Argumentative Essay Sample

Critically examine recent patterns in mass migration and explain why these matter for ensuring international human rights.

Critically examine recent patterns in mass migration and explain why these matter for ensuring international human rights.

Mass migration is the movement of people from one area to another which can occur within borders for example from the countryside to the city or across international borders. It can sometimes occur over long distance or in large groups. Mass migration can be voluntary which include seeking employment or involuntary like in cases of ethnic cleansing and war. The recent pattern of mass migration according to Tilly highlights three main points. They are the change in geographical distribution of employment, the demographic imbalance of a certain area and the actions and policies of a country. The mass movement of people causes great strain on the emigrants as well as the area they emigrate to. Displaced persons were more likely to suffer severe humanitarian implications as well as experience human rights abuses and exploitation. Human rights refer to the basic rights and freedom of an individual. This includes the right to be treated justly, the right to have a fair wage, the right to food, the right to an education and the right to work.

Mass migration occurs all over the world. This essay will focus mainly on the mass migration in the Middle East from other Middle Eastern countries and from the Asian regions after World War 2. It will also focus on the human rights issues Germans, Jews, Arabs and Asians faced in the process of leaving their homeland in search of better opportunities. The Middle East was chosen as a key focus because although the process of mass migration started just after World War 2 ended, there is still a mass exodus of people occurring resulting from World War 2 making mass migration in this region “recent”. As people move to seek economic security, the Middle East is still a popular destination for many. However, this also means that there will be many emigrants who will be denied their fundamental human rights as they lack political influence and legal representation.

The recent patterns of mass migration post World War 2 was in the months before the war ended. 12 million Germans in total were expelled from German areas in the East as well as from other countries where they were a minority. Those who could escape the revenge attacks moved to West Germany. In Yugoslavia, ethnic Germans had their citizenship cancelled, their properties confiscated and they were forced into labour camps. Many died of exhaustion as a result of slave labour, disease and malnutrition. German civilian and military causalities were higher in “peace” than in “war”.

Jews who were fortunate enough to escape the ethnic cleansing in World War 2 moved to the newly created state of Israel after the war of 1947- 48 in the Middle East, when they were prevented from entering into nearly all of the countries of the world allegedly to protect domestic workers from foreign competition. The creation of the state of Israel caused a forced exodus of millions of Palestinians from their homeland to other Arab regions like Jordan, Kuwait and to other Gulf countries. Over 418 Palestinian villages were depopulated in four decades as part of the war on demographics and territorial expansion. The Palestinian civilian population were frequently targeted by the Israeli military as a means of defeating the enemy. The Israeli military often use blockades to stave the Palestinians. This inhumane act of warfare places great hardship on non-combatants and its function is to undermine the Palestinian resistance by inflicting suffering on their families .

Many Palestinians moved to other Arab regions like Jordan, Kuwait and to other Gulf countries that were in great need of working emigrants to set up social and physical infrastructure projects. War with the Jewish state as well as political changes caused many Egyptians to immigrate to areas where they could find employment. Many moved from the countryside to the cities as well as across international borders. Yemenis and Iraqis who were also escaping civil war and political instability left their homeland in search of employment in the Gulf regions. The drive to improve ones material condition is a major reason of why mass migration occurs. Ineffective government policies and unbearable social condition do force people to emigrate, but it cannot be compared to the amount of people who emigrate to seek to improve their material means.

By 1985, there were approximately 7.2 million mostly Arab migrant workers and professionals with their families working in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries which included Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Initially, Arab workers were preferred as their language, culture and religion were similar to the host countries. However, by mid 1970s, there were changes in the composition of migrations to the Gulf. This was due to political, economic and social reasons. Bringing in non local Arabs ran the risk of spreading anti-government/anti-monarchies ideology that was already spreading like a wave throughout the rest of the Middle East. Non-local Arab were therefore seen as a national security risk and a potential threat to destabilising the Gulf countries. The stability of some GCC countries was also shaken by Arab expatriate-led labour strikes for better pay, work and living conditions.

As the demand for labour grew following the Gulf oil boom, Asians from the South and Southeast Asian countries were employed as cheap labour to fulfil the economic boom of the GCC countries. Eventually, the number of Arab emigrants declined as Asian recruiting agencies with the assistance of its government were more efficient in providing manpower. The non-local Arabs were replaced by cheaper, more efficient, obedient and easily exploited Asian migrant. Human Rights Watch have documented many cases of migrants being abused physically and psychologically, deceived about their working conditions and being denied their wages after months and even years of doing backbreaking work that no one else wants. Human rights issues need to be addressed especially when the numbers of migrant workers entering the Gulf are increasing. In January 2008, the UAE hosted a forum focusing on Asian contract migrant workers. Its aims were to generate ideas on how to improve the welfare and wellbeing of workers as well as cater to the needs of the host countries.

As the Gulf countries become more dependent on migrant workers to build its infrastructure and run its services, it is causing a substantial demographic imbalance of Gulf nationals and non-Gulf nationals. The demography imbalance of Gulf nationals and non-Gulf nationals is increasingly becoming a national security issue. In 2004, there were 12.5 million expatriates in the GCC countries which accounts to 37 percent of the total population. In Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Kuwait, expatriates are a majority. In UAE, expatriates consists 80 percent of the population. Abdul Rahman Al Attiya, the GCC Secretary-General warns that massive presence of expatriates is a national security issue and there are concerns that the massive expatriate population will threaten social customs, influencing political agendas, reduce job opportunities for the local population and influence the language of the country. James Zogby, the president of the Arab American Institute stated that the large expatriate population was a “time bomb waiting to explode and unleash riots like those that rocked France recently”. Attempts have been made to correct the demographic imbalance by nationalising the labour market and reducing the dependency on foreign workers, but such moves were unsuccessful as there were insufficient qualified locals.

Another security concern is the actions and policies of neighbouring countries in the Middle East which could cause a rippling effect that could affect millions in the region. Political tension in the Middle East is not stable and any conflict in the region will cause a mass migration of people. Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait forced 4 to 5 million people to leave the Gulf countries, many returning to their country of origin and some like the 850 000 Yemenis were expelled from Saudi Arabia after Yemen officially announced its support for Iraq. Although these people are not classified as refugees, these workers became forced migrants, leaving their jobs that provide much needed income and returning to a country where jobs are difficult to find.

The number of migrants seeking economical opportunities in the Gulf regions will increase due to the effects of globalization and the demand for skilled workers. Most of these migrants will come from the Asian regions at the expense of non-local Arabs as they are less costly, more efficient, and easily exploitable. Governments need to address the Human Rights issues of migrants in order to avoid civil unrest. International forums on improving the working conditions of workers is a step forward, but laws need to be in place to protect migrants from abuse and exploitation.

What is Rock’n'Roll music.

Rock and Roll started after the year 1955 with its roots being in Blues, Gospel, and Jazz. This influenced vocal music, which was popular with the African American population. Groups such as The ‘Mills Brothers’ and the ‘Ink Spots’ sang hep Harmony who added rhythm and harmony. Small Swing Bands or Jump Bands featured saxophone soloists and repeated phrases. These city style blues featured singers such as Joe Turner, Dina Washington, T- Bone Walker, and composer-singer Percy Mayfield. During this era, country blues traditions of the south became influential in the North as well. Blacks moved from the South to the North and Chicago became the center of blues recordings. This emphasized electric guitars, harmonicas, and drummers who emphasized after beats (beats 2 and 4 of the measure). Black gospel music was very popular and given the label of rhythm and blues R&B (B. Lee Cooper, Wayne S, 1997). This music was carried on radio and popular with the disc jockeys.

1950′s, when Rock n’ Roll was born. It emerged from rhythm and blues, music similar to jazz played by blacks. This kind of music started to attract white teenagers. Disc jockey Alan Freed was the one who introduced this music and later gave it the name of Rock n’ Roll. Record companies distributed records played by whites but composed by blacks. Whites were frustrated because there weren’t any white artists and they didn’t want the blacks to be the stars until Bill Haley appeared with his ‘Rock Around the Clock’. In this decade, Elvis Presley introduced a music that was sexual suggestive and outraged dull adults. One record producer, Sam Phillips stated, ‘If I could only find a white man who had the Negro sound and the Negro feel I could make a million dollars.’ By 1956, a young singer, Elvis Presley, padre Phillips a prophet with his hit song ‘Heartbreak Hotel ‘ (Tom Hibbert, 1986). Elvis Presley did more than any other artist to promote the style of Rock ‘n’ Roll with fifty-two top thirty hits in less than ten years, earning himself the title of King of Rock and Roll. In time he changed the style of the music by adopting a country and western style and became a national hero. By the end of this decade and the start of the next, Rock n’ Roll started to decline because it was formula ridden and it was too sentimental. Teenage audiences transferred their allegiance to Folk music.

By the early 1960s Rock and Roll was a contributing factor to the Civil Rights movements bringing African-Americans to become equal to whites. White teenagers purchased records released by African-American performers and African-American teenagers did the opposite. Whites and African-Americans sat beside each other at concerts, enjoying music that may not be performed by people of the same race as they were. However, in a society dominated by white males, many minorities were mocked and treated cruelly. Women were looked down upon as second class citizens in the 1960s; treated as sex objects in songs such as Buddy Knox’s ‘Party Doll’, Johnny Tilloson’s ‘Poetry in Motion’, and Eddie Hodges’s ‘(Girls, Girls, Girls) Made to Love)’. African Americans were also viewed as comic figures in songs such as the Coasters ‘Charlie Brown’, Little Anthony and the Imperials’ ‘Shimmy, Shimmy, Ko-Ko Bop’, and Mongo Santamaria’s ‘Watermelon Man’. Native Americans were also depicted as cartoon characters in Johnny Preston’s ‘Running Bear’ and Larry Verne’s ‘Mr. Custer’. The accents of Italian and Hispanic emigrants were made fun of in Pat Boone’s ‘Speedy Gonzales’ and Lou Monte’s ‘Pepino the Italian Mouse’

February 7, 1964. A special day in the history of rock music, it was the day that a band out of Liverpool, England came to the United States. This band was The Beatles, one of the most popular rock and roll sensations in history (Tom Hibbert, 1986). The Beatles created frenzy in the U.S. as they became a model for rock and roll. It was during this time period that the British seemed to claim rock music. However, from the music of the Beatles emerged a new type of rock music, which became known as folk rock (B. Lee Cooper, Wayne S, 1997). This type of music, also popularized by singers like Bob Dylan, put an emphasis on lyrics. The Beatles demonstrated this style as their music became more sophisticated, and their lyrics focused more on issues of the day. The Beatles dominated the record industries and with their dominant instrumentation, which included: electric leads, rhythm, and bass guitar, drums and sometimes an electric organ, changed the name of Rock n’ Roll to just Rock.

Singers like Ray Charles started another style of rock and roll that arose during the 1960′s. Ray Charles combined romance and love lyrics with church music to form an “upbeat, gospel style of rock and roll”. This type of “black music”, as it was referred to, became incredibly popular during this time of civil rights movements. Some other popular artists that came to be known during this time period include the Temptations, the Supremes, and Stevie Wonder.

A turning point in black music was said to be the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. It was at this time that the gospel- based music of Ray Charles declined, and a new style of rock and roll, known as “funk” became immensely popular. The song associated with this decline was James Brown’s “Say it Loud, I’m Black and I’m Proud”. James Brown was commonly known as the “Father of Funk” and the “Godfather of Soul”. Brown felt the need to “redefine the black identity”, which led to funk music, an expressive time in black music (Peter G. Christenson, Donald F. Roberts, 1998). James was known for using melodic instruments in his music to create a groove. His music was also known for being intense and danceable, and for providing a message to his audiences.

American blues also led to a newer, more powerful kind of rock. This style was a harsher version of the blues, and had more of a “heavy metal” feel to it. Bands that popularized this particular style included the band started by Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, and John Bonham, which was Led Zeppelin, as well as bands like the Rolling Stones. This more powerful style of rock mainly emerged from British musicians who wanted something with a little more “high energy” to it, which is exactly what was created during this era of music.

1964 to 1974 is the most important period of American music in this century. Rock music reflected attitudes of the youth of that time, the Baby Boomers. In the early ’60s the youth looked up to President John F. Kennedy. His assassination on November twenty-second of 1963 sent shock waves throughout the country. The youth were disillusioned at this fact and had nobody to turn to. Quickly after, a new group came into the music scene from Europe. The Beatles offered American youth a new identity at the time when they needed it most. Songs of The Beatles such as ‘I Want to Hold Your Hand’ projected optimism, enthusiasm, and fun. The four members refused to take themselves seriously and offered American youth a new way to see their world. The Beatles’ new music was anything; in fact, it sounded more like the R&B of the fifties.

Rock music was the biggest promoter of the civil rights movement in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s. Many songs of that time period addressed social and cultural issues of the time in which they were written, in fact, many singers / songwriters of that time period such as Joan Baez and Bob Dylan were active participants and sometimes the main speaker in various political rallies. Bob Dylan, however, was probably one of the most important political voices in America from 1963 to 1969. Songs Dylan wrote such as ‘Blowin’ in the Wind’, later recorded by Peter, Paul, and Mary; became the unofficial anthem of the Civil Rights movement, while other songs such as ‘Like a Rolling Stone’ and ‘All Along the Watchtower’ voiced the dissatisfaction, anger, and concern of the troubled youth at that time period (Don Hibbard & Carol Kaleialoha, 1983).

The mid-sixties also helped promote the civil rights of African-Americans with the introduction of Motown Records established by Berry Gordy. One song, Aretha Franklin’s ‘Respect’ expressed the demand for racial equality. While others such as the Impressions’ ‘Keep on Pushing’ reflected the early civil rights movement of African-Americans and ‘Say it Loud-I’m Black and I’m Proud’ by James Brown established African-American pride.

Racial minorities were not the only groups preaching equality in America during the sixties. American women also obtained a better standing as their role in society advanced beyond second-class housewives. Songs like Roy Orbison’s ‘Pretty Women’, The Rolling Stones ‘Stupid Girl’, and the O’Kaysions ‘Girl Watcher’ presented an image that many women resented. Women fought back against songs such as these with their own songs such as Lesley Gore’s ‘You don’t Own Me’, Nancy Sinatra’s ‘These Boots are Made for Walkin”, and Helen Reddy’s ‘I am Woman’.

In 1970, yet another style of music evolved from rock and roll. This style was none other than punk. Punk music, which grew out of rock and roll due to its edgier lyrics, combined a style of spiky hair and leather jackets, with reggae rhythms, which were made popular in the United States greatly by Bob Marley. Musicians of the punk era were ones like Elvis Costello and the Police.

When punk ended during the early 1980′s, another type of music is developed. This style is rap. Rap arose from the streets, combining a so-called urban attitude with electronic sophistication. Rap originated in Jamaica, and Jamaican DJ brought some of the styling to New York City. Rap eventually became very popular at dance clubs, and eventually made it on to MTV.

Although there were many important events in the decade from 1965 to 1975, none were more remembered than the Vietnam War. Many music artists, at this time began to write and sing songs about world peace and ending the Vietnam War. Many of these songs were very popular; in fact, the music performed at Woodstock was primarily protest songs such as these. Artists who stood out as the war protest singers were Bob Dylan; Country Joe and the Fish; Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young; Janis Joplin; Joan Baez; and Jimi Hendrex. Artists such as John Lennon of The Beatles wrote and sang songs voicing world peace like ‘Give Peace a Chance’, ‘Imagine’, and ‘Happy Christmas (War is Over)’.

During, and the time soon after, the Vietnam War many illegal drugs became very popular in the United States. Substances known as a form of music pushed hallucinogens called ‘acid rock’ featuring lyrics about psychedelic (hallucinogenic) drugs, mostly LSD (lysergic acid diethyl amide). Artists who influenced the use of such substances were The Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, Janis Joplin, and Jimi Hendrex. Until recently, with the death of the lead singer, Jerry Garcia, The Grateful Dead was the only acid rock band still performing.

Some music of the past two decades has been a reflection on past events. Frankie Valli released a solo record GREASE in 1978 that looked back on the past fondly. Other artists have written music, which reflects on the past with bittersweet nostalgia such as Bob Seger’s ‘Against the Wind’ and Don Henley’s ‘End of the Innocence’. Billy Joel looked at the Vietnam war in ‘Goodnight Saigon’ and summed up forty years of pop culture from 1949 to 1989 in his song ‘We Didn’t Start the Fire’.

Moreover, rock and roll music was need an artist who could appeal to write audiences on a musical level while at the same time retaining the rawness, sexuality and excitement associated with black rock and roll artist such as Little Richard, This is a idol who need by the teenagers. Rock and roll pheromone can provide this (Andy Bennett, 2001).

All of these styles of music are obviously very different. However, they all stemmed from rock and roll. Different artists found different ways to put an emphasis on the parts of music that they liked, which explains how rock and roll changed, generation by generation.

Rock music taught me to appreciate things in a different way. I’ve learned this since rock is not exact, it can change. In fact, Rock music helps me relax (I was finish writing this essay with rock music). After writing this essay I have learned the origins of rock and the branches of it, but that wasn’t my intention. I wrote this essay to express myself with it because I feel I can show myself with rock music. I think rock has become social phenomenal maybe.

This essay discusses how advertisement effects people’s lives

As Americans we are exposed to advertisements everyday. People are pressured from every direction by advertisements which exploit their deepest fears, attractions, needs, and desires, shaping their behaviors, goals, and thoughts. They are led into believing false information and promises that are mostly never kept, all for the simple reason of selling the product and making profit. We see advertisements everywhere–in magazines and newspapers, on the radio, on TV, online, in the mail, even over the phone. These advertisements use the basic ideas of either providing an elite status with the possession of the product, or giving a sense of belonging to a group or community. Since the recent military activity in Iraq and Afghanistan, another ever present idea has been made prominent and that is using patriotism to evoke people’s desires. Americans are persuaded into buying unnecessary items everyday; however, we need to realize that no matter what advertisements say we should purchase items for their usefulness, not to fill voids in our lives, so we can help eliminate the problem we face today of being a materialistic society.

The patriotic theme affecting people’s hearts, minds and senses, is commonly used to manipulate them into buying things. Since everyone has love for their country, using it to sell products is a brilliant idea, but I believe this is a bad practice. It makes people believe they are not ideal Americans, nor are they similar to the people around them if they do not buy that product. The Palmolive advertisement, in Seeing and Writing 2, is a key example, it appeals to the wives of the men at war in World War II (417). On the top of this advertisement there are three medals which contain picture of three different men in their uniforms and the words “For Him” appear next to each picture. In the lower part of the advertisement there is a woman looking up at these medals and above her head are the words, “I pledge myself to guard every bit of Beauty that he cherishes in me”, and finally in the background there are several faces of women also looking towards the medals. This advertisement is basically communicating to the wives the idea of guarding their beauty, by using this soap, just like their husbands are guarding their country. The ironic fact is that soap cannot make someone beautiful, nor do people lose their beauty if they do not use the correct brand of soap. This advertisement is connecting a heroic and patriotic act to one used for mere beauty, in order to sell the soap.

The Palmolive advertisement was run in 1943, but a more current advertisement which uses similar attributes is Chevrolet and its slogan for its recent line of cars, “An American Revolution.” This slogan is always placed on a blue sky background and the writing is in bold white letters, except for the “E” in “Revolution”, this letter is written in red ink. So when you come across this slogan, not only does the slogan sound patriotic to you, it also appears to be patriotic because it incorporates the red, the white and the blue. This phrase says to its audience that every American is buying and driving a Chevy car and so should they. Another detail that could be interpreted out of this advertisement is that since the U.S. is currently at war and fighting a revolution against terrorism, a person living in the U.S. can participate in this patriotic revolution by purchasing a Chevrolet. This would be true only if Chevrolet was funding the war, instead of the US government.

Along with this, another advertisement that exploits this concept was the Netzero advertisement run during the time before the elections. In this advertisement the spokesman was running for President under the alias of Candidate Zero. His main goal was to provide cheaper and faster internet to every family and household. In order to get people’s attention, this clever idea was used, and it certainly worked on people like me. Viewers could also connect the advertisement with the actual presidential race and that way the product of the advertisement was stuck in their conscious awareness. The whole patriotic theme is strange because the connection between patriotism and the product does not make the product function better, so why do we feel obligated to pay attention to the advertisement and even purchase that product.

Along with patriotism another concept used widely is the elitism the product brings to people with its possession. As Jack Solomon wrote in his essay Masters of Desire, “We Americans dream of rising about the crowd, of attaining a social summit beyond the reach of ordinary citizens” (1). He is basically saying that Americans want to be better then the people around them and this belief is what marketers feast on, creating status symbols like Rolex, Mercedes, BMW, etc. One advertisement that crosses my mind in terms of using elitism would be the new U2 iPod Special Edition advertisement. This promotes an iPod with a black cover and laser engraved signatures of the U2 band members; everything else is similar to a regular iPod; whereas, the price is $50 more. People are led into believing that the U2 iPod is better than the regular one only because it is endorsed by U2. Another ironic detail is that a normal iPod itself is a product of elitism, because even though it has similar functions to a Sony or any other MP3 player, it costs $100 more only because it comes with the signature white headphones. These headphones, unique only because an iPod come equipped with them, have made themselves and the iPod a status symbol. Most people only buy an iPod because they want the headphones to show the illusion of superiority and uniqueness. Solomon says, “The explanation is quite simple: when an object (or puppy!) either costs a lot of money or requires influential connections to possess, anyone who possesses it must also possess the necessary means of influence to acquire it” (3). This explains why the white headphones have made the iPod a status symbol, since its shows possession of an expensive item, even though rationally speaking the color of the headphones does not make the iPod function better, they only make it different.

Solomon also talks about another part of the American Dream, in which belonging to a group is important. The Chevrolet slogan connects us to the entire American population; the iPod connects us to other owners of an iPod, and so on. We need a sense of connection and belonging, fulfilling our need for attention and affection. Abraham Maslow, a founder of humanistic psychology, created a triangle in which he placed a person’s needs in the order they needed to be fulfilled and the need for love and belonging was the third basic need. Disillusioned by the advertisements, people try to fulfill this need by buying the products. This proves that using this theme advertisers are able to affect the person on much deeper levels then recognizable, yet by no means does the product itself become more useful.

It is understandable that advertisers need to appeal to people in order to sell their product and that is why they use these tactics, but what is not understandable is while knowing the truth people believe the hoaxes and let advertisements dictate what they are going to buy. People need to realize that products should not be used to fulfill our weaknesses; they should be consumed based on our needs, because companies will keep manufacturing status symbols until we accept that products and items are only materialistic and we can never attain all the luxury items around us. We are scammed into buying false promises everyday, after we realize that we have a choice against it, we can choose not to let advertisements or minor details about the product like the endorsements, or the color of headphones, or the catchy slogan persuade us into buying a certain item.

This is a process essay, explaining how the construction of a rhythmic gymnastics routine is done.

What we see is not always all there is

Contrary to its appearance, a rhythmic gymnast’s routine is very complex. Once one understands the rules and regulations of building such a routine, one will appreciate viewing it much more, seeing not only the beauty of the sequence, but also the hard work that has been put in to make a harmonic, synchronized routine.

A routine is usually between eighty and ninety seconds; it is very difficult to construct a routine within such a small time frame. There are five types of routines: with a rope, with a ball, with a hoop, with clubs and with a ribbon. All five are necessary in order for a gymnast to enter a competition. However, younger gymnasts (under the age of 14) do not play with clubs and ribbon, since more skill is needed for them. There are also two other categories of routines: individual and ensemble. The former consists of only one gymnast, while the latter consists of five or six, depending on the gymnasts’ age.

A routine is constructed eight to nine months before the real competitions begin: usually during the summer, in order for the gymnast to have enough time to practice before the competitions start in the spring. The construction period usually lasts about a week. However, the step before that, choosing the music for the routine, can last up to two weeks. A routine is constructed in the training hall. A training hall is very high (in order for the gymnast to be able to throw the desired object in the air) and must have a carpet of plush material measuring 30m by 35m. This is the area in which the composition takes place.

The first step of building a routine is choosing the music. It should contain a lot of rhythm and no words. Coaches usually choose the music, but sometimes the gymnasts also make suggestions. The music should be suited to the object with which the gymnast is playing. For example, it is unusual for a ball routine to be fast-moving; the ball is generally suited to slow, flowing music. The same goes for the ribbon, which visually “flows.” The rope and club routines are usually fast-moving, with a lot of beat. The hoop routine can be either. The music should also be suited to the gymnast’s character. For example, an energetic girl would not be suited to lethargic music. This is very important, since the gymnast’s performance is directly related to how much she enjoys playing a particular routine. Once a song has been chosen, suitable moments from this song must be picked, which will later be cut and combined into one piece, lasting roughly about a minute and a half.

The next phase in this process is deciding on the required elements. There are three types of requirements: specific obligatory elements, elements of a certain difficulty, and the variety of the elements. An element is a movement or a position that takes place in a composition. For each type of routine, there is a set of mandatory elements. For example, in the rope routine, a gymnast must “pass through the rope,” “whirl the rope,” make a complete arm circle with the rope, and let go of one end and catch it. All these have to be done during a certain element of a particular difficulty level, depending on the gymnast’s age. For example, a young gymnast must do these obligatory elements during an element of difficulty level A(the lowest level), while older girls must do it during an element of difficulty level B. Difficulty levels range from A to E. For example, if the gymnast lifts her leg to her head, helping it with her arm, the difficulty level would be A. However, if she lifts it to the same height without using her arm, the difficulty level is raised to B. Each difficulty level earns a certain number of points, and there is a minimal level of points that must be reached. A coach must take this into consideration while designing a routine. The third requirement is that a variety of elements be used. This includes pirouettes (twirls), jumps, balances and so on. The required elements are usually decided on before the construction stage begins. The gymnast’s ability must be taken into consideration- for example, she might find balances easier than pirouettes, so the coach would put the most required elements into balances and the least in pirouettes. Once these elements are decided upon, it is just a matter of fitting them together to make a beautiful, flowing sequence.

The third step in making a routine is the construction. As a rule, the routine has to go along with the music; that is, certain movements are well suited to certain beats. For example, imagine a slow, flowing classical piece of music, which soon becomes faster and more energetic. A good sequence to such a piece would include pirouettes, balances and other twirls in the slow beginning, followed by jumps, throws, and difficult elements on the stronger, faster music. The construction is done element by element, commencing at the beginning of the music. Often, there is a sound several seconds before the music starts to alert the gymnast about the start of the music (this sound can be a bell, or even a “beep” sound – anything short – which the gymnast can recognize), so that she can begin playing at the exact moment the music starts. Whenever the coach decides that a particular part of the music is well suited to one of the required elements, she inserts it. In between these are “transitional elements.” These can be moves that do not count on the difficulty scale; they are usually inserted to add grace. They can also be extra elements on the difficulty scale, inserted in case the gymnast does not complete all of the required ones properly. Since in such cases the judges do not count these points, many coaches insert extra ones for security.

A step that follows the insertion of every few elements into the routine is the replay. Once the coach has put several elements together, she starts the music from the beginning and the gymnast plays along. This step serves two purposes. First, the coach can check how well the elements go with the music. Second, the constant repetition helps the gymnast remember the routine more easily.

The final step is the evaluation. Once the routine is finished, the gymnast plays it the whole way through. During this replay, the coach notes down the inserted elements, checks the requirements and counts the points the gymnast would earn if she completes the routine perfectly. If she notices that something is wrong, for example there is a required element missing or the points do not add up to the required minimum, she goes back to the construction stage and replaces some of the transitional elements with the required ones. Once both the coach and gymnast are satisfied, and all the requirements are met, the gymnast can begin the long months of training for the competitions in the spring.

The process of making a rhythmic gymnast’s routine is a lengthy and difficult one. It is repeated for every type of routine. However, the hard work pays off when, after long months of training, the time comes when a gymnast can prove her abilities in a competition. One skill a gymnast learns through the training process is how to make her routine appear easy; the audience is usually credulous and does not realize the amount of work that has been put into constructing the routine. This is why, in order for one to appreciate such a routine to a greater extent, one must understand the arduous process that is the construction of the routine.

Scholarship, Leadership and Practice

As evident in any career or field of study the tension over the relative importance of theory and practice often creates cracks between scholars, practitioners, and school leadership practice and academia. In this brief essay, we will offer few thoughts about the dividing norms between educational leadership and scholars and imminent solutions to ease these tensions as it relates to Information Literacy.

More frequently, problems within our communities become difficult to solve when people lack access to meaningful information vital to good decision making. In schools, the workplaces and leadership arenas, constantly changing information bases necessitates an ongoing struggle for individuals to keep up-to-date and in control of their daily information environment as well as with information from other fields which affect the outcome of their decisions. Information literacy, therefore, in the context of scholarship, practice, and leadership is a means of personal empowerment. It allows people to verify, refute expert opinion and to become independent seekers of truth. It provides them with the ability to build their own arguments and to experience the excitement for the search for knowledge, and also creates in young people the motivation for pursuing learning throughout their lives.

The need for international education in universities (Gutek 1993; Calleja 1995) as it relates to global literacy was emphasized by the United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The organization stated that, “in an increasingly interdependent world, most if not all major issues acquire worldwide dimensions and require global solutions” (Calleja 1995, p. 260:18). As with illiteracy in general, being globally illiterate limits a person’s ability to fully understand, participate and succeed in the world (Diaz, Massialas, Xanthopoulos 1999). Hence we live in a global village where collaboration and interdependence on information is obvious, teaching for global literacy should increase students’ awareness of the global nature of issues and encourage students to ask questions that transcend national boundaries. Globally literate students have the confidence, knowledge, and skills needed to apply sociological concepts, theories, and questions to societies different from their own and to develop their sociological understanding based on the cross-national differences or similarities that are found.

Therefore, the interdependence of scholarship and practice requires deeper understanding of the forces that separates these contributing perspectives in the field of educational leadership. The divisions have been part of the discussion about goals and purpose of school administrators since the beginning. Levine (2005) described “sharp differences–which became fissures.” In response to the Board Foundation and Thomas B. Fordham Institute’s recent report, (p. 42) Better Leaders for America’s Schools: A Manifesto, Kowalski (2004) notes that a group of which he refers to anti-professionist are currently raising the stakes in that they seek to deregulate school administration, “This war of school administration has and continues to be centered on intractable conflict concerning tensions between democracy and professionalism in school governance” (p.92).

Having worked in the educational sector for nearly seven years as an administrator and instructor in a Community College respectively, we have come to notice that there are needs for interdependence for scholars, practitioners and educational leaders if the educational institutions are to survive and maintain its credibility of being the main conscience of society. It is evident that current education policy is increasingly controlled by partisan politicians and the corporate interest that speaks through them.

The need for people in business or the educational sector who are competent managers or leaders of information is important at all levels, and the realities of the information Age requires serious rethinking of how businesses or educational institutions should be conducted. Harlan Cleveland explores this theme in his book, The Knowledge Executive. Information (organized data, raw material for specialized knowledge, and generalist wisdom) is now our most, and pervasive resource.

Practitioners are bombarded by demands from many directions and constituents (e.g. parents, community members, politicians, businesses, students, board members and universities to name few). Just one example is the licensure requirements of each state and the federal legislation that demands teachers meet politicians’ definition of highly qualified teachers. Pressure for accountability has increased and it seems as if time has become a luxury it seldom available for practitioners.

On the other hand, scholars seem constantly affronted by practitioners’ demand for expediency and convenience in addressing the daily problems of practice. The typical classroom usually lacks a strong discursive community of many academic subjects. Students rely upon either their own invisible authority of social traditions or upon voices of the external authority of expert texts or the teacher. One would also expect to find every student engaged in at least one open-ended, quest for an answer to serious social, scientific, aesthetic, or political problem. Students’ quests would involve not only searching print, electronic, and video data, but also interviewing people inside and outside of school. Consequently, learning would be more self-motivated.

There are two interesting and helpful ways to think about scholarship and how scholarly approach can be used to create a coherent and visionary context for leadership change. One way to approach being a public learner is to practice and model for others what Harry Payne (1966) of Williams College calls the intellectual virtues, “the willingness to explore widely, the ability to test one’s idea against that of others, the capacity to listen thoughtfully, and the strength to adduce reasons for assertions (p.18). The second way to think about scholarship of change is to use the approach articulated by Ernest Boyer (1990) and the extended by Glassik, Huber, Maeroff (1997). For Boyer, scholarship encompassed four kinds of intellectual work-discovery, integration into a body of knowledge, the scholarship of teaching (interpretation), and application.

In the present volatile educational environment, practitioner and scholars need to work together and not to fight against each other. The political realities are making the world uncertain for educators. This uncertainty comes in the form of funding, but even more importantly in terms of legislative demands placed on the field (e.g. in terms of teachers or administrator licensure requirements or in terms of accountability requirements as Levine (2005) points out, “ programs are been by passed as states approve alternative routes and waive traditional certification requirements for principals and superintendent.” (p.5)In the context of resource-based learning and information literacy, teachers should work consistently with librarians, media resource people, and instructional designers both within their schools and communities to ensure that student projects and exploration are challenging, interesting, and productive learning experiences in which they can take pride. It would not be surprising in such school to find a student task force exploring an important community issue with a view toward making a public presentation of its finding on cable television or at a news conference.

