. After Tom leaves the hobbits, they find themselves pursued by the Nine Riders, and protection from this danger comes at Rivendell, which is protected by the aged half-elven Elrond.

Elrond, who is one of the select few beings to have faced Sauron directly, is ancient by any mortal measure, but he is not primeval like Bombadil. Having already taken part in a physical assault on Mordor in the Second Age, Elrond’s place in the War of the Ring is as an advisor, not a fighter. His years on Middle Earth have given him a Ring of Power and the ability to maintain a bastion against evil in the shadow of the Misty Mountains, but his power beyond his domain goes only in the form of advice. Despite his extensive wisdom and prowess, when asked if he or any of the other Elf-lords have the strength to withstand Sauron, Elrond’s response is, “I have not the strength…neither have they,” (I, 319). These powerful Elf-lords, who had defeated Sauron and his master in the past, are no longer able to contend with him directly, because the age of their power is passing and the future is in the hands of men and the little men as Elrond states, “This is the hour of the Shire-folk, when they arise from their quiet fields to shake the towers and counsels of the great,” (I, 324). Galadriel, whose haven and power is even more lustrous than Elrond’s, is still in essentially the same position as the half-elven.

Tolkien’s descriptions of Galadriel’s Lorien on which “no shadow lay” (I, 413) make it a veritable Eden, “a timeless land that did not fade or change or fall into forgetfulness,” (I, 415). Frodo’s observations are not wholly accurate, however, as he himself recognizes the fact that this land is from the distant past, “it seemed to him that he had stepped over a bridge of time into a corner of the Elder Days, and was now walking in a world that was no more,” (I, 413). With her ring and ancient knowledge of the Eldar, Galadriel is able to preserve the unstained glory of the forest, but the Ring-bearer’s ominous perception hints at the fact that the blissful stasis of Lorien is doomed to fade with the destruction of the One Ring. Even though her power is comparable to Sauron’s, Galadriel herself knows that Frodo’s quest signifies the end of her forest kingdom, and she accepts this fate with dignity, “I will diminish, and go into the West, and remain Galadriel,” (I, 432). After this last and greatest haven, the Fellowship breaks and the survivors go their separate routes into the precarious kingdoms of men.

A noble kingdom over 500 years old, Rohan has endured for a long time in the eyes of men, while to elves like Legolas it has been “but a little while,” (II, 132). Although Wormtongue impedes the muster of the Riders of Rohan, once Theoden’s army is fully mobilized, it is a force to be reckoned with and probably outclasses any other army of men besides that of Gondor. From the vantage of the ancient elves, a culture and kingdom were established only a short while ago that gained ascendancy almost immediately. The slow progression of elvish time is already giving way to the short lives and generations of mankind. With a powerful army, Theoden is able to hold Helm’s Deep against Saruman’s larger army, but the mortal man is unable to bar evil from his kingdom like Bombadil and the Elf-lords. Men, who are destined to rule Middle Earth with the passing of the elves, cannot isolate themselves like the ancient beings and must directly face the elements of their environment be they good or evil. While Rohan is young in elvish time, the men of Gondor can trace their lineage back to the Numenoreans at the beginning of the Second Age, which precedes the initial forging of the Rings of Power.

When Pippin first sees the inner circles of Minas Tirith, he is overawed by its splendor, but the impressionable hobbit does not realize that the city is depopulated and “in truth falling year by year into decay,” (III, 25). The men of Gondor, under the shadow of Sauron’s growing power, desperately cling to their noble past and heritage that is now in the ancient past. Faramir expresses his own patriotism with nostalgia for the past, “I would see the White Tree in flower again in the courts of the kings, and the Silver Crown return…The city of the men of Numenor…I would have loved her for her memory, her ancientry, her beauty,” (II, 331).Unfortunately, the truth of the matter is that Gondor will never be what it once was, because the past is irrecoverable, and as Gandalf says, “Whatever betides, you have come to the end of the Gondor that you have known,” (III, 24). Since the memory of Numenor reaches almost as far back as the Elder Days, it is doomed to fade with the passing of the other ancient elements and beings of Middle Earth. The Numenoreans were the last men to form an alliance with the elves, and this close relationship ties the fate of the men of Westernesse in with this archaic race.

Although Aragorn plants a new sapling from the White Tree and brings glory to Gondor with his kingship and victory over Sauron, it is a glory of the present triumph over evil, not a longing for the grandeur of the past. The reign of King Elessar stretches across Middle Earth with an overarching influence that had not existed in the past. Soldiers of Gondor and Rohan protect previously dangerous roads, and the two kingdoms themselves form an alliance that was impossible in the suspicious environment of the past. As a further sign of the changing times, Galadriel, Celeborn and Elrond leave their dominions for the first time in an Age in order to greet the new king.

Aragorn is able to expand and change the nature of his kingdom, because he looks toward the future, while Bombadil, Galadriel and Elrond were simply holding on to the remains of what were once vast and powerful domains. Slowly fading and shrinking, the Old Forest, Rivendell and Lorien must give way in the end to the new, expanding kingdom of men. Even though Aragorn’s kingship is ensured by his ancient heredity, the wise king does not rely on the past for legitimacy as he almost immediately begins to administer his kingdom justly, which gives him prestige through merit. As wise, benevolent beings, the Elf-lords know that their time has passed and depart from the Grey Havens into the West with quiet dignity. Remembrance of the past is important to all of the cultures and races of Middle Earth, but an excess of nostalgia like that of Gondor before Aragorn is detrimental to the progress of the present and future. Heritage contributes to the richness of life, but one must not live in the past or else the present will be lost. Tolkien ends his epic with the future generation sitting on Sam’s lap, and little Elanor Gamgee is a view of hope towards an unknown future built on the foundation of the past.

