Argumentative Essay Sample

This a cause and effect essay on Global Warming.

Cause and Effect of Global Warming

One of the hottest topics in the United States is the issue of global warming. This issue, once discounted and ridiculed as the wild imaginings of over enthusiastic environmentalists and “tree lovers,” is now being taken seriously by scientists, politicians, business leaders, and the American environmentalist community. Environmental scientists have been trying to warn these groups that our continued use of coal and petroleum products, as well as established business practices such as dumping industrial wastes into the air and waterways, would be the cause of a natural phenomena called the greenhouse effect, or global warming. Now, when the earth’s biosphere is obviously suffering adverse ecological effects from a century of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions, it is apparent to even the most skeptical anti-environmentalists that global warming is real. Effects such as El Nino and uncharacteristic seasonal changes are real occurrences in our lives. Global warming is an ecological issue that has been caused by humans who overload the earth’s natural ability to metabolize carbon, and the effect is that world temperatures and climate conditions are beginning to drastically change. An examination of the cause and effect of global warming show that this is an issue that cannot be ignored if the earth and its people are to survive.

How important is the issue of global warming in today’s society? It is considered by most environmentalists to be the top priority item because if the problem persists, the earth will eventually be uninhabitable and all of the other problems of the human race will be moot. Phenomena such as El Nino are a direct consequence of global warming. Global warming is defined by The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia as a gradual increase of the temperature of earth’s lower atmosphere as a result of human activity. A layer of atmospheric gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone; called greenhouse gases) allows radiation from the sun to reach the earth unimpeded and traps infrared radiation from the earth’s surface. This process, called the greenhouse effect, keeps the earth’s temperature at a level suitable for life. Growth in industry, agriculture, and transportation since the Industrial Revolution, however, has produced gases that have augmented the earth’s thermal blanket. Some researchers believe that continued production of greenhouse gases will lead to global temperature increases, which could melt the polar ice sheets, resulting in a rise in sea level and damage to coastal development and estuaries; dry soils, producing profound changes in agriculture; endanger many species; and spawn more frequent tropical storms such as El Nino.

The current global warming is historically related to American industrialization and the greedy consumption of manufactured goods by consumers. In the 1800s, America experienced a huge industrial revolution that changed the country from an agrarian society into an industrial society. The invention of mass production, interchangeable parts, and especially the steam engine fueled American industry to generate huge amounts of money as it provided goods for a growing consumer market. America Past and Present states,

American industry owed it remarkable growth to several considerations. It fed on an abundance of natural resources: coal, iron, timber, petroleum, and water power … Eager to promote economic growth, government at all levels – federal, state, and local – gave manufacturers money, land, and other resources. Other benefits, too, flowed from the American system of government: stability, commitment to the concept of private property, and initially at least, a reluctance to regulate industrial activity. Unlike their European counterparts, manufacturers faced few legal or social barriers. (America Past and Present 536-537).

Like modern industrialists who are hostile about the industry restrictions on CO2 emissions, the old industrialists wanted the freedom to use natural resources and generate their profits without regulations or having to pay the price for the consequences of their actions. It is interesting to note that The Los Angeles Times reports that modern industrial chiefs are beginning to “squeal like pigs” (Times A27) because their industries are being forced to commit to the reduction of toxic emissions that result from their manufacturing processes and that are adding to the global warming problem.

The government eventually created laws that began to curtail the destruction of the environment. One U.S. Government agency that is attempting to deal with the global warming problem is the Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). The EPA is an independent U.S. agency in the executive branch of the government. It was established in 1970 to reduce and control air and water pollution, noise pollution , and radiation and to ensure safe handling and disposal of toxic substances (Concise Encyclopedia 324). The EPA was formed to deal with the massive problems of pollution and hazardous waste that had been dumped into and onto the environment by companies that had no conscience about how they disposed of their wastes. The EPA has spent billions of dollars cleaning up the mess that one hundred years of industrialization has inflicted on the environment.