Additionally, librarians have a long history of serving as members of the university committee approving curricular changes, as well as on subcommittees responsible for major curricular initiatives such as the freshman seminar requirement, the implementation of writing intensive courses, and the major restructuring of general education courses to include elements such as active learning, critical thinking, and information literacy.

Scholars and practitioners need to respect each other on the basic level of their differences or it may cause those outside the education field to push and attain cuts for funding or increased government restrictions. The public image of school is under attack from segments of society, and governmental forces, if scholars and practitioners attack each other, it will provide great momentum to those who trivialize or de-professional education.

ConclusionsThere is much to be gained from good communication among scholars, managers and administrators and campus leadership. Good contact can keep all three groups honest. An appropriate bridge builder is the scholar-president, the learner among learners who must walk back and forth among the swamp and the dry land. This call for more attention to information literacy comes at a time when many other learning deficiencies are being expressed by educators, business leaders, and parents. A resounding theme in many of the information literacy success is collaboration. Partnerships include teaching faculty, librarians, campus administrators, academic counselors, students, and others making up the academic community.

The division between scholars and practitioners in Educational Leadership may be likening to a dysfunctional caste system. Scholars and practitioners in applied field need to promote their interdependence.

Jane Eyre By Charlotte Brontë

Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë was published in 1848, under the name of
Currer Bell. Although the novel is over 150 years old, there are still
themes that we can relate to today, such as bullying, prejudice and
hypocrisy. In this essay, I am going to discuss the three themes
mentioned and also consider admirable characters from the novel; the
authors narrative technique and the part that I found appealing. The
first issue that I will discuss will be on the bullying that Jane
received at Gateshead Hall: the home of her Auntie and cousins.

She is bullied by not just her cousins, but her aunt as well. In
Chapter one, it shows the bullying from her cousins and aunt, when she
has begun reading and John Reed, her cousin, throws the book at her
head, and she retaliates. But because she retaliated, John’s sisters
ran up to their ‘mamma’ and blamed the fight on Jane. She was then
escorted upstairs and locked in the red room. This could be counted as
a form of bullying, as she only puts her in the red room as a
punishment for attacking John, but we, the readers, already know that
John started all of the commotion. Verbal bullying is also used in
chapter one, where John Reed calls her names for throwing a punch at
him

(quote: CHAPTER1/line 16: “I don’t very well know what I did with my
hands, but he called me ’Rat!, rat! ’)

During Jane’s First term at Lowood, Jane is bullied out of food, when
there was very little and the older girls wanted some more food to
devour.

Jane Eyre is a first-person narrative, related in the voice of the
protagonist, or heroine. Jane Eyre is the “I” of the story, the person
whose voice we hear as we read, and everything that happens is seen
from her point of view. Nowhere in the novel does the author break the
flow of the narrator’s voice to give us an objective view of her main
character. However, she does remind us once in a while that the story
is being told by Jane as a mature woman, looking back on events that
happened some years earlier. The mature Jane occasionally comments on
the younger Jane’s reactions to those events, and sometimes she even
addresses you, the Reader, directly. You’ll also find occasions where
her narrative includes long stories told to Jane by other characters
(such as Rochester’s accounts of his past), conversations that Jane
overhears between other characters, and even accounts of Jane’s
dreams. These not only add variety to the style but give the reader a
chance to check up on the truthfulness of the narrator.

It’s important to remember that in a first-person narrative like Jane
Eyre we know only

Text Box: The Setting In the 1840s, when Jane Eyre was written, there
were very few ways in which an educated woman could earn her own living.
Poor girls might go to work as a house servant or in a factory, but the
conditions in these jobs were so bad, and their status so low, that no
young woman from a “good” family would consider these alternatives except
in extreme desperation. That left teaching, usually as a governess with a
wealthy family, as just about the only respectable occupation. Governesses
lived with the families they worked for, so they lived in fairly comfortable surroundings. However, their cash wages were very low, so their work gave
them no real financial independence. For the most part, they led lonely and
unsatisfying lives. Their status was higher than that of the other servants—
and too much mixing with the help was frowned on!—yet they weren’t accepted
as part of the family either. Unless a governess happened to be unusually
attractive, her chances of finding a husband were slim. Most marriages at the
time were based on family connections or financial considerations, and an
educated woman with no dowry had almost no chance of getting married. Since
they didn’t have much hope of saving money out of their low salaries, all
that most governesses could look forward to was a lonely and uncertain old
age, dependent on the kindness of the families they had served. There had been
governess-heroines before Jane Eyre, but they were portrayed as plucky and
beautiful—an outsider’s fantasy of the independent woman. Jane Eyre was the
first successful look at the reality of the governess’s life. It’s not really
necessary to know much about the 19th century in order to enjoy the story of
Jane Eyre, but you’ll understand some of Jane’s actions a little better if you
keep in mind that she’s a governess. Jane Eyre is a plain-looking young woman
who has been in an all-girl school since she was ten years old. She hasn’t had
any chance to learn about the ways of gentlemen like Mr. Rochester or about the
male sex in general. By the standards of the time, Jane is quite bold in talking
to Mr. Rochester as an equal. But when she realizes that his interest in her is romantic, she has to assume that it’s not marriage he has in mind. This explains
why she is very cautious about revealing her feelings for him. Also, although she
works for Mr. Rochester for some months, Jane has very little cash of her own.
When she goes to visit the Reeds, Rochester gives her extra money for the trip.
And when she decides that she must leave Thornfield rather than become his
mistress, Jane has only twenty shillings to her name—just enough money to
pay her fare for a two-day trip to a distant part of England. Governesses
were working women. But their security and freedom were very precarious.
This is why Jane Eyre is powerfully drawn to the possibility of becoming
dependent on a man—either through becoming Mr. Rochester’s mistress or St.
John Rivers’ wife. Yet at the same time, she is also afraid, because her
decision, once made, will be forever.

What the main character tells us. You may well suspect as you read
that Jane’s opinions aren’t always entirely objective—another sort of
person might see the events of the story and the personalities of the
various characters in an entirely different light. This isn’t
necessarily a weakness in the novel; in fact, it may be one of its
strengths. But you’ll truly enjoy Jane Eyre only if you feel a basic
trust in the narrator. For the novel to be a success for you, you must
be able to imagine that, in Jane’s shoes, you might well have felt and
acted as she did.

In this paragraph, characters who we admire will be brought up and
good points about them will be mentioned. The first admirable person
we meet would probably be Bessie, when she gets a doctor because Jane
has some sort of fit when she is locked in the red room. Bessie had
been following orders from Mrs Reed all the time, and didn’t think of
Jane’s feelings at any time, until she had the fit. She was the first
person to go and see why Jane is screaming and shouting so much.
Bessie ignores Mrs Reed’s orders to ignore Jane’s cries for help.
Bessie and Jane get along much better after the red room incident.
Another admirable person is Helen Burns, who we do not meet until
chapter 5, who befriends Jane. She has a great impact on Jane, in what
Jane does. The two become inseparable until Helen becomes ill, she
disappears from the room, and is moved up to Miss Temple’s room.
Before Helen died, Jane had made her way up to Miss Temple’s Room to
be with her friend one last time. Earlier in chapter 6,Helen had
flashed a smile at Jane when she had been accused of all the wrong
doings her aunt told Mr Brockelhurst. The last admirable person that
we meet between chapters 1 and 10 is Miss Temple. Helen tells Jane
that Miss Temple is the only warm hearted person at Lowood School.
Miss Temple demonstrates how kind and believing she is when the
accusations are thrown at Jane. She asks Jane if it is true, and Jane
denies it. Miss Temple feels that Jane didn’t do any of the things she
is being accused of and she says to her, she is innocent and as soon
as she has checked out Jane’s version with the physician that treated
Jane in the red room, she will be innocent to everyone, not just her.

Hypocrisy is also experienced within the book.

Hypocrisy is saying that you should be one thing not another, when you
actually are another yourself.

In Chapter 6, Mr Brockelhurst is a hypocrite in everyday life, as his
father created a school for poor children, and he demands that the
children stay poor, but still he remains as rich as a celebrity.

College Admissions Essays – Advice on the Personal Statement

In the application process, the personal statement marks an opportunity to lend a face to the

facts, through what can be a very flat colorless medium: paper and ink. Do not, however, think

of the personal statement as a mini-autobiography, where the emphasis is on listing the facts in

chronological order. Instead, treat the noun on equal par with the adjective; just as important as

the personal content of your essay is its ability to make a statement, to perform as an argument.

Generally speaking, to write in this difficult genre—the personal statement—you need to find a

balance between the descriptive and the analytical. Find ways to generalize out from your life

so that it speaks to others, but do not let abstract arguments supplant the specific detail that

lends authenticity to your beliefs. Narration, storytelling, example, and illustration are all

important rhetorical strategies that help your readers see a face or picture a scene.

Choosing what to write about is the first hard step, but ultimately what will prove more

important is not your handling of what but your attention to how and why. In short, the

personal statement is not a statement about your person; it is a statement about how you think

about your preparation, about your anticipated field, about events or theories someone else

could interpret differently. This is where your voice comes in: the committee reading your

statement wants to hear you think out loud about your selections.

The ultimate challenge becomes this: Can you shape your life, your education, your habits of

observation into an argument? The personal statement will require a combination of

vulnerability and editorial distance, emotional risk and intellectual objectivity. What will secure

this combination is 1) time spent pre-writing, brainstorming the content of the essay, and 2)

time spent revising the essay. Expect to produce multiple drafts to achieve a concise and

powerful personal statement.

American Dream: Comparitive Essay

The American Dream can be examined and interpreted on many different levels. In 1925 in the midst of the Jazz Era, F. Scott Fitzgerald explored the imperfections and downfalls of the American Dream in his novel “The Great Gatsby”. The exposure of such corruption was devastating, and over seventy years later, “American Beauty”, directed by Sam Mendes, provided a similar portrayal. This essay will deconstruct and compare the techniques that both Fitzgerald and Mendes used to relate both “The Great Gatsby” and “American Beauty” to the typical suburban American Dream. Gender and class representations were used to structure the discourse and therefore further position the reader to relate to the messages delivered through Both “The Great Gatsby” and “American Beauty”.

When reading “The Great Gatsby”, the reader is encouraged by Fitzgerald to review their beliefs and opinions regarding various issues which come forth, such as friendship, loyalty and materialism. This is achieved due to the writing style of the novel. The narrator shares these views, and therefore, the reader has a mutual understanding of such opinions. Nick Carraway seems to the reader to be a very non-judgemental who frequently refrains from voicing his true opinion. Hence, the reader also tends to have an open mind when considering various events in the novel. As the reader is initially introduced to Gatsby, who does not share a speaking role until well into the novel, they are positioned to view Jay Gatsby as a mysterious character who has the fortunes of wealth and popularity behind him. However, upon learning of his criminal history, and his lusting after Daisy, he is seen as somewhat naïve and hopeless, extracting a feeling of empathy from the reader. The audience shares a similar opinion when introduced to Lester Burnham in “American Beauty”. His opening statement, “I’m 42 years old. In less than a year, I’ll be dead. Of course, I don’t know that yet. In a way, I’m dead already.”, causes the audience to deeply consider his situation, and as the story progresses, the viewer feels sorry for him. Lester embarks on a journey of self-realisation, rebelling against his dysfunctional family life, struggling to regain dignity and respect that he once had from his daughter and overbearing wife, Carolyn.

The tendency for one gender to dominate is apparent in both texts, more predominantly in “The Great Gatsby”. A perfect example of this is the relationship between Tom and Daisy. Tom is described as a ‘big, hulking specimen’, and this is evident throughout the novel as Tom uses his power and status to get what he wants. The narrator, Nick Carraway, states:

“They were careless people, Tom and Daisy- they smashed up things and creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness or whatever it was that kept them together, and let other people clean up the mess they had made.” (pg 154)

Despite Daisy’s position in society, however, she still fails to hold any power over Tom. His male domineerance towers over her: “I’m glad it’s a girl. And I hope she’ll be a fool- that’s the best thing a girl can be in this world, a beautiful little fool.” This comment shows Daisy’s repulse towards Tom’s treatment of her. Lester shares a similar feeling of helplessness towards the beginning of “American Beauty”. Carolyn remains in complete control of the household, insisting on frequently listening to her elevator music at the dinner table every night. She also provides another example of this when Lester puts forth an attempt to rekindle their romance, but Carolyn is more worried about that fact that he is going to spill beer on the couch. This situation also allows the audience to make reference to their beliefs about Carolyn’s ideas on materialism when Lester states: “This isn’t life. This is just stuff. And it’s become more important to you than living. Well, honey, that’s just nuts.”

It is apparent that in “The Great Gatsby”, Nick also shares a similar view to Lester on greed and possessions. There is a strong message contained in both texts, that money, and all superficial things contained in the American Dream, cannot provide happiness. It can be seen in “The Great Gatsby” that those with money and fortunes are evidently more unhappy than those without it. Gatsby is destroyed, and Tom and Daisy are forced to move away from the mess they have made. This also resurfaces in “American Beauty”. Non-traditional families like Jim and Jim, a homosexual couple, seem to be more content and fulfilled with their lives than those who reside in the perfect house, with a conventional family and a white picket fence. This suggests, in both texts, that appearance is not everything. In the case of “American Beauty”, a further message is conveyed that often the simplest things in life can provide joy and happiness. Ricky says, “Sometimes there’s so much beauty in the world I feel like I can’t take it… and my heart is going to cave in.” He sees beauty in the simplest things, even a plastic bag.

The elements of gender, class and positioning which are present in both texts lead to a strong and similar discourse which influences the audience and their opinions. It becomes apparent that the motivation for the characters in both circumstances is to find happiness. The reader also becomes aware however, that there is a common misconception that it can be found in things such as wealth, success, and Italian silk couches. Throughout the both the novel and the film, however, the audience learns that the only source of true happiness is that which you desire most deeply. For Gatsby, it was Daisy. For Lester, it was Angela, and freedom. For Ricky, it was self-discovery and individuality. In both instances, the audience learned that those who were true to themselves, found happiness eventually.

Through considering these findings, it is palpable that each of the texts relate back to the typical American Dream. Citizens crave the ability to belong, through wealth, status and success. Jay Gatsby demonstrates this craving for acceptance when he displays huge parties and an impressive house, with the sole purpose of impressing Daisy. This is also seen in “American Beauty” when Carolyn and Buddy Kane discuss success. Buddy reveals that his motto is “In order to be successful, one must project an image of success at all times.” However, the reader becomes aware, in both instances, that success and image is not a true source of happiness. However, beneath their successful and polished exterior simmers a great discontent and unhappiness.

The extensive exploration throughout both texts shows the reader the definite contrast between the American Dream, and the harsh reality of suburban American life. Each writer used techniques such as positioning of the audience and gender and class representations to demonstrate the meanings of true happiness and beauty. The reader learns that it is not the materialistic objects in life that offer contentment, but the simple, less obvious things, like a plastic bag, or a dead bird.

This essay is about the corruption of the papacy in the Middle Ages.

Religion and faith dominated virtually every aspect of life during the middle Ages. However, the Church’s influence suffered greatly during the later part of this age of faith. Many historians hold that the Medieval Church was a landmark of corruption. This view is often used to explain the decline and fall of the Church and the success of Martin Luther’s reformation. It depicts the Church as being ruled by power hungry popes who abuse their positions of authority. At this time “the increasing hostility of the laity to ecclesiastical wealth and decadence undermined papal prestige”.

“Omne malum a clero”–every evil comes from the clergy. The clergy are church officials who are divided into two classes. The first class, monks and nuns, lived in accordance to a recognized religious rule, and remained secluded from the outside world. The second class of the spiritual clergy include the priests, bishops, and arch bishops, who have taken the Sacrament of Holy Orders which allows them to administer sacraments and perform religious services. It is not clear which of the two classes engrossed themselves in the most corruption, there is documentation condemning them both. In the year 1245 at the Council of Lyons, Pope Innocent IV had called the sins of the higher and lower clergy “one of the five wounds in the Body of the Church,” and at the second Council of Lyons in 1274 Gregory X declared that “the wickedness of many prelates was the cause of the ruin of the whole world!”

Perhaps this can be traced back to the increase of the importance of the clergy after the establishment of the Canon Law and their exemption from any sort of secular jurisdiction. The clergy lived above the law, which was a breeding ground for clerical corruption. The importance of community life and prayer, as well as the oath of poverty, became obsolete as many monks retained inherited estates and acquired wealth. This directly violates all that a clergyman embodies.

The corruption associated with the medieval church is further demonstrated by its support of the Order of the Temple. The Order of the Temple was a type of religious order that had been founded in the early twelfth century during the crusades in order to protect crusaders against bandits while they traveled to the Holy Land.

The brothers of this order, referred to as Templars, protected Christian Territory, living as monks, claiming poverty and following strict guidelines of dress. However in the early 14th century the brothers of the order of the temple “were outlawed by both the Pope and France for such crimes as idol worship, homosexuality, and fraud”.

Templars were said to be corrupt in that they acquired their wealth by stealing it, they encouraged homosexual acts between brothers, and they did not make charitable donations or give hospitably, as religious orders were required to do.

These crooks that appeared to be “brave knights of Christ” received payments from Clergymen and received legal privileges from the papal see. The medieval church directly supported this corrupt organization, furthermore damaging its integrity.

The Great Schism provided an even greater threat to the prestige of the papacy. The Great Schism lasted from 1378 to 1417. During this time, candidates from Avignon, Clement VII, and Rome, Urban VI, both claimed to be the rightful pope. These excommunications were used as a spiritual weapon, and too often, for debased political reasons during the Schism. Both Popes concerned themselves with gaining wealth at the expense of the other. The rivalry that developed left the two divided churches without any real leadership. This was a breeding ground for corruption as the two popes issued little concern for well being of the Church, while attempting to out do one another. In 1409, the Council of Pisa tried to resolve the dispute but instead created a third claim to the office, Alexander V, who soon died and was followed by John XXIII. The council was tasked with other issues, such as reforming the Church, but they concerned themselves mostly with attempting to suppress heresy. The fathers who convened at Pisa are credited with burning “an upright and God fearing teacher” and alienating a large part of the nation. Although the Council at Pisa made the Schism significantly worse, the Council of Constance was able to resolve the conflict in 1417. One man resigned and the two other candidates were deposed. This brought an end to the schism and its triumvirate papacy, which one historian referred to as “an impious mockery of the trinity.” A new pope, Martin V (1417-1431), was elected in their place as the single legitimate pontiff and the church began to heal although “Trust in the Father of Christendom was gone.”

During the middle Ages religion quickly became materialized. Pious interests focused on material items, mainly indulgences. Indulgences are “the remission of the temporal penalty due to forgiven sin, in virtue of the merits of Christ and the saints”. These indulgences started after the first crusade and were a lucrative source of income for the Church. Trafficking them became a practice that was exploited by professional pardoners who sold indulgences at large scale. In order to raise funds for his campaign against Ladislas of Naples in 1410 Pope John XXIII “offered indulgences to all that could support his war chest.” We have assurance from the Council of Constance the John XXIII “sold absolution from both punishment and guilt.” Basically, John XXIII forgave Christians of their sins in exchange for a monetary payment. He then planned to use that money to wage civil war and cause bloodshed in Italy. The thirst of the clergy for cash was undoubtedly a driving force for corruption in the middle ages. It was stated by one scholar that preachers of indulgence adopted as their favorite tag “Your cash no sooner clinks the bowl than out of that purgatory jumps the soul!”

Another instance that has often been a sited to convey ecclesiastical corruption in the middle ages is the representation of the medieval inquisition. The medieval inquisition marks a period in the Middle Ages where the papacy became obsessed with the conviction of heretics. A heretic is any person who denies or doubts the doctrine of the Catholic Church. This heresy crisis peaked in the 1180′s as cannon law allowed for the inquisitio where bishops “were held to inquire into reputed crimes in their dioceses rather than rely exclusively on charges brought by the informers or accusers” which was a method that was “most conspicuously applied against heretics, thereby gradually institutionalizing the Inquisition”. Behind this excess was the driving power of rampant superstition and obsession with the devil that took possession of the papacy. The devil obsession began to run daily life as charging witches freely of heresy became widely accepted. The witch trials and witch burnings spread and the official church did nothing to shield the victims of these atrocities with the Gospel teachings. Innocent VII in his Bull “Summis Desiderantes” of 1484 “gave the Dominicans in Constance plenary powers in the matter of witch burning, and threatened with the ecclesiastical punishments anyone who opposed the prosecution of witches.” Christ had healed those who were possessed by demons, and now the name of the same Christ, they were being burnt by the masses.

Certainly there were many abuses of the church made during the Middle Ages, but there were also many commendable achievements. New churches were built, new parishes opened, new appointments were made, and new charities were established. It was an age when catechetical and devotional literature flourished. Bible stories, and poor men’s Bibles appeared in the service of religious instruction dispensing Christianity to all walks of life.

Any institution that has survived as long as the Catholic Church has is bound to have skeletons in its closet. We might even go so far as to say that in comparison to today’s churches, the crimes committed by the papacy in the middle ages appear less horrendous. The Episcopal Church and the Catholic Church are currently under great scrutiny for the corruption of their leaders. The overwhelming urge for the powerful to abuse their power becomes too great, as we have seen in many of our politicians, sports figures, celebrities, and religious leaders. Winston Churchill once said, “Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.”

Unfortunately these achievements are out weighed by the fearful decline of true piety, widespread neglect of duty amongst the higher and lower clergy, and petty rivalry that consumed and devastated the Church. To serve the church is to follow in the footsteps of John the Baptist, “who had only camel’s hair to wear, with a leather belt around his waist, and who ate locusts and wild honey, resisting every effort by his supporters to focus the light of glory on himself rather than on the one who was to come.”

1) Karl Adam, The Roots of the Reformation, trans. Cecily Hastings (New York: Canterbury Books, 1951).

2) Adam. It is difficult to estimate the extent to which ecclesiastical corruption prevailed but it is clear that it was abundant and played a significant role in the decline of honor and respect of the medieval papacy.

3) Adam.

4) Adam.

5) Helen Nicholson, “Saints or Sinners? The Knights Templar in Medieval Europe”, History Today (December 1994), 30-37.

6) Nicholson, 30-37.

7) Nicholson, 30-37.

8) Nicholson, 30-37.

9) Adam. The Christian body was split into two camps, and since the two camps excommunicated each other and each other’s followers, “the whole of Christendom was at least nominally excommunicated”.

10) Adam.

11) E. R. Chamberlain, The Bad Popes (New York: The Dial Press, 1969), 100.

12) L. Elliot Binns, The History of the Decline and fall of the Medieval Papacy (London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1934).

13)Binns, 188.

14) Adam.

15) Frans van Liere, “Was the Medieval Church Corrupt?”

16) Binns, 188.

17) Joseph McCabe, Crises in the History of the Papacy (New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1916), 225.

18) Adam.

19) Elisabeth Vodola, Excommunication in the Middle Ages (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986), 34.

20) Adam.

21) Adam.

22) Adam.

23) Adam.

24) Richard McBrian, “Popes must be servants rather than celebrities” The National Catholic Reporter (January 1995), 13.

25) Matthew 20. King James Version (1611). The clergy is even more so designed to mimic Jesus in his understanding and poverty, and it is said in the King James Bible that the “Son of man hath not where to lay his head.”

Many of the leaders of the Medieval Church failed to live and abide by the examples set by Jesus and John the Baptists choosing to bring dishonor and dignity to the Medieval Church. One particular scholar comments: “It was indeed night in a great part of Christendom”.

This essay is concerned about training and development of a specific restaurant.

Higher Education – What is Higher Learning?

What is ‘higher education’? Higher education is the center and key element of all civilization advancements. That is one of the primary definitions that comes to mind when asked about higher education at a university. Another definition about higher learning at a university is for oneself to learn who he or she really is in life. That person is also responsible for forming some kind of lifestyle according to what he or she has grasped onto from the university way of living. Many people also consider as true that a university is a place to receive a proof that he or she is qualified to work in a particular field of study as a professional. Each person should have the right to attend an educational institution seeking their own interpretation of higher learning. There are some people that have the resources, whether it be wealth or academically, to access higher learning at a university, but for those who do not, they have to be content with what they have learned through earlier years of school to succeed in life.

It is important to enlighten a national culture on traditional values that were established in the past may they be good or bad. In Virginia Woolf’s case she was locked out of a male dominated university lifestyle where women were considered unnecessary of attaining knowledge. In her time period, at the University of Oxbridge, Woolf witnessed how only male students were taken seriously about education and even when a young woman tried to enter the library alone she was taken for a ignoramus and sent on her way. A civilization cannot further advance at any kind of distance without researching its misjudgments in the past and correcting them. Woolf’s situation is a prime example in the controversy of teaching the nation about former traditional values. If a person demonstrates that something in the days of yore did not work, then we can benefit from that mistake and construct a more appropriate world to live in.

There are those who also believe in teaching a university curriculum, based on the Great Books approach, is a worthy inspiration. That is not likely supported by Allan Bloom. Bloom believes that a college is in existence for a student to assimilate as much knowledge as conceivable. An exemplary example of Bloom’s opinion is his quote that ‘It is amateurish; it encourages an autodidact’s self-assurance without competence; one cannot read all of the Great Books carefully; if one only reads Great Books, one can never know what a great, as opposed to ordinary, book is;.’ This statement is profoundly true by reason of one person cannot conclude that one object is considered ‘great’ if that person has only been subjected to that manifestation their entire life. The single solitary way that person will have a chance of evaluating what is ‘great’ will be when they have seen every commodity in existence, and even then who are they to judge what is ‘great’ anyhow?

One more illustration of how life at a university should be, is presented to us by John Henry Newman in his essay The Idea of a University. Newman states that university living should include superincumbent collaboration between students and faculty members as well as faculty and students amongst themselves. That is an impressive way of looking at what a university habitat could include. Newman states the quote ‘He is at home in any society, he has common ground with every class;’ to express that there are not any barriers between fellow students, faculty, or anyone at the university to block out their unity. Newman also discloses in his essay that a student should acquire lessons of life such as manners, morals, management, etc. Hopefully, Newman’s philosophy on how life should exist at a university will one day become a reality.

Higher education exists in many forms of definitions in life, but it is a decision that every person that enters a university must make of which interpretation pertains to his or herself. Everyone will approach it in their own way, but it remains to been seen who will flourish into the world as a well-rounded person on their conclusion. The decisions that we make as individuals dictate the lives that we lead in society, so live and learn!

Natural Law

The School of Natural Law Philosophy was an intellectual group of

philosophers. They developed new ways of thinking about religion and

government. Natural law was based on moral principles, but the overall outlook

changed with the times.

John Locke was a great philosopher from the middle of the 17th century.

He was a primary contributor to the new ideas concerning natural law of that

time. He argued that humans in the state of nature are free and equal, yet

insecure in their freedom. When they enter society, they surrender only such

rights as are necessary for their security and for the common good. He also

believed that each individual retains fundamental prerogatives drawn from

natural law relating to the integrity of the person and property. This natural

rights theory was the basis of not only the American, but also the French

revolution. 1 During his lifetime, he wrote many essays and letters to his

colleagues on a variety of topics:2

* Letter on Toleration (1689)

* Second Letter on Toleration (1690)

* Two Treatises of Government (1690)

* Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)

* Some Considerations of the Consequences of Lowering of Interest, and Raising

the Value of Money (1691)

* Third Letter on Toleration (1692)

* Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1693)

* Further Considerations Concerning Raising the Value of Money (1693)

* The Reasonableness of Christianity (1695)

* A Vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity (1695)

* A Second Vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity (1695)

* A Letter to the Bishop of Worcester (1697)

* Discourse on Miracles

* Fourth Letter for Toleration

* An Examination of Father Malebranche’s Opinion of Seeing All Things in God

* Remarks on Some of Mr Norris’s Books

* Conduct of the Understanding

Locke’s greatest philosophical contribution is his Essay Concerning Human

Understanding. In the winter of 1670, five or six friends were talking in his room,

probably in London. The topic was the ‘principles of morality and revealed

religion,’ but arguments arose and no real progress or serious discussion took

place. Then, he goes on to say, ‘it came into my thoughts that we took a wrong

course, and that before we set ourselves upon inquiries of that nature, it was

necessary to examine our own abilities, and see what objects our understandings

were, or were not, fitted to deal with.’ At the request of his friends, Locke

agreed to write down his thoughts on this question at their next meeting, and he

expected that a single sheet of paper would suffice for the purpose. Little did he

realize the importance of the issue which he raised, and that it would take up his

free time for nearly twenty years. The Essay is divided into four books; the first

is a debate against the doctrine of innate principles and ideas of that time. The

second deals with ideas, the third with words, and the fourth with knowledge.

Locke’s ideas center on traditional philosophical topics: the nature of the

self, the world, God, and the grounds of our knowledge of them. He addresses

these questions at the end of his Essay. The first three sections are an

introduction, and Locke saw that they had an importance of their own. His

opening statements make this plain:

Since it is the understanding that sets man above the rest of sensible beings,

and gives him all the advantage and dominion which he has over them; it is

certainly a subject, even for its nobleness, worth our labour to inquire into. The

understanding, like the eye, while it makes us see and perceive all other things,

takes no notice of itself; and it requires art and pains to set it at a distance and

make it its own object. But whatever be the difficulties that lie in the way of this

inquiry; whatever it be that keeps us so much in the dark to ourselves; sure I am

that all the light we can let in upon our minds, all the acquaintance we can make

with our own understandings, will not only be very pleasant, but bring us great

advantage, in directing our thoughts in the search of other things.

Composition I short essay on the American Educational System.

The question posed is “What should the education system be?” This question cannot be answered specifically because the education system means something different to everyone. The education system is, to an extent, what it should be, which is an institution devoted to the development of the intellect. American education should however, be more than rote instruction of mandated materials. Our children should be taught more life skills along with science and math.

Children sit in rows, facing straight, not talking. They select and use educational materials in unison, and watch the teacher write on the board. The droning sound of the teacher’s voice attempts to fill their minds with knowledge. It sounds militaristic because it is. Students remember more of what they are taught if the material is presented in a less formal, more enjoyable atmosphere. School administrators and state agencies set forth guidelines from which teachers must not deviate. The problem is, these administrators are removed from the classroom and tend to forget that children have changing needs. Today’s teachers learn more progressive teaching methods such as portfolio assessment vs. testing, and sitting in groups instead of rows. There are few administrators willing to incorporate these changes into their schools. Education management needs to allow teachers the flexibility to teach their students using whatever methods actually work. There is no reason why children should not look forward to school.

For the most part, our education system is devoted to teaching students. There is great concern that students should be prepared to move on to higher stages of education. Tests are given periodically to gauge students’ progress. There is much discussion how improving education and better preparing students for the world. Students do learn, and many excel, but school is still viewed as drudgery by most students.

If our education system is to prepare children for the world educators need to look more closely at curriculum. Art, philosophy, history, math, English and science are all important subjects. They teach us about the world around us and how things work. The social setting of the educational facilities also compels students to learn about society and what is acceptable behavior. However, are we properly preparing our students for the world? Are we teaching life skills like personal finance and relationship dynamics? Can we lower the rate of divorce or the number of poverty-stricken retirees by educating students in these areas? Our education system needs to incorporate fundamental life skills into the curriculum. The focus on education should not stop at the goal to create an intelligent adult. The education system must also attempt to create a responsible citizen, an asset to the community.

The American education system is not entirely broken. There are many positive things happening. Progressive teaching methods are being employed and the student is being recognized as more of an individual. America cannot stop here. We need to ask ourselves if the moral fabric of our country can be improved through education. The education system plays a larger role in our lives than any other one thing. The system needs to use this influence to improve society as a whole and people as individuals.

In the Army now. essay on current events on the iraq war and the draft

With the recent war in Iraq there has been of the United States government bringing back the military draft. This has caused many people to worry, even myself about the situation in Iraq. The war seems to be getting out of hand for the government to deal with if they are planning to bring back the draft. Then there is the fact that the United States has been losing more and more troops everyday, which could possibly lead to the draft being reinstated.

The United State military draft was discontinued in 1973, after the end of the Vietnam War, moving on to an all-volunteer force which we have today. The first draft was used by the Confederacy on 16 April 1862. Government officials plagued with manpower shortages regarded drafting as the only means of sustaining an effective army and hoped it would spur voluntary enlistments. (Conscription) Although that issue again arises with the depletion of the nation’s reserves with the recent activities in the Middle East. “There is no question that the force is stretched too thin,” said David Segal, director of the Center for Research on Military Organization at the University of Maryland. “We have stopped treating the reserves as a force in reserve. Our volunteer army is closer to being broken today than ever before in its 30-year history.”(Military Draft). Due to these circumstances the volunteer rate has declined in the years of the war. Last year the Army fell 7 percent below its recruitment goal. And in some states, the retention rate has fallen far below the desired 85 percent to 71 percent. Army officials attribute the strong re-enlistment rates to unprecedented cash bonuses and a renewed sense of purpose in fighting terrorism.