Opinon Essay on Iraqi War-Global Studies

On March 3, 2004, the United States military invaded Iraq for the following reasons, an imminent threat brought on by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the tyrannical leadership of Saddam Hussein, Iraq’s “homicidal dictator” and his threat of Weapons of Mass Destruction. The reasons for the occupancy of Iraq have been something that have been debated over again and again, and too often people are not properly informed to be debating on the topic, due to the bias media. However, the nation was still prepared to enter the costly “quagmire” of a conflict.

A country can go to war for several reasons. One may be simply because one country has been physically attacked by an other. Another is because another country is causing disturbance or bloodshed in that country. Or the country is being forced into submission by another by means of colonization. These are the only justifiable and moral reasons for going to war with another country. Iraqi’s were not the one’s who committed the terrorist acts against America; it is a known fact that Saddam Hussein and Osama Bin Laden were hated enemies. Iraq caused no bloodshed in our country, and they caused no trouble in our country at all. If one looks at this in a broad spectrum, they might say the United States is the “bad guy” in the situation. They might also consider if the United States was interested in gaining control of Iraq’s oil business, the largest in the world. However, the main reason as of now is to bring democracy to a country filled with chaos and anarchy, also created by the United States.

In a 9th grade Global class at Glens Falls High School, a survey was done to see if the students thought the causes for the US to be in Iraq were justifiable. 23 students were asked this Yes or No question and there was a 100% negative response. From this survey, one can see the effects of media on the opinions of U.S citizens. When a person watches the news, it is infested with negativity towards the war in Iraq; they mention the loss of troops, a beheading of an innocent American, they mistakes that soldiers make every day to make Iraq the closest thing to Hell on earth.

My opinion is that the United States needs to gain an advantage over Iraq, such as large stock in the Iraqi oil company or more goods and use it to compromise with them, give them something they need and want. Bush’s plan is to establish democracy in the country and slowly remove the martial law he has planted. This is an easily breakable plan because he’s leaving the last bit of troops in without backup and they are vulnerable. The democracy may, like other governments, become corrupted by communism or terrorism or another crazed dictator with a uncompromising mind who will not bend or compromise to another countries desires. The right way of working this situation has yet to be seen by the United States government, or more importantly President Bush.

Overall, the view of the Iraqi conflict has become something nearly passé and negative to Americans due to the bias of what they hear and what they are seeing. The motives of the U.S government are questionable, and may not be known. Rest assured, Iraq may have posed some threat, but was that truly our motive. However, one can be certain that, good or bad, how ever costly, the Iraqi conflict has done some lasting influence on the Middle Eastern Realm. And not only and influence on the Middle East, but on the Homeland as well. The U.S also entered Iraq with homeland safety in their minds, and they have made the U.S a safer place to be, not necessarily unthreatened, but certainly more protected.

The Sociology of Education

Can Terrorism be morally justified? How and when? Or Why not?

On September 11th 2001, two aeroplanes crashed into the world trade centre in New York, this was the horrifying beginning of what would come to be known ‘the age of terror.’ Although terrorist acts date back decades, it was this attack on the world’s most powerful nation, America, that struck fear into the hearts of the Western people and the potential severity of these attacks was realised. Acts of terrorism are becoming part of everyday news, they are occurring around the world and being carried out by various different groups of people. Reaching a definition of ‘terrorism’ is an ambiguous task but in his book Terror, Gearty (1991) cited 109 different definitions of terrorism which he obtained in a survey of leading academics in the field. From these definitions, the author isolated the following recurring elements, in order of their statistical appearance in the definitions: Violence, force (appeared in 83.5% of the definitions); political (65%); fear, emphasis on terror (51%); threats (47%); psychological effects and anticipated reactions (41.5%); discrepancy between the targets and the victims (37.5%); intentional, planned, systematic, organized action (32%); methods of combat, strategy and tactics (30.5%).

A recurring theme between most definitions is that it deliberately targets innocent people. Leiser’s definition (cited in Khatchadourian, 1998, p. 5) equates terrorism with what he calls “the victimization of defenceless, innocent persons” as opposed to “the assassination of political and military leaders”. This concept, and now, widely-used tactic is what seems to be the precise element that makes terrorism itself immoral. Like most elusive and ambiguous expressions “terrorism” has a “common core of meaning” in its different usages and this is the notion that “terrorist acts are acts of coercion or actual use of force, aiming at monetary gain (predatory terrorism), revenge (retaliatory terrorism), a political end (political terrorism), or a putative moral/religious end (moralistic/ religious terrorism) (Khatchadourian, 1998, p. 6). Terrorism is a well established aspect of world politics and the literature on this topic is seemingly endless. A major issue when dealing with the topic of terrorism is whether it can be justified and if so, when and how. This essay will explore this issue, taking into account some of the many issues involved.

If there are examples of the terrorism permitted under the just war theory, they will have to meet a number of challenging requirements. We will explore a few of these. An element of the just war theory is ‘right intention’, and it can be argued that terrorism satisfies this criteria although it is from this that we must explore the intentions and motivations of terrorism. Finding the root of terrorism would profoundly affect the occurrence of such acts, and one such cause seems to be oppression of minority groups. Minorities with clear ideologies use terrorism to make their cause heard and noticed, and as acts of terror dominate the media when they occur, it often fulfils its purpose, to bring the world’s attention to that specific cause. For example, looking back to 1970, teams from a little known Marxist resistance group, ‘The popular front for the liberation of Palestine’ set out to simultaneously hijack four western passenger aircraft and its aim was to confront the West with the plight of Palestinians in the Middle East who’d been displaced by Israel. They used force and terror to make the world pay attention and it was successful in doing so, it was the first world media terrorist event. “Each man is an enemy to every other because each is a dangerous rival in the struggle against scarcity” (Sartre cited in Wilkinson, 1977, p.72). Scarcity is a predominant problem in the world; lack of sufficient food and clean water is a major world issue and occurs particularly in the eastern countries.