An article in the Los Angeles Times dated 10/22/97 and titled “Clinton Backs Broad Plan to Fight Global Warming” states that American President Bill Clinton was in the process of attending global warming talks in Bonn, Germany, to discuss the pressing issues surrounding the concerns of global warming. The European Union is pressing for what Clinton considers to be extremely harsh measures in reducing the emissions of toxic gases. The European Union plan calls for a 15% reduction in emissions by 2010, and Japan has advocated a 5% cut. The Times states, “The Arab oil-producing states, on the other hand, have objected to any such mandatory targets, going so far as to suggest payments to them if the agreements result in lower oil purchases” (Times A27). This says a lot about the Arab states’ commitment to the environment and their global conscience. At any rate, Bill Clinton is rejecting the proposals by the European Union by buckling to pressures from American industry to be more lenient about the emission reductions. The Clinton Administration’s plan would “call for industrial nations to commit to reduce by 2008 their emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide to 1990 levels. Because such emissions are expected to rise significantly – by some 13% in the United States – administration officials have argued that this amounts to a significant reduction, even though it simply stabilizes gases at a recent level” (Times A27). Bill Clinton, who ran for election in 1992 as an environmental advocate, seems to be back peddling on his proclaimed commitment to the environment and world ecology. Environmentalists see his watered-down proposals, as well as his traffic with American industrialists, as an environmental sellout. They feel that global warming is directly related to industrialization and consumption of manufactured goods by consumers (Times A27). We, the people of the earth, will have to wait and see whether the voices of the environmentalists, scientists, ecologists, and concerned human beings will win out over the greedy screams of businessmen and the politicians who they support.

After examining the cause and effect of global warming, we can see that the result of a hundred years of dumping carbon and toxic emissions into the air and waterways has caused an ecological problem that may prove to be irreversible. The only way to change the effects of global warming is to change the cause. We need to find alternatives to coal and petroleum products, be willing to sacrifice the conveniences that we take for granted, and be aware that there is little time for discussion about percentages/reductions of toxic emissions. When El Nino comes this winter, it will be a wakeup call to all of us that the time to take action is NOW.

Literary Analysis of Sophocles’, Oedipus the King

Sophocles’ Oedipus the King was considered by Aristotle to be the faultless model of a tragedy. The reason Aristotle considered Oedipus the King to be matchless was due to the fact that it flawlessly adhered to his stringent criteria of an effective tragedy. In Aristotle’s The Poetics he describes how Oedipus the King meets his principles of dramatic composition by its use of a complex plot, simultaneous discovery and reversal and finally the character of Oedipus (291). Aristotle’s principles of dramatic composition have been used for centuries as the most comprehensive and consistent criteria in which to critically analyze a tragedy.

The plot is determined by many to be the single most defining aspect of an effective tragedy. The plot of Oedipus is complex and facilitates the fascination of the audience by intensifying the suspense and on the other hand stimulating compassion. William Nickerson Bates wrote of Oedipus the King in his essay “Sophocles: Poet and Dramatist”, “He develops his story step by step in such a way as to hold the attention and arouse the sympathy of his audience whether it consist of spectators or a solitary reader” (336). The plot in Oedipus is considered to be elaborate because the discovery and the reversal coincide simultaneously. This according to Aristotle is the most effective combination of complex actions used in a tragedy (Aristotle, 291). Oedipus’ discovery of his birth gives enlightenment to his crimes. Due to this discovery, a reversal occurs when his previous pride and good fortune are then transformed to ultimate humility and ill fortune. Oedipus the foremost of men is now Oedipus the most loathsome and pathetic of men.

An interesting aspect of Sophocles Oedipus is his expert use of irony. Presented in Oedipus is a dramatic irony which keeps a discrepancy between what the readers or audience knows and what the characters know. When Oedipus’ anger and pride provokes the blind prophet Tiresias he then foreshadows the truth of Oedipus and the killer of Laius. Bates identifies another type of irony found in Oedipus in which the speaker is unconscious of the irony of the words he speaks, “when Oedipus pronounces his curse on the slayer of Laius he does not realize that he is laying that curse on himself; and when he says that the man who slew Laius might