Some of the record bonuses are tax-free if soldiers re-enlist while in Afghanistan and Iraq. The average bonus is $10,000, said Col. Debra Head, who monitors Army retention at the Pentagon. From Oct. 1 through June, the Army had re-enlisted 53,120 soldiers, 6% ahead of its goal of about 50,000 for that period. At that pace, the Army would finish the year 3,850 troops ahead of its target of 64,162. (Moniz)Once you agree to join the army you are dedicated to serve your country for at least three years through the contact. At least 8,000 members of the all-volunteer U.S. military have deserted since the Iraq war began, Pentagon records show, although the overall desertion rate has plunged since the Sept. 11 attacks in 2001. Since fall 2003, 4,387 Army soldiers, 3,454 Navy sailors and 82 Air Force personnel have deserted. The Marine Corps does not track the number of desertions each year but listed 1,455 Marines in desertion status last September, the end of fiscal 2005, says Capt. Jay Delarosa, a Marine Corps spokesman. ( Nichols)Just leaving from high school I wanted to attend college although if I joined out the Army out of high I would miss my education opportunity. I would be deployed over seas, placed in danger and feel a slim chance of returning home and still pursuing the life I had dreamed before I left. Although with the recent news of the draft it seems even though I didn’t choice the military route I will still be forced in by the draft.

Once the draft is instated male and female personnel ranging from ages 18 to 44 will be registered to a military branch and committed to at least three years of service. Even though some areas of the military prohibit the enlisting of female volunteers, such as the Navy Seals and Army Rangers the two most combative army divisions. Senior Republican Senator Chuck Hagel, of Nebraska, was the one who first stated that a mandatory military draft had to be considered in the face against the war against terrorism. He added that the “middle class” and the “lower middle class” should not be forced to bear the burden of “fighting and dying if, in fact, this is a generational probably 25-year war.”(Military Draft)The one thing about the draft that would be good will be that there will be fresh troops to battle the forces in Iraq. These troops would replace the older troops who have been deployed and would like to return home. Also with the draft the term limits overseas should decrease since there are more troops in which could be supplied. For the youth’s who are living at home with there parents between the ages of 19 and 25 could do the country good instead of living at home doing nothing. I feel that the draft has its benefits and its weaknesses that would hurt this country. The most important thing the draft will bring is fresh, plentiful troops that would help the war against terrorism.

Though the draft could possibly bring more troops and allow the troops now deployed to return home it is still horrible idea. With the draft civil unrest will come since the United States is built around democracy, letting the public volunteer on their free will to join. Since there are Americans who feel the troops shouldn’t be in this war they would refuse to be drafted. American is considered a bully to many other nations because of the way will have trying to police the world. The war is for the protection of our country but there has been many other times in which our army has been deployed for the wrong reason.

In the past draft there has been draft card burnings’ and boycotts against the war. I believe that if the draft was brought back these things will happen again. This is such a serious issue I believe that people will leave the country so they would not be forced to be drafted. I believe that the rich and famous citizens will refuse to be drafted and even pay others to go in their place. By sending our entire nation’s youth over to Iraq, it would affect everything in the nation. Such as in our sports, professional sport players’ are among the most athletic people in the nation. Our national hero’s would be deployed and enlisted in the Army going against what they believe in even though they are not immune to the draft. Why would a person fight and die for his/her if they don’t fully believe they should be fighting. I believe I person wouldn’t fight to the best of their ability if they don’t have the right mindset on why they are overseas. That person would have to find self determination since war is not the easiest thing mentally or physically. In the Vietnam War famous people such as Elvis Presley and Willie Mays were enlisted in the draft. Then there are the college students’ who will have to leave all there progress behind with school to be enlisted in the Army not knowing if they will ever come back and complete their degrees.

Even though many people feel that the draft is near, in reality the draft is indeed still far away. The United States government issued a statement that the US Military is meeting most of the recruiting goals even due to the war in Iraq. The decline was only due to those citizens’ afraid to join due to the situation in Iraq, but there has been many patriotic Americans who have joined to contribute to the War on Terror. The draft seems only necessary if the US Military is drawn into a third front besides Iraq and Afghanistan. North Korea will be the only situation that could be a reason that the draft will be reinstated, since there are harmful situation growing in that nation.

If the United States does indeed bring back the military draft then our youth will be in trouble. It will greatly affect our country and would cause more harm than good. With the battles overseas we are stretching our Army thin, when the nation should concentrated on other issues plaguing out nation such as the economy and poverty. The war against terror is an important issue to be dealt with but the more important question is will the draft destroy the future and dram of the nation’s youth who would be placed in danger?Works Cited“Will there be a military draft in the United States?” Military Draft. 5 Oct 2004. 29 Dec 2006< http://militaryspot.com/military-draft.htm>Nichols, Bill. “8,000 desert during Iraq war.” USA Today 7 Mar. 2006: C3Moniz, Dave. “Soldiers re-enlist beyond U.S. goal.” USA Today 17 July. 2006: D2

Women’s Friendships

Friendship refers to a co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. Friendships are an integral part of every individual’s life as it helps you grow as a person and makes you look at the world in a different way. The process of making friends begins from when you are a child and continues on throughout old age. As an individual grows older, they become wiser in choosing friends and thus feel more satisfied with their companions. Old women’s friendships have many valuable functions to offer that can fill the emptiness and loneliness that older women may experience in their later lives. Such experiences can include divorce or the death of a spouse. This is the time when old women most need a friend which can help them overcome their feelings of depression and solitude. Thus, friendships are important in later life as it opens the door to new experiences and offers emotional support when deemed necessary. In this paper, I will use: The Last Gift of Time by Carolyn Heilbrun to analyze the theme of friendship among old women which is evident in The Diary of a Good Neighbor by Doris Lessing to demonstrate how friendships among older women are significant as they provide a way for older women to connect to other women, and gain a sense of self-worth and belonging in the world but can nonetheless bring stress and conflict to a women who are providing these valuable resources.

To start off I will provide a brief summary on my two chosen texts. In the collection of essays The Last Gift of Time, Carolyn at age 60 begins to realize that aging does not have to be a negative experience. She begins to appreciate the many pleasures and joys that the golden years have brought her. Growing old is seen as a blessing that not all women get to enjoy. Carolyn goes through several phases in her life which make her re-consider the decision of taking her precious life at the age of 70. In the essay titled Time, she talks about how her retirement has given her an opportunity to take time in thinking about her friends. She felt that now was the time in which she would be able to enjoy the company of friends more than ever. She was pleased to know that she would have the time to understand and really get to know and connect with long lost friends.

Moving onto to the essay titled E-Mail, Carolyn discovers the convenience and accessibility of using e-mail to communicate with the outside world from the comfort of her own home. The purpose for using her computer has shifted from using it for work to using it as a form of communication. The danger though is that it can be time-consuming due to the high volume of replies. But those who are isolated will most likely choose to engage in lengthy discussions though e-mail. Email is a quick and easy way of communicating one-on-one. “It reaches into our privacy without invading it, an astonishing accomplishment; it connects us to those with whom the possibility of connection might have remained unexpected; it offers us welcome without the necessity of social arrangements; it inspires us to confidences and the practice of wit” (Heilbrun, 1997, p.68).

In the essay titled England, she realizes that friendship is the key to happiness and one of the greatest gifts of her sixties. Her rejoice is expressed in the words of W. H. Auden: “At twenty we find friends for ourselves, but it takes Heaven to find us one when we are fifty-seven” (Heilbrun, 1997, p. 101). I think this quote is significant in that it speaks reality because it shows how young people take friends for granted but it all changes as you age.

In her essay titled Unmet Friends, she learns that unmet friends can never be lost. She takes notice that the secret to unmet friends is that they have gained courage and strength to escape or endure the same kinds of circumstances that most women have encountered. Last but not least, in her essay titled Listening to the Young (ER), Carolyn values friendships with the younger as they offer satisfying knowledge and experiences that indirectly affect the old. One of the dangers evident in friendships among the old is that they are no wiser now than they were before; one usually knows them all too well. One thing that she came to understand was that the only thing was important to the young was the simple presence of the old. It does not have to be experienced by them being directly involved in the lives of the young but just knowing that they will be there is enough to satisfy the soul. However, even after all the pleasures she experienced in her later years, she committed suicide at the age of 77 as she felt her life had concluded.

The memoire titled The Diary of a Good Neighbour discusses the role that the old play in society which is not very often talked about. The diary is narrated by Janna, an intelligent middle aged woman who is the editor for a magazine called Lilith. For most of her life, she has dedicated her time to her appearance and her job which has had an impact on her friendships. She was never close with her husband, not to mention her family. But once her husband and mother passed away from cancer, she steps back and begins to question her place in the world. One day, she meets an old lady named Maudie Fowler and before she knows it, she is growing closer to her which makes her view the old in a different way. Janna realizes that along with the pleasures of old age come difficulties that are hard to deal with alone. This makes her spend more time with Maudie as she feels responsible for the well-being of her friend. Her co-workers frequently criticize her on the fact that she chooses to dedicate her spare time to looking after an old lady even after she is often restricted by her choices. Although, Janna and Maudie are different, they share a special and powerful connection which fills their lives with satisfaction.

Maudie experiences the power of friendship through the deep connection she forms with another old woman. Maudie, a ninety two year old frail woman does not have much contact with the outside world which makes her last years very depressing and meaningless. “Diminished contact with outside sources has been found to lead to a sense of disorientation in an old person’s daily life” (Aday et al, 2006, p.59). She lives alone and must manage it all on her own from the time she wakes up to the time she goes to sleep. Women living alone with few friends, especially those with a particular supportive friend are more prone to falling into depression (Aday et al, 2006). Her family abandoned her and she has no one to take care of her or even appreciate the fact that she is still alive. This could be part of the reason why she is rarely in a good mood and refuses to show any form of emotional affection towards others. It is interesting to see how after meeting Janna, her life changed and she began to feel good about herself and her existence. For example when after having met at the chemist shop, Maudie asks Janna if she will ever see her again and Maudie invites her to come over to drink tea together and Janna accepts. “And there was a moment between us of intimacy: that is the word” (Lessing, 1985, p. 22). This quote is significant because it shows how Maudie was in need of someone to share her time with as solitude was taking over her life. It was also mentioned how Janna really liked Maudie from the very first time they met, so she goes out of her ways to gratify and please Maudie. “On the Saturday I took her some roses and carnations, and a cake with real cream (Lessing, 1985, p. 23). Why would she want to please or impress a woman she barely knows? It could be that she felt connected to her more than she did with her mother. I am thinking it could also be a way to make up for the lost time and lack of connection she had with her mother. So since the opportunity presented itself, she is making the most out of it because now that she is aging, she realizes that she would not want to be taken for granted as most old women are.

It is important that old woman have friendships that will allow for intimate exchanges of both positive and negative experiences. “Although, when women lose friends through death, they find it hard to use available opportunities for making connections because many women fear aging, deny their own aging, and project their hate of their aging upon other old women” (Jacobs, 1990). Those who could make friends were women who viewed themselves as being different because they could not admit that they were old (Jacobs, 1990). This finding is to no surprise as old women are often stigmatized and negatively viewed in society. The old are not valued as much because they cannot contribute to society and instead place a burden on people who have to take care of them. In general, interacting with others makes individuals feel more integrated into society (Antonucci, 2001). In other words, they feel connected to family, friends, and the community.

Now I will move into how Maudie develops a sense of self-worth and belonging as her friendship with Janna transmits into a more serious commitment. As Janna becomes more involved with Maudie by visiting her everyday and taking care of her, she beings to feel attached to Janna and develops a sense of reliance towards her. Since, there is now someone who cares for her, Maudie feels a sense of self-worth in her life. The feeling of being loved and cared for provided Maudie with a sense of belonging. She has someone to live for whereas before she was living for her own sake. Stevens and Van Tilburg have emphasized that friends contribute to well-being by helping older individuals sustain a sense of continuity in their lives (Aday et al, 2006). Janna took on the “mother” role in a sense as she would clean her flat, bathe her, buy her food and clothes, and most of all offered her a pair of ears that would be willing to listen to her. Their daily visits would be a time to exchange stories of the past which provided a sense of emotional intimacy for each other. It appears to be the case that we seek and achieve a sense of integration and belonging by feeling able to talk to others about things that are important to us (Antonucci et al, 2001). Maudie became so used to it that when Janna would not visit her, she would complain as if though it was her obligation to do so. She felt that she belonged in Janna’s life and heavily relied on her too fulfill things that she once did on her own. Janna enriched the last few years left for Maudie by giving her all she could to ensure her satisfaction. Studies have shown how individuals can benefit from social close relations by deriving comfort and reassurance from them (Antonucci, 2001). This was the case with Maudie; she was getting too comfortable with her new lifestyle that was placing impediments in Janna’s life.

So far throughout, I have demonstrated how friendships in old age can provide positive feelings for women but there are also negative aspects of older women’s friendships. The women receiving the emotional support and company are not the problem but instead the problem lies within the women who are providing these resources. For example, while Maudie is receiving a great deal of care both physically and emotionally, Janna finds herself in a regretful situation that she wishes to escape. She expressed her true feelings as she says “I wished I had not responded to her, and I was wondering all evening how to escape” (Lessing, 1985, p.31). This quote demonstrates how Janna is realizing the negative outcome of her friendship with Maudie as she is severely restricted to enjoying her own golden years. Thus, many old women make strong commitment to refrain from becoming too involved with other women because they fear that they won’t be able to get away from them (Jacobs, 1990). She also says “In the morning I woke up and it was as if I was facing some terrible fate. Because I knew I was going to have to look after Mrs. Fowler. To an extent, anyway” (Lessing, 1985, p.31). Hence, a main reason why old women choose not to make friends in old age is due to fear of losing a beloved friend, but realistically speaking many women have learned that friendship at older ages may sometimes become a burden (Jacobs, 1990). Janna’s desire to make friends in her old age has taken a completely different turn than she expected. Janna can be seen as a friend/caregiver who to Maudie feels great as for the first time, she is feeling appreciated by someone. On the other hand, Janna feels constricted and is trapped with a responsibility that she would rather not have to do. Janna says “I went to bed that night saying I had made a contribution to Mrs. Fowler’s welfare that was more than she could possibly expect. And that was enough. I simply would not go near her again (Lessing, 1985, p.34). As Coyne, Ellard, and Smith claim, having supportive others who are constantly needy creates a conflict for the support provider. On the one hand, the service provider wants to offer help but after prolonged periods of providing support, the caregiver may become ambivalent about the desire to provide support that may never be correct, enough, or positively recognized (Antonucci, 2001). This may be one of the reasons why Janna was relieved to know that Maudie was soon going to pass away because she might have felt that this would be the best for both of them. Janna had put in so much time and dedication towards Maudie, that she felt like she had done so much and she could do no more. She has dedicated a great portion of her life to making Maudie’s life satisfying but now it was time to make space for her own satisfaction.

In conclusion, it is evident through the memoire of The Diary of a Good Neighbour that friendships can provide both positive as well as negative experiences to old women. The positive aspects of friendships are that they provide a long lasting connection and they offer a sense of belonging in the world. The negative aspects are that they can induce stress and conflict for the service provider by placing restrictions on the freedom they get to enjoy. Overall, friendships among old women are beneficial to the happiness and well-being experienced throughout the golden years. They can help to ease adjustments to old age and affirm the past and present events that formed the person they are today.

Leadership Models Essay

Leadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission, task, or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. A person carries out this process by applying their leadership attributes including beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills. Although a position as a manager, supervisor, and director might give a person the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization, this does not make them a leader, it simply makes them the boss. Leadership creates situations where people want to achieve high goals and objectives, while on the other hand, bosses tell people to accomplish a task or objective.

The Situational Theory of Leadership, Four Framework Approach, The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid and the Servant Leader Model will be summarized and, if applicable, the supporting research with be evaluated. These four theories and models were chosen based on the interest of the writer and will be assessed in terms of effectiveness. The foundational research will be examined and points of convergence or divergence will be revealed. A conclusion will be drawn as to if each theory or model has the ability to address contemporary leadership.Situational Leadership Model The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model was formed in 1969 on previous leadership research. This theory suggests that leadership style should be matched to the maturity of the subordinates. Maturity is assessed in relation to a specific task and has two parts. Psychological maturity addresses the self-confidence and ability and readiness to acceptModels 3responsibility of the subordinate and job maturity is comprised of the subordinates relevant skills and technical knowledge (Norris, 1992).

Hersey and Blanchard chose six components and from these previously researched premises molded a theory that emphasized the maturity level of the workers. The six propositions are: 1) Leadership styles vary considerably from leader to leader. 2) Some leaders’ behavior primarily involves initiating structure to accomplish tasks, other leaders behave to build and maintain good personal relationships, and still others do both or do neither. 3) The most effective behavioral style of leaders is one that varies with the situation. 4) The best attitudinal style is a high tasks and a high relations orientation. 5) The job and psychological maturity of the followers is most crucial in determining which behavioral style of leaders will result in the most effectiveness. 6) Maturity relates to the stage in a groups’ life cycle or to the previous education and training of the followers (Bass, 1990).

The situational theory of leadership separates leadership behaviors into two general categories: task behavior, which is the communication and management of the work tasks that the group must accomplish with the followers, and relationship behavior, which is the creation and maintenance of personal or emotional connections between the leader and follower. Low maturity workers are seen as needing a high level of task-oriented supervision and a low level of relationship-oriented supervision. High maturity workers are viewed as requiring a low level of both task and relationship supervision. Intermediate-maturity workers are believed to require medium task-orientation and high relationship-oriented supervision (Norris, 1992).

Models 4Least mature subordinates are those that have neither the emotional nor the technical components of the skills they need to succeed. Those that have the emotional components but lack some of the technical ones are next in the readiness scale. Beyond them are those who have the technical components, but lack the emotional ones. Finally, the most ready subordinates are those who have both areas under control. They are ready to perform without supervision (Norris, 1992). According to situational theory, as the subordinate maturity increases, leadership should be more relationship-motivated than task-motivated. There are four degrees of subordinate maturity, from highly mature to highly immature, and leadership can consist of: Delegating to subordinates, Participating with subordinates, Selling ideas to subordinates and Telling subordinates what to do (Bass, 1990). The goal of situational theory is to match the leadership style to the maturity level of each subordinate and present it in such a way that the subordinate will be successful and maintain or even enhance the maturity level. At the lowest levels of maturity, high-task and low-relationship styles (“telling them just what to do”) tend to work best. As a subordinate’s confidence improves and they enter the next readiness level, a high-task and high-relationship style (“selling the plan”) becomes more appropriate. At the next readiness level, the subordinate has the skills to perform well, but may not have the security or willingness. For this level, low-task and high-relationship (“coaching”) behaviors will work best. Finally, at the highest maturity level, a low-task and low-relationship style (“delegating”) works best. Team members at the highest maturity level can handle the task on their own without much direction, coaching, or supervision (Bass, 1990).

Models 5 Four Framework Model In the four framework model, Bolman and Deal (1991) suggest that leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: structural, human resource, political, or symbolic. The style can either be effective or ineffective, depending upon the chosen behavior in certain situations. Structural Framework In an effective leadership situation the leader is a social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. In an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is detail oriented. Structural leaders focus on structure, strategy, environment, implementation, experimentation, and adaptation (Bolman & Deal, 1991). Human Resource Framework In an effective leadership situation the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support, advocate, and empowerment. In an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a pushover, whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. Human resource leaders believe in people and communicate that belief; they are visible and accessible; they empower, increase participation, support, share information, and move decision making down into the organization (Bolman & Deal, 1991). Political Framework In an effective leadership situation the leader is an advocate, whose leadership style is coalition and building. In an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a hustler, whose leadership style is manipulation. Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get;Models 6they assess the distribution of power and interests; they build linkages to other stakeholders; use persuasion first, then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary (Bolman & Deal, 1991).

Symbolic FrameworkIn an effective leadership situation the leader is a prophet, whose leadership style is inspiration. In an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a fanatic or fool, whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors. Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theater to play certain roles and give impressions; these leaders use symbols to capture attention; they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences; they discover and communicate a vision (Bolman & Deal, 1991).The Blake and Mouton Managerial GridBlake and Mouton (1985) in their managerial grid, use two axes. Concern for people is plotted using the vertical axis and concern for task is along the horizontal axis. They both have a range of 1 to 9. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior has the attraction of simplicity. Most people would fall somewhere near the middle of the two axes, butby going to the extremes of people who score on the far end of the scales, they come up with four types of leaders: Authoritarian (9 on task, 1 on people), Team Leader (9 on task, 9 on people), Country Club (1 on task, 9 on people), and Impoverished (1 on task, 1 on people). Authoritarian Leader – High task, low relationship – 9 on task, 1 on peoplePeople who get this rating are very much task oriented and are hard on their workers. There is little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. Heavily task oriented people display these characteristics: they are very strong on schedules; they expect people to do whatModels 7they are told without question or debate; when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it; they are intolerant of what they see as dissent, so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or develop (Blake & Mouton, 1985). Team Leader – high task, high relationship – 9 on task, 9 on peopleThis type of leader leads by positive example. They endeavor to foster a team environment in which all team members can reach their highest potential, both as team members and as people. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members. They form and lead the most productive teams (Blake & Mouton, 1985). Country Club Leader – low task, high relationship – 1 on task, 9 on peopleThis leader uses predominantly reward power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to accomplish its goals. Conversely, they are almost incapable of employing the more punitive, coercive and legitimate powers. This inability results from the leaders’ fear that using such powers could jeopardize her relationships with the team members (Blake & Mouton, 1985).

Impoverished Leader – low task, low relationship — 1 on task, 1 on peopleThis person uses a delegate and disappear management style. Since they are not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance; they essentially allow the team to do what ever it wishes and prefers to detach from the team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles (Blake & Mouton, 1985).

Models 8Servant Leadership Model A description of servant leadership comes from Kezar (2001) stating servant leadership has evolved from biblical notions of Christ as the model leader. The servant leader is “focused on working with others, as Jesus worked with the disciples, leading in a quiet, humble, empowerment focused manner” (Kezar, 2001, p. 88).A tenant of servant leadership, described by Robert K. Greenleaf, is servant leaders constantly inquire whether “other people’s highest priority needs are being served. Do those served grow as persons?” (Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership, 2002, ¶ 4). Greenleaf also asks, “do those served become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants? And, what is the effect on the least privileged in society; will they benefit, or, at least, will they not be further deprived?” (Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership, 2002, ¶ 4). Servant leaders act warm and supportive toward followers, develop social rapport and respect the feelings of followers, are sensitive to followers’ needs and show trust in followers (Kezar, 2001).

FindingsThere is no mention of Robert K. Greenleaf or servant leadership in Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership (1990) nor The Evolution of Management Thought by Daniel Wren (1994). There is no foundational research that led to the development of this model with the exception of Jesus as the model leader and the second portion of the Bible. The writer of this essay is surprised she is drawn to the concept of servant leadership, being that she usually distances herself from anything with a religious undertone. Perhaps the religious theme of the servant leadership model is the reason servant leadership it is not noted in the required texts for aModels 9doctoral level class in the study of leadership. The other three models described in this essay focus on the ability of the leader to change depending on the situation. Blake and Mouton (1985) describe the optimum as being the team leader, high on task and high on people. However, they do not entirely dismiss the other three types of leaders described in their model. They postulate that certain situations might call for one of the other three described leadership styles to be used at times. By implementing the impoverished leader role, a leader might allow the team to gain self-reliance. An authoritarian leader might instill a sense of discipline in an unmotivated worker (Blake & Mouton, 1985).

The four framework model by Bolman and Deal (1991) suggests that leaders can be put into one of their four categories and there are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it would not be feasible. Any one of these approaches alone would be inadequate. Leaders are asked to be conscious of all four approaches and not just rely on one. For example, during a major organization change, a structural leadership style may be more effective than a visionary leadership style; while during a period when strong growth is needed, the visionary approach may be better. Leaders also need to understand themselves as they tend to have a preferred approach (Bolman & Deal, 1991).In a Doctor of Education online class a student lamented, “I am saddened and maybe a little embarrassed that I put so much credibility in Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model, only to discover that all of it premises do not hold up in research.” (T. Sword newsgroup posting, August 12, 2003). Although, none of the described models in this essay hold up in research, there is no need to discard them. It is the belief of the writer that each model can successfully address contemporary leadership environments. The similarities are that eachModels 10theory has the option of the leader changing to each situation. There is a point of convergence in that each of these models is based on a behavioral approach and there is an awareness of the follower. The writer looks forward to applying components from the Situational Theory of Leadership, the Four Framework Approach, the Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid and the Servant Leader Model in becoming a transformational and innovative leader.

Honor

Credit. Nobility. Principle. Reputation. Respect. Tribute. All these words that someone could just blab out from their mouth have a similar meaning—honor. What is honor? I could blab out a mouthful of words from the top of my head right now, and you would most likely know what I would be talking about. Honor has been a term that has been used in many ways and defined in many perspectives and views. It has been misinterpreted quite too many times in reading and writing, but some know the true statement of the meaning of honor. Perhaps this is so because one thinks that honor is difficult to translate into words. What do you think it means?Does honor portray a meaning that rewards people, or does its true meaning mean to treat others with respect, value, esteem, dignity, and regard? Many presidents and famous people who have helped this one nation a great deal has defined honor to the nation. “Honor isn’t about making the right choices. It’s about dealing with the consequences.” “He has honor if he holds himself to an ideal of conduct though it is inconvenient, unprofitable, or dangerous to do so.” “You cannot believe in honor until you have achieved it, better keep yourself clean and bright; you are the window through which you must see the world.” “The shortest and surest way to live with honor in the world is to be in reality what we would appear to be; all human virtues increase and strengthen themselves by the practice and experience of them.” “No person was ever honored for what he received. Honor has been the reward for what he gave.”Honor has been misinterpreted so many times by lots of people that its significance has grown and grown and grown since the day that it gave way. Honor can be said to be used in two different senses. We can talk of someone’s honor or we can speak about giving honor to somebody else. Integrity is a person’s honor. In all problems, areas, or situations, when one does right it is considered to be honor. When somebody gives honor, it means to emphasize your relationship with him or her. In other words, it means to value your relationship with her/him. Now, this can be acted and performed in many ways. You can be respectful to him or her, show friendly traits such as being kind and intelligent, and care for them. What does it mean to honor your parents? It simply means to be obey them with self-respect and dignity. In addition, it means to be grateful. Someone can look at honor as having two halves to it. The first half is a desire to obey and the second is a fear of not obeying or complying to the fact.

Honor is the ability of oneself to present honesty, fairness, or integrity in their beliefs and actions. Yes, there are times when people are being ranked in honor putting across the point that they have high respect from people. Honor can mean high public esteem, fame, and glory. The way you receive all this fame and glory is if you commit a good deed. All the people who serve in the army of the United States should be all honored in some way. This is because those men and possibly some women risk their lives to fight in the war for somebody else. They do it to perform a good deed, not just for the fun of it. There have been some martyrs, and people have been killed. When someone is killed for doing the right thing, they should have credit. Like in Islam, those who are martyrs should be honored for they make great sacrifices or suffer to further a belief or cause.

Those who receive honor should have a good reputation or name for doing the right things at the right time whether they committed a sacrifice or became a martyr. It is like a source of credit to someone who was willing to do something that others would not want to do because of their lack of bravery and courage. They achieved something that others would never achieve. When that occurs, he or she should not just be avoided. Then, this world would not work together to form an excellent society. When somebody receives honor, it could be a special recognition for an unusual achievement. It certainly is a privilege to be honored.

There are a whole lot of nouns that could be exchanged for the use of honor in a statement or sentence. However, honor is considered to be the most general term. Those people who have achieved any form of honor are called heroes. In general, honor has many meanings applied to it, and this is just a brief essay on the meanings on honor from my perspectives as well as the research that I have done. Honor is a right to respect as an equal and is a subjective right. Honor is a trait that is single and invisible and can be lost.

Persuasive Essay on Overpopulation

Overpopulation

Overpopulation is becoming one of the most preeminent problems

facing human civilization. This complicated, pervasive issue will come to be

a problem of the utmost importance for people of all races, religions, and

nationalities.

Our planet now provides for approximately 5.8 billion people, with

projections of around 10 billion by the year 2050. Two billion of these are

extremely poor, the poorest of which live in absolute poverty and misery.

One very serious effect of the population explosion is its detrimental

effects on the global environment. Increasing amounts of food, energy,

water, and shelter are required to fulfill the needs of human society. Much

of our energy is derived from the burning of fossil fuels-releasing millions

of metric tons of toxins into the atmosphere annually. The amount of land

required for food production will grow increasingly larger, while the amount

of available land will grow increasingly smaller.

The affects of overpopulation on human society are many. Suffering

from a lack of resources, people are often driven to war when they become

too numerous for their available resources. Ethnic and racial differences will

grow increasingly frequent and unresolvable. Increasing numbers in urban

areas will lower quality of life in cities around the world.

The precipitators of this complex issue are unlimited. Factors such

as poverty, food distribution, and government corruption are all important

aspects. No one will be unaffected by the repercussions of an

overpopulated world. This highly sensitive and complex issue demands the

attention of all who reside upon this planet, particularly those who have the

ability to work for change.

Reflection on the nursing process, using Gibbs 1988 model

This is a reflective essay based on a situation encountered during my first six-week placement on an ear, nose and throat ward at a local hospital. In order that I could use this situation for my reflection the patient will be referred to as “Mr H”. This is in order that his real name is protected and that confidentially maintained in line with the NMC Code of Professional Conduct to

“Treat information about patients and clients as confidential and use it only for the purpose for which it was given.”

In order to help me with my reflection I have chosen Gibbs (1988), as the model to help with my reflective process. This model comprises of a process that helps the individual look at a situation and think about their thoughts and feelings. The experience gained in this can then be used to deal with other situations in a professional manner.

The Nursing process is a framework used by the health care professionals. The framework is made up of four components. Assessment of the patient on admittance to hospital, considering all of the patients individual needs in order to identify any problems. Planning: at this stage the nurse and if necessary carers, relatives and the patient discuss achievable goals and how these can be met. Implementing: This is the direct care needed for the patient, what is to be done for the patient, when and by whom. This gives the patient a clear understanding of what is going to happen to them throughout their stay in hospital. Evaluating: This step of the process informs the carer and the patient whether the goals set have actually been achieved (Kenworthy, et al 2002).

Description

Whilst working on a morning shift I was asked if I would assist a team of nursing professionals and nursing assistants with washing and making a patient comfortable.

Mr H was a 68-year-old patient who had previously undergone cranial facial surgery to remove a tumour, which was invading his left eye. This was a very rare form of cancer. After a recent CT scan it was found that the tumour had reoccurred and this time was inoperable. It was shortly after this diagnosis that he was transferred to our ward for palliative care.

The World of Health Organisation (WHO) defines palliative care as:

“The active total care of patients whose disease no longer responds to curative treatment. Control of pain, of other symptoms, and of psychological, social and spiritual problems is paramount. The goal of palliative care is achievement of the best quality of life for patients and their families”

(Lugton, Kindlen 2000)

On admission to the ward the patients care plan was completed with an initial patient assessment, relating to the “Activities of daily living,”(Logan et al 2001). The aim of this care plan was to allow the patient to die with well-controlled symptoms and to help the patient and family receive psychological, spiritual and emotional care during the last days of the patient’s life.

It was only through his body language that the nursing staff could tell if the level of medication was correct and whether he was in any pain or discomfort. Mr H was given diamorphine for his pain, cyclizine an anti-emetic drug to prevent sickness and hyoscine to help with his secretions. A syringe driver was used to give a continuous subcutaneous infusion, as at this stage Mr H was unable to swallow.

The patients family were with Mr H and so were asked to wait outside whilst the patient was washed and made comfortable. Mr H had strong wishes not to be catheterised, this was respected and a conveen was put in place. He was given a bed bath, a shave and a clean change of clothes. Throughout the procedures the nursing staff helped protect his dignity by keeping the cubicle door closed and by keeping the patient covered as much as possible.

The nursing staff continually spoke to him and reassured him, whilst I held his hand. Day to day deterioration was occurring, so it was essential that his family were informed of any changes in his condition and that everything was done to ensure he was comfortable and free from pain. Mr H died a few days later with dignity and respect and peacefully with his son and daughter at his side.

Feelings

I felt extremely self-conscious when standing by the bedside. I did not know how conscious the patient was of the situation around him, so it was obviously important to talk to him. I found it difficult to know what to say and was really conscious of others listening to me and wondered if I was saying or doing the right things. The atmosphere in the room was very quiet, my mentor and other staff present were very concerned he may die whilst we were washing him, so we were all doing our best to ensure the family were allowed back into the room as quickly as possible. The family were obviously anxious and upset at being away from him for any length of time.

Evaluation

The good that came out of the situation was that the care plan for the last days of life had been met. The patients and the family’s psychological, social and spiritual needs had been addressed, and the patient was comfortable and free from pain (Kemp 1999). The care that was carried out protected the patients’ dignity and respected him as a human being, with his family being involved as much as possible with his care.

The bad thing about the situation was that medically there was nothing more that could be done for this patient. All the family could do was to sit by his bedside and wait for their loved one take his last breath, and to be at peace.

Analysis

I chose this incident to reflect upon because I found it very rewarding to be part of the team that helped this patient, in his last days of life, die with the dignity and respect he deserved. Everything that could be done for the patient and his family was done in a very professional, but also a very caring manner.

The NMC guides us to:

“Promote and protect the interests and dignity of patients, clients, irrespective of gender, age, race, ability, sexuality, economic status, lifestyle, culture and religious or political beliefs” (NMC 2002:4).