“Terrorism is the war of the poor, and war is the terrorism of the rich”.

(Peter Ustinov, Actor)

The pattern being seen today is one in which the topic of terrorism automatically insinuates involvement of peoples from the eastern countries. This pattern that is emerging may have some implications when trying to combat terrorism from its roots. In an interview with Abu Bakar Bashir (Insight, SBS, 9 March 2004), the leader of Jamaal Islamiah, made a poignant comment, he said, “we are defending Islam and through their actions they are daring to oppose America, as the west are oppressing the Islamic world and they are just reacting, even though it is violent, it is legitimate, because they see the west as supporting dictatorship.” This made an interesting and thought-provoking point, echoed in many other acts, such as the 1970 hijacking of the aeroplanes by Palestinians, and may have been a contributory reason for the September 11 attacks. Such terrorist acts as these fall under the category stated by Khatchadourian, (1998) as retaliatory terrorism, and using political terrorism as a weapon of the politically powerless and oppressed. As cited by Young (Primoratz, 2004, p. 58), even Gandhi contended that, “it was better to resist oppression by violent means than to submit”, in the event that a non-violent response was precluded.

The West upholds the view that there can be legitimate uses of war in accordance with the just war theory. Valls (2000) proposes that if acts of terrorism can satisfy the conditions of just war theory then they would have a moral legitimacy. The just war tradition is based upon the presumption that coercive power, whether used at the domestic level or at the international level, is legitimate “when it serves morally legitimate purposes” (Amstutz, 2005, p. 110). The just cause provision of the just war theory holds that the state has a right to defend itself against aggression of other states. Take the invasion of Iraq for example; it can be viewed from two sides. The first is that the grounds on which it was originally based, to topple Saddam Hussein’s government and seize weapons of mass destruction, this, according to the just war theory could be thought of as a ‘just cause’. However, having done so, America now fails to recover any weapons of mass destruction and it has become apparent that there may have been underlying motivations for this ‘heroic’ action by the American government and its army. The motivations for this invasion, which are now being realised, may not have been a ‘just cause’ after all; the control of their oil fields has surfaced as a credible alternative motivation. Amstutz states that “the effort to alter territorial boundaries by force or to extend political and economic control in foreign lands is considered unjust” (2005, p. 111). Not only was their reasons for entering Iraq not credible, but in doing so, hundreds of thousands of innocent civilians were killed. Surely this act cannot be considered ‘just’, it seems an act of terror to some degree, and was carried out by the world’s super power! Abu Bakar Bashir, in his interview in Insight (SBS, 2004) points out that “America is the instrument of evil, as it is them who terrorises nations and kills people.”

Walzer, in his book Just and unjust wars (2000) has problems succumbing to the idea that terrorism may be justified, and questions the probability of success criteria (is there a reasonable chance of success?) and points out that there is no nation that he knows of that owes its freedom to ‘random murder’. Similarly Valls (2000) believes that in most cases there is little hope of success. The occupation of Iraq has sent the place into chaos, civilian deaths occur everyday, women and children are killed by car bombs and suicide bombers, and yet, one of the reasons for America’s intervention was to save the civilians from the abuse of human rights by Saddam. Success, we are yet to see.

“One can define the state, as Weber does, in terms of physical violence without having to relinquish the ability to differentiate the forms in which state agencies apply that violence. That the state is ‘legitimate violence’ (if it is) does not mean its agencies cannot be terroristic.”

(Stohl, 1983, p. 181)

Our culture ingrains in us the concept of the state as neutral, a manager of conflicts, that the thought of our governments participating in terrorist acts seems abominable! Evidence in the history of terrorism gives credence to this. In 1946, one of the two men who led the revolt against the British by bombing Jerusalem’s King David Hotel, went on to become the ruler of Jerusalem. Fidelle Kastro, an instigator in the Red Army Faction’s revolution also went on to become the leader of the Cuban nation. These men represent heroes in their societies; they are symbols of hope for the future of the oppressed people in their societies. The more ‘daring’ approach or direct approach would be to view some of our current-day leaders as terrorists. The leader of Zimbabwe is a terrorist towards both the black and white people, using coercive methods such as torture to chase them out of the country, and those who do not flee are murdered. This would seem in itself the height of inhumane acts and it is being carried out by the leader of this ‘democratic’ country.

A number of states including some European ones would describe the U.S. President George Bush (senior) as a terrorist, and regard bombings during the Gulf War as obvious examples of terrorist acts and violation of the international law. President Bush can also be viewed as a terrorist to the people of Iraq, despite his ‘clean’ image of having ‘saved’ them; the deaths of the innocent are representative of this terror. Riz Wakili (Insight, SBS, 2004) passionately voiced his observances; using ‘terrorism’ and ‘terrorist’ as a tool seems hypocritical because when the foreign extremists, supported by the United States, carried out massacres and destroyed schools in Afghanistan in the ’70′s and ’80′s, it was referred to in the western media as the acts of ‘freedom fighters’, and the suffering of the Afghani people went unnoticed. However, when the situation was reversed and the terror landed on the doorstep of the West on September 11, 2001, and the Bali bombings, it was then referred to as terrorism, hence the phrase “one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter.” The idea that one person’s ‘terrorist’ is another’s ‘freedom fighter’ cannot be allowed. George (1990) points out that freedom fighters or revolutionaries don’t blow up buses containing non-combatants; terrorist murderers do. Freedom fighters don’t set out to capture and slaughter schoolchildren; terrorist murderers do.

“Direct attacks against civilian targets are morally impermissible and every effort must be made to discriminate between combatants and non-combatants” (Amstutz, 2005, p. 111). This is another element of the just war theory and acts as one of the defining features of terrorism today. It is precisely this nature of contemporary terrorism, ‘the random murder of innocent people,’ that prohibits Walzer (1988) from justifying a terrorist act and even if one were to grant that terrorism necessarily involves the killing of innocents, this alone doesn’t exclude it from the just war theory because innocents may be killed in a just war. All the just war theory requires is that innocents not be targeted. Contrary to this, Machiavelli (1998) has argued that there is no alternative to terrorist activity if oppressed people are to be liberated and views terrorism as the only means of destroying oppressive regimes and founding new nations. This view of Machiavelli is echoed consistently by the views of eastern nation peoples as seen in this essay.

So, on the one side there are the views of the West which strongly condemn those acts of terrorists which destroy the lives of millions of innocent civilians and act to undermine the stability of democratic society. Reactions of people in the West are natural as indeed the use of terrorism is a psychological tactic used to induce fear, which evidently it does, and also to make their messages heard, whether these are political, religious or retaliatory. On the other hand, there is legitimate evidence to suggest that these acts of ‘terror’ are indeed the desperate attempts of oppressed peoples to get noticed, to get their messages across to the powerful nations of the world. Lowe, in his article ‘Terrorism and Just War theory’ argues that just war theory does not provide an appropriate analytical tool from which acts of terror may be judged; as acts of terrorism targets the safety of innocent citizens. Terrorism targets people who are not combatants and is therefore not compatible with the just war theory. Which ever way you look at it, terrorism is not morally justifiable, the targeting and deaths of innocent civilians can never be justified for what ever the cause may be. However, dealing with the possible causes of terrorism, such as oppression (as seen above) of minority groups, religious or otherwise, may have some effect on this ever-growing issue of terrorism. Terrorism destroys solidarity, cooperation and interdependence on which social functioning is based, and it substitutes insecurity and distrust. If the world is to ever resemble a peaceful place, the issues underlying such acts as terrorism must be dealt with. Promotion of democracy, education and equality in all societies is the way to begin tackling the problems of condemnation of other peoples. People must be able to attain justice if peace is to prevail and intervention of the international community is fundamental to this. What is happening to minority groups in the world today is not fair and not acceptable, it is oppression. At the end of the day, people must stop killing people.

The Effects Of Music

Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in.

Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in.Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in.

Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in.Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in.Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in.

Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in. that is a bomb essay.

Literary Analysis of Romeo and Juliet

The essay is a literary analysis of the play Romeo and Juliet. The format is Point, Proof and Explanation. The question was “What factors and/or characters lead to the eventual demise of Romeo and Juliet” I used Lady and Lord Capulet, Juliets Nurse, and Friar Laurence. There are direct quotes from the play as well that are relevent. It is 929 words in length

Shakespeare’s play, Romeo and Juliet presents readers with the story of a tragically doomed love. It is the story of two teenagers’ who fall in love and the people and circumstances that prevent them from being together. Four characters in particular, namely Lady and Lord Capulet, Juliet’s nurse, and Friar Laurence, played a significant role in the destruction of the main characters and young lovers, Romeo and Juliet. These characters, through acts of selfishness, betrayal and authority over the young lovers led to their desperate actions and ultimate death.

Lady and Lord Capulet, Juliet’s mother and father contributed to the events leading to the demise of Romeo and Juliet right from the beginning of the play.. Juliet’s father, Lord Capulet, creates a façade about how much he loves and cares for his daughter when in reality he demonstrates that he really does not have her best interest at heart. In the beginning of the play, Lord Capulet says to Paris, (the nephew of the prince of Verona, who would bring the Capulet family power and prestige if he marries Juliet):

“My child is yet a stranger in the world,

she hath not seen the change of fourteen years;

Let two more summers wither in their pride,

Ere we may think her ripe to be a bride.”

(II, ii, 8-11).

This gives the reader the impression of a caring and considerate father, who is concerned about his child’s well being and is concerned that she is too young to be married. Yet, by the end of the play, when Juliet stands up to her father and says she does not want to marry Paris, he becomes angry with her and says “…Disobedient wretch!/I tell thee what, get thee to church o’Thursday [to marry Paris]/Or never after look me in the face”(III, v, 160-163). Lord Capulet is showing his true feelings toward his daughter and shows the reader that his real motives are self-serving. Lady Capulet, Juliet’s mother also assists in the destruction of Romeo and Juliet by her shallow and self-centered nature. She believes that Juliet should marry Paris, not for love or happiness, but because Paris is wealthy and handsome and will bring the Capulet family more power and prestige. When Lady Capulet says “And find delight writ there with beauty’s pen./ Examine every married lineament,/ And see how one another lends content (I, iii, 82-85) she is trying to convince Juliet that Paris would make a good husband because of his good looks. Her advise to her daughter demonstrates that she is only concerned about image without consideration of her daughter’s wishes or needs. Both Lord Capulet and Lady Capulet have only their personal motives and values in mind when they make the decision about their daughter’s future. This contributes to the helplessness and isolation that Juliet feels which eventually leads Juliet to her death.