I feel that we had achieved this for the patient and his family. I do not believe a person dying to be, part of the routine and ritual of the hospital staff caring for them (Field & James 1993, Walsh & Ford 1989 cited in Lugton, Kindlen 2000).

I have realised while reflecting that dying is unique and highly personal to the person experiencing it and also to those close to them (Lugton, Kindlen 2000).

On looking back on the incident I do not feel that my attitude towards death has changed, however, being involved with the care of this patient did make me think. It gave me better awareness on how to approach and communicate with patients and families of patients dealing with end of life situations.

Conclusion

In conclusion I can now see that whilst giving palliative care to a patient it can be easier to focus on the care to be implemented than the feelings of the patient and the family. I was nervous about giving care to Mr H., as I had never been in this type of situation before, I found I concentrated more on my own personal emotions than that of the patient and his family. When implementing palliative care it is important to observe the non-verbal and verbal communication of both the patient and the family, especially that of touch, which in itself can convey empathy. As a student I need to be more aware of this.

Action Plan

If I find myself in this situation again I would ensure I was confident enough to implement palliative care in a professional caring manner, which hopefully will mature with personal experience and by observing my mentor and other members of staff. I would fully discuss the care to be implemented before approaching the patients’ bedside and ensure I have a better understanding of the patients needs. I would talk to the patient whether or not they were conscious and also aim to provide support for the family.

Technological Development and the Third World

TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT & THE THIRD WORLD I wonder if people in Third World countries know that they are considered the ‘Third World?’ Do they use that term in reference to themselves? Do they have any perception of the comparison, judgment and bias that goes into that statement? I’d like to think that they don’t. In the film about the Ladack people that we watched in class, it was mentioned that they didn’t have a word for poverty. No such word even existed in their language. But that was before. It was before the invasion of other cultures, and it was before they had anything to compare themselves to. And in comparison, they saw that, materially, they had less. And in that knowledge, they believed that they, as a people, were less.

In this essay, I will examine third world communities and the relationship between technological development and environmental degradation. I will look first at the way in which development occurred in the South, and the reason it happened the way that it did. From there, I will show how these methods of development proceeded to eventually cause widespread environmental damage and it’s effect on the local people. .

DEVELOPMENT: ‘WESTERN’ STYLE

When I refer to ‘the environment’, I mean not only the habitat that humans, plants and animals inhabit, but also the physical, emotional and psychological attitudes that are encompassed by these in their daily existence. Development, by my definition, will consequently refer to the technological advancement of a community as well as the improved status of humans and other species. This is my definition, and one that others employ frequently now. However, the model I will be examining first is the development theory based on the economic – political system. ‘A

typical western (read: economic) definition of development would be ‘ an ambiguous term for a multidimensional process involving material, social and organizational change, accelerated economic growth, [and] the reduction of absolute poverty and inequality.” (1) The key emphasis in this statement is the phrase ‘economic growth.’ In Europe and North America, development politics has revolved around the economic aspect of producing surplus, and gaining capital. Because of our relatively rich land resource base, our method of technological development has been quite successful. Statistics show us as high wage earners, wealthy in public services such as health care and education, low infant mortality rate, long lifespan, and high GNP per person. Because of the comfort that our economic development has brought us, we have omitted the aspect of development in regard to human psychological well-being and the preservation of our natural surroundings that should be concurrent with technological development. With ours as the only current model of successful development, newly industrializing countries such as South and Central America, and Africa (and up until quite recently many Asian countries) attempted to achieve results in the same way. The problem that ensued for these countries was that instead of working slowly towards their goals, they sold themselves to get ahead economically. Instead of recognizing the problems that this method was causing and stopping them, governments and the wealthy private sector, took control of the industry and continued to exploit it. With the rich in control, the poorer classes had little choice but to follow, and the downward spiral of poverty and instability began.

HOW IT HAPPENED

As the Third World nations struggled to become ‘developed,’ the rich countries became involved in their affairs. Interest in the countries arose primarily because of the trade resources that these lands provided. The potential for profit became evident because the new countries were struggling with their economy. They were experiencing internal unrest between their members and they needed money and resources to get started. Before they had a stable internal economy, they were bounding into the international market and selling their resources for a quick profit. Cash-cropping became a way to enter the international arena of market and trade, but the damage to the land took only a few short years to be discovered, and by that time luxuries had become ‘necessities.’ People wanted the cash flow to continue and instead of finding ways to use their land sustainable, they continued poor resource management regardless of the consequences. Deforestation became another common practice because of the demand for wood overseas. Export, although a seemingly beneficial development strategy, became detrimental to third world countries because it catered to the demand for certain items. Coffee beans are a large export item in South and Central America. With the rising demand for coffee in North America, land that was previously used for agriculture was taken over and used for growing coffee beans. The consequences of this were twofold; local people were suffering from lack of land to use for food production, and the potential land was useless because of the cash-crops.

ENVIRONMENTAL RESULTS OF TECHNOLOGY :TODAY

A more current example of the technological development that is resulting in environmental degradation is the misuse of resources. In Africa, industrial water pollution has become a widespread problem. Third World communities don’t often have the awareness that the

South has about sustainable techniques and the importance of employing them. Most people in North America live in cities and have their water purified to a certain health standard and brought to them. People in the Third World use the river for washing, drinking and bathing. Unclean water leads not only to damage of the ecosystems but also to the health of those who use it. Another problem is that countries from the South have based their industry in developing countries because they have lower environmental standards. With the benefits of jobs and money that these companies bring, the host country will rarely challenge the damaging techniques that they use. ‘Pollution forms another major set of environmental problems in the region. It used to be said that pollution is a problem of the rich countries, and that for the developing countries, development must come first and we can worry about the environment later. Pollution and the deteriorating quality of life caused by environmental degradation in our region has shown how fallacious this argument is.’ (2) We no longer have a choice but to address the problems that man is creating in nature and the environment. The excuse of development will no longer hold.

‘(we, the) people.. in Latin America are using our best resources for the benefit of the rich countries – exporting to them our energy, our fish, our raw materials and using our labor resources to extract and export these materials and all at low prices and poor terms of trade.’ (3) While our technology is helping the third world countries in areas such as health and education, our own desire for goods and profit prevent us from allowing them their full potential. We create an economy where we will do whatever it takes to get what we want. As an example, we of the developed nations tell the third world that they should stop environmental damage, while it is our companies that are taking advantage of their low standards. We tell them to stop cash-cropping,

but we buy their coffee beans at any price. With these hypocritical standards, we will never influence them to turn their economy around. As we our economically motivated in our own interest, they too need economic motivation to change their destructive habits. Especially since with us, their products are primarily ‘extras,’ while for them, their trade of the product is negatively influencing their economy and affecting their people.

In Asia and the Pacific, urbanization, modernization, and technology are creating different environmental problems. It is the problem of human need. Thousands of people have been displaced from farms because the government or the private sector expropriates them for industrial use. Rich foodlands are being destroyed and turned into highways, airports or dams.With no where to go and no jobs, the people are migrating to the city in search of homes and employment. Slums and squatter dwellings result with problems of rising crime and unhygenic living conditions. This puts terrible strain on both the human and physical environment, creating a situation with little hope for a successful future.

SOLUTIONS

To combat these crisis, we must adopt some new behaviors. Our current model of development is showing some obvious flaws and it is evident that it is the impact of technology that has resulted in. environmental damage. But technology is not the only factor at fault. It is the influence of technology combined with human greed that has presented these complex human and environmental problems. Laws monitoring pollution of the environment must be enforced, and followed equally in all countries. With the knowledge that we now possess of the global chaos that is at hand, we have no excuse but to do so.

The hypocrisy that exists between the systems must also be stopped. Considering not only ourselves, but the endangered lives of others is essential to the continuation of our species as a whole. Our fortunate position in a developed nation does not give us the right to create a hierarchy of our existence as more important than the life of another.

Possibly, the only way that we are going to combat any of these problems is by education. It will take more than a few dedicated people to change the world, but with the influence of many, anything is possible.

Cause Effect Essay – Religion Causes War

Religion makes enemies instead of friends. That one word, “religion,” covers all the horizon of memory with visions of war, of outrage, of persecution, of tyranny, and death. That one word brings to the mind every instrument with which man has tortured man. In that one word are all the fagots and flames and dungeons of the past, and in that word is the infinite and eternal hell of the future.

In the name of universal benevolence Christians have hated their fellow-men. Although they have been preaching universal love, the Christian nations are the warlike nations of the world. The most destructive weapons of war have been invented by Christians. The musket, the revolver, the rifle, cannon, the bombshell, the torpedo, the explosive bullet, have been invented by Christian brains. Above all other arts, the Christian world has placed the art of war.

A Christian nation has never had the slightest respect for the rights of barbarians; neither has any Christian sect any respect for the rights of other sects. Anciently, the sects discussed with fire and sword, and even now, something happens almost every day to show that the old spirit that was in the Inquisition still slumbers in the Christian breast.

Whoever imagines himself a favorite with God, holds other people in contempt.

Whenever a man believes that he has the exact truth from God, there is in that man no spirit of compromise. He has not the modesty born of the imperfections of human nature; he has the arrogance of theological certainty and the tyranny born of ignorant assurance. Believing himself to be the slave of God, he imitates his master, and of all tyrants, the worst is a slave in power.

When a man really believes that it is necessary to do a certain thing to be happy forever, or that a certain belief is necessary to ensure eternal joy, there is in that man no spirit of concession. He divides the whole world into saints and sinners, into believers and unbelievers, into God’s sheep and Devil’s goats, into people who will be glorified and people who will be damned.

A Christian nation can make no compromise with one not Christian; it will either compel that nation to accept its doctrine, or it will wage war. If Christ, in fact, said “I came not to bring peace but a sword,” it is the only prophecy in the New Testament that has been literally fulfilled.

College Application Essay for Computer Science Major. I wrote it and used it, got accepted to the 3 schools I sent it too, now someone else can use it too!

The realm of computer science has excelled in recent times to become a cornerstone of the human environment. As we see the changes in technology we also see the way that the technology changes the people. Back ten years ago, anyone who even thought of owning or messing around with computers was the perfect catigorical reference of a ‘nerd’. Well it is ten years on from those times and

technology has become the ‘cool’ thing, every class and social group seems in one way or another to have some affiliation with computers or computer technology based produce. With so many more people on cutting edge of technological development, new industries are being

born every day, and new jobs are readily available to those qualified.

My undergraduate studies at (Insert College Here) will provide me with the qualification I need. It will provide me with the ability to acquire, develop, and maintain this ever-evolving technology.

One day, I hope to aid in the creation of a technological metropolis, where, just by a thought, a street vendor would provide a hot cup of coffee and the morning newspaper (althought it most likely won’t appear on paper). I know that my utopian ideals may seem far-fetched right now, but looking at the new technology arriving each

day has influenced my whole perspective on the subject.

My dream is, has always been, and forever will be, to live in a place where so many movies took me as a child: the promise of a future where space travel is an everyday thing, where information can be downloaded into human brains. A future totally co-dependent with technology, a virtual heaven for the most lazy individuals. My undergraduate studies will not allow me as a single person to achieve nearly any of these goals, yet they will allow me to bring forward new ideas, and not simply develop some type of mundane gadgetry, calling it “the latest” technology. I will try my hardest to create something that will live on and flourish after I die, a true accomplishment. What can I contribute to the world? You tell me.

Compare And Contrast Two Or Three Poems Or Extracts From Longer Poems By Wordsworth

Compare and Contrast two or three poems or extracts from longer poems by Wordsworth In this essay I am going to compare and contrast two extracts from “˜The Prelude’. In both extracts, Wordsworth is exploring the effect of nature on himself as a young poet and how nature gave him moral guidance during his childhood. Whilst the first extract is about a rather serious, frightening experience, the second extract concerns an event which is much more exhilarating. His experiences in each are intensely personal and spontaneous, the result of his direct interaction with the natural world.

In each extract the young poet is doing an activity closely linked to nature. Extract One involves the boat-stealing adventure, when he took a boat out on the lake one evening in his holidays at Patterdale. Extract Two is when the young poet goes skating with the other boys one cold evening and really enjoys it, then he is attracted to skate alone by nature. In doing this we realise he is just as happy in solitude as he is in a group. In both extracts there is a feeling of a sense of the hidden power of nature. In the first extract the mountains convey the power of nature, “˜With measured motion, like a living thing, Strode after me.’ Here the mountains are personified and likened to an unknown creature. The word “˜Strode’ indicates a strong and powerful movement, which shows the hidden strength of nature. In the second extract the power of nature is shown through the earth turning on its axis, “˜”¦ Yet still the solitary cliffs Wheeled by me ““ even as if the earth had rolled With visible motion her diurnal round!’ This is an effective simile as it shows that nature has the power to drive the world around.

In the first extract the experience is related to “˜an act of slealth / And troubled pleasure’ and shows that natural law cannot be broken in this guilty way with impunity: the poet has been taught a lesson by nature. In both extracts nature can be seen as the figurative foster parent. Wordsworth suggests that childhood is of crucial importance and by learning from mistakes made, nature influences adulthood. This is shown in the paradox in “˜My Heart Leaps Up’ when Wordsworth writes “˜The child is father of the Man’.

Wordsworth effectively controls the use of form, which is blank verse, in both extracts. Enjambment is used to create the idea of movement in each but to create a different motion. In the first extract Wordsworth writes “˜I pushed,’ to convey the idea of the boat being pushed into the water. This works well as there is a natural pause and this creates the idea of the effort involved in pushing off. You also get a sense of the movement involved in using enjambment as it gives a sense of continuity. This is also used in the second extract but to create a different sense of movement. He writes “˜Stopped short;’ which shows the abruptness of the skating. This sudden stop is emphasised as it contrasts to the smooth skating rhythm in “˜line of motion’, which has long vowel sounds to convey the sense of the long skating strokes. Movement is also conveyed effectively in this extract using onomatopoeia and sibilance in the word “˜ hissed’ which allows the reader to actually hear the boy skating. The speed and energy of the boy is shown too in the word “˜ flew’. This active verb suggests energy and by placing it at the end of the line it suggests that the energy is carried on.

The mood develops within each extract to convey how the young poet is feeling at the time; in the first extract the mood alters from when he first begins rowing, “˜struck the oars and struck again’ where there is a slow and leisurely rhythm of the repetitive motion of rowing. This conveys his enjoyment in rowing and his relaxed state of mind as he takes in the beauty of the landscape. When the mood changes to fear the rhythm changes too, “˜ I struck and struck again’. Repetition emphasises the fear; there is also a sense of the loss of control and his wild effort to get away. There is this change in mood in the second extract as well, from the group atmosphere to the solitude skating. To convey this change in mood he uses simple contrast of sound comparing the “˜time of rapture! Clear and loud’ to the “˜silent bay’. Contrast is also used in the first extract to convey how the experience of stealing the boat has affected his thought pattern. At the beginning he has calm thoughts about how beautiful the landscape is, such as, “˜lake shining clear’. This is a vivid image, which gives an intense sense of freshness due to the long vowel sounds. The placing of the words also emphasises how much the boy loves the countryside as when “˜lustily’ is placed at the end of the line this word remains in the reader’s mind when reading the next line, “˜She was an elfin pinnace; lustily I dipped my oars into the silent lake’.

The word “˜lustily’ also gives a sense of the growing confidence of the boy and his great enjoyment in rowing.

These controlled thoughts are in contrast to his tumbled thought pattern about how vulnerable he feels later on where he says, “˜ There was darkness, call it solitude Or blank desertion. No familiar shapes’.

He conveys the idea that his security has been taken away in saying “˜blank desertion’. The use of caesura is used to emphasise his confused thoughts by breaking up the rhythm. This is also used in the second extract to show the thoughts of the boy as he pauses, “˜ The village clock struck six, – I wheeled about’.

Wordsworth emphasises how frightening the experience in the first extract is by personifying the “˜hoary mountains’. He uses the word “˜hoary’ to contrast old mountains to the young naïve boy. The experience is made all the more frightening when he says, “˜Upreared its head’. By placing the verb at the beginning of the line it gives added force to the movement so the reader is more aware of the apparent menacing threat of the mountain. Wordsworth also recaptures the suspense and surprise of the child in using punctuation to put a pause in the rhythm, “˜ As if with voluntary power instinct, Upreared its head. I struck and struck again, And growing still in stature of the huge cliff’.

The terror is emphasised when he says “˜ like a living thing’. The use of this simile is effective as the mountain is likened to an unknown factor, which makes it frightening. This imagery is effective as it provides a visual picture as to what nature is capable of. Repetition of how “˜huge’ the mountain is emphasises the fact that the mountain is haunting him. A similar thing is used in the second extract where “˜Wheeled’ is placed at the beginning of the line. In doing this, the landscape movement is emphasised. It shows the same power and vitality in man as in nature as “˜wheeled’ was previously used to describe the boy’s movement. In using the same word, the close link between man and nature is emphasised. The link is also emphasised in the first extract but in a different way. There seems to be dialogue between the boy and nature using “˜ mountain-echoes’ to warn him.

In both extracts Wordsworth writes with much feeling and sincerity which shows the importance Wordsworth attaches to personal experience in the world of nature. Wordsworth’s poetry helped to initiate the Romantic era in Britain by emphasising feeling, instinct and pleasure above formality and mannerism. Wordsworth thought that poetry should be written in the natural language of common speech, rather than in the lofty and elaborate diction that was then considered “˜poetic’. This was refreshingly simple diction after the usual poetry of the Augustan age. He chose to use what he called the “˜real language of men’.

Wordsworth’s motivation for writing poetry can be found in the preface to one of his greatest earlier collections, ‘Lyrical Ballads’ which he co-wrote with another poet, Samuel Taylor Coleridge. In this, he writes about real poetry as a ‘spontaneous overflow’ and much more besides. Wordsworth thought that poetry was about capturing feelings on paper. He said that this can be best achieved when reflecting upon a place or moment later on, when in a peaceful frame of mind. This is powerfully demonstrated in these extracts from “˜The Prelude’.

The Death Penalty: Just Punishment or Murder

One of the most debated topics in America today is how society should deal with the persons who commit the most violent, offensive and heinous crimes against society. Historically the punishment for these crimes was death. This punishment was normally accepted for these types of crimes not only in America but worldwide. Over the last two centuries challenges to the death penalty have been made which have argued the moral, ethical and religious reasons as to why the death penalty is both right and wrong. The ultimate question being asked in all of these challenges has been: can the death penalty ever be a punishment which is morally, ethically and religiously accepted by all of society? Is it justifiable to kill a human being in order to show society that the killing of a human is wrong? To some it seems justifiable to others it seems hypocritical.

The first recorded death penalty laws date back to ancient Babylon with the publishing of the codes of King Hammurabi in the 18th Century B.C. In his published law, there were twenty five crimes for which a person could be put to death; ironically murder was not one of them. The first recorded death sentence was in 16th Century B.C. Egypt; when a member of Egyptian nobility was accused of practicing magic and was sentenced by the Pharaoh to take his own life. According to Draconian code, in ancient Greece, any crime committed was punishable by death. One of the most notable death sentences in ancient Greece was when the philosopher Socrates was sentenced to death and was forced to drink poison Hemlock for the corruption of Greek youth with his writings (Henderson, 1991)

The death penalty migrated to the Americas when the settlers of Europe came to the new world in the 1600s. Capital punishment had been a part of the European society since the early 10th Century A.D. When the settlers established their new colonies they continued the practice of capital punishment. During this time there were over 200 crimes for which a person could be sentenced to death. Some of these crimes were as petty as stealing a loaf of bread. The first recorded execution in America was in December, 1607 of Captain George Kendall. The execution took place in the colony of Jamestown, Virginia after the Captain had been accused and found guilty of mutiny and spying for Spain. The death penalty continued to be a normal part of the European and American judicial systems until its first public challenge in the late 1700s by European theorist Cesare Beccaria. Beccaria wrote an essay titled: Of Crimes and Punishment. In this work, he argued that the punishment of death is not an effective means of deterrence because a criminal, if caught, would much rather be put to death than to suffer in prison for the remainder of his life. He also argued that man does not have the right to take another human life except in one case:

When, though deprived of his liberty, he has such power and connections as may endanger the security of the nation; when his existence may produce a dangerous revolution in the established form of government. But, even in this case; it can only be necessary when a nation is on the verge of recovering or losing its liberty, or in times of absolute anarchy, when the disorders themselves hold the place of laws (Beccaria, trans. 1819).

The publication of this essay was heard around the world and caused many European nations to reevaluate capital punishment. As a direct result of Beccaria’s essay the death penalty was abolished in Tuscany in 1786 to be followed by Austria in 1790. In 1791 a campaign was launched in France to end capital punishment, but this campaign was not successful until 1981 when France placed an explicit ban on the death penalty.

In America, during the early 19th Century, many states began to analyze the effect and the crimes for which the death penalty could be a punishment. In 1864, Michigan abolished the death penalty for all crimes except treason, thus becoming the first state in the United stated to do so. Few other states followed. Rhode Island and Wisconsin later abolished the death penalty for all crimes. Today thirty-five states as well as the federal and military judicial systems still have the death penalty. Recent polls have indicated that “60 percent of the population in America supports the continued use of capital punishment for the most serious crimes” (Thompson, 2006, p. 1).

Today in America the death penalty is still a topic of much debate, most of which focus on all important questions. Is the death penalty legal under the U.S. Constitution? And, is it morally acceptable to take a human life as punishment for a crime. Early challenges to the death penalty focused mostly on moral, ethical and religious reasons why it was wrong to execute someone for any reason. Opponents argued that murderers treat their victims with violence and disregard, but as a society we should not sink to the level of the murderer in our punishment. By executing the murderer we are in fact treating him just as he did his victim, thus making us no better than the killer. Abolitionists also argue that the bible prohibits murder and that state or federally sanctioned, executions amount to nothing more than legalized murder. There is also the argument that point to numerous mitigating circumstances for why people commit murders. Their environments or upbringing may have not taught them right from wrong, and for that reason they are not responsible for their actions. What if an innocent person is mistakenly executed? Arguments are made on the basis of “the danger of executing an innocent person far outweighs the benefit of executing a guilty person” (Henningfeld, 2006, p. 15). It was argued before the U.S. Supreme Court in Gregg v. Georgia that “it is better to let 100 guilty men go free than to execute or imprison one innocent man” (Gregg v. Georgia, 1976). To this date there has never been a case where it was proven that an innocent person was executed. Still other opponents of the death penalty argue that it is morally wrong because it is unfair to blacks and other minorities who are sentenced to death much more often than whites. A 2001 study conducted by two University of North Carolina Professors found that the odds of receiving the death penalty rose by 3.5 times if the victim was white (University of North Carolina [UNC], 2001) .

In Georgia, between 1973 and 1979, twenty- two percent of black defendants who killed white victims were sentenced to death, eight percent of white defendants who killed white victims were sentenced to death and one percent of black defendants who killed black victims were sentenced to death. (Henningfeld, 2006, p. 28). There could be no other reason than race to describe the shocking differences in the issuing of the death sentence to blacks accused of killing whites. This raised an enormous ethical issue which was eventually taken to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1986 in the case of Mccleskey v. Kemp. The Court ruled that there was in fact a trend showing that race did play a major part in the sentencing of capital crimes, but the Court had no power to fix the situation. It is thought that the reasoning for the Court’s stance was that if they undertook the review of the claims of racial discrimination then all cases where a non-white person had been sentenced to death would be brought before the court. This would open up a virtual “Pandora’s Box” of retrials and appeals, these would eventually render the death penalty unenforceable until all of these appeals and retrials had been completed.

It is also argued, that prosecutors, by requiring jurors in capital murder cases to not be objected to voting for the death penalty, are bending the law. If the jurors are not willing to do so, they become disqualified as a juror. This will no doubt lead to juries who fully support the death penalty and thus be more willing to impose the death sentence if the defendant is found guilty of his crimes.

Another source of contention among those who oppose the death penalty is the Constitutionality of the death penalty. The 8th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibits “cruel and unusual punishments.” These are punishments which deny the dignity of man. The basis for this argument is that criminals, even murders, must be punished as human beings who should suffer in a way that is appropriate for the harm they caused. This means they should suffer a fate as similar to death as possible, yet at the same time, their life spared. In other words, murderers should be sentenced to long prison terms. This is in essence stopping their lives or creating a temporary death until they have proven they are rehabilitated and worthy to be released back into society. Who is to judge how long is long enough for taking another person’s life? What is the time value of a human life? Should a person who takes the life of a homeless person be sentenced to the same amount of time in prison as a person who kills the President of the United States? The Preamble of the U.S. Constitution states “All men are created equal.” If this is the fact then both killers should receive the same sentence.

Perhaps the most straightforward argument to support the death penalty is that it will prevent convicted murderers from killing again, as well as to serve as a deterrent to others. As of 2004, there were currently 52,000 state prison inmates serving time for murder. 810 of those persons had been previously convicted of murder and had killed 821 persons after their release from prison after their first murder conviction (Bedau & Cassell, 2004, p. 188). If all of those individuals had been put to death after their first murder conviction, the lives of over 800 people would have been saved. The aspect of deterrence would be in the act of executing the killer and thus preventing him from killing again. This would be known as specific deterrence. More beneficial in fact would be the effect of general deterrence which would have an effect of restraining a much larger number of people from committing the same crime out of fear of receiving the same punishment.

Most people live their lives based on rewards and punishments. If the reward is good we will strive to reach that reward because the outcome will be pleasurable. On the other hand, if we know the punishment for committing an act is painful or unpleasant we will be inclined not to commit the act.

Those in favor of the death penalty have many other arguments to support their point of view, just as those opposed to the death penalty. Many supporters argue that cruel and unusually punishment simply means punishment not morally unjustified. If a person commits a murder, they have committed a heinous act of violence. Then the act of putting them to death would in fact be morally justified and not constitute cruel and unusual punishment.

The bible states, “Who so sheddeth the blood of man shall his blood be shed” (Gen 9:6 King James Version). This passage denotes that man was made in the image of God and anyone who killed a man had in fact killed or smitten God. Ancient Hebrews felt that the execution of a murderer was not only justified, but that society was obligated to God to carry out the execution due to the killer’s literal attack on God. If God so opposed the death penalty would he have allowed his “only begotten son” to be executed in order to save the world? Even though religious issues on the death penalty hold no legal standing, these issues have been brought up numerous times throughout the history of the moral and ethical debate of the death penalty. In the Old Testament there were twenty crimes in which the offenders “deserved to die” (Numb 35:31 King James Version). It has long been argued by biblical scholars that the bible accepts the death penalty as a legitimate form of punishment.

The Federal Government, as a whole, has taken a very hands-off approach to the issue of the death penalty. Most cases argued before the U.S. Supreme Court for the abolishment of the death penalty have been rejected and remanded back to the lower courts. This in essence has given the states the power to dictate whether or not they choose to utilize the death penalty as a form of punishment. In Coker v.Georgia the court ruled that the death penalty for the raping of an adult was a grossly inappropriate punishment and thus unconstitutional under the 8th Amendment. The U.S. Supreme Court has never approved the use of the death penalty for a crime that did not result in the taking of a human life. In 2008 the Court heard arguments in the case of Kennedy v. Louisiana. This case involved the decision of the Louisiana Supreme Court to uphold the lower court’s sentence of death upon Patrick Kennedy who had been convicted of raping his eight year old stepdaughter and sentenced to death in 2004. The U.S. Supreme Court overturned his conviction on the grounds that the death penalty “should be reserved for only the most grievous offense where the taking of a life had occurred” (Kennedy v. Louisiana, 2008).

It appears that the Government’s approach to the death penalty is dictated by the Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court. Even though many of the cases regarding the death penalty brought before the court were never a unanimous decision. In fact, most death penalty cases decided by the court are based on a 5-4 ruling. The majority has decided that the death penalty is in fact constitutional when the crime involved the deliberate taking of a human life and is imposed directly upon the person responsible for the taking of life.

Capital punishment has in fact been proven to both prevent and deter crime. Many abolitionists argue the unconstitutionality of the death penalty. The U.S. Supreme Court has proven this issue is in fact constitutional. On the moral and ethical issue many say the death penalty violates the Ten Commandments in “thou shalt not kill” This has in fact been interpreted by most religious scholars, including several Popes as meaning, ” Thou shalt not murder” and that the death penalty is in fact demanded by the bible.

There are basically only two positions one can take on the issue of the death penalty –either support it or oppose it. This position is directly related to your moral, ethical and religious views. Capital punishment saves lives. Those who oppose it in the name of protecting life need to come to terms with the fact that abolishing the death penalty will in fact cost lives. The past century has been one of the most violent in the human history. We see violence and killings on television, movies and video games. Children are exposed to violence every day through these media outlets. We seem to imply that killing is a part of normal, everyday life. For this reason we must demand an “eye for an eye” and continue to utilize capital punishment if for nothing else but a deterrent.

Can and will the death penalty ever be accepted as a legitimate form of punishment by all society? I seriously doubt it. Amnesty International calls the death penalty the “greatest violation of human rights ever committed” (Amnesty International, n.d.). Catholic Cardinal McCarrick of Washington believes, “the death penalty diminishes all of us, increases the disrespect for human life, and offers the tragic illusion that we can teach that killing is wrong by killing” (McCarick, 2002). On the opposing side of this issue, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia argues that the death penalty is legally, morally and religiously just. He states, “it is religiously just, because God gives governments (not individuals) the authority to uphold laws and to impose retribution on wrong doers”(Scalia, 2002, p. 17). If we, as a society, try to deny the government the authority to punish murders with the death penalty we may be questioning the ability of that government’s ability to enforce laws as a whole. If this ever happens we may in fact find ourselves in situations like those back in colonial America– where a person could be executed for over 200 crimes, some of them as petty as stealing a loaf of bread.

Injustice in Schools – Discursive Essay

(You will need to change the ending and make a conclusion. I got an A/A- for this essay because it was not finished.)

Is this a phrase that you often hear? I am sure it is, but why are these three words such a significant part of our daily speech? Is it because we are living in a barbaric, unjust society? Or is it because we are living with our own ideas of what and how things should be done and when someone else comes with their philosophy on life behavior we accuse them of bringing a serious injustice against us? Another common phrase used within our society is “There are always two sides to a story.” This essay explores both sources of this statement.

The day has started bad you woke up late and your mother says you have to walk to school because you are making her late for work. Your parents have left and your little brother, whom you have to take to school with you, has just spilled milk down his uniform. When you finally leave the house after washing and drying his uniform, halfway to school it starts to rain and hail.

When you finally get to school you discover that you left you mathematics homework on your desk at home, where you fell asleep last night at 1 o’clock frantically trying to finish it. Now how could this day get any worse? I’ll tell you! As soon as your teacher asks for your homework your head master steps in to observe your class! You get into trouble and get a detention. What’s the first thing that comes to mind? “That’s not fair!”

But whose fault is it really? Is it the student’s fault?

I suppose you could say that because they should have planned their time carefully the day before so that there wasn’t this tired rush in the morning to get to school. It is all a chain of events starting from doing homework late at night. If she didn’t fall asleep late that night in the study then she would have had time to pack his work in her school bag before he went to sleep. She also would have been able to hear her alarm and would have woken up in time to get a ride with his mother to school which means her brother wouldn’t have had the time to spill the milk and she wouldn’t have been caught in the rain. So after that long list of events we can rest the blame on our student, can’t we?

Well of course we can’t, we don’t know what they were going through yesterday. They could have been at tutorials until 5:00pm, and then had to get dinner at 5:30pm. Next they could have had to go to piano practice and they probably wouldn’t get home until 8:00pm when they have to help put the siblings to bed etc. until they finally get a chance to start doing their homework at 8:30pm. Because each subject is supposed to give you 30 minutes each of homework but most teachers go over that so they give you about 45 minutes and there are 4 subjects to complete. Mathematics was probably the last one to complete and they don’t understand it but Dad usually helps with it and has already gone to bed because he has to get up at 5:00am. So poor ‘Sally’ has to fight with it by herself.

This is what you could call a “lose, lose situation.” This seems to occur a lot in a school environment. Another example of this could be something simple that usually escalates to a big problem. This could be talking in class.

From a students point of view it could just be one quick remark that unfortunately cause an outcry of laughter throughout the class, which could irritate the teacher enough for the student to be thrown out of the class, resulting in the student missing out on an important lesson and the teacher wasting valuable lesson time.

These are small issues that unfortunately will not be resolved anytime in the near future because of an immense conflict of opinions. In every school there are underlying issues of neglect and stereotypical behavior. One example of neglect in most schools is of Physical Education. Most schools treat Games or even GCSE P.E lessons as free periods or secondary subjects. Most people still view subjects from a 19th century point of view, being that the core subjects are English, Mathematics and Science. This view is not relevant to today’s subjects because 2 hours of Physical education per week is now on the National Curriculum. But so often we see in schools that this is not taken seriously. In my own school I can say that during GCSE’s if you are taking Triple Science instead of P.E you only get 1 hour of games which is Half of the National Curriculum. Worse still, in the lower years you only get 1 period of games a week plus, depending on the term, an hour of projects. This is closer to the N.C. than the GCSE group but still does not give an adequate introduction to fitness and healthy living.

“It is not fair” that we as students are deprived of a real say in our education because most schools do not provide adequate facilities for students to voice their opinions and be taken seriously. Too often we are given chances to speak but not too often are we taken seriously about what we say. It is an injustice for students not to have any input into the way in which schools social activities or even curriculum are based. Students should be part of the process of running successful schools because they are the ones being affected by the changes or things that need to be changed. This process could be help by Student Government being a requirement for all secondary schools. By doing this there is always a way for students to voice their opinions and to be seriously taken into consideration. By doing this relevant authorities can be advised on methods or suggestion that might not have occurred to them because of ignorance on the subject or because of the age differences their trains of thought are different. Because of the inequality between students and teachers or other authority figures there is not an equal sharing of opinions and action between them.

Unfortunately it would be quite difficult to give students the authority to make important decisions regarding education. You have to remember that they do not have any expertise in running schools or choosing sufficient subjects and relevant topics to discuss in a school environment. Students are in school to learn and be educated by people who have already done this. You cannot have pupils running schools without themselves having an education. Yes, of course there are certain things that have to be changed in schools but this is why students are educated so that they are able to get qualified so that they can be the ones running schools and can then make the changes which can undergo sufficient scrutiny to say whether or not they will be making a good change or not.

An essay about the theme of appearances vs reality as it appears in Shakespeare’s Hamlet

One of the major themes in Hamlet by William Shakespeare is the concept of things not always being as they appear. This is demonstrated by most of the major characters in this play. Claudius brings up this factor in more than one aspect; his love for Hamlet and Gertrude can be examined in regards to appearances versus reality. Hamlet can also be viewed in this manner with respect to his sanity and his love for Ophelia. Polonius’ character demonstrates clearly the theme of things not always being as they appear; he can be viewed as a caring and loving person, or a sneaky and deceitful politician. Ophelia’s sexual innocence can also be questioned; as can the friendship between Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and Hamlet.

Claudius, the new king of Denmark, allows us to clearly examine the theme of appearances versus reality. Claudius appears to love Hamlet so as to seem a worthy king to the people of Denmark. He does not want Hamlet or the people of Denmark know about his guilty conscience, so he hides it by treating Hamlet with respect and affection. Early on in the play he tells Hamlet that he has confidence in him by revealing to him that he is “the most immediate to our thrown/ And with no less nobility of love” (Hamlet, I.ii.109-10). This is Claudius’ attempt to make Hamlet and the people of the court believe that he loves his nephew and his new son. He also requests that Hamlet stay in Denmark, making it appear as though he enjoys Hamlets presence and worries about his well being, “It is most retrograde to our desire: / And we beseech you, bend you to remain / Here, in the cheer and comfort of our eye, / Our chiefest courtier, cousin and our son” (Hamlet, I.ii.114-17). He also tries to deceive Hamlet by referring to himself as Hamlet’s “loving father” (Hamlet, IV.iii.51). However, the reader and some of the characters in the play know of his true feelings towards Hamlet. When he feels that Hamlet knows of his murderous act, he decides to send Hamlet away with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern so as not to have his position threatened, “And he to England shall along with you” (Hamlet, III.iii.4). Later on, in Claudius’ soliloquy, he reveals his plan to have Hamlet killed. His plan involves another person acting on his behalf to kill his son, “Thou may’st coldly set / Our sovereign process; which imports at full, / By letters conjuring to that effect” (Hamlet, IV.iii.63-65). This is so as to again protect his position in Denmark and his position with Gertrude.

Claudius’ love for Gertrude can also be questioned. In his opening address to the state, it appears as though he sincerely loves Gertrude. He later on lists Gertrude as one of the reasons he killed his brother. This implies that the feelings he had for Gertrude were real. However, when Gertrude goes to drink the poison that was intended for Hamlet, Claudius makes no real attempt to stop her. He simply says, “Gertrude, do not drink” (Hamlet, V.ii.282). Had he sincerely loved her, he would have physically prevented her from drinking the poison that brought her death.

Hamlet’s madness can be questioned in its validity. At points it appears that Hamlet is actually mad, but the reader, Marcellus, Horatio and eventually Gertrude, know the truth; that his madness is feigned. Hamlet originally tells Marcellus and Horatio that his is “to put an antic disposition on, / That you at such times seeing me, never shall, / With arms encumber’d thus” (Hamlet, I.v.173-74). At this point he reveals to them that he will be acting strangely, but warns them not to take it seriously for it is an act. However, certain characters in the play believe his act so much as to suppose it real. Before Hamlet convinces Gertrude of his clear mind, she believes him to be mad, “Alas! he’s mad” (Hamlet, III.iv.107). Claudius also believes that he is mad and sees it as a threat, “I like him not, nor stands it safe with us / To let his madness range” (Hamlet, III.iii.1-2). Claudius fears that Hamlet’s madness may in some respect eventually harm his social or political position.

The love Hamlet has for Ophelia is also questionable. When Hamlet has on his “antic disposition” he does not appear to care for Ophelia in a sense that is beyond sexual. He constantly jests about her, either to her father or to her face. At the play, he makes sexual suggestions, yet she believes he does not love her for he said “You should not have believed me: / … / I loved you not” (Hamlet, III.i.117-19). At this point however, it is an act put on so as to make himself appear consistent in his new manner or madness. Hamlet later reveals however, that his love for her was genuine, “I loved Ophelia; forty thousand brothers / Could not, with all their quantity of love, / Make up my sum” (Hamlet, V.i.263-65). He reveals to the reader and Laertes that he sincerely loved Ophelia, which allows us to see that the way he treated her before was just an appearance, as part of the act put on to seem mad.

Polonius’ character is that of appearance. He wants to appear to be a loving and caring person so as to keep up his political standing. When he lectures Laertes before sending him off to France, he sounds sincere in his address,

“And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.

This above all: to thine self be true,

And it must follow, as the night the day,

Thou canst not then be false to any man.

Farewell; my blessings season this in thee.” (Hamlet, I.iii.77-81)

He gives him fatherly advice which appears to be heartfelt. He appears to really trust his son in these matters as he simply gives him advice. However, the reader can see his true nature when he sends a spy to watch his son. Polonius is a sneaky and devious person. This is demonstrated when he uses his own daughter to spy on Hamlet, and his constant eavesdropping and plotting.

Ophelia’s sexual innocence is questioned in this play. She appears to be inexperienced because of the way she accepts the advice from her brother. She states that she will not give in to temptation if he himself will do the same. This implies that she understands the importance of her virginity and will not easily give it up. However, the way Hamlet speaks of her to her father does not imply the same message, “Let her not walk i’ the sun, / Conception is a blessing, / But not as your daughter may conceive” (Hamlet, II.ii.182-184) This statement is full of puns which imply that she is not as innocent as she says she is. It makes constant references to sex and pregnancy. Late on in the play, Ophelia, herself, in a state of madness reveals her true sexual experience,

“Quoth she, before you tumbled me,

You promised me top wed.

He answers:

So would I ha’ done, by yonder sun,

And thou hadst not come to my bed.” (Hamlet, IV.v.61-65)

In this song, Ophelia reveals that she slept with Hamlet because she felt they were to wed, yet he left her after having intercourse. This exposes the fact that in her case, things were not as they appeared to be.

As for Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, their friendship with Hamlet can be questioned in the extreme. Not only did they come to Denmark on request of Hamlet’s enemy, they then proceeded to spy on him continuously and report the findings back to Claudius, all while appearing to be friends with Hamlet. They try to appear to be sincerely worried about him, and to hide the fact that they are working for Claudius. However, Hamlet figured out their doings and was able to conceal from them his true intentions. Nearing the end of the play, Rosencrantz and Guildestern were to deliver Hamlet to his death in England. However, Hamlet learned of this and changed the letter so as to have them killed for their deceiving him.

Hamlet is one of Shakespeare’s greatest plays. It tells a story of deception on the part of most of the main characters. Claudius was deceitful in his feelings displayed towards Hamlet and Gertrude. Hamlet was deceiving in his appearance of madness and his love for Ophelia. Polonius’ character was based on appearances; he wanted to appear to be a caring politician while at the same time being a deceitful spy. Ophelia appeared to her peers as an innocent girl, yet her experience with Hamlet is beyond what it appeared to be. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern attempt to appear as Hamlet’s friends, yet their correspondence with the Claudius makes them an enemy to Hamlet. Therefore Hamlet is as play that clearly demonstrates that things aren’t always as they seem.

A Brief Critique of Alexander Pope’s “Essay on Man”

The satirical piece “An Essay on Man” by Alexander Pope is probably one of the best written poems ever written. Although the name suggests that this masterpiece is an essay, it is in fact written in verse, making it a poem. Pope’s work is separated into four epistles where he looks at four different aspects of man. The first epistle refers to The Nature and State of Man with Respect to the Universe, the second looks at The Nature and State of Man with Respect to Himself as an Individual, the third epistle adds to the piece by speaking of The Nature and State of Man with Respect to Society, and the final epistle is about The Nature and State of Man with Respect to Happiness. In four epistles Alexander Pope successfully dissects the ways of man in a rational attempt to explain the mere mortal and his place in this world. However, in the following assessment, for matters of length, only three out of the four epistles will be commented on. Pope ends a brief introduction to this work by saying that he wrote this because he wants to “vindicate the ways of God to man” (Pope 46).

In the first section of Essay on Man, Pope speaks about the man in the abstract. He introduces the concept of the great chain of being. Pope’s argument is that all things have their place. One of the motif’s present in the first epistle is conjugated in the following verses: “Then say not man’s imperfect, Heaven in fault; / Say rather, man’s as perfect as he ought” (47). Here Pope explains that man is not imperfect, but God created man suited to where he has been placed and as perfect as he should be. He then goes on to explain that man’s biggest fault is his price and his attempts to put himself in God’s position. He claims that man inverts the laws of order by trying to say what is perfect and what is not, which expresses as trying to be the god of God. “Destroy all creatures for sport or gust, / Yet cry, if man’s unhappy, God’s unjust” (49). In this quote Pope explains that man believes that he can take away anything from the world and reap its resources at his desire, but as soon as something goes against his wishes he thrusts his woes onto God and accuses him of being unrighteous. This is a typical (and idealistic) reaction of many men. Alexander Pope ends this section by saying that only “[o]ne truth is clear / Whatever is, is right” (53). This is a bold statement by Pope where he pretty much says that we should submit to and accept whatever has been handed to us and take naught for granted.

Alexander Pope moves onto the second epistle to speak Of the Nature and State of Man with Respect to Himself as an Individual. He begins this part by saying that man should not spend so much time trying to find God, but instead should spend most of his time finding himself. On page 53 we see how Pope comments on man’s indecisiveness:He hangs between; in doubt to act, or rest;In doubt to deem himself a god or beast;In doubt his mind or body to prefer;Born but to die, and reasoning but to err;Alike in ignorance, his reason such,Whether he thinks too little, or too much;Chaos of thought and passion, all confused;Still by himself abused or disabused;Created half to rise and half to fall;Great lord of all things, yet a prey to all;Sole judge of truth, in endless error hurl’d:The glory, jest, and riddle of the world! (53)This is probably the most honest and true description of man ever written. He goes on to let us know that we, mankind, are comprised of reason and passion – which are not to be confused as opposite forces. Passions is the most primitive of the both; it is the urge the motivator of impulse. While passion pushes on, reason is what restrains. However, he says that one must not suppress passions with reason, but guide passion through reason. In an aesthetically pleasing phrase he gives out the warning that “what reason weaves, by passion is undone,” if not guided correctly (54). In this section Pope also touches on virtues and vices. Virtues are but disciplined passions, and vice nothing but the undisciplined ones.

In the final epistle Pope gives his views Of the Nature and State of man with Respect to Happiness. He starts this piece of work by commenting that happiness is man’s ultimate aim. Happiness is “[t]hat something still which prompts the eternal sigh, / For which we bear to live, or dare to die, / Which still so near us, yet beyond us lies”(69). Pope gives his opinion on how happiness is just beyond anybody’s reach. He also goes on to explain how people have false notions of what happiness is. He explains that everyone can reach happiness just by thinking right and meaning well (70). The man who finds happiness is not looking for his well-being, but for the well-being of all. Happiness is only found through selfless acts. Happiness can never be bought, but it’s always free. So one may have all the earthly, material objects, but will never find happiness in them. He also expresses his thoughts that the ideas of honor, nobility, richness, greatness or fame will not being happiness, but might be destructive of virtues.

This satirical pieced by Alexander Pope is one of those eye-openers about how there are much greater things in life than that which simply surrounds you. This brief summary of the epistles does not even start to shine upon the intense passion with which Pope writes them. There is so much more in Essay on Man that what is spoken of in this evaluation. It is merely a piece of literature, but a lesson on life.

An essay on the essence of leadership, and what it takes.

LEADERSHIP

A significant part of effective leadership is the close connection between the leader and the follower, which often determines the success of the leader’s mission. Unfortunately, this leader-follower relationship cannot be created according to some simple formula. Young leaders of today face special challenges as they try to communicate and interact with their followers and potential followers. By exploring global perspectives, human diversity, and ethics, young leaders can take yet another step forward in their development and preparation for twenty-first century leadership.

Globalization has many implications for leadership today and in the future. Global perspectives are being spread to the farthest points in the world and to the most isolated people. People of different cultures come to the United States daily to live, travel, or engage in business. Leaders must respond to this challenge of globalization so they can effectively reach out to as many people as possible. Opening themselves to the world’s changes allows leaders to compare and contrast their culture with the arts, language, beliefs, customs, philosophies, and ways of living of other people. By observing and questioning another culture, leaders can understand the origin of an individual’s viewpoints and become more sensitive to the cultural needs of that individual. By continually exposing themselves to other cultures, young leaders can thoroughly develop this global perspective and devote themselves to making connections with the entire world.

On a more individual level, openness to human diversity plays a role in adjusting to the changes of the future. People are discovering that even within cultures, individuals come from diverse backgrounds, have different personalities, and prefer different ways of life. Young leaders can build a stronger relationship with their followers as they enhance their own appreciation for human diversity. As people become more diverse, leaders must learn how to communicate with them as individuals if a vision is to be shared, a cohesive group to be formed, and a goal to be achieved. Despite differences in opinions, the leader and followers can work together to complement each other as they move toward the mission of the group. By exposing themselves to all kinds of situation and communicating with many types of people, young leaders can develop an appreciation of human diversity. Conflicts caused by differences among individuals’ personalities and cultures have created many ethical issues, and the number will only increase in this global society.

Leaders may have an especially difficult time facing ethical issues as they inspire followers to their mission. Globalization, human diversity, and ethical issues can be challenging for leaders as they prepare for the next twenty years and beyond. The changing world calls for leaders who will react openly to the introduction of new cultural identities and diversities and who will face ethical issues responsibly. Developing a leadership style in response to global awareness, diversity, and ethics will give young leaders an edge as they build relationships with people from all over the world.

Affirmative Action; This essay is an argument essay for my wrt 101 class

Argument Essay

Affirmative action has been a long debated issue on both sides of the political spectrum, by those who believe affirmative action programs should be abolished and those who think they still serve a vital purpose. Affirmative action is defined as “A policy designed to give special attention to or compensatory treatment to members of some previously disadvantaged group.” Roughly forty years ago, the federal government first took steps to ensure equal opportunity for minorities in employment. Since then, affirmative action programs have expanded to include women and have been instituted in many sectors including higher education and the military. Affirmative action is actually quite unconstitutional, and it also provides a wonderful example of reverse racism. Affirmative action essentially causes more harm than good and only serves to cause more problems in the workplace as well as public service agencies.

Today, even supporters of affirmative action are unclear about what exactly affirmative action is out to accomplish. Is the goal to compensate for past wrongs against minorities, or, is it to achieve diversity on campuses and in the workplace? In 1965, in a speech to Harvard’s graduating class, President Lyndon Johnson addressed the importance of affirmative action at the time. He saw it as significant in remedying past discrimination against minorities. He said “You do not take a man who for years has been hobbled by chains, liberate him, bring him to the starting line of a race, saying, ‘you are free to compete with all the others,’ and still justly believe you have been completely fair, thus it is not enough just to open the gates of opportunity. All our citizens must have the ability to walk through those gates.” At the time, affirmative action seemed like a good idea. In black and white, it was being shown to help minorities out of a peripheral black hole, without pointing out the fact that affirmative action programs were actually a violation of citizens’ fourteenth amendment rights.

Avid supports of affirmative action say it is an important mean for universities and other organizations to maintain diversity, which helps break down racial barriers and better reflects an integrated world. They also argue that affirmative action is necessary to “level the playing field” for minorities following decades of discrimination. But at the same time, racial preferences violate the fourteenth amendment of the constitution. The amendment guarantees equal protection for everybody under the law. These racial preferences also counter the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which makes it illegal to discriminate on the basis of race and sex. Such programs foster the belief that minorities cannot succeed unless they are given a “handout” and casts a doubt on all minority achievements.

Again, The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made it illegal to discriminate in employment on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, or gender and in the work and college industry, American’s have been, in essence, breaking the law. Affirmative Action has encouraged the work industry to established “quotas” in their hiring. These quotas are used to hire a certain amount of minorities each year, in order to achieve a more diverse work union, but in the process, have discriminated against those more qualified. There has been an obligation to hire people on the basis of their sexual, religious, or ethnic background. But what about the white male who is more qualified for the job then the Hispanic female? Because of her race and sex, the Hispanic female will get the job over the white male because of the “quotas” that must be met within the company.

One such obligation to hiring minorities and females occurred in Santa Clara County. In 1987, a man by the name of Paul Johnson applied for a job as a dispatcher in San Jose, California. Over the past four years, Diane Joyce had worked patching asphalt with a Santa Clara county road crew, and she too applied for the dispatcher position. Johnson was a 13-year veteran of the agency, and scored among the top six on the exam given to all applicants. Joyce too scored among the top six and ended up with a score of 73. Johnson, who had worked for the agency for thirteen years, scored a 75. The supervisor, taking into consideration Johnson’s experience with the agency as well as the fact that his score was a tad higher than Joyce’s, decided to higher him instead of his female counterpart. Although Johnson was more qualified, the county’s affirmative action officers overruled the supervisor and Joyce was awarded the promotion. Johnson sued, citing a violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, but the Supreme Court upheld that public employers may use affirmative action promotion plans designed to remedy past discriminations.

A typical argument for affirmative action, especially in the example of higher education is that affirmative action is extremely necessary in order to give deserving people opportunities that they otherwise wouldn’t have access to. Some say that it is an investment in the future. Studies have shown that by the time today’s college students are at the height of their careers, one-third of the population will be comprised of African Americans and Latinos/Latinos.

There have been numerous lawsuits regarding affirmative action in colleges. In 2003, the Supreme Court made two important very important decisions regarding affirmative action in college admissions. In Grutter v. Bollinger, the court upheld that the University of Michigan law school’s use of race as one of many factors in admissions, agreeing that there was interest in promoting racial diversity on campus. However, in Gratz v. Bollinger the court struck down the University of Michigan’s system of undergraduate admissions in which every applicant from and underrepresented racial or ethnic minority group was awarded 20 points of the needed 100 in order to gain admission. The twenty points awarded to minorities were more then the school awarded for some measures of academic excellence, writing ability, or leadership skills. These lawsuits were brought about by two white women whose grades and test scores should have ensured their acceptance to the University of Michigan law school and undergraduate program respectively, and they were unfairly rejected because the school gave admission preferences to minority applicants in order to have a “diverse” student body.

Another important movement on the subject of schools and affirmative action came in November of 1996 when the state of California passed the California Civil Rights Initiative, proposition 209. This proposition stated “The state shall not discriminate against, or grant preferential treatment to, any individual or group on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin in the operation of public employment, public education, or public contracting.” This proposition made it illegal for public services, such as the University of California, as well as the public employment program, to give special treatment to people of minority status. 54% of California voters agreed with this proposition.

Forty years ago, affirmative action just simply “made sense.” The United States has come very far since the 1960′s and year after year affirmative action programs are becoming more and more outdated. Perhaps there was a time in which laws like these were needed, but that is not the case anymore, and these laws need to be changed or abolished altogether in order to reflect the current state of our society. Affirmative action programs are no longer necessary, and are causing too many problems in our country.

This essay is about globalization. The good, bad and how it affects the world

Globalization can be highly beneficial for all people by bestowing great fortunes on us by increased trade, spreading of cultures and information and creating choice. Globalization does however have the potential to be so much more. Globalization can perform at a peak if all countries could be involved and not just the majority.

The definition of globalization will be discussed in this essay. The positive sides of globalization will also be discussed without ignoring the negative sides.

Here is the definition of Globalization according to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP):

“Globalization broadly refers to the explosion of global linkages, the organization of social life on a global scale, and the growth of global consciousness, hence the consolidation of world markets” . Here is a definition according to the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC):

“Globalization is about worldwide economic activity – about open markets, competition and the free flow of goods, services, capital and knowledge” .

It is evident that globalization can be thought of differently by different people. The UNDP will see it from their point of view. They will think of how it could enrich and develop the lives of people. In the same way the ICC will see how globalization will benefit people economically. It would be wise to say that globalization can be thought of in many ways but it basically means that companies are treating the world as on one integrated market.

Many anti-globalists are saying that because globalization allows companies to treat the world as one market cultures are being disregarded. It is more realistic to say that globalization promoted the spreading of cultures. Here in South Africa many people support English soccer almost religiously. We eat pizza that originated in Italy. We follow fashion trends set in France. We listen to music sung by American, Canadian, Australian and even Columbian singers. We use computers made in Japan. We eat chocolate made in Switzerland. We chat to people on the Internet who do not even know that South Africa is a country. We watch “Bollywood” movies from Bombay and learn about the Indian culture. This would not be possible without globalization. Phillip LeGrain says, “culture mixing is of essence of twenty-first-century globalization”. This further illustrates that people all over the world can be educated about each other’s cultures and this allows us to become more familiar with one another. We would be more likely to embrace other cultures than shun them. With culture transfer cultural beliefs and morals will also get transferred. In this way human rights can get transferred. People in developing countries can become aware of their rights. By just watching law programmes on television many people can learn about their rights. When I was in primary school a classmate saved his friend’s life when he was not breathing because of a fatal game they were playing. The boy gave his friend mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. When asked where he learnt that he replied, “I watch Baywatch”. It is amazing what can be learnt because of globalization.

Anti-globalists state that globalization will lead to homogenization. This basically means that we will have the same or a similar culture because people around the world buy the same products or eat the same food. The American Forum for Global Education states that, “There are no surveys showing that people are becoming alike. And while some argue that globalization is an ideological process imposing a global culture, others argue that while cultural products flow around the world, people receive, and use them differently” . This shows that there is no proof that cultures are being homogenized. A South African person may enjoy McDonald’s but it will not stop him from also enjoying a boerewors roll. Muslim people can wear Nikes but still wear their traditional wear when they attend mosque. Regardless of the effect of globalization people will still have their languages and religion and is this not what constitutes much of our cultures? The spreading of cultures is a positive aspect that has allowed for all mentioned in the third paragraph of this essay.

In East Asia multi-national corporations like Nike and Levi are exploiting many workers. Anti-globalists protest against this. They have marches, rallies and they sign petitions. They are forgetting one crucial fact. If it were not for globalization they would not even know about the conditions in countries so far away from them.

If a company treats the world as a single market it has to be a big company because it has to have the money to make their products available all over the world and to market their products. These companies are multi-national companies. When they come into countries and they are faced with competition from local companies. In order to overcome this competition companies brand their products. Since these companies come from outside they add choice to consumers in the range of products to buy. Anti-globalists might argue that multi-nationals squash local companies because they cannot compete with the branding campaigns and the limelight that branded products receive. If local companies stay innovative they will not go out of business. People in their countries will always want local products regardless of all the branded products available. Prices of products are dropped because companies have to win over customers and who will respond to a cheaper product. Branding also gives us some assurance that we are getting a quality product. Branded products usually have a guarantee on them. We know that we are not getting quality. Multi-national companies also provide many jobs for people around the world. If you were working for McDonald’s you would probably be earning more than if you were working in a local restaurant. You would also have a more stable job. Since globalization causes an increase in jobs it will help reduce poverty and the standard of living. In the 2002 World Bank Policy research report it states that China, India, Uganda and Vietnam have had a remarkable improvement in poverty reduction. Vietnam has seen a large increase in per capita income since it has integrated itself with the rest of the world. Poverty fell by 40% in Uganda since integration. This shows that globalization can be a positive factor in countries.

Anti-globalists may argue that jobs are being taken away since multi-nationals manufacture their goods in third world countries as labour is cheap. But, that is just factory jobs being taken away. There are still other jobs available in other aspects of a multi-national’s business. Will East Asians work in the retail outlets or locals? There will no East Asians working as secretaries at the headquarters of the companies.

Anti-globalists often say that it is because of globalization that female workers are being exploited in East Asia. Some multi-nationals manufacture their goods in these East Asian countries. Examples of these companies are Nike, Levi and Gap. The majority of workers that work in these factories are underage females. They work up to fifteen-hour shifts. Seung Pov, a Cambodian girl who works in a factory called June Textiles where Nike and Gap clothing are manufactured says: ” Today I have to work overtime until 10 o’clock at night. I begin at 6:15 in the morning and should finish at 2:15 but I have to work right through until 10:15 at night” . These workers are clearly being exploited. Nike, Levi and Gap are huge corporations and can certainly afford to pay workers more. Nike spends nearly double on advertising than on production. This shows that these companies can definitely afford to pay more to workers by just cutting down on advertising. Multi-nationals are definitely in the wrong here, but it is their choice to exploit the workers. It is not all multi-nationals who do this. Some multi-nationals, like de Beers and Anglo-American give away millions of dollars a year for good causes. Anti-globalists should be mad at Nike, Levi and Gap and not be mad at globalization. Globalization is about selling the same products all over the world not about how these products get manufactured.

Globalization embraces increased trading between

nations. Many countries have opened us to imports. “Trade

flows increased by 16-fold in the last 50 years as a result

of the removal of trade barriers. Opening up trade has

helped many countries grow far more quickly than they would

otherwise have done”. This shows that since globalization

started after the second world war trading has increased.

There are not many countries that are able to sustain

themselves so it would be logical to open

up their markets to trade. The more countries trade the

more they can compete with the rest of the world. “As

countries such as China, India and Mexico have opened up,

their

exports have shifted into manufactured products so that they are competing head-to-head with many of the products made in rich countries” These are very positive points. I do not think that anti-globalists can argue with this. With increased trade come increased foreign investments. This brings about information transfer between countries. The transfer of technology, medical advancements and ideologies occur. Capital flow and employment also increases because of foreign investment.

This is true for many countries but some countries are totally left out from the process of globalization. Some countries in Africa, in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and some parts of Asia are being marginalized from the rest of the world. Two billion people in the world have not reaped the benefits of globalization at all. There are six billion people in the world. That means that one third of the world are suffering because of marginalization. Nothing can ever be positive for everyone in the world. It is a pity that everyone cannot benefit from globalization but just because globalization is leaving some people out does not mean that it is will still be positive for many others. Anti-globalists claim that globalziation is bad because small countries become marginalized from the rest of the world because of it. Instead of protesting and rejecting globalization we should rather focus on ways to include these countries. Globalization has done so much good in some countries. “China has grown richer by freeing its economy and opening up to the rest of the world. It has embraced international trade and foreign investment”. “Between 1990 and 1998, the number of Chinese living on less than a dollar a day fell by 150 million. That is the fastest fall in poverty the world has ever seen”. This illustrates that globalization has the ability to induce economic prosperity, increase incomes and reduce poverty. Why should we eradicate globalization when it has the ability to uplift societies?

We all benefit from globalization everyday. No one can say that they would prefer to live without these benefits. It would then be wise to focus on ways that globalization can benefit six billion people and not only four billion.

Macbeth thematic essay

MACBETH ESSAY The play Macbeth by William Shakespeare tells a story of the Thane of Glamis, Macbeth. Macbeth is driven by ambition to become a highly recognized person in society. On his way to the top, he encounters some obstacles. Macbeth is forced to make decisions that would involve serious consequences. Many of these decisions resulted in the loss of life for someone who knew Macbeth. The other result was the effect of death on the other people. He has flaws that make him imperfect. A human being is characterized by the frailties and weaknesses associated with humans as imperfect beings. Macbeth is a thoroughly representative human being.

One word that can be easily associated with Macbeth is ambition. It is necessary for one person to have ambition in order to succeed. Ambition is first planted in Macbeth’s head by King Duncan appointing him Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth’s valiant effort in the war and the news of the Thane of Cawdor assisting the enemy cause Duncan to sentence death upon the Thane of Cawdor.

When the witches approach Macbeth and Banquo, they call Macbeth Thane of Glamis, Thane of Cawdor, and king hereafter. That statement would stick out in Macbeth’s mind throughout the rest of the play. Macbeth’s hopping back and forth between fully believing the prophecy and thinking about its distance from a real possibility. After hearing this from the witches, Macbeth begins to be driven by a negative type of ambition. Macbeth’s very first words in the play are, “So foul and fair a day I have not seen” (I.ii.38). These words, of course, remind us of the witches, and they link Macbeth with forces of evil before he ever meets the witches.

Macbeth’s ambition is also driven other people in a negative connotation. Another flaw Macbeth display’s is his weak mindedness. Lady Macbeth accuses Macbeth of not being a real man and that he does not have the will to carry out an evil deed. Lady Macbeth throughout the entire play increases the pressure on Macbeth about being a real man. At one point Lady Macbeth wishes to become a man to carry out cruel punishment. Together with the witches, Lady Macbeth’s ambition becomes Macbeth’s driving force. The ambition that is driving Macbeth is now with bad intentions. Macbeth is now filled with the ambition to kill the king of Scotland. King Duncan is greeted by genuine hospitality when he visits Macbeth at Inverness. Under Macbeth’s kind smile is the willingness to kill Duncan in order to climb the ladder to the thrown. The witches and his own wife use Macbeth’s weaknesses to give him the courage to kill people as highly as the king of Scotland. Macbeth’s obedience to his wife is important, as it functions as his final break with his previously still-innocent character into the murderous figure.

When Macbeth kills Duncan, he comes back to see his wife. Lady Macbeth realizes that he still has the dagger and is covered with blood. Macbeth’s guilty conscience and his excessive ambition lead to his downfall. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth take fate into their own hands by killing Banquo, Duncan, and having the murderers kill the guards. Macbeth’s downfall becomes a willingness to stop at nothing. The three apparitions that appear tell Macbeth to beware of Macduff, that no man born from a women shall harm him, and that he will still be king unless Birnam Wood moves to Dunsinane Hill. The apparition of the armored head and the bloody child both represent Macduff. The child with the tree is his hand represents Malcolm, Duncan’s son. Macbeth believes since these events happening are inevitable that he has nothing to worry about. The backing of his wife and the witch’s prophecies gives Macbeth a false sense of security. Another flaw in Macbeth’s downfall. At first he believed that he could not control the witch’s prophecies, but later on in the play he believes he can determine his own fate. Lady Macbeth and Macbeth played the game of fate.

Macbeth demonstrated weaknesses throughout the entire play and was constantly harassed by his masculine type of wife. She humiliated him to the point where he became infatuated with becoming king. He would go to any means necessary to climb the mountain of success. There were many flaws and one that proved fatal that contributed to Macbeth’s downfall. He believed he was untouchable because three witches showed him three apparitions that at the time seemed impossible to occur. Lady Macbeth and Macbeth were plagued by a guilty conscience. They had trouble sleeping because of what they had done. Lady Macbeth constantly was washing her hands and even sleepwalking. Macbeth was having fits of insanity in front of the nobleman when he claimed he saw the ghost of Banquo. The covering up of numerous crimes by Lady Macbeth and Macbeth caused to become more deeply involved. The numerous flaws in Macbeth prove him to be an imperfect human being. Macbeth is a thoroughly representative human being.

Of Mice and Men Essay – Overall book review accounting characters, attitudes and depression

Of Mice and Men is a novella written by John Steinbeck. I feel that the whole story revolves around Lennie Small and what he does.

The novella is about two workers in California during the Great Depression – George Milton, small, intelligent, assertive but caring and Lennie Small, a huge, but child-like man – that come into a ranch in California to ‘work up a stake’. They are running from their previous job in weed. George and Lennie run out of weed to safety and hope to carry on their dream of finally settling down on a farm of their own where they can “live off the fatta’ the lan’”. And where Lennie can tend the rabbits which he never gets tiered of hearing. They then go to work at a ranch where they meet different people with different personalities. Lennie’s ‘accidents’ grow in importance up to where he kills Curley’s wife. Which then leads up to Lennie’s death. During the time it was set there was a lot of depression, prejudice and discrimination.

The main themes of the novella is loneliness, friendship and the American Dream. No one can avoid loneliness. John Steinbeck shows the loneliness of the Californian ranch life in the 1930′s, during the story the reader will find many clues to this, primarily discrimination and prejudice – which results in the loneliness and isolation. All the characters seem lonely (apart from Slim who seems to be confident and happy). Crooks, Candy and Curley’s wife all suffer from discrimination and prejudice which results in their loneliness. Crooks is a black man that experiences isolation because of the prejudice and racism of the time in America “i ain’t wanted in the bunk house, and you ain’t wanted in my room”. Candy, like crooks, is an ‘outcast’ but because of his age which makes it hard for him to work like the others, but he does always try to communicate with the other ranch workers as much as possible. Candy has only one true friend, his dog – like candy it is old and seemed as useless – but when his dog dies he looks towards George and Lennie for friendship. Curley’s wife is lonely as everyone is afraid of Curley trying to pick a fight with them as he is jealous of anyone approaching her; which leads to no one wanting to talk to Curley’s wife which then leads her to being lonely.