Another manipulative, self-serving character is Juliet’s nurse. On the surface, she appears to be a person that Juliet can confide in during difficult situations, yet throughout the play, her actions would demonstrate that she actually contributes to the destruction of Romeo and Juliet. Initially, she played the role of a messenger between the two lovers supporting their relationship by relaying secret messages between the doomed lovers. At the same time she also appeared to be understanding and sympathetic to Juliet’s feelings by lending Juliet a sympathetic ear. Yet when Lord and Lady Capulet thwart Romeo and Juliet’s plans of a life together, the nurse, in order to keep her job, does not try to comfort Juliet, she simply says ” [Romeo] is dead -or ’twere as good he were” (III, iv, 235)and tells her “I think it best you married with [Paris]“(III, iv, 218). This causes Juliet grief because she trusted her nurse, who throughout the years has become more like a mother to her, and now the only one she trusted is betraying her. As a result of this betrayal and feelings of total hopelessness, Juliet’s thoughts of suicide became prevalent and she turned to friar Laurence for help.

In spite of the fact that Friar Laurence played the part of a helpful confidant to Romeo and Juliet, he ultimately helped I their final destruction. In the beginning of the play, when Romeo went to Friar Laurence for help, he believes that the marriage of the two teenagers might end the long running feud between the Capulet’s and the Montague’s. It is apparent that when Friar Laurence says “In one respect I’ll thy assistant be/ For this alliance may so prove,/ to turn your households’ rancor to pure love”(II, iii, 86-88), all he is think about is a way to end the feud that has caused “three civil brawls” (I, i, 87), and have caused the needless death of many. Even after Romeo is banished and there seems to be no hope for Romeo and Juliet, all Friar Laurence can think about is “blaze (announcing) thy marriage” (III, iii, 150). What friar Laurence does not realize is that he is giving false hope to both Romeo and Juliet, allowing them to believe that their lives will eventually be all right. In reality, we as readers know that this can never be, and thus, friar Laurence is setting the stage for Romeo and Juliet’s destruction.

In the play, the main characters are teenagers who are forced to deal with extremely complex issues surrounding their simple love for each other. The people, who influence them to do so, are the ones who are responsible for the death and destruction of Romeo and Juliet.

Nature

Dan Habeeb Hr 6 Nature Essay Sitting out side at in my back yard there are alot of things going on. Sitting under a Orange tree in the smell of blossoms is strong. But later on the blossoms will become an orange that is sweet and jucie. As I sit under the tree i see the bees buzzing into the blossoms and pollinating them. The trees leaves are all a deep green and will stay that way the whole year round. The fruit if not picked will fade from orange to a deep brown where it will rot away and decay.

Out in the day under the tree I often saw a bird fly by or land in the tree. The birds during the day are collectivly getting food for there little ones back in the nests. The birds will fly tree to tree getting bugs and sticks. When some birds find a good tree they build a nest it where they will get sticks, brances, leaves and other things to make it for there little ones. When a bird lays eggs they are little eggs in little time after the mother bird has sat on the eggs they will hatch in to beautiful little birdys.

As the birds fly by while im under the tree i cant help but to look into the deep blue sky and see the white and grey clowds fly by. Clowds come in all difrent shaps and sizes.

Some clowds resemble things like great people or just a common tool. If i was a clowd i would float freely in the sky without a care in the sky. I think the clowds are beautiful and soft they would be fun to use as a pillow.

After a while of sitting my dog would come up him and his slobbery toung would lick my face. Big and fat he is play full but lacking of the energy to run for a long time. I wish he was like how he was back when he was a puppy. So playfull and energetic but i think he is a great dog. Big brown fat and big pink toung wet with water and slober from the watter bole.

When it came time to go in it was quite hot . How hot the sun is just sitting there in the sky. Yellow but still orange makes the world what it is with out it we would be nothing but with it we live. The sun gives people life but it can also cause problems that can take a life. The sun is the center of the glaixy so i would think with out it nothing would be alive today we would have all frozee and died long before we were created with out it . I think that nature is great

Persuasive Essay on Religion

Many times I have had discussions about religion, and whether or not there is a higher force controlling everything we do. This discussion is very old, Greek and Roman philosophers already discussed whether or not there is a higher force, and if there is, does this higher force have any influence upon our lives?

One of the major arguments for creationism, the theory that states that everything was created by a higher force, is that we as humans are so complex that someone, or something, must have created us. We couldn’t have evolved from simple bacteria, the first life form on Earth. We are too complex, they argue. And that higher force, who created us, is higher than us, like we are higher to the things that we as humans created. This higher force is referred to as “God” or “The Gods” in theocentrical cultures.

Religious people state that we as humans are so complex, we can’t be the result of billions of years of evolution from the creation of the first Archaebacteria to our current life-form, we have been created. This is blatant arrogance in my point of view, why are we humans better than any other animal? We all consist of the same cells, we all have our weaknesses and strong points. The human brain tells us that we as individuals are truly separated from others. But when one logically analyzes the facts, we can conclude that we are nothing but the result of a long time of ever ongoing evolution.

We live in the ages of science, we try to explain everything that was unexplained before us, or re-explain something that was explained falsely before. In the past humans have always explained the unexplainable with a higher force. That was simply the easiest way to have an explanation for something that they couldn’t clarify at that time. But now, we have a lot of explanations, or at least theories that explain these things, there is no need for a higher force anymore.

An individual can be religious due to several different reasons. They could have been raised as a religious person, started believing in a religion, for example because they where going through a rough time, and a major reason is, a lot of people turn to religion when they are having a hard time mentally. From the above stated facts I conclude that religion is for the weak-minded, the ones not open-minded to scientific discoveries, and the ones not able to believe in the absence of a higher power.