From the 17th Century, escaping from persecution and/or poverty and to make a new life for their selves and their families was the American Dream. Many failed to create this dream, but some succeeded. Of those that did; they made their way west to California to escape from their farmlands in the mid-west. George and Lennie dreamt of their house with a couple of acres. The growing popularity of theatre and acting was the last of the American Dream for many; Curley’s wife was one; “Coulda been in the movies, an’ had nice clothes”. I feel that Steinbeck was successful in getting the message across of Loneliness and the American Dream; by using the characters and the setting of where the novella is set and the period it was written.

The four settings John Steinbeck used were at the pool, weed, the ranch and ended the novella at the pool. This is significant to the play as it could also be shown at a theatre were you would have a setting in the background and the actors on stage and as there would be no video cameras you would not follow people in and out of doors; so Steinbeck set the settings in certain places. The effect it had on me was that i could imagine the stage setting and what would happen instead of having to follow the character everywhere, i thought i was very affective and other readers may also find it affective.

I feel that Lennie Small plays a very critical part in the story. I feel that without Lennie; there really is no story; without him George would not have to run away and get new jobs and would be able to visit brothels and have money to spare and lives would not be lost by Lennie’s unfortunate accidents by not being able to control his strength. With Lennie having a Surname ‘Small’ is ironic as Lennie is not small at all and is described at the beginning of the book as a big character who is ‘as strong as a bull’.

Lennie appears in every chapter and the novella revolves around him and what he does. Lennie sluggishly trails behind and is described as an animal “…and he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws…Slowly, like a terrier who doesn’t want to bring a ball to its master, Lennie approached, drew back, approached again.” Lennie also imitates what George does; just like a child. Lennie helps him and George get employed by having his ‘bull’ like strength but also gets them both sacked because of his obsession and temptation of stroking soft things. George Milton could be portrayed for some as the ‘alpha male’ – dominant – person in his and Lennie’s friendship. Lennie shares a dream with George of which they will have there own land and where Lennie will be able to tend to the rabbits. The number of events Lennie is involved in escalate in importance. At first Lennie causes trouble in weed were he strokes a girls dress but grabs it also; and the girl thinks he is trying to rape her. The next event involves him killing an innocent mouse – not out of meanness but out of the lack of control of his strength. Which then leads to breaks Curley’s hand; then to killing the puppy and then Lennie’s final victim is Curley’s wife where he strokes her hair and she moves away and he grabs her hair and eventually breaks her neck by accident from trying to keep her quiet. Which then leads to Lennie being killed by George at the Pool. This is important as the story began at the pool and has ended at the pool.

Although Lennie has a low-intelligence he is not crazy; George says to Slim “he’s as dumb as hell but he aint crazy”. Lennie always listens to George and does what ever he is told – like a child – Lennie will only fight if George tells him he can. George doesn’t boss Lennie around for the joy of it but he does it to be kind and to keep Lennie out of trouble and to keep him safe; you have to be cruel to be kind! Candy is a worker at the ranch, he had lost a hand in an accident with a machine and is near to the end of his useful life, he has nothing to look forward to, especially when Carlson – crippled worker at the ranch and has NO sympathy nor emotions for anyone or any creature – kills his beloved dog which was near the end of its life and everyone complained about the smell it created.

Candy’s powerlessness is shown when he has no power over whether his dog dies or not; Slim – a jerk line skinner at the ranch and is seen as the ‘prince of the ranch’ who everyone looks up to and has the final decision on anything – decides its the best thing to do. However he makes friends with George and Lennie and joins the prospect of settling down with them and makes a large contribution to the dream. Crooks is a black man, often called a ‘stable-buck’ he is sadly apart of the racism “S’pose you didn’t have nobody. S’pose you couldn’t go into the bunk house and play rummy ’cause you was black. How’d you like that? S’pose you had to sit out here an’ read books. Sure you could play horseshoes till it got dark, but then you got to read books. Books ain’t no good. A guy needs somebody-to be near him. A guy goes nuts if he ain’t got nobody. Don’t make no difference who the guy is, long’s he’s with you. I tell ya, I tell ya a guy gets too lonely an’ he gets sick”. Curley is the bosses son and does not work; this is shown by the boots he wears he also wears a leather glove full of vaseline for his wife “the glove Curley wears on his left hand is full of Vaseline, to keep it soft for his wife”, he is shown as a young and unpleasant man who used to be a semi-professional boxer, he is incredibly jealous and protective of his wife and likes picking and larger men. Curley’s wife is a pretty, young woman, sometimes called a tart by the men who are not trusted by her husband, she dreamed of being an actress and she wears lots of make-up and ‘tarty’ clothes to attract attention because she is lonely. The Boss is well… The Boss and also shows he does no labour by the boots he wears. Whit is a young man who has not had much time at the ranch and is missing a friend from a previous ranch.

Steinbeck wrote this story as a play/novella, and we can see how closely it does resemble a play, each section or chapter is set in a clear place like a scene in a play. The beginning of each section contains detailed descriptions, like stage directions in a play, while the rest of the section is mostly talking. A noticeable feature of the language of the novella is that it is simple, without unnecessary detail. Because of this almost every sentence is important in one way or another, either in developing a character, moving the plot forward or hinting at what’s still to come. Steinbeck has moulded a number of events into the story. Candy and his dog show the same as George and Lennie. Similarly, when Lennie kills Curley’s wife, it hints back to the earlier killing of the puppy. Most of the characters are uneducated, and this shows through in their use of simple language.

My final note, the novella works for me and i could certainly imagine it as a play; each personality and background of the characters are all believable which helps the reader understand the novella more. By starting and ending the novella in the same place works very well as it is at the beginning by the pool where we are described the two main characters and are explained the background and why they are there; which also makes ending the novella at the pool work as its the end of Lennie’s life and therefore the end of the novella. Surprisingly i enjoyed this novella quite a lot as i do not usually read novellas or any fictional books or find them interesting. I could believe in the characters and the conditions they had to go through at the time. I would recommend the book to anyone.

Poverty

What do you consider poverty to be? Do you have a definitive explanation of it or do you consider it an abstract circumstance? In the article “What is Poverty?” Jo Goodwin Parker gives her definitions on what poverty is. In the beginning of the essay Parker asks reader a question:” You ask me what is poverty? Listen to me. Here I am, dirty, smelly, and with no “proper” underwear on and with the stench of my rotting teeth near you. I will tell you. Listen to me. Listen without pity. I cannot use your pity. Listen with understanding. Put yourself in my dirty, worn out, ill-fitting shoes, and hear me.” And we hear her, we hear a cry of her soul, and we try to understand all her miserable life. The description of her poverty is so vivid, so ugly that you almost feel how poverty touches you. It’s an attack on human emotion, which makes you reexamine your thoughts and beliefs on who the poor are.

Parker starts almost every paragraph with a new definition of what poverty is. Some examples are: “poverty is dirt”,” poverty is acid”, and “poverty is looking into a black future”.

Parker is capable of making you feel guilty for the possessions that you have. For example, she uses the phrase “You say in your clean clothes coming from your clean house, “Anybody can be clean.” This causes you to feel guilty for having the opportunity to be clean when you know that she doesn’t have the same. She calls hot water a “luxury”. To those living in poverty hot water is a luxury. You take it for granted and never before considered it anything other than a basic possession.

Parker also attacks the guilt of you through stories of her children. She knows that you may not feel guilty for things that happen to her, but when children are introduced to the situation you will feel more guilt. She says, “My children have no extra books, no magazines, no extra pencils, or crayons, or paper…”And you cannot help but feel guilty for having these basic things when her children, who need them, do not. Another thing that Parker makes you feel guilty for having is health. She says, talking about her children, “…most important of all, they do not have health.” She goes on further to describe what is wrong with them. Parker says, “They have worms, they have infections, they have pink-eye all summer”. These words about her children cause you to feel horrible for them. But the most terrible her prediction is a black future for her children. Being poor means no health, no education, no future for the dearest creatures of every mother. Parker says: “ I can already see them behind the bars of their prison instead of behind the bars of my poverty. Or they will turn to the freedom of alcohol or drugs, and find themselves enslaved. And my daughter? At best, there is for her a life like mine.” These words are very powerful. A mother doesn’t see the way out for her children and admits it clear-headed.

Parker is also successful in evoking sympathy from you. She uses language to create disturbing images of what poverty is. She calls poverty an “acid that drips on pride until pride is worn away.” Not only is poverty bad but also it is an acid. An acid is a horrible thing. It burns and corrodes away at something until it no longer exists. And this destroys her life. This phrase forces you to consider poverty as something worse than you had ever thought before. She shows poverty as a curse, as a “chisel that chips on honor until honor is worn away.” All of these phrases create a different image of poverty and each one is a success in evoking sympathy from you. They all force you to imagine poverty in a new way. We all knew it was bad but Parker makes us realize how miserable poverty is. She shows us that there is no hope for the poor without understanding. As she says:” I have come out of my despair to tell you this. Remember I did not come from another place or another time. Others like me are all around you. Look at us with an angry heart, anger that will help.”

An American Family: Rhetorical Analysis of “Searching in the Wrong Places” by Heather Koehler

Every person pictures a different image when it comes to the ideal “All-American Family.” I believe that for every person their interpretation is different due to our culture, histories, and family life. What Heather Koehler does in the essay is collapses the belief that the “All American Family” is limited to how it is portrayed in Leave it to Beaver. Without hesitation when I am asked what the ideal family is to me I would presumably think of a family similar to the Beaver’s. However, I know that this is not realistic, because I am an American and I come from a family that has had many trials and we still love each other unconditionally. Just because my mom doesn’t drive a SUV and my dad doesn’t work as a businessman, does not mean that we aren’t an “All-American Family.”

Koehler uses the continuous binary of what the true meaning of an “All-American Family” is. She writes what people believe it is and then looks at it from a realistic point of view. She collapses the binary by stating the obvious: no family is perfect. Yes, many people want to strive to be a middle-class family that lives in a suburb, however, we would not be Americans if we did. Our individuality and differences make us a unique and diverse country. The value of an American is freedom: not the house you live in or the car you drive. A family is love: not the clothes you wear of the colleges you attend.

A second binary used by Koehler is the comparison of Leave it to Beaver to the “All-American Family.” She writes her essay beginning on the discussion of the beaver family guidelines: nuclear, Caucasian, suburban homeowners, middle-class, and happily together. She collapses this binary by evidence that divorce is prominent in our country and therefore, families are not happy. She also collapses the binary by giving the information about the Shaws family and then after we picture the family being “All-American” she says that they are African Americans. This collapses the binary that all “All-American” families are Caucasian, because the mother and family had the same characteristics as the Beavers, however, they were black.

The last binary I noticed in Koehler’s essay was the use of the show Reba. She says that the family is All-American because “they love one another.” This collapses the binaries of the traditional family because Reba is a show about a dysfunctional family. However, I don’t believe she is fully collapsing the binary because she labels the family as dysfunctional. What makes an American family dysfunctional? Why do we label a family that has a pregnant teen dysfunctional, because once again it is a culturally defined term. “All-American Family” means perfect, dysfunctional means different. Even though Reba’s family has these flaws, it is still an All-American Family. And like I said before, what makes the characteristics of this family seem like flaws?

Koehler organized this piece very well, however I believe that towards the end she contradicted herself because she created a binary that her personal beliefs included. Not one American has the role to determine what an “All-American Family” is. Every American is apart of an American family; doesn’t that make us a large “All-American Family?”

This a cause and effect essay on Global Warming

One of the hottest topics in the United States is the issue of global warming. This issue, once discounted and ridiculed as the wild imaginings of over enthusiastic environmentalists and “tree lovers,” is now being taken seriously by scientists, politicians, business leaders, and the American environmentalist community. Environmental scientists have been trying to warn these groups that our continued use of coal and petroleum products, as well as established business practices such as dumping industrial wastes into the air and waterways, would be the cause of a natural phenomena called the greenhouse effect, or global warming. Now, when the earth’s biosphere is obviously suffering adverse ecological effects from a century of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions, it is apparent to even the most skeptical anti-environmentalists that global warming is real. Effects such as El Nino and uncharacteristic seasonal changes are real occurrences in our lives. Global warming is an ecological issue that has been caused by humans who overload the earth’s natural ability to metabolize carbon, and the effect is that world temperatures and climate conditions are beginning to drastically change. An examination of the cause and effect of global warming show that this is an issue that cannot be ignored if the earth and its people are to survive.

How important is the issue of global warming in today’s society? It is considered by most environmentalists to be the top priority item because if the problem persists, the earth will eventually be uninhabitable and all of the other problems of the human race will be moot. Phenomena such as El Nino are a direct consequence of global warming. Global warming is defined by The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia as a gradual increase of the temperature of earth’s lower atmosphere as a result of human activity. A layer of atmospheric gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone; called greenhouse gases) allows radiation from the sun to reach the earth unimpeded and traps infrared radiation from the earth’s surface. This process, called the greenhouse effect, keeps the earth’s temperature at a level suitable for life. Growth in industry, agriculture, and transportation since the Industrial Revolution, however, has produced gases that have augmented the earth’s thermal blanket. Some researchers believe that continued production of greenhouse gases will lead to global temperature increases, which could melt the polar ice sheets, resulting in a rise in sea level and damage to coastal development and estuaries; dry soils, producing profound changes in agriculture; endanger many species; and spawn more frequent tropical storms such as El Nino.

The current global warming is historically related to American industrialization and the greedy consumption of manufactured goods by consumers. In the 1800s, America experienced a huge industrial revolution that changed the country from an agrarian society into an industrial society. The invention of mass production, interchangeable parts, and especially the steam engine fueled American industry to generate huge amounts of money as it provided goods for a growing consumer market. America Past and Present states,

American industry owed it remarkable growth to several considerations. It fed on an abundance of natural resources: coal, iron, timber, petroleum, and water power … Eager to promote economic growth, government at all levels – federal, state, and local – gave manufacturers money, land, and other resources. Other benefits, too, flowed from the American system of government: stability, commitment to the concept of private property, and initially at least, a reluctance to regulate industrial activity. Unlike their European counterparts, manufacturers faced few legal or social barriers. (America Past and Present 536-537).

Like modern industrialists who are hostile about the industry restrictions on CO2 emissions, the old industrialists wanted the freedom to use natural resources and generate their profits without regulations or having to pay the price for the consequences of their actions. It is interesting to note that The Los Angeles Times reports that modern industrial chiefs are beginning to “squeal like pigs” (Times A27) because their industries are being forced to commit to the reduction of toxic emissions that result from their manufacturing processes and that are adding to the global warming problem.

The government eventually created laws that began to curtail the destruction of the environment. One U.S. Government agency that is attempting to deal with the global warming problem is the Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). The EPA is an independent U.S. agency in the executive branch of the government. It was established in 1970 to reduce and control air and water pollution, noise pollution , and radiation and to ensure safe handling and disposal of toxic substances (Concise Encyclopedia 324). The EPA was formed to deal with the massive problems of pollution and hazardous waste that had been dumped into and onto the environment by companies that had no conscience about how they disposed of their wastes. The EPA has spent billions of dollars cleaning up the mess that one hundred years of industrialization has inflicted on the environment.

An article in the Los Angeles Times dated 10/22/97 and titled “Clinton Backs Broad Plan to Fight Global Warming” states that American President Bill Clinton was in the process of attending global warming talks in Bonn, Germany, to discuss the pressing issues surrounding the concerns of global warming. The European Union is pressing for what Clinton considers to be extremely harsh measures in reducing the emissions of toxic gases. The European Union plan calls for a 15% reduction in emissions by 2010, and Japan has advocated a 5% cut. The Times states, “The Arab oil-producing states, on the other hand, have objected to any such mandatory targets, going so far as to suggest payments to them if the agreements result in lower oil purchases” (Times A27). This says a lot about the Arab states’ commitment to the environment and their global conscience. At any rate, Bill Clinton is rejecting the proposals by the European Union by buckling to pressures from American industry to be more lenient about the emission reductions. The Clinton Administration’s plan would “call for industrial nations to commit to reduce by 2008 their emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide to 1990 levels. Because such emissions are expected to rise significantly – by some 13% in the United States – administration officials have argued that this amounts to a significant reduction, even though it simply stabilizes gases at a recent level” (Times A27). Bill Clinton, who ran for election in 1992 as an environmental advocate, seems to be back peddling on his proclaimed commitment to the environment and world ecology. Environmentalists see his watered-down proposals, as well as his traffic with American industrialists, as an environmental sellout. They feel that global warming is directly related to industrialization and consumption of manufactured goods by consumers (Times A27). We, the people of the earth, will have to wait and see whether the voices of the environmentalists, scientists, ecologists, and concerned human beings will win out over the greedy screams of businessmen and the politicians who they support.

After examining the cause and effect of global warming, we can see that the result of a hundred years of dumping carbon and toxic emissions into the air and waterways has caused an ecological problem that may prove to be irreversible. The only way to change the effects of global warming is to change the cause. We need to find alternatives to coal and petroleum products, be willing to sacrifice the conveniences that we take for granted, and be aware that there is little time for discussion about percentages/reductions of toxic emissions. When El Nino comes this winter, it will be a wakeup call to all of us that the time to take action is NOW.

Free Argumentative Essays: Police Brutality

Police work is dangerous. Sometimes police put in situations that

excessive force is needed. But, because some officers use these extreme

measures in situations when it is not, police brutality should be addressed.

The use of excessive force may or may not be large problem, but it should be

looked into by both the police and the public.

For those people who feel racism is not a factor in causing the use of

excessive force, here is a startling fact. In Tampa Bay, Florida, five men died

while in the custody of the Tampa Bay police Department (C.C. 27). The thing is,

the Tampa Bay Police Department is made up of mostly white officers, but of the

five men who died, none where white. Four of the five men that died where

African Americans, and the other man was a Mexican National.

If the incident in Tampa Bay does not show a person racism, this event

might. In New York City, an average of seven Latin Americans were killed a year

between 1986 to 1989, but in 1990, that number increased greatly. In that year,

twenty-three Latin Americans were killed by police gunfire.

When asked how he felt about racism being involved in police brutality,

Yussuf Naimkly of the University of Regina commented:

“Excessive police force against blacks has always been tolerated, because as a

formally enslaved minority African Americans are trapped in a cultural context

specifically designed to inhibit their development and thus minimize their

threat to white hegemony” (C.C. 72)

Executive Director of Police Misconduct Lawyers Referral Service Karol Heppe

commented, “Brutality against minorities is a daily occurrence in Los Angeles,”

she says. “The difference this time is someone videotaped it (C.C. 36).

Another shocking incident of police brutality occurred in Reynoldsberg,

Ohio. A group of offices named themselves “S.N.A.T.” squad. This acronym stood

for “Special Nigger Arrest Team” and they made it a point to harass African

Americans whenever.

“The number of people killed by police has gone down from the middle

1970’s to the middle 1980’s in major cities,” says Patrick V. Murphy, former

head of police commissions in Detroit, New York, and Washington, D.C. (C.C. 17).

Also, in Kansas City, Missouri, a police department there has 1,110

officers. Amazingly, the only received approximately 108 complaints from the

public about those 1,100 officers.

Adding to the belief that police brutality isn’t a very big problem,

most legal authorities and officials agree that the use of excessive force by

police officers is going down. In fact, they say that they see brutality

declining from twenty years ago (C.C. 57).

Police brutality is defined as involving the unnecessary and unjustified

use of force be that either physical or verbal. Gerald Williams, president of

the Police Executive Research Forum (perf) commented, “Let me assure you we are

committed to a professional level of policing with an emphasis on fairness,

humanity, and integrity” (C.C. 168).

Other than the police stopping brutality internally, the use of civilian

review boards can be used. These boards must be able to receive all the

evidence in a case, including the police audio tapes, in order to make fair

judgment if excessive force was used or not. If excessive force is present in

cases, these review boards must be able to punish the police or they are almost

useless.

Whether or not a person believes police brutality is a serious problem,

it must be stopped. In some cases, where more force is needed than in others,

it is still there. Even in areas where police and the use of excessive force is

not a huge problem, it must be decreased properly by both the police and the

public. Finally, there needs to be rules making sure it never happens again.

Remember The Titans

In the movie “Remember the Titans” by “Boaz Yakin” the character Herman Boone, played by “Denzel Washington”, is faced by a difficult challenge that is significantly important to the movie. Boone in a sense faces a challenge of acceptance in which, by the end of the movie, he has experienced in two noticeable ways. Boone faces the challenge of being accepted by the community, revealing to us that he wants the community working together rather than judging and persecuting one another. Additionally Boone fights for the acceptance and respect of his team, The Titans, proving to them that they can indeed “make this race thing work”.

Boone faces the challenge of being accepted by the community, encouraging them to work together rather than judging and persecuting one another. At that time in Alexandria, Virginia there was an active atmosphere of racial tension within the community between both the African American and Caucasian population. Boone, a black coach, faces the challenge of taking on a new position as head coach of the T.C Williams High School football team. This is fraught with conflict and peril however due to the opposition of those that do not and will not accept the integration of black and white students into mixed race schools. In a move by the school board coach Boone is now unknowingly threatened by the loss of his job if The Titans loose a match. If The Titans are to loose a match Coach Boone will not only loose his job, both himself and the community will loose the hope of ever having this system of integration work. Boone in an effort to be accepted by the community uses his work with the football team to support the system of integration by emphasizing that he is in fact a valued member in the community despite his color, and additionally that he can “get these boys to work together”. There are avid examples of the work he does with the football team to illustrate these principal ideas. When the members of the football team all prepared to leave for camp, they boarded the two busses according to their color and clearly did not want have anything to do with each other. Coach Boone outraged by a comment from Gerry Bertier calls all the players to the front of the busses. He orders them to pair up according to their positions on the football field, accomplishing team unity and overcoming the first obstacle in getting the boys to work together. Also of interest are the responses of the player’s parents when they return from camp. They are surprised to see how Coach Boone has changed them. The parents are still prejudiced however their children have changed once again illustrating that Coach Boone, although he had not yet been accepted by the community he managed to get the boys to work together. He had overcome his challenge.

Boone fights for the acceptance, respect and unity of his team proving that school integration, and the black and white players can work together. By the end of the movie there are bonds formed between Bonne and both the black and white player of The Titans. These bonds are important as we as the audience understand that Boone has gained the acceptance and respect of Coach Yoasts team. In the first instance before the camp Gerry Bertier claimed that “he could not play with these animals”, by the end of the movie he we could see that he had become accustomed to Coach Boones expectations. Gerry was the captain of the Titans and Boone treated him so, he followed Coach Boone’s orders to the very end and had overcome his personal racial tension. Coach Boone had successfully become accepted by his players despite his color because of his good work ethic and kind dictatorship. In getting the boys to work together Boone overcome his challenge of being accepted by the team through uniting them and made it clear to the viewer that school integrations and a mixed color community could work.

It is clear to us that Boone did in fact face a challenge that he overcame. He wanted to be accepted by the community by proving that he was a valued member of it, a valuable football coach. In order to do this he had to prove that he could coach The Titans through all of their games, this required team unity. He gained the respect and acceptance of the football players in order to encourage their unity. He knew that only through their unity could they succeed. It is not the mere challenge that Boone faced that gained merit; it was what he succeeded in doing that was the real important achievement, succeeding to prove to the community that they could indeed be united.

Analyse and Present Research Information – An Investigative Report on Training and Development in a Catholic College

Analyse and Present Research Information

A Report on Training and

Development in a Catholic College

Contents Page

Page Number

Page 1 Cover Page

Page 2 Contents Page

Page 3 Executive Summary and Scope of Research

Page 4 Introduction to the Organisation

Page 5 Introduction to the Organisation

Page 6 Strategic Focus of the Organisation

Page 7 Strategic Focus of the Organisation

Page 8 Organisational Structure

Page 9 Organisational Structure

Page 10 Professional Development and the CEO

Page 11 Professional Development and the CEO

Page 12 Professional Development and the CEO

Page 13 Professional Development and the CEO

Page 14 Professional Development and the CEO

Page 15 Enterprise Eduction

Page 16 Focus On Learning

Page 17 Focus On Learning

Page 18 Focus On Learning

Page 19 Focus On Learning

Page 20 Focus On Learning

Page 21 Recommendations and Conclusions

Page 22 Recommendations and Conclusions

Continued Reference List and Appendixes

Executive Summary and Scope of Research

The format for this research report primarily revolved around interviews and questionnaires given and received from a sample portion of 15 staff members, in all realms of staffing: Teaching, Non-Teaching and Support Staff.

The overall response was whilst there was an awareness of Training and Professional Development at the College, the question is Training and Professional Development as valued by the institution as it is by all staff in all realms, is part of this a matter of having the correct courses, or just the ability to access them?

There were also a number of challenges that presented themselves during the investigation, these ranged from release time to course alignment to needs.

Secondary resources in the form of textbooks, handbooks, staff resource kits, guidance books and Internet sites were also used as supplementary research material.

Throughout the comprehensive research report we continually aimed to ascertain the degree of and, adequacy of Training and Professional Development in the College, while also analysing the accessibility of these Training and Professional Development initiatives offered to members of staff at the College.

Introduction to the Organisation

A Catholic College commenced in January 1999, born from the amalgamation of Loyola College (Mt. Druitt), St. Agnes High School (Rooty Hill) and Clare Catholic High School (Hassall Grove), which served the families of the surrounding parishes.

The mandate for the College is to provide comprehensive, quality education for young people from the feeder parishes and for other families who have chosen the school for their daughters and sons because of its curriculum offerings, geographical suitability or other affiliations. It is committed to maximizing the educational opportunities for all and to offer a learning environment where the values of the Gospel, Catholic Traditions, Sacramental and Prayer life are central.

Staff and students of A Catholic College belong to one unified school, which is richly diverse in its cultures, languages and experiences. Opportunities and structures will be developed during the formative years of the College’s life to facilitate and reinforce whole school integration.

Representative sporting teams and student interest groups will bring students together from the campuses. There will be combined activities for student leaders from all sites and the Student Representative Council will visit all year groups at various times. Staff should feel a sense of belonging and welcoming in the staff common rooms of all sites and are asked to be particularly aware of the shared responsibility for such hospitality.

Systems of staff communication are set up to maximize ease of the liaison across the campuses. The staff social committees are active in arranging and promoting functions and activities, which will enable staff of the campuses to mix and get to know one another better. The unity and cohesion of the College is the joint responsibility of all and it is incumbent on all staff to be open, welcoming and inclusive, with special care and awareness of the needs of new and beginning teachers.

The Motto and Crest of A Catholic College contains numerous empowering symbols. The Circle represents the perfection and mystery of God. The Cross-signifies the passion, death and life of Jesus Christ. The Three Waves are the three campuses and their journey of life.

The College’s name is its motto – A Catholic College. Christ our model, Catholic our values and purpose, College implies the importance of learning, teaching and knowledge.

The College believes in the person, model and teachings of Jesus Christ; the universal community and Christian values of Catholic Church and the paramount importance of learning and knowledge in today’s world.

Strategic Focus of the Organisation

A Catholic College is a tri-campus centre of learning, reflecting the life and mission of Jesus Christ. Inspired by Saint Agnes, Saint Clare and Saint Ignatius Loyola, the community of A Catholic College, seeks to: Stand with one another in the reality of our lives. Recognise and celebrate the dignity and worth of each person. Nurture relationships built on integrity and compassion, forgiveness and love. Engender a sense of hope for a better future.

In realizing and giving life to their vision, the community of A Catholic College endeavours to: Know and value one another. Provide a range of educational opportunities that respond to students’ needs. Nurture a positive learning environment, which promotes high standards of achievement. Promote responsibility, self-discipline and respect for one and other. Maintain a safe, peaceful and supportive environment. Empower each other to believe in ourselves and to make a difference for the better in our world.

As a community, A Catholic College, values: Integrity, Compassion, Hope, Solidarity and Learning.

The College’s Mission and Vision statement is strategically aligned with the Diocese’s Catholic Education Office (CEO) Vision Statement which makes reference to being committed to quality teaching and learning as well as being supportive of ongoing development of staff. The diocese’s Mission and Vision statement further goes to contain a whole section devoted to promoting Quality Teaching and support of Staff Development.

The CEO’s say that they recognise the need for professional development of their staff, to improve and harness their current talents and skills, as well as give new Knowledge Skills Attitude’s (KSA). Through this they realise the value the philosophy of career long learning by providing staff with access to appropriate development opportunities.

The Diocese also released its Statement on Teaching and Learning in Schools, which reinforces the CEO’s position on Professional Development. This makes reference to schools being a vibrant teaching and learning environment. It also says that good teachers have a wealth of knowledge about their subject matter and draw skilfully on a broad repertoire of teaching strategies.

Through all of these documents it would seem that the CEO and College have a strong commitment to Staff Professional Development and Training.

Organisational Structure

Professional Development in the CEO

A questionnaire in the Likert format was issued to 15 staff at the College. Staff comprised of teaching staff, non-teaching staff and support staff. A total of 15 responses were received back, ranking co-operation at 100%

Of those surveyed at the College, 33.33% strongly agreed that they were aware of the Training and Development opportunities available to them, whilst 53.33% agreed that they were aware of Training and Development Opportunities and finally 13.33% of those surveyed felt that they had an average awareness of training and development.

The question was also put to staff whether they have previously accessed Training and Development (other than the Focus On Learning Initiative), 33.33% strongly agreed, 53.33% agreed that they had and 13.33% said they had had an average access to Training and Development. It can be concluded that all staff surveyed in one way or another have accessed training and development.

Of those surveyed, 20% strongly agreed that they were happy with the level of training and development, 40% agreed, 26.66% said the courses were average in the fulfillment requirements, and finally 6.66% said the courses did not fulfill their requirements.

Range of courses – relevance

The Executive Director of Schools, Dr Anne Benjamin, in her preface to the Personal Development Programme 2003 identifies teachers as ” …the most precious resources we have in schools…” and with “…a discerning and a demanding public…” placing “higher expectations and greater pressures on education and schools than in any previous area…professional development is no longer just an option…it is a necessity.” (Professional Development and Networks Schedule CEO of Parramatta 2003:i)

The range of courses offered in the CEO of Parramatta are very diverse, it “…aligns itself with the aspirations of the diocesan Vision Statement…” and appears to cover a range of contempory issues, as “…schools select courses and in-services from the program which meet current needs” and are “congruent with the schools Personal Development Program” (Ibid, pii)

The courses offered are categorized in terms of who they are aimed at, for example. Primary, Secondary, Religious, IT, Leadership, Personnel (orientation), School Review Development, Curriculum, Learning Technology, Library, Special Education, Administration and Student Welfare.

There are over 200 courses for the year on offer, with dates, locations, descriptions, facilitator and registration details. There is a Network Registration Form in the back of the book which can be photocopied for multiple use, along with maps of venues. Most courses cater for however incur a higher fee for “other schools” such as Public and Non-CEO schools.

Courses range from Administration (First Aid, OH&S and Handling Media Interviews) to Liturgy (Religion) to Curriculum (literacy, IT, drama etc).

Courses contain a letter next to them (such as P=Primary, S=Secondary and PS=Primary/Secondary) so interested parties can tell at a glance if this course is relevant to them. This makes the Professional Development Handbook user friendly, letting staff view appropriate courses at a glance with ease.

Within the Questionnaire staff were asked if the Training and Development Opportunities fulfil their Training and Development Opportunities, of those surveyed; 20% Strongly Agreed, 40% Agreed, 26.66% said it was an average fulfilment, 6.66% disagreed, and 6.66% strongly disagreed.

Locations – who pays?

The venues for the courses are all around the area, which is covered by the CEO of Parramatta which include: Penrith Local Government Area, Lower Blue Mountains and Western Suburbs. A map is provided of the venues with directions.

Courses are charged to the schools and are GST free. Other schools can expect to be charged about 1/3 more to do the course.

Who available to

The bulk of the courses are of interest actively involved in teaching as they relate to teaching and curriculum.

Other courses available to support staff and administrators / co-ordinators are identified for co-ordinators and support staff. These courses relate to Leadership, Financial Management and Information Technology (IT).

Some courses with a Catholic focus such as sabbaticals only listed prices for Catholic Schools, which could mean they are only available to Catholic Schools.

Schools also run special school based in-services (Pupil Free Days). These days vary from things such as the annual staff retreat, which is normally held early in term one of each year. Other courses include but are not limited to; Chemical Safety In Schools, Child Protection Legislation and Schools, Occupational Health and Safety and Schools, as well as motivational and Key Learning Area Specific Speakers.

All optional?

Nothing could be found in the book to indicate courses weren’t optional, however courses relating to smooth running of the school or exploring new teaching trends/inclusion to curriculum would certainly be in the best interest of the school to have staff attend.

Teachers can arrange casual teachers to take their classes for them if they choose to do a course during school term. These casual teachers can come from within the school or from outside, teachers must have their session plans organised well in advance to ensure their students are not disadvantaged by their absence.

Teachers receive no financial incentive to complete these courses. It is seen as in investment in their career and if they choose to pursue additional studies in their spare time it is purely out of interest.

In the instance that there are insufficient numbers to run the course, it will be cancelled.