Life is a coincidence. In 1953 two scientists, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey wanted to show that from the very basic substances that were found on earth 5 billion years ago, we can create the base of all life from three substances. When we put electric signals through a mix of CH4(methane), NH3(ammonia) and H2(hydrogen gas), after a few days amino acids were found in the resulting substance. As we all know, amino acids are the building blocks for proteins, which on their turn are the building blocks for life. This experiment shows that life is a coincidence, after a lot of combinations between atoms, and then between molecules, finally the first primitive life form was created. This was probably one archaebacteria, this group of bacteria goes back to 3.5 billion years. From the experiment we can conclude that as long as the building blocks are there, we can make life, there is no god needed to do that.

There is no proof for a god. When there is no proof for a god, and there is a lot of proof pointing in the direction that there is no god (the experiment from Miller and Urey illustrates that there is no need for a god in order for us to exist), at least not a god as he is represented in the holy books of several religions (e.g. the Bible or Koran).

“But”, the Christians say, “Jesus existed, there is proof for this!” Yes, there is proof for Jesus’ existence, there is also proof for him being a prophet. However, recent scientific research has proven that the Jesus as he is described in the bible isn’t like the Jesus he was. In fact, the author(s) of the bible didn’t even know Jesus. Christianity wouldn’t have been a religion if it wasn’t for Paul, the latest apostle. It was proven that before Paul, Christianity was a mere separation from Judaism. Paul added the myths, Jesus’ resurrection probably was something Paul made up to give Christianity more credibility as an independent religion. Large pieces of this original bible were then removed by several Popes in the Roman time, again, to give the religion more credibility. This is all proven, go look at the references.

In this essay I clearly disprove the arguments that religious people present for the existence of a higher force, I provided evidence from which we can conclude that there is no God. I find religion something for the weak minded, I don’t fight religion, I just think the people with a strong mind shouldn’t be religious, for they themselves can see there is absolutely no point in believing in something that isn’t there.

Abortion: Choice Vs. Murder, an argumentative paper

Is it a right to have children or is it a privilege? Does every women have the right to chose to have a child or to have an abortion?

Having an abortion can only be decide by women, due to the fact, that the abortion has a lifelong changing effect that is irreversible. No other person has the right to choose for her. She is the individual, who will under go all the transformations that pregnancy has in store.

Therefore, the choice she makes can only be hers. An unwanted pregnancy can be very difficult for women; especially if the pregnancy was unplanned for, or if she had not taken the proper precautions to ensure a pregnancy

would not occur. The worst-case scenario of an pregnancy leading into an abortion, would be if it were a product of a violent crime, such as rape or incest.

Why should women be made to care for children that were not intentionally wanted or planned for in their future? How can we expect women to expose themselves to a life-threatening encounter caused by the

fetus? (Thomson par. 11)

How can we grant a fetus the right to live without taking away the woman’s right to decide whether or not to carry the fetus to term? The fetus, according to United Kingdom researchers, is unable to feel pain until the 27th week of gestation; therefore, not considered a person. At that time, the fetus is not a baby but a “birth product” or

non-descript mass of tissue. This makes the abortion safe in the first 12 weeks of gestation, because there is no “baby.”

Unwanted pregnancies turn into unwanted, abused, or neglected children. Why continue to overload society’s public assistants programs, such as foster care, that are already fragile and overwhelmed enough with unwanted children? It is an injustice that these women who chose to abort are called cruel murders? After all, these women are exercising their right to decide where they stand, either pro-choice or pro-life.

How can a person make the decision to take another persons life away? In an abortion that is exactly what happens. In any other situation, this would be considered murder. (Marquis par. 8)

This so-called cell has the ability to divide itself and create the environment it needs to fully mature into a human being. How can we say it is not a real person? Abortion then becomes a way of legalized murder. Whose

responsibility does it become to care for, or look out for, the unborn Child’s right to life? Those so called unwanted children have the ability to fulfill the void of parents who are unable to conceive on their own. Why not place these children up for adoption? “To say that every pregnancy, even our own was a planned or wanted pregnancy would be a miss-conception…But, yet here we are. For almost every pregnancy that was truly unwanted has resulted in a dearly loved and wanted son or

daughter.” ( J.C. Willke 1998 C. 31)

Even a woman who uses contraceptives knows that they are not one hundred percent foolproof. If she has consented to having sex, she has accepted the responsibility for what or rather who may come from that encounter. After all, the only sure way to prevent pregnancy is abstinence.

(Thomson par. 5)

In a Prenalionon Presentation given by Dr. Ranalli acting President of the Deveber Institute for Bioethics and Social Research at the University of Toronto stated that “Spino-Thahamic System” is fully developed by about the 12th to 14th week of gestation and that it can convey pain signals to the fetus. Even the same researchers from the United Kingdom who said the fetus was unable to feel pain, have also said that painkillers should be administered to a fetus up to 26th weeks of gestation, ensuring that no pain or discomfort is felt. So how can

they say it is not really a human being but a “birth product?”

In conclusion, is having a child a right or a privilege that is abused too often? In my opinion, having children is a privilege that is considered a right with an unequal opportunity of life for the fetus.

Terrorism

Terrorism, which has been around for as long as people can remember, has been on the rise for the past ten years. Terrorists use murder, kidnapping, hijacking, and bombings to almost always achieve a political purpose. These radicals are not just subject to the United States, terrorism is all over the world, in every way, shape and form.

There are many different types of terrorism, for many different purposes. The primary reason for terrorist acts are to force a change in their nation’s government. If terrorists are not satisfied with there government’s political positions, they may end up taking the matters into there own hands. Another reason for terrorist acts are because of hate towards a race, nationality, or religion. For example, in 1972 the Palestine Liberation Organization invaded Israeli dorms in the Munich Olympics, and held the Israeli athletes hostage until Israel would agree to release Palestinian terrorists that were captured in Israel. When Israel refused to comply with the terrorists demands, they blew up two helicopters which held the Israeli athletes, killing the whole team. This was one of the many cruel types of terrorism. In recent years, terrorism seems to be at a new high and attacks are more violent than in the past.

With terrorism being so secretive and having no forewarning, it has been a real problem to deal with. The governments of many countries have tried to stop these cowardly acts, but they just seem to be on the rise. I have a few ideas that might work

Solution:

Since there are no fool-proof ways to predict when a terrorist will strike next, there can really be no complete answer to this problem. Even though there is no way to totally eliminate terrorism, my solutions may still prove valid.

With the bombing of the World Trade Center, and the federal building in Oklahoma, rental moving trucks have been used to hold the bomb. An idea I have for this type of attack, would be to take a still photograph or a video tape of the people who rent the trucks, along with there Social Security numbers. I Would have installed in every rental truck an electronic fume detector that could be tied into a national satellite network, to let investigators know what kind of materials the truck is carrying. For example, if the truck was carrying dynamite, the sensor would relay the message to the satellite that this truck is carrying hazardous material. In turn, the dispatchers could send the message to the Federal Bureau of Investigations who then would send the bomb squad to the location of the truck, and arrest the individuals driving and defuse the bomb.

It seems as though terrorists choose to place the bombs in parking garages below or inside buildings. Another idea I have for this is to screen all vehicles entering government buildings that may be a target for an attack. This in itself might make terrorists more leery about entering a building carrying any type of explosive device. The use of metal detectors on people entering government buildings along with dogs that can sniff out bombs in vehicles can also help the situation.

One of the most lethal types of terrorist attack are hijackings on planes. There have been a number of hijackings, which then lead to a bombing of the plane in midair. In 1986, a Pan-American Boeing 747 airplane blew up in midair killing all passengers aboard. One of the leading terrorist groups took responsibility for this action. Again in the late 1980′s a Transworld airline flight was hijacked and made several stops before commandos rushed the plane and killed some of the terrorists. Unfortunately, the terrorists had taken several lives on the plane and even dumped one of the passengers that they had killed, out of the plane onto the tarmac. One of the problems with these type of terrorists is that, it is too easy to get a bomb into the baggage section, under the plane. This is easy for them, because unlike carry-on luggage, the actual luggage is not X-rayed for contraband. Some of these bombs work off of a timer and ignite the bomb to blow up at a pre-determined time. Another type of bomb works off of the altitude of the plane. Once the plane reaches the set altitude, the bomb will explode. I suggest that the actual luggage should be scanned for explosives that would be dangerous to the passengers. Since the only luggage that is scanned at this time is the carry-on luggage, and individuals that go through the metal detectors. I recommend that all luggage being loaded in the belly of the aircraft, also go through a metal detector being scanned by trained eyes. This would prevent any bombs from being loaded onto the plane.

Another type of plane bombing is called the “Suicide Bomber”, this is a terrorist who straps the bomb to his body, making it harder to stop them from boarding the plane, because you cant see it by the human eye. Unfortunately, metal detectors don’t pick up plastic explosives that a terrorist could carry on board. Another idea for this would be to have a bomb sniffing dogs at every metal detector, which could work in terms of stopping the bombs before they reach the plane.

Of course, there will always be terrorists who would like to make a change in the policy of the government. And you will always have radicals who will want to take out their anger towards a particular race, religion, or nationality. One of the best ways to stop terrorism is, of course, by monitoring these groups closely for signs of illegal activity. First of all, the United States of America should form coalition groups with all of the other nations to monitor terrorist organizations of other nations. The FBI can be the main organization to receive and filter out all potential terrorist groups. Once the United States is aware of all the terrorist groups throughout the world and knows the groups here in the United States, the government will be able to get a tighter handle on the terrorist group’s activities. Now that we can identify all of these groups, we have to be able to take out the bullets and bomb making equipment from there hands. To start with, anyone who would like to buy a gun will have to prove there intent on using it. They would have to supply social security numbers, drivers license, fingerprints, ballistics of the gun, and, of course, a picture of themselves taken by the sellers of the gun. This would help ownership of the gun in case it is used it an attack. Ammunition would have to be kept under the same kind of scrutiny as a gun, and all the same information would have to be taken down, as if they were selling a gun.

Factories that produce chemicals, fertilizer, and anything else that could be used in the manufacturing of a bomb, would have to have a license to make these items. When any of these items are sold, all of the same precautions must be taken as if they were selling guns, or ammunition. In the case of someone buying mass quantities of any of these items, it must be reported and approved for sale by the FBI. As in the case of the Oklahoma bombing, the ammonia nitrate fertilizer, which was the main component in the bomb, that large quantity which would have first cleared with the FBI, before being sold. The FBI could have questioned the need for such a large quantity and made a final decision for the sale. If the buyers would have lied about the need of the fertilizer at least there would have been a picture tying the ammonia nitrate fertilizer to its buyer. We might not have been able to stop this bombing but all suspects would now be under arrest, preventing them from future bombings.

Since terrorist acts are so cowardly, and the loss of life is so great, stiff penalties should apply. If the person is convicted of the crime, and the crime is murder in any degree, of any amount. That person should be locked up for life. I don’t believe in the death penalty in this case, because it would just be putting them out of their misery. When they are sentenced, it will be in a four foot by four foot solitary confinement cell, with no visitors, and no exercise, ever.

In conclusion, this report has tried to explain a couple ideas that may prove valid, when put to the test. The only test being real life. If these ideas can make a difference, and keep one more person safe from a terrorist attack, or deters one more terrorist from blowing up a building, than this report has been worth the effort.