Support staff

The bulk of the courses relate to teaching, however support staff are catered for, as Personal Development “is a valued help in enabling school leaders, teachers and support staff to be effective in their service of school communities. (Ibid, pii)

The Challenges of Accessing Training and Development

The Question’s read as follows, “What challenges do you see in accessing Training and Development opportunities, either through the college or the CEO?”

The responses to this were quite varied, with 20 % of the total survey group returning invalid answers. The following percentages quoted are based on valid responses.

The most common response was shared between “Awareness/availability of relevant Courses” and “Time availability” which were both present in 33.3% of surveys. The lack of available funding for T & D courses was sited by 25% of the group as the prominent restriction. Where 16.6% of the group considered “The need to replace staff on the course (Release time)” and, particularly amongst support staff “The pressure placed on others by having someone away on a course”.

Most responses had a negative tone to them however there was one with quite a positive tone. This response stated that there were no perceived challenges as the college sees the benefits of the courses, the person has access to the handbook (therefore aware of all the available courses), and they have never been knocked back when applying for a course. It is assumed this is both by the college and by the convenor of the course.

It seems that the main challenges are in the form of:

A Funding for courses, and for relief staff to allow release time.

B Personal time availability to attend courses.

C Information and publicity on available courses, and particularly in the case of support staff, courses that are relevant to their line of work.

To dispel part of the last point one of the respondents sighted the main challenge as, “Getting all staff to attend the Training and development opportunity seminar once a year”.

Enterprise Education

In The Enterprising School, Conning defines Enterprise Education as: “Learning directed towards developing in young people those skills, competencies, understandings, and attributes which equip them to be innovative, and to identify, create, initiate, and successfully manage personal, community, business and work opportunities including working for themselves.” (Conning, 2002:5)

The “potential” benefits of Enterprise Education are, among others, student focused, seeking to increase the “education outcomes” and relevance, reduce alienation and foster communities, with a high student and staff satisfaction as schools are more valued in the community. (Ibid)

The implications of Enterprise Education are recognised as being long term. The “good teaching practice”…”is about helping students to become independent learners and above all, to be prepared to take responsibility for their known future development.” (Ibid, p7)

It is presented as a being a joint approach between school, teacher and community to encourage, mentor, and provide feedback to students as a tool for “later success”.

The model is seen as being mutually advantageous to school and local community, as, simultaneously relationships are strengthened and students are prepared for “…the competitive demands of the economy…” (Ibid, p6)

Focus On Learning

Focus on Learning – what is it all about?

The first Focus on Learning conference began in 2002 and ongoing until 2004. The most recent conference was held at Sydney Showground, Homebush on 12-13 May 2003.

This program was initiated by the Catholic Education Office’s Religious Education and Educational Services team who wanted to come up with a plan for ensuring learning remained central to the agenda of all staff in the Parramatta Diocese.

Its main objective is for educators to renew their practice as educators by participating in a wide range of activities.

How will this initiative benefit staff?

Staff were enquired on how they believe that the Focus On Learning Conference benefited them, a lot of staff said that this conference offered staff networking opportunities that had not previously happened, this was because it brought every member of staff in the diocese together.

It was also suggested that ‘older’ staff were helped a great deal by their ‘fresher’ colleagues – their ideas and integrating technology into the classroom.

Staff also appreciated the wide and appropriate variety of courses on offer to staff at the conference; these courses ranged from technology to Pilate’s, telephone techniques to bullying in the school environment.

The conference also gave a lot of staff backing up in their ideas for possible changes and improvements to teaching and school administration.

“It is hoped that everyone will benefit from Focus on Learning – teachers, school support staff, CEO staff. Initiative/support grants of $3000-$5000 are available to teachers or groups of teachers wishing to develop a good idea or consolidate good practice. There are also opportunities for increased sharing and networking among teachers with access to quality input and sharing at the conference. Benefits also include the possibility of more school based professional development and use of schools as sites for professional visits.” (http://www.ceo.parra.catholic.edu.au, 2002, p20)

Learning in the 21st Century

According to Dale Spender in the excerpts of his speech on Focus on Learning, “Today’s education system is not functioning adequately as students that come to schools to learn are either being taught what they already know and who are having what they know and, and how they know it , discounted.” (ibid)

Student Alienation

“This is particularly the case with the new technologies. He suspects that one of the greatest contributing factors to the so-called underachievement and alienation of boys, who instead of being praised for their digital dexterity, are denounced for their disturbing habits associated with music downloads, and video games, etc. This denial of aptitude, talent, and skill breaks the first principles of teaching: That you start with the resources, capabilities and strengths of the learners, and then you build upon them.” (ibid)

Learning Outside the Classroom

“Learning in this day and age is no longer confined in the classroom and that there is so much knowledge being produced so quickly, so widely and readily available that educational institutions no longer have a monopoly on knowledge or learning. (ibid)

For the first time in history, we are faced with the reality that the kids know more about the new technologies than the older generation.” (ibid)

“In the print era, the primary source of information was the book, and in the digital era, the primary source of information is the computer – or a mobile, or hand held – or some equivalent.” (ibid)

“This is all the new stuff that teachers need to know if they are to begin to do their job adequately.” (ibid)

Classroom Change

“And when teachers take up this new form of communication, when they understand that multimedia is as important now in education, as was essay writing and text book reading, last century, their classroom change, beyond recognition.” (ibid)

“The classroom become places where both teachers and students are not only learning together; but where the learning is empowering, enjoyable, energising – and fun. Where much of it is informal, and where similarities with classrooms of old are very hard to find.” (ibid)

Creating Resilient Learners

Andrew Fuller on the excerpt of his speech on Focus on Learning said, “resilient learners are good managers of their learning. However, we should not expect children to be able to organise their learning. Developing the habits for good learning involves building routines within which students can organise their time.” (ibid)

“Resilient learners are more willing to have a go and are able to tolerate the uncertainty of not knowing. We need to show students how to make mistakes as well as how to tolerate not knowing over periods of time. As Guy Claxton has pointed out, teachers need to show students “what to do when you don’t know what to do.” (ibid)

“We often try to focus on the positives and strengths of a student. However, trying to protect students from failure may decrease their sense of challenge and reduce their chances of becoming a resilient learner. It may be preferable to actively promote the experience of coping with mistakes and overcoming these.” (ibid)

“People often get fixated on the quick answer rather than reflecting and thinking an issue through. Tolerance for uncertainty may be promoted by clearly not requiring the fastest answer but by presenting problems as a series of conundrums, dilemmas or riddles each building in levels.” (ibid)

Building Psychological Resilience

In his speech Care of the Self – Building Psychological Resilience, Dr Roger F. Peters emphasises the importance of “caring for the self”. “Teachers need to realise that in order to create resilient learners, there must also be a resilient teacher. Psychological health like our physical health are synonymous. That is when caring for ourselves, we actually care for our soul.” (ibid)

“Your own welfare becomes critical not only in relation to you quality of life, but also to those around. In this way, by considering your own psychological wellbeing as a priority there is more than just a selfish imperative. Your own wellbeing significantly influences the wellbeing of others around you, especially your family and your school.” (ibid)

Staff Suggestions on the Improvement of T&D Programmes

Support Staff

Among the suggestions the Support Staff mentioned were: more funding for T&D; more courses on offer; there should be follow-up with trainees to determine the degree of knowledge they have acquired from the training; there should be a more hands on programs in Words, Excel, Internet, Oasis, etc.; cross-training between jobs in their offices and more college based training programs to benefit the college as a whole.

Teachers

Among the Teachers suggestions were: opportunity to give feedback on T&D programs; follow-ups on T&D programs; more funding on T&D; should be based on Action-Research to allow time to develop/refine skills or approaches; majority suggested of an on-going training and to implement ideas presented at in-service courses.

~~

Overall, four out of fifteen respondents did not suggest anything on improvement but majority did and they were mostly on more funding, more courses on offer, an ongoing training and follow-ups after training.

Recommendations and Conclusions

The Staff were also questioned on their opinions for improvements to the Systems of Training and Development in the College/Diocese.

Several staff members said that they believe that the Training and Professional Development Programmes would be a lot more effective if there was some form of follow up, from both the Diocese or Convenor and their supervisors. Part of this follow up should be giving the Trainees the opportunity to implement what they have learned and comeback together as a group and discuss the results and possible improvements or alterations that have been made to the processes. This also suggests that staff believe in ongoing training and Development.

All realms of staff said that it would be beneficial to all to have more courses in the areas of School Management, Administration and Leadership as well as general administration courses – how ever these courses should give practical knowledge not just theoretics.

It was also suggested that it become policy for staff to attend at least one Training Course a year, which also subsequently suggests that there is a need for increased funding in the Training and Development areas.

It has immerged that staff feel the need for increased consultation in the development and implementation of training and development training programmes.

Throughout this investigation we conclude that Training and Development is a priority to everyone, however, there are restrictions, which inhibits the staff’s ability to take full advantage of these wonderful opportunities.

It should be strongly recommended that to gain more interest and involvement in Professional Development that increased more staff consultation take place during the design of the yearly programmes. Staff consultation could only bring what should be much desired in put by the people the courses are targeted for, in gaining their input targets will be reached.

Possible compulsory training of one course per year would be beneficial, however it could also inhibit more, by creating resentment to the courses, however, if done correctly it should benefit staff and the students.

Contrast essay of “The Lady with the Pet Dog” by Anton Chekov and “the Lady with the Pet Dog” by Joyce Carol Oates’

While both the original and the reworked versions of “The Lady with the Pet Dog” are interesting stories, Anton Chekov’s is more compelling than Joyce Carol Oates’s due to a point of view from a different character, a stronger main character overall, and a more intriguing setting.

In these two stories the account of what takes place is told from opposing sides of the relationship. In Chekov’s version of “The Lady with the Pet Dog,” the story is told from the perspective of the male side of the couple. Dmitry Dmitrich Gurov is a forty-year-old banker who lives in Moscow along with his wife, daughter and two sons. His major internal conflict in this tale is that he has never been able to make a legitimate connection with someone of the opposite sex and considers women “ the inferior race” (Chekhov 102). He cannot find any emotional worth in his interactions with other people, and most specifically in this story, women.

Anna Sergeyevna is the character that Oates uses to give the main point of view in her adaptation. Anna is a troubled housewife from Nantucket, Massachusetts who lives with a husband for whom she has little affection. Her primary difficulty is that she has substantial self-image issues. She cannot comprehend anyone finding her existence significant, which is exacerbated by an unaffectionate relationship with her husband. Anna is wrought with suicidal inclinations and has at least on one occasion acted on these impulses. “But the bath water made her dizzy, all that perpetual heat, and one day in January she drew a razor blade lightly across the inside of her arm, near the elbow, to see what would happen”. (Oates 394) Anna’s neurotic behavior does not mesh well with what this story was initially intended to depict, a love story where the main character experiences great emotional growth.

Of these two principal characters Gurov is the more driven, proactive character, Anna being far more passive. In Chekov’s story, Gurov is consistently the driving factor for all of the advancement in the developing relationship. “He beckoned invitingly to the Pomeranian, and when the dog approached him, he shook his finger at it.” (Chekhov 103) This action of engaging the woman’s dog is the catalyst that sets off their entire relationship. Had Gurov not taken the initiative to call to Anna’s dog this entire scenario would not have taken place. Later after their initial affair it is Gurov who travels to Anna’s hometown in search of the woman with whom he is enamored. Again he is responsible for the continuation of the their involvement.

Conversely, In Oates’s story Anna rejects every opportunity to engage the man that she is secretly admiring. “ To talk or not to talk – she had the freedom of that choice. For a moment she felt that she had made a mistake, that the child and the dog would not protect her, that behind this mans ordinary, friendly face there was a certain arrogant maleness – then she relented, she smiled shyly.” (Oates 398) Anna’s passive approach does nothing to further the story and her attitude continues throughout. Even though the story is told from her perspective she feels more like a secondary character and it is the male half of this duo who is more fascinating.

Because both of these texts are romantic short stories, it is imperative that the author effectively creates an absorbing backdrop, which Chekov achieves, and where Oates falls short. Chekov’s version takes place in 19th century Russia among majestic locations such as Moscow and Yalta, where one can easily imagine such a torrid love affair taking place as they stroll along a grand avenue enjoying the picturesque scenery.

Oates’s depiction of a woman traveling through 1970’s New England falls flat in comparison. With such exotic locales as Nantucket and Albany the modern story fails to match Chekov’s depiction and lacks an imposing presence that aids in creating and engaging any interest in the outcome. As opposed to a tale of romance and excitement, Oates’s story comes across as a morose drama.

In conclusion, it is because of Chekhov’s better approach, superior characters, and more appropriate background that his is the better rendition of this tale.

Description essay on ” The impact of Socialism on the Cuban Economy: A Contrasting Picture.”

[The word communism comes from French, communisme being its original form and commun its root, meaning common in English. The word was first used in the English language in the nineteenth century, more specifically in 1848 due to the publication of The Communist Manifesto.]

Communism.

There are many different things that could be said about communism. In fact there are many different ways in which communism could be found. Currently, five nations are still communist; although everyone has adopted a different way of communism. In essence all different tendencies lead to the same principle: communism as the name explains itself is a system in which all property is owned by the community, there is no state nor privately owned means of production. There are no social classes and all people have equal social and economic status.

In theory communism sounds unbelievably splendid, people give according to their abilities and receive according to their needs. In real life it does not happen this way, but the complete opposite. A communist state provides the government officials, the police, and any other branch of the government with the possibility of setting themselves apart from the community by being able to manipulate all kind of resources; since the

Poveda 2

theory states that everything is owned by the people, but it is technically owned by the state.

If the same amount of money is given to five different people, obviously they are all going to do something different with their money. Well it works just like so when it comes to a communist state, everybody is going to want something different and going to have different expectations in life. Is impossible to expect a doctor who went to school for over five years to be happy receiving the same salary as a construction worker who all that has to offer are his muscles. The same way is impossible to have an honest person working along with a greedy and unscrupulous one, and expect both of them to perform equally. The fact that every single person thinks differently could be the main reason why out of over 25 nations that were communist once, only five still remain as so.

In a communist society, there is always going to be people who support it because of the personal benefits they obtain by their country being communist. These are the people who supposedly believe in a communist state and will fight to maintain one, being these the same people who occupy most of the main positions in the government.

If in a communist country everything is owned by the state and the state is run by a closed circle of people who only care about their own benefit, and only respond to a central leader while displaying to the world the fake equality of life and social classes of communism; then communism is nothing more than a modern and hypocritical way of aristocracy.

The Vital Environment

The environment is a strongly arguable issue in today’s world of highly dense populations and forever growing technologies. People rely daily on the use of cars for example as means of transportation to and from their work. People travel far distances much more than they used to a century ago due to the ease of traveling by plane, and the fact that they will reach their destinations in a matter of hours. The point is, for such great advantages that we take for granted, comes an even greater disadvantage, the destruction of our environment. We are abusing our home. Something has to be done to help save the environment for the sake of our children and grandchildren, for their health and our health, and for the natural beauty of earth itself.

There are mainly three strong sources of pollution in general which are: water pollution, waste pollution, and air pollution. From their names you can acknowledge that the third type “air pollution”, is the most harmful due to the fact that we as well as animals and plants breathe it in. The noxious gases emitted by automobiles, industrial factories and power plants such as sulfur-dioxide and carbon-dioxide are very harmful to our health and the health of animals, causing damage to the lungs and intoxicating our respiratory system and those of animals. People living near power plants and factories are more likely to live a shorter life than those living in the clean atmosphere of the mountains far from pollution. Scientists believe that all cities with populations exceeding 50,000 have some degree of air pollution (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2004).

Carbon-monoxide also emitted from car exhausts and factories is a strong damaging greenhouse gas. Automobiles also release nitrogen oxide contributing 30% of NOx in the earth’s atmosphere over the 76% that carbon-monoxide contributes to it from cars (Ibid). Both these gases are causing drastic environmental problems such as acid rain, which can damage health by increasing coughing, asthma, and stinging eye (Ibid). Smog also creates respiration problems to humans and damages crops and is the result of a combination of harmful gases. The ozone plays a very important role in our atmosphere by absorbing radiation from the sun and protecting us from ultraviolet rays. Without this protection humans wouldn’t be able to survive due to skin cancers, the damaging of plant life, marine life, and animal life. Therefore protecting the ozone layer is one of the most important reasons why we should save our environment.

Rain forests are disappearing at a drastic rate. They are being cut down and burnt to use the land for highways, agriculture or to expand cities. Some third world countries use a slash and burn technique to build roads and highways such as the Brazilian super highway (The Essay Organization, 2004). Billions of animals and trees are killed for these roads (Compassion Over Killing, 2004). Environmentalists argue that animal diversity is being lost. Currently about one species a day is lost from the forest (The Essay Organization, 2004). This could have a drastic affect on the food web. If a certain species of animals becomes extinct, then another species dependant on that animal for survival will also become extinct and so on.

I do understand that industrial work is vital, but that is not an excuse for destroying something else that is even more vital in a different way. With all the modern technology and the great knowledge of today’s scientists, other solutions and methods for construction and substitutes to natural resources can be thought of if only the issue were focused on more. Preserving the environment is now becoming a necessity and soon we will no longer hold a choice.

In conclusion, the environment is a valuable, if not the most valuable resource and should not be squandered away by man. It should be preserved, as it is a critical requirement for the continuation of all life.

Investigate the way love is presented by three different poets in at least two different historical periods

Investigate the way love is presented by three different poets in at least two different historical periods

The three poems chosen for this essay where The Sunne Rising by John Donne which was written in the early 1600′s with the best guess being around 1603, Sonnet 116 by William Shakespeare written in the same time period around 1600 and the modern poem Reminders by Geoff Goodfellow written in the late 1990′s. All three poems focus on love from the poets prospective circulating around different subjects the poets decided to base their poem on. It is important to state that the views represented in this essay on the way love has been interpreted by the poets are my own interpretations and influenced by my own feelings on the subject.

Sonnet 116, The Sunne Rising and Reminders are all love poems however the poems subject matters and meanings are very different. Sonnet 116 is about love in its most idealistic form. It glorifies lovers who have come together through their own resolve and entered into a relationship based on trust and understanding alone. The Sunne Rising written in the same time period is an eccentric poem for its time. It is arrogant and full of conceit as he glorifies himself and his lover ‘She is all states, and all Princes, I, Nothing else is’ implying he and his lover are every country, every where placing them in a status above Kings. The poem itself is about the legitimacy of the suns authority over the two lovers. Reminders unlike the previous two poems is modern, written in the late 1990′s. It portrays the struggle of the poet as he is faced with the reality that his lover has left him as he finds all her little physical marks she left behind. The three poems are about completely different issues with Sonnet 116 focusing on the strength of true love, The Sunne Rising on the suns right to impose itself upon the two lovers and Reminders on the poet finding all the little things left behind by his lover. The only meaning these three poems have in common is there focus on love.

The views on love in all three poems differ, however even more so for Reminders of which focuses on a more sexual modern view on love found in a short term relationship compared to the more traditional views of the two poems written in the early 1600′s. Sonnet 116 looks at an idealistic form of love that is strong, noble and everlasting of which is typical in most Shakespearian poetry. The Sunne Rising has a very romantic, erotic view on love and even though it still portrays a view of the traditional idealistic values it implies ecstasy and a more sexual intimate side of love as well. ‘Must to they motions lovers season runs ‘ This line is asking why must the sun govern when love ‘intimacy or sexual encounter’ takes place. It implies sexual conduct and in many other of John Donne’s work in his early career a more sexual view on love is portrayed frequently. In the poem Reminders a very modern view of love is expressed. In this poem a short term relationship is implied. It portrays the more sexual side of love that is more apparent in our present era. Lines such as ‘you left your white lacy G-string in the pocket of my bathrobe ‘ and ‘but most of all you left your sent berried deep inside my pillow ‘ really push this view of love. Sonnet 116 and The Sunne Rising definitely push the idealistic form of love (Torte by the churches at the time that where a dominant factor in their life with John Donne going on to become a preacher later on in life) even though their personal ideas on the topic do shine through, Reminders on the other hand shows a view on love in a short term relationship with more sexual implications.

Woman in the 1600′s where discriminated against in a strong male dominate society. This is clearly visible in Shakespearian poetry and is openly exposed in Sonnet 116 with Love being referred to as “his” implying love is of male origin in numerous occasions throughout the poem. ‘Within his bending sickles compasse come ‘ This is a perfect example of such an occasion with ‘his’ in this sentence in the place of love. Another significant example is the finishing sentence of the poem ‘I never writ, nor no man ever loved ‘ here Shakespeare has chosen to write no man ever loved instead of no one ever loved with woman not holding any importance in a relationship in his view. However at the same time it must be taken into account that maybe this was just part of the language and it is the way I have interpreted the text. Man in the sentence I never writ, nor no man ever loved could have the meaning mankind which we still use today meaning all human beings. This must be taken into account and comes down to the readers prospective. John Donne’s views on woman are however a lot different to that of Shakespeare (taking on the view Shakespeare did view woman as being inferior). In his poem he worships his lover. ‘She ‘is all States, and all Princes ‘ this being a perfect example. He admires woman and admits to their power over him in the line ‘But that I would not lose her sight so long ‘. Reminders being a recent poem expresses the view of the majority of western society today holding woman in equal status to that of the male. It is exclusively about a woman the poet had a relationship with and at no point degrades her status due to her sex. Both Reminders and The Sunne Rising expose a view of equality between sexes however Sonnet 116 portrays the male as being the dominant sex through the wording the poet chose to incorporate, even though the views on woman expressed in Sonnet 116 where the most popular in the 1600′s it came down to individual preference which is demonstrated in the view expressed by John Donne and also the way the reader chooses to interperate what is written.

The two poems written in the early 1600′s take on traditional poetic ideals with Reminders written in modern times demonstrating the free verse style we are accustomed to today. Sonnet 116 and The Sunne Rising use traditional genre Shakespeare’s taking the shape of a Sonnet and Donne’s that of a Dawn poem in Lyrical verse with the rhythmical structure in each ten line stanza a,b,b,a,c,d,c,d,e,e , Reminders on the other hand use a modern form of poetic verse, that of Free verse freeing it from the strict traditional conventions. Sonnet 116 takes on a noble and maybe even authoritative tone; The Sunne Rising on the other hand is full of conceit with a tone that reeks of arrogance and vanity; Reminders has a more honest, thoughtful but sad tone that continues throughout the poem. Both The Sunne Rising and Reminders are written in direct address. All three poems use imagery with Sonnet 116 referring to stars, tempests and rosie lips and cheeks. The Sunne Rising and Reminders however are full of imagery to a greater extent to that of Sonnet 116. The Sunne Rising uses a lot of Sun related imagery and also imagery of India’s of spice and myne. Colour is used to the greatest extent in Reminders with references throughout the poem to ‘yellow toothbrush, pink lip gloss with glitter and white lacy G-string’. The two pomes written in the 1600′s and the modern poem Reminders are very different brought about by changes in the strict poetic conventions but even Sonnet 116 and The Sunne Rising very greatly in tone with The Sunne Risings arrogant tone probably out of touch with the time period the poem was written in.

All three poems views on love and there presentation changes greatly. Shakespeare’s Sonnet 116 expressing the Nobel view of true love being an ever fixed mark as taught by the church. A sentence that best summs up the poem for me is ‘In short, the poet has employed one hundred and ten of the simplest words in the language and the two simplest rhyme-schemes to produce a poem which has about it no strangeness whatever except the strangeness of perfection. ‘. I found it to be beautifully written pushing across its noble views on a perfect interpretation of love. The Sunne Rising even though written in the same time period to that of Sonnet 116 takes on a more sexual cross traditional view of love with the poet infatuated with his lover. John Donne was eccentric for his time and this shines through in his poetry. Reminders is once again very different from the previous two poems. The overthrowing of the traditional conventional poetic restrictions is obvious in this modern free verse poem. It also demonstrates the view of love in our short term sexual relationships common in modern western society. Even though time has changed perspectives on love specially in western society where the church has become less influential with their views of a love lasting an eternity which is clearly visible in Sonnet 116 in the lines ‘Love alters not with his breefe houres and weeks, But beares it out even to the edge of doome: ‘ it comes down to personal prospectives of the poet and the interpretation of the reader however time has definitely changed wording and the structural presentation of poems demonstrated in the three poems I chose.

Essay on Globalisation

Introduction

Globalisation is defined by the IMF (The International Monetary Fund) as the increasing integration of economies around the world, predominantly through trade and financial flows. The term sometimes also refers to the movement of people (labour) and knowledge (technology) across international borders. The term globalisation has come into common usage since the 1980s, reflecting technological advances that have made it easier and faster to complete international transactions. (World Bank Policy Research Report Overview, 2002)

Understanding globalisation

Globalisation can be understood as having economic, political and cultural dimensions where companies are selling products the same way throughout the world, treating it as a single market. It is the process of business structuring in a worldwide market; creating growth and profit opportunities in production and distribution. Globalisation can also be seen as the process of rapid economic integration between countries, and increasing international trade and foreign investment has further driven it. (World Bank Policy Research Report Overview, 2002)

Globalisation refers to the many ways in which society is being drawn together by the international flow of goods/services, capital and information. (World Bank, 2002) The global economy assumes a kind of uniformity of demand and insight about products that operates separately of local cultural, political and traditional values and beliefs. It involves the impact that human interactions, among social and economic life, have on the natural environment and it refers to the worldwide consciousness about the human and natural world as a whole.

Thus, since globalisation became such a big factor of international business and industry, it ushered in a new era of political, economic and social debate in the history of humankind. Humanity had to grapple with the dichotomy of globalisation, in time recognizing both the benefits and the drawbacks associated with globalisation. Hence over time as society became more conscious and educated about the world economy, etc. and the level of awareness about globalisation was raised questions around the consequences of globalisation were soon being posed. The question; is globalisation good or bad? was increasingly being asked.

This essay will therefore discuss the value of globalisation to the world. It will focus on very pertinent issues that have been debated in the area of globalisation. These include aspects involving the drawbacks and benefits of globalisation.

The Drawbacks of Globalisation

A key drawback of globalisation is that first-world countries misuse and abuse poorer and struggling third world countries. First-world super power companies and corporations see people in third world countries as cheap and inexpensive labour that can easily be controlled and manipulated. This misuse of people is easily allowed because people (labour) in struggling countries do not have the choice to use or cannot afford legal protection when companies endorse dangerous working conditions. It is also allowed for the reason that labourers in third world countries are poor and desperate for money and will work for much less than people who are skilled and educated.

National job losses in the multinationals country of origin are another significant drawback. The majority of union employment depends on the manufacturing and industrialized division of the economy. This sector has been most negatively affected by globalisation as international companies and corporations increasingly take advantage of unskilled cheap labour abroad, especially in low waged countries. (World Bank, 2002)

Environmental organisations are against one of the drawbacks of globalisation because they believe that it sanctions and promotes policies which enable multinationals to escape trade-barriers on business practices. These organisations accuse corporations and companies of dominating the politics of third world governments. They believe that globalisation economic super powers easily and knowingly exploit the environments of struggling third world countries. Poorer countries are easily convinced to ignore laws about air pollution and environmental harvesting when it benefits the economies and their nations financial system.

Another unfortunate drawback of globalisation is the fact that small non-international businesses have no way of competing with multinational companies and corporations. Small businesses do not have the resources, funds or capital to compete. There would be no way a little corner shop would be able to contend with a multinational corporation.

Poor nations and their advocates’ argument against globalisation is that free trade is a benefit for wealthier nations at their expense. This is because tariff barriers are necessary for economic development. They also argue that the World Bank’s lending policies force poor countries to adopt economic policies which benefit only their wealthier trading partners. This is obviously a negative aspect associated with globalisation. (LeGraina, 2002)

As can be seen from the above, there are negative consequences associated with globalisation policies. While the principle in and of itself seems fair and benign, the ramifications of globalisation on vulnerable countries and people are significant and sometimes severe.

While this essay, thus far, has discussed the adverse aspects associated with globalisation, there are benefits that go along with globalisation. These will now be focussed on.

The Benefits of Globalisation

For less developed third-world countries, globalisation offers access and contact to foreign capital, global export markets, and advanced technology while breaking the domination of inefficient and protected domestic producers. Faster growth, in turn, promotes poverty reduction, and higher labour and environmental standards (Free Trade Org., yr unknown).

While globalisation may confront government representatives with more difficult choices, the result for their citizens is greater individual freedom and choice. In this sense, globalisation acts as a check on governmental power that makes it more difficult for governments to abuse the freedom and property of their citizens.

Most people in poor struggling countries know that huge multinationals bring in investment, jobs and products they can use. They know that these companies give away millions of dollars a year by paying taxes, employing people and setting up scholarship programs. Many corporations set up campaigns such as anti-AIDS materials or cancer research as marketing strategy but that actually does help others in the end. (LeGrainb, 2002)

To uncover further benefits one can pose the question; is globalisation really that bad? It is certainly considered a negative consequence when multinationals misuse and exploit labourers in third world countries by making them work long hours and underpaying them. However, according to (reference), these conditions are slowly being improved. Devils advocates’ argue that a job with bad working conditions is much better than not working at all and thus not having an income. The fact is that people in struggling countries usually do not have the skills or education which opens the way to find good jobs and therefore settle for what they can find, no matter the working conditions. In many cases the alternative is to exist below the poverty line, or as subsistence farmers. Thus, in this way, it can be argued that the job that comes with globalisation has more positive consequences than the alternative. However, it can be further counter-argued that just because the consequences of globalisation are in some cases ‘better’ (but still not perfect) than the existing conditions, it should not necessarily be judged as a ‘good’ outcome. That is, globalisation as a new politico-economic ideology should be judged according to high benchmarks and standards, so that the current poor state of the world economy and the mistakes which brought us here, especially in developing economies, are not repeated (or at least minimised).

Furthermore, according to a study done by John Charles (1998), it is seen that as the global economy grows the pollution of world environments keep falling. Some of the statistics he uses to back up his statement are persuasive: Between 1970 and 1997, the U.S. population increased 31 percent, vehicle miles travelled increased 127 percent, and gross domestic product (GDP) increased 114 percent – yet total air pollution actually decreased by about 31 percent. In the North American manufacturing sector, the pounds of material used dropped from 2,750 pounds of packaging per gross production unit in 1989 to approximately 2,100 pounds in 1993-94.

Charles’ (1998) reason for the decrease in environmental pollution over the years is the fact that market competition imposes a never-ending drive for efficiency and innovation. Since pollution results from the waste of a resource input, rising industrial efficiency results in lowered pollution. This argument however does not excuse the fact that multinational misuse struggling countries by not taking greater care to control the damage and pollution to their environments.

Globalisation has the potential to do immense good. Freer trade makes companies and countries richer. Foreign opposition keeps multinationals competitive, new technologies are designed and spread faster and countries specialise in what they do best and sell to others (international trade). “Freer markets of foreign investment and technology” can help improve other countries to. (LeGraina, 2002) If poor countries get richer the global economy could rise as richer countries gain new markets for their products.

Globalisation and South Africa

The optimistic liberal scenario is that economic growth will spread across the world and that technological transfer would facilitate the spreading of the gains of globalisation to all parts of the world. Meanwhile, advanced countries invest heavily in poor nations, whose poverty declines. “And growing middle classes clamour for more democracy” (Samuleson, 2002).

Unfortunately the world economy works differently in reality. These benefits do occur but have not reached the entire globe, especially poorer third world countries. South Africa is one of them.

In 1994 South Africa was sharply divided and it was experiencing a high unemployment rate among socio-economic groups. But South Africa was determined to do the right thing economically by committing itself to becoming a global citizen and to play by free trade rules. South Africa has since privatised its big companies, such as Telkom and SAA, so as to attract foreign capital. It also eased exchange controls and the Rand became more competitive.

According to Sibuyi (2001), South Africa did everything it needed to do (and did it correctly) to become a ‘global player’ but it did not benefit from globalisation. There was no record of better economic growth, no increased levels of employment, no rise in incomes and no foreign capital and investment came flowing. (Subuyi, 2001)

There have been some benefits: Industries are a lot more efficient and technology continues to play a transforming role on the South African economy. However, the drawbacks far outweigh these benefits. Employment and income levels have declined, industries, such as the textile industry, have been completely wiped out and the Rand has continued to fall. South Africa had failed to fully benefit from globalisation.

Conclusion

Thus, as can be ascertained from the above discussion, there are benefits as well as drawbacks associated with globalisation. The advances made for humanity through globalisation have been significant to poor countries and struggling economies. However, the drawbacks associated with globalisation in the shape of the misuse of struggling third world countries for cheap labour, and the damage to the environment etc. are also significant. This inconsistency that globalisation has brought the world makes it very challenging to decisively say that globalisation has been and entirely adverse or entirely favourable thing.

I recognise the benefits that society has derived from it. Poorer countries have benefited from it in many ways, and they have benefited better from it than if globalisation had not existed. It is for this reason that I recognise the value that globalisation has brought the world and thus would have to agree that globalisation is a useful thing. This however is not an endorsement of some of the drawbacks previously discussed.

Perhaps the true effects of globalisation on humanity can only be judged sometime in the future. That is, perhaps the negatives and positives associated with globalisation will ‘work themselves out’ over time and a true judgement of the globalisation ideology can be made.

”On natural death” By Lewis Thomas.

From the moment all life forms are born, a journey is begun to the mysterious quarters of the unknown and the unexplained. It is a journey to the one place all beings are not sure of and fear the most. Whether or not it comes from old age, death is a part of the natural cycle of life. In the essay “On Natural Death” by Lewis Thomas, death is the spectacle of human and animal existence. He explores the world of death using rhetorical writing style to effectively support his idea of death. By using parallel sentences and persuasive techniques such as logos, pathos, and ethos, Thomas is able to alter the perception of the creeping demon into an exotic experience.

Thomas’ use of parallel sentences creates his mood about death and why it is Nature’s job to help us through it. He points out in his essay that reading books on death causes a person to wonder how they will react when they encounter death. He seeks to assure the reader by saying that “if you know not how to die, never trouble yourself; Nature will in a moment…instruct you; she will …do the business for you…” (275). The idea of the unknown creeps in the back of human thought because people are not sure how they will handle it; ergo they read books to prepare them for the unexpected arrival of death. With the use of parallel sentence structure, he emphasizes to the reader that they will be taken care of if they are faced with the grim situation by repeating the word “you”. This technique and word usage engraves the concept of death in the mind and makes the audience follow through the sentence confident that Nature will be there to assist them in the process.

The road to death is a dreaded destination man and animal wish not to face alone. Through Thomas’ elucidation, nature is the mother that guides the individual and makes the journey a peaceful one. He creates his effective essay by using persuasive techniques such as pathos. Thomas illustrates that nature takes away the pain that accompanies death by telling a story of a “field mouse, at the jaws of an amiable household cat…with pain beyond bearing…all over his small body” (273). The mouse, at the gates of death, gets a shot of adrenaline, which dampened the mouse’s feeling of pain while he is dying in the cat’s orifice. Nature has created a security blanket that covers up the excruciating pain that causes death to be an unpleasant experience. He builds emotion by walking the reader through the mouse’s painful encounter with the house cat and his experience of death. He makes the audience feel the intensifying pain covering every particle of the mouse’s body until he dies.

The mouse’s experience can be explained through reason and scientific analysis. Lewis brings out another persuasive technique, logos, to prove his point of the dying field mouse. He starts by stating that at the instant the mouse is trapped between the cat’s teeth, “peptide hormones are released by cells in the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland…” to cause no pain to the dying mouse. (274). Thomas’ use of logos brings the reader up to speed on the scientific definition of death and pain. It explains how the body reacts when faced with death and uncertainty. The author’s explanation of the bodily defense mechanism creates logic and reason for the phenomenon that occurs.

Whether or not death is defined scientifically or spiritually, death is the ultimate test of the endurance of one’s character when faced with the decision to fight or flee. Thomas’ excellent use of ethos in his essay best illustrates the endurance of one’s character. He extracts a part of another essay by Montaigne to show how death can be an experience that causes a person to rethink life. Montaigne, during a riding accident, was caused to rethink the natural process of death and how it felt to come close to it. Thomas quoted Montaigne to illustrate that “in order to get used to the idea of death…there is nothing like coming close to it” (274). By using Montaigne’s near death experience, Thomas is able to achieve ethos. Thomas wanted to exemplify to the audience that death is an experience that is more then the end of a life, but the reevaluation of one’s current existence.

With the current thoughts and experiments of death, Thomas has successfully instructed the reader toward his direction of thought. By using persuasive language and rhetorical writing style, he made his essay a convincing argument that death is a natural and exotic experience everyone is eventually faced with. The persuasive style of writing like parallel sentences, logos, ethos, and pathos draws the reader into the essay and makes him understand the idea of death. The reader gets the impression that natural death becomes an extraordinary and exhilarating experience all beings are destined to face.

Exemplification Essay on ways to relieve stress.

Are you stressed out? Well, you are not alone. We all experience stress and have different ways of dealing with it. Many of us use physical activities such as sports, athletics, or exercise to cop with stress. Others seek recreational activities such as going to the movies, to dinner, concerts, or other forms of entertainment. If you have tried any of these examples and are still stressed out, then I have the perfect thing for you. My ten simple skills for quick effective stress relief:

#1. Learn to relax. While this may sound almost too simple to believe, go ahead and give it careful practice. Relaxation benefits not only your physical condition, but your mental and emotional states as well.

#2. Fight the stress. Eating a balanced diet keeps us feeling fit. Every day you should eat a variety of foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads, cereal, lean meats, fish, poultry, and low- fat dairy products. Avoid excessive sugar, salt, fat, caffeine, alcohol, and crash or fad diets. The food pyramid is an excellent source for healthy eating.

#3. Quit smoking. Nicotine doesn’t relax you; it increases nervous irritability. While quitting a habit can be a stressful process, you’ll feel much better physically and mentally once you’ve quit smoking.

#4. Change your outlook. In addition to the daily events that cause stress, your thoughts and behavior can add to your problems. Does a simple setback cause you to think that you’re a total failure and you’re never going to be successful? Does a bad date lead you to believe that you’re going to spend your entire life alone? Are you a passive person who lets others walk all over you?

#5. Keep a positive attitude. Focus on the positive side of the situation. See if you can turn the problem into an opportunity to try something different. Give yourself a pep talk or repeat certain sayings like, “things could be worse,” or “it’s always darkest before the dawn,” or “every cloud has a silver lining.” Looking on the bright side lightens your load.

#6. Reduce your frustration and anger. Human beings are not perfect. You might not like the way the world is run. You might not like certain things about yourself or your life. But rather than be frustrated by things you cannot change, try to accept them and work around them. Instead of pushing and rushing, slow down a little and think about your choices. You can turn frustration into relaxation, even if you are stuck in a traffic jam. For example, instead of feeling aggravated by the situation, use that time to stretch your neck and to breathe deeply. It is important to look at all problems in different ways and try new strategies.

#7. Be realistic. Do you worry about things that never happen? When faced with a problem, think about the advice you would give a friend in the same situation. How important is the problem in the course of your life? In a year? In a week?

#8. Set goals. One of the major causes of stress and depression is a feeling of going nowhere, a feeling that life is just passing by. Think about your life and values and hopes. Imagine your ideal life and what steps you can take to get a little closer to your dream.

#9. Create good friendships. Having close relationships with people you can confide in reduces stress and increases emotional satisfaction. Having social support from other human beings whom you can count on in times of uncertainly allow you to live in a more relaxed, confident fashion.

#10. Keep a sense of humor. Go see a funny movie or read a funny book. Keep a humor journal with all the funny jokes and stories you hear each day. Tell a joke. Look for the funny side in a situation. Hang out with happy people. Put on a happy face. Use humor instead of anger! And most importantly laugh at your self from time to time.

If you try any of these ten tips that I have offered you, and for some reason they don’t work, then I recommend that you find some sort of medication for your stress problems. Professional help may also be necessary.

This essay talks about how to start you own club having to do with amnesty international, the human rights organization.

Amnesty International is a globally acclaimed organization that helps to protect the basic human rights of people all over the world through campaigns, donations, and volunteer work. Amnesty international is a self-governed organization that neither supports nor opposes any one political policy or political leader. Rather it strives to maintain a vision of rights as written in the Universal Declaration for Human Rights. Amnesty International sponsors a number of issues at a time for the advocation of human rights. In our club, one issue will be chosen at a time based on the interests and support of the majority of the members in the Uni Amnesty. The issue will be publicized and promoted for a number of weeks through low to high level campaigning tactics with an emphasis on donating to our cause. All donations received through campaigning and publicizing efforts will be sent to the Amnesty International donation center for our specific cause. Thus, our club not only makes an effort to donate to a cause, but also spreads awareness of the issue and of the Amnesty International organization. Members of Uni Amnesty will not only be able to receive vast amounts of community service hours for each issue, but will also have the satisfaction of being part of a politically activist group “working to protect human rights worldwide.”

Each issue that is chosen will follow a basic strategy in raising donations. The issues will each endure for the period of about one month during which time low to high level campaigning and publicizing tactics will be utilized to communicate our issue to the public. The month long period will culminate in a large campaign in a crowded place consisting of speakers, debates, and information on the issue. Their will be a donation box nearby for passerby interested in assisting our cause to donate to Amnesty International. Also flyers with an address to which donations may be sent will also be given out to all passerby during the month long campaign.

In the first level, Uni Amnesty will gather support and justification for our cause from students, administration, and local people. In the first phase flyers publicizing and containing information about the issue will be handed out during school and at other public places. Also, teach-ins and tabling, in which we can personally educate and answer questions about the topic, will be set up. Other tactics such as publicizing our issue through posters, word of mouth, and even the school paper will be practiced.

Middle level tactics are more confrontational and are used as supplementation to low level tactics. These are set in motion after the public is slightly educated an interested in the issue. These tactics are mainly used to raise the profile of the campaign and get people eager to support the cause. Medium level tactics include large banner hangs in crowded places and small debates or speak outs to controlled crowds during a fairly short period of time. These tactics heighten the spirit about the issue and pave the path for the large campaign debate and higher level tactics.

This is the last branch of our campaign and thus is the final and most extreme step in spreading the awareness of the issue and collecting donations for the cause. This step is initiated when support for the campaign and issue is fairly high and people are conscious of the cause and what we are trying to do. High level tactics consist of the large demonstration in the very end and other small school rallies during the course of the week. The large campaign will take place in a location with heavy traffic and large amounts of people. Permits for the rally will be obtained a few weeks in advance and new positions such as crowd control, security, debaters, informational speakers, donation treasurers, secretaries, and media outrage personnel will be assigned. Also certain people will be allocated to begin slogans and chants during the campaign. One person will also be a designated MC to lead the crowd and introduce speakers and debaters. To catch the interest of the crowd various costumes or skits relating to the issue will be performed during the rally. This climax to our issue should increase political awareness and activism amongst students and citizens, and will also raise massive donations toward our amnesty international cause. Hopefully after four weeks of campaigning for our issue, sufficient funds will be donated and political responsiveness and a feeling of merit will ensue.

Although the amount of work and time that each member contributes to a cause varies, most causes will provide approximately ten hours of community service. Thus, when a student signs up for an issue or cause during the year, they will receive approximately ten hours of community service for this subject if they follow through with the topic and attend their assigned rallies and other demonstrations during the month. Extra hours may be given for additional help or attendance during the length of the cause.

At Uni Amnesty, all decisions will be made based on a majority of the vote of the club members. Each issue and task that has reached a dilemma will be presented at a club meeting so that members may vote on the issue. First the issue is introduced by the president. Then various people will be able to have a few minutes so as to speak for or against their decision. We will try to accommodate it so that everybody is heard. Next the group will vote on the proposal as being for, against, or neutral on the issue. The majority will win. If more than have are neutral, the issue will be set aside until a new proposal is created or until a later time.

The conclusion of a campaign will be just as publicized as the issue itself. The outcome and amount of donations received will be published on flyers and hopefully in the school newspaper as well. Thank you letters will be written to all people who have helped in the campaign and the members of the club will be congratulated on their success. Success will in turn spread the publicity of Uni Amnesty and heighten the morale of the club members.

Uni Amnesty will be an organization at the right hand of Amnesty International. It will strive and do its best to gain donation and community service through the support of important human rights issues. Most importantly, this club will not only donate to a cause but will also support, advertise, and increase the political awareness of the cause. We will work to protect human rights and increase activism worldwide by beginning in our local school.

Internet implication on the music industry: Can businesses take advantage of the new developments in technology?

Internet implication on the music industry: Can businesses take advantage of the new developments in technology?In the last decades, advances in the speed and functionality of the communications infrastructure have made information more accessible to everyone. Particularly, the Internet is regarded as a cheap and quick way to distribute multimedia information. Since 1993 the Internet has grown at an exponential rate. Surveys show that the number of host computers connected to the internet increased from 1.3 million to 6.6 million between January and July 1995 (Network-Wizards, 1995). The Internet poses new opportunities and threats to businesses; as some firms use the internet to improve innovation, production, sales and service processes (Porter, 2001). It has been shown that this new technology will reduce transaction costs and this will lead to a growth in the electronic commerce and productivity. At the same time this will reduce profit opportunities of inefficient firms, requiring them to re-focus their strategies.

This essay will be discussing the implication of the Internet on the music industry as it is a major subject nowadays because it involves everyone in a certain way. Most of the population in the world use the Internet today, for their own personal use; it also represents an inexpensive and immediate way to distribute information goods and services. This essay will look at some relevant examples and will be giving some recommendations concerning on how to take advantage of the new developments in the music industry.

The internet undermine the profitability of industries so in many sectors, the potential of the internet is enormous (Worthington and Britton, 2006: 156). The average profitability is under pressure, such a situation s being faced by the music industry. By “Internet implication” we refer to the impact that electronic networks have on businesses when they are used by people through computers and other digital devices, allowing person to person free communication and information retrieval.

Music, video and all sorts of services would have a large impact on businesses as we know them today. Music is one of the most complex and profitable industries, with an estimated $3 billion profit in 1998, it may not seem a good industry for a small entrepreneur with few connections (maniactools.com). It involves a large number of people, however only the top 15 percent of the music industry makes money, while the other 85 per cent loses money. In fact six major companies dominate the music industry, largely controlling the distribution and marketing channels (Bertelsmann, EMI-capitol, Universal, Polygram, Sony Music, and Warner Music). Authors, producers, studios, agents, manufacturers, distributors, graphic artists, engineers, lawyers, managers and touring agencies are just some of the elements involved in the music industry that want to make money from it. The Business environment, in which this industry operates, is changing constantly. The current state of technological advance is a very important point to consider, technology is crucial when it comes to music, due to the fact that music industry is the fastest industry in changes when it comes to innovation.

Music sharing, is sharing music with other people. It can be as simple as lending your favourite CD, However, music sharing became particularly popular in the late 1990s.

File sharing and CD burning results in a loss to the artist who performed the music, the songwriter who originally made the song, the music company which invested both time and money in bringing the product to market and , of course, the retailer.

As ARIA Chief Executive, Stephen Peach argues that, File-sharing and CD burning contributes to the slow but steady weakening of the local and international music industry.

“Most of the people will buy music regularly because they want to support the music industry or simply because they enjoy buying the CDs with all their bells and whistles (the case, the artwork, the lyrics sheet and so on)” (BBC.co.uk).

It is on the nature of customers they demand more value for less cost, more innovation, or more service. Such opportunities are offered by the Internet technologies so they are provided easier access to information about products and suppliers, reinforcing their bargaining power. Ethical standards are likely to affect music industry, most of the people are aware of the crime they commit when it comes to file-sharing. People will buy an album once they have listened to one or two tracks; they may be convinced to get the CD (Harvard Business School, 2004).

The Internet can be seen as a useful tool for attracting customers, it can be used as a marketing opportunity for some firms. Researches made by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) state that file sharing is “only one factor, along with economic conditions and competing forms of entertainment that is displacing legitimate sales”.

Another study shows that internet music-file sharing is much like the radio, a great tool to promote new music:“Our research shows that people do not download the entire CDs. They download a few songs, typically hits that one would also hear on a top 40 station. The music industry has of course long recognized that giving away samples of music for free over the airwaves can stimulate sales”(Harvard Business School, 2004).

Moreover new artists, and many well known artists, are more than happy to have their music spread around the Internet, as it helps them to get more recognition and perhaps gain a few fans that would have missed out, had the internet not have distributed their music for them. Also if neither the artist nor the record producer claims copyright for the song, then there is no Intellectual Property Theft (ITP) issue with passing it around the internet and it is perfectly legal. An example of this would be the website Peoplesound.com where people can download MP3 for free.

However there is always a downside and upside in the impact of the internet on the music industry, many artists, particularly small ones but also big rock stars such as the band Radiohead, are very much in favour of music sharing as it gets their music heard by other people who otherwise would miss out. As their bassist argued “ we have just finished a tour, we played in Barcelona, the next day the entire performance was up on Napster and three weeks later, when we got to play in Israel, the audience knew the words to all the new songs and it was so wonderful” (BBC News night, 2000).

Smaller artists love to see their music distributed on the internet. The more people that listen to their music, the more fans they gain and the more likely they are to become signed. Another example of this would be the American pop-punk band The Offspring; they took it to an extreme, putting their whole album Conspiracy of One on the internet for fans to download against their record company’s wishes. Here we can see that there is also an argument that music sharing actually helps the industry. Furthermore, an article published by the BBC news (2008), describes how giving away a few songs can radically increase CD sales“…Analysts are predicting that MP3 will double the value of the music industry from £25bn to £62bn … Give away one song to sell a CD, distribute low-quality versions of songs, sell individual songs for digital delivery, add an audio commercial to songs, there are limitless possibilities for artists to explore” (BBC.co.uk).

Another example is Napster, which was one of the major worldwide phenomenons in the music sharing issue; it was one of the first computer programmes on the internet and it had a lot of negative consequences, it was sued by the US rock band Metallica. It is important to emphasize that the law not only constrains business activity (Worthington and Britton, 2006:179). At that moment, copyright lawyers could not find a law for IPT. The legal environment, music industry was affected considerably as the laws on the file-sharing issue were weak and could not develop as quicker as the new technologies. As mentioned before, the band Metallica pioneered the battle between the music industry and MP3 sharing, claiming that fans who shared their music over the internet were stealing music from the band. They were right, of course, referring to intellectual property theft (IPT), this is the use of something that the band claim copyright for without paying royalties to them (BBC news).

Consequently with the increased usage of music sharing programmes, ITP grows at a high level as thousands of hours of music are being transferred between computers every single day for free. For the record companies the internet MP3 sharing is costing thousands and thousands of pounds, these moneys could be used to pay for more equipment, publicity or even signing new bands (Music Industry Piracy Investigations, 2006). So it is clearly seen that stealing music affects other people who are looking for an opportunity on the music environment. Also, IPT is a crime in most countries, and allowing people to commit such crime is setting a bad example. However, in other places, like developing countries, laws concerning to music piracy do not really exists. There is no government regulation in such countries, and this also worries the music industry. The music industry is also afraid of the use of MP3 distribution for easy replication of the entire CD albums. Using the internet, a user can download the whole of an album, record it onto a CD, and even print off a cover image to make the CD feel even more real (ARIA, 2003) . In other words the industry makes no money out of an album which has been copied to it is a business loss for them.

The internet has a significant impact on the music industry; this essay has looked at some examples. Music Industry is very affected by the technological environment, as it depends on the Internet. The music industry has launched many initiatives to educate consumers and businesses around the world about the consequences of illegal online activity. Many people who enjoy music are simply unaware of the effect their actions have on bands and artists. Some might argue that the internet could be used as a tool, and may have positive effects on business. I personally believe that the music industry should focus on how to maximise the value of the intellectual property rights. Everyone knows that one of the best ways to stop people from using the illegal sites is to provide them with good alternatives. Additionally, some companies are investing substantial sums in developing legal alternatives. However, all this takes time and of course, it is hard to compete with something that has been offered for free. (Word count 1886)

Essay on George Washington and how he he helped form the patriotic identity

A distinct patriotic American identity was formed during the American Revolution. George Washington was a significant individual that exemplified this identity. A few factors (religion, shared experiences and beliefs) were instrumental in forming this set identity as they spurred colonial unity, reaffirmed the maxims of freedom and liberty as set principals of the patriotic endeavour and fostered a deep desire to be disparate from Britain. These circumstances provided a preamble for George Washington, who, drawing on this colonial mismanagement used his leadership and courage to inspire the men he commanded. Washington effectively exemplified the patriot identities characteristics of doughty determination, overt hostility towards Britain and the much-stressed value on liberty and freedom. The actions taken by George Washington have a widespread influence on the patriot identity and are instrumental in the forging of a new nation.

The unified conversion to Revivalism that occurred during the revolutionary period was a religious factor that was conducive to the formation of the colony wide patriotic identity. The first colonists were strict puritans and their beliefs affixed them to the Monarchy and inculcated obeisance to God and King. Revivalists had similar Christian beliefs to Puritans but there were a few key differences. These peripheral elements substantiated the patriotic identity and the subsequent Revolutionary war. Revivalism put emphasis on the ‘new’ man. Revivalists were encouraged to question their beliefs and disregard them if they were illogical. They were very focused on the individual, his beliefs and his personal freedoms and liberties. Formal discourse from the revolutionary time period supports this idea. Jonathan Todd (pastor) said that Revivalists “would put down all rule and all authority and power among men: pleading in defence of their licentious doctrine that Christ hath made all his people Kings”. The American colonists of the Revolution were at variance with the idiocy of a British King thousands of miles away governing them. In their eyes no government that wielded power without legitimacy could have authority. Self rule and a split from Britain supported the free and liberal ideals held so highly by the Revivalists as it allowed them to make their own choices. So, as Revivalism pervaded and more colonists espoused its doctrine the Patriotic identity strengthened, it was these revivalist-influenced free and liberal ideals that helped cause the subsequent Revolutionary War and enabled Washington to influence the direction of the Patriots.

For revolution to occur, a mentality of oppression must be effectively created. The colonists were subjected, through shared experience, to certain economic restrictions that were designed to perpetuate British control. This was an important factor in fostering revolutionary beliefs. Britain had amassed overwhelming debts in the preceding French-Indian War and looked to her colonies for support. The Sugar Act (1764) was designed to crack down on smuggling; all purported ‘smugglers’ were tried under the ‘guilty until proven innocent’ concept (the opposite to English Law). In addition, the Sugar Act levied duties on luxury commodities and expanded the list of goods that could only be exported to England (thus raising revenue for Britain). The Billeting and Stamp Acts (1765) further compounded the Colonists’ growing discontent towards Britain. Basically, the colonists were required to look after British troops (Billeting Act) and were surcharged on all official documents (Stamp Act). Colonists were outraged that they had to pay for soldiers they neither asked for nor wanted (the Seven Years’ War freed the colonists from the danger of the French) and resented the various taxations opposed upon them. The damage these acts caused was irreducible, riots broke out in New York and the ‘taxation without representation is tyranny’ (initially adopted by the sons of liberty) stance was espoused. In all, this proved to be an important factor in strengthening the Patriot identity. With the immergence of freedom-violating statutes, the initially fragmented colonies were now becoming unified in the defence of their liberties which was what George Washington needed – a unified patriot identity.

The Boston Massacre (1770) was another factor that contributed to the formation of a distinctive patriot identity as it further increased tension between Britain and the colonies. Resulting in five patriot deaths, the Boston Massacre was conducive to the patriot cause as it helped turn colonial sentiment against British – so much that basically no lawyer in Boston was willing to defend the perpetrators (British soldiers) that caused the deaths. More significantly, the Boston Massacre foreshadowed the rebellion to come, it illustrated to the colonists that a peaceful cosmos could not co-exist with British rule and that British presence in America was no longer needed, thus providing a reason for revolution.

The American colonists’ travel to the ‘new world’ was posited on the assumption that they would lead a better life in America, free from the poverty and persecution experienced in Britain. The ‘intolerable acts’ (as coined by the colonists) of 1774 were a series of sanctions imposed upon the colonies by King George 3rd in response to the Boston Tea Party. This shared experience (‘intolerable acts’) also violated the colonists’ new-found freedoms. In short, the acts closed the ports of Boston and prevented town meetings, offered British officials easy trials and required colonists to house British soldiers. Colonists were outraged.

The juggernaut of restrictions proved too much for the colonists and they banded together in unified protest against Britain at the first Continental Congress in September- October of 1774 (this meeting was spurred by restrictions, predominantly the ‘intolerable acts’). This allowed the nascent Patriots to collectively formulate their beliefs – a factor which helped establish the fully-fledged patriot identity. The Congress (of which Washington attended) came up with the Suffolk Resolves which declared the ‘intolerable acts’ as unconstitutional and stated that “no obedience is due…to… any part of the acts”. The Continental Association was also implemented. In short, this called for a colony wide boycott of British goods until the ‘intolerable acts’ had been revoked. This caused a patriot proliferation as now everyone was involved in the defence of their liberties. Lastly, a Declaration of Rights was formed. The Declaration asserted the fundamental rights of the colonists, including life, liberty and property. Thus a patriotic identity was formed as the colonists joined together to assert their freedoms and liberties which was against British rule. The first continental congress illustrated that the colonists were no longer willing to cower under a masquerade of acceptance; they were willing to fight together in defence of their liberties as a unified patriotic cohort.

All of these factors contributed to the formation of the patriotic and they characterised the beliefs and actions of this identity. The American colonists resented control of any kind that violated their freedoms and liberties. They adopted slogans such as ‘taxation without representation is tyranny’ and over time they realised that they needed to become independent from Britain as Britain was making no attempt to restore their liberties. The colonists became increasingly determined to establish themselves as an independent nation based on the bulwarks of liberty and freedom. This, then, was the backdrop against which George Washington greatly influenced the patriotic identity as the colonists looked to Washington, who undertook certain actions as the driving force of the patriots.

This, then, was the backdrop against which George Washington greatly influenced the development of the patriotic identity. Preceding the outbreak of the Revolutionary War Washington had been heavily involved in Patriot affairs; he was a military commander in the French-Indian War and he introduced a proposal which called for Virginia to boycott imported English goods until the Townshend Acts were repealed. Furthermore, he viewed the ‘Intolerable Acts’ (1774) as “an Invasion of our Rights and Privileges”. Washington was a perfect ambassador of the patriot identity and his devotion to civic virtue made him an exemplary figure amongst Patriots. Thus upon the outbreak of war, Washington was appointed Commander-In-Chief of all revolutionary forces, and began recruitment, training and acquiring equipment to build an army.

Washington was characterised by his bravery and determination to defend the patriot cause. He inherited a force of inexperienced, undisciplined, difficult-to-train men and turned them into a dependable fighting force. His determination is clearly exemplified at the battle of Trenton. Washington effectively regrouped his exhausted army, crossed the Delaware River in stormy conditions and virtually eliminated the Hessian garrison at Trenton. This galvanised patriot morale and boosted reenlistments. In addition, Washington inculcated loyalty in his men by means of savage reprisals, including scalping and his lyrical language was an inspiration to his men; “The time is now near at hand which must probably determine whether Americans are to be free or slaves…The fate of unborn millions will now depend…on the courage and conduct of this army…We have, therefore, to resolve to conquer or die” (July 1776). This effectively exhibits his determination to the cause and in all, reveals him as an inspirational commander. As illustrated, Washington was an integral component of the patriot force, his leadership characteristics were vital in unifying a patriotic cohort and his courage was instrumental in repudiating British presence in America (causing their surrender) and forging a new nation.

Washington greatly influenced the direction of the newly formed United States of America when he became the first president in 1789. Washington overtly embodied patriotism, he was the inspirational driving force behind the Continental Army and was regarded as a popular leader (he is the only President to receive 100 percent of the electoral votes). In essence, he was the paradigm of patriotism. Under his first government, the Bills of Rights were implemented. They symbolised the struggle that Washington and his men went through in the previous Revolutionary War and they enumerated the rights of freedom of speech, press and religion. Thus by securing colonists rights, Washington further supported the Patriot Identity.

To encapsulate, religion, shared experiences and beliefs were prominent factors in the effectual binding of a patriotic cohort. In all, they enhanced revolutionary beliefs, increased tension and nourished the growing discontent towards Britain. The patriots espoused freedom, liberty and a shared discontent towards Britain and thus looked to George Washington who successfully embodied all of these characteristics. Washington effectively led the Continental Army, exemplifying staunch determination in the process (e.g. Battle of Trenton) and it was his inspirational character that became the framework in terms of which the newly formed government was mounted (1st president). Washington’s inspirational leadership undoubtedly had a perennial effect on the forging of the United States and the shaping of a new nation. As Henry Lee eulogized; “He (Washington) was first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his country men”.

Essay on “Rape, Racism, and the Law”

Jennifer Wriggins analyzes the significance how race, ethnicity, and class influence a woman’s vulnerability to rape, the meaning and impact of the rape, and the response of family, of community, and of social institutions. Her article, “Rape, Racism, and the Law,” specifically focuses on the history of rape in the United States between the rapes of White women by Black men. As a feminist, she specifically focuses on two very damaging consequences of this selective blindness: the denials that Black women are raped; and all women are subject to pervasive and harmful sexual coercion of all kinds. Thorough this powerful essay, she examine the legal system’s treatment of rape and how racism plays a major part in denying the rights of African Americans, as well as, deny the veracity of women’s sexual subordination by creating a social meaning of rape which implies that the only type of sexual abuse is “illegal rape” and the only form of illegal rape is Black offender/White victim.

I was exasperated after reading this article. This article highly irritated and annoyed me because of the interconnectedness of rape and racism. As a woman, it is hard not to get heated about this particular subject. Presently, there are now many struggles against rape. And, in acknowledging the struggles against rape one must also acknowledge the difference among women and the different ways that groups other than women are disempowered. In one of the many examples in this essay, racism and justice collide when in 1859 the Mississippi Supreme court dismissed the indictment of a male slave for the rape of a female slave less than 10 years old. “This indictment cannot be sustained, either at common law or under our statutes. It charges no offense known to either system. Slavery was unknown to the common law… and hence its provisions are inapplicable… There is no act which embraces either the attempted or actual commission of a rape by a slave on a female slave… Master and slaves cannot be governed by the same system or laws; so different are their position, right and duties.” This ruling is disheartening in a few ways: Black men are held to lesser standards of restraint with Black women that are white men with White women; second, white men are held to lesser standards of restraint with black women that are Black men with white women. However, neither white nor black men were expected to show sexual restraint with black women. This is truly upsetting, to me, because no man no matter what color should have the right to exercise rape or sexual coercion of any kind with any woman of any color without her consent.

This reading is important to social work practice because it reflects and expansive and integrated approach to understanding rape, racism, and the law. By exploring the interconnectedness of rape and racism, I learned to analyze the assumptions implanted in and surrounding rape, racism, and social institutions. Finally, it develops understanding of the narrow focus of the black offender and the white rape victim, and the denial of the rape of black women, which engages within the cultural assumption of American society that is important to understand in the field of social work. This reading also teaches up to be receptive social work professionals able to work respectfully and competently with diverse population groups, with at the same time to understand and develop a sensitivity and respect for human rights.

Through this reading, it is easy to see how stereotypes of racial and ethnic differences can have impact on a person’s life in regards to consequences, rewards, and punishments. It has not fit in because examining substantive justice arguably requires that human rights to life, well-being, and the commodities essential to life and well-being, be given priority whenever a societal decision is made. Societal conditions and institutional arrangements should be recognized as grounds for justification because they may impose limits and constraints on the choices available to an individual that are as unavoidable and compelling as those imposed by chance or by another human being. It is a scary thought that your skin color or sex could work against you in the legal system, but it does happen. For this reason, it is easy to understand why many women are not reporting these incidents.

Persuasive Essay About Having A Required GPA For Extra Curricular Activities

I am going to get through college on a football scholarship!” How many times have you heard that statement claimed by the average teenage boy? In all actuality getting a full ride football scholarship to a university is extremely difficult. Instead people trying to obtain scholarships through extra curricular sport activities should focus more on their academics. Some students are only doing extra curricular activities so that their college application will look better to administrators. However, a 4.0 grade point average is going to fare more impressive to the administrators then below average grades and a large quantity of extra curricular activities. By requiring a “C” grade point average we could stop a lot of the stereotyping occurring in most high schools. Also, great amounts of responsibility will be earned for people juggling both the “C” grade average and extra curricular activities. This additional experience and responsibility will help the person succeed to a greater level in their adult life.

If you are a cheerleader, then you must be idiotic. If you get above 90% in almost any class, then you must be a nerd. Stereotyping is a horrible thing occurring all over the nation today. The worst case of this is in high school. What is the cause for these stereotypes? The activities you partake in and how well you are doing outside of these activities. Students with good grades that are in many clubs are more of thought as the nerds and goody-goods of the school population. The students on the football, basketball, cheerleading, and almost any other sport related team are thought of as idiotic. If students were required to have a certain grade point average to be on those teams they wouldn’t be thought of as nerdy or idiotic. The school wide population, while not completely stereotype free, would have calmed down with a lot of that stereotyping. We would be bridging the gap between the athletic and the academic.

The more responsible you are the better you are going to be at succeeding at your desired profession. People that know how to cope with both academic and athletic fields will progress more then people that do not. If the person who is looking to hire a new employee sees that you can manage both of these fields they will think you are more responsible and choose you over a lot of the other applicants. Responsibility varies into many different forms, but it usually matters most in your profession.

Education is important in every aspect of life. More than any amount of athleticism you will need an education to survive in everyday life. Many people think they can get into a nationally ranked university if they have a lot of extracurricular activities. Although these look good on an application, maintained above average grades will look better. Even if you do not have perfect grades, a “C” average and some extra curricular activities will give you more chance of being accepted into the University of your Choice.

Although you could argue that many students pride on their ability to do these extra curricular activities and their talent could most likely get them a scholarship it is not always so. For example, you could be working on a football scholarship, but, only an average of seventeen football scholarships are given out from a school per year. Being talented at a certain sport will usually not put you through college. Someone who has the talents and a better maintained grade point average will have an even better chance at getting that scholarship.

In summation, it is my belief that a “C” grade point average should be required to participate in extracurricular activities. It will greatly reduce the amount of stereotyping happening in most high schools. More responsibility will be earned, therefore making your succession in a profession easier. Also, the more education you have, the easier it is going to be for acceptance into most universities. The better your application looks the better your profession will be.