The Influence Of Technology

What can technology do for an individual or how can technology facilitate life for someone. As seen in today’s real world, technology has come a long way. Technology has advanced in such a way that even people who are current with technology feel at times that they are outdated. From telephones that are portable to being able to send an actual machine rover to another planet such as Mars, we have seen an explosion of technology. Mainly all these benefits are technological advances which benefit our way of living. I can recall growing up and having to call my parents to ask for permission to go to a friend’s house. I had to first find a public telephone and make sure I had enough coins to place the call. Now days to communicate we no longer have to pull over from the road and look for a public phone because the innovative cellular phone facilitates our life. Another example of how technology has advanced to our benefit is when going to the movies. Before it used to be that one had to go to the movies and once you arrive, you would examine what movies were showing and then watch a movie. A movie that was there (hoping the one you wanted to see was there and at a good time). Today we no longer have to drive to the local theater to see if they are showing the movie that we want to see. This is because of technology, because all we have o do is to log on to the internet and look up that information. In fact we are not even limited to the local theater but through the internet we can see what any theater in the world is playing. How nice is that? to be able to do this and only because of technology. So we can see how technology facilitates life for many. Not to mention the medical advances thorough technology and so forth. On the other hand technology can also produce a negative for our life. This is what this essay will focus on, the negative attributes of technology. This essay will emphasize on how today technology is used to cheat in an academic environment.
Phenomenon’s that we see take place in the academic setting now a day is academic dishonesty. Sure someone can go online and research a certain topic, sure they can learn a lot simply from logging in and reading. But we also see that with as much ease they can go online and request an essay which is already done. They can go to a website full of information and simply cut and paste.
Chris doesn’t consider himself a cheater. Yet for the past four years, the 21-year-old senior at one of California’s most prestigious universities (which he doesn’t want identified) has used an arsenal of tricks to pass his classes. He’s plagiarized, taken illegal prescription drugs to improve his focus, obtained exam questions in advance and text-messaged his friends via cell phone to find quick answers to tough questions. Still, he doesn’t see any of that as out of the ordinary. “Sure, I’ve used test banks, study drugs, text buddies, cyber-essays and picture messaging,” he says. “But so does everyone.” (Vencat 2006)
The problem about this trend is that it is becoming more and more acceptable within the academic setting by students. As stated by this essay, students are taking to their minds that it is normal to cheat. Since the internet opens up endless possibilities, it is best to take advantage of the opportunities. In fact some see this as a way of doing thing, why study? Why research? Why do any of this when you can simply obtain a quality paper which will get your high grade from the internet. Or why worry about having the correct answer if you can simply text message the question to a friend who will then look for the answer and send that answer back to you. It is sad to say but this is becoming more and more popular in these times. As an article states,
“Student academic misconduct, such as cheating and plagiarism, has increased in recent decades” (McCabe, Trevifio, &Butterfield, 2001)
In conclusion there must be more that is done to prevent academic dishonesty. I strongly believe that in order to prevent academic dishonesty we will need to begin from the bottom. What I mean by that is that we have to teach people not to do it instead of coming up with ways to stop it. Sometimes there is too much done to amend the problem or to try catch those who are cheating when in reality the best solution is to teach others about honesty. We worry about new tools to catch the cut and paste phenomena when in reality we have to teach our kids at an early age the importance of academic honesty. There will never be anything or any tool which will be able to catch up with all the cheating that is done in the academic setting. Even though tools for catching plagiarism and academic cheat are getting good, the best way to prevent this problem is to attack it from the core. Teach students from an early age that cheating is not normal. Emphasis to young pupils that its not a trend that they should follow. In other words prevent rather than lament. This tactic is working in many universities, but if we tackle this issue from the roots then I believe that we can be much more effective. In the article “A tradition of Honor,” this problem is discuses and the author states, “Many schools have implemented honor codes as means of being proactive in addressing academic misconduct. Current literature suggests that schools with honor codes have less incidence of cheating.” (Bowers 1964; May 1993 McCabe 2000). So here we have an opportunity to make the future of technology be even better. By teaching kids the essence of honesty. Maybe to our generation cheating has become part of life because we were so caught up with the dazzle of all the technological advances. Or maybe because we were to caught up learning and trying to stay on board f the technological advance. But today as new generations begin to jump into technology, it is up to us to teach the new generations what many are lacking now a day and that is to be true. Unless someone takes the initiative to teach the up and coming generation this principle there will not be any change and technology will become more an more a breeding ground for cheats. This is because its that simple to do. We have to make it hard to do by instilling principles, guidelines and policies within our young people to go a different route and actually use technology for what it was meant, to make our life better.

diagnostic essay

College – The knowledge I want Among many different colleges there is La Guardia College which, I choose to attend. I made a decision to go to college, because I wanted to expand my knowledge about computers as far as possible. Graduating from college not only will make me a professional in computers, but will also help me to get a position I want.

First of all, I can not think of a better place to learn how to professionally handle and setup computers than college. For example my best friend Thomas has completed numbers of different courses, but the most informative and effective were the college courses. After graduating from college Thomas became a highly skilled computer technician, who is now using his knowledge in everyday life. Therefore, I would like to follow my friend’s footsteps, because to me college is the best way to become professional in computers.

Second of all, college certificate opens the door to the job I might want to have. To illustrate, last week I was trying to get a job as a network administrator, but I failed. I am relatively good at networking, however college certificate was the keyword for the position. College certificate regardless your skills was a requirement. That day I learnt that even though you think you are good in certain field college certificate and the knowledge that comes with it indeed help to get a job. Therefore, I am in college right now, so that in the future I will be able to get the job I want.

At this point in my life I can truly say, that being a professional and succeeding in obtaining a position are guaranteed by the knowledge you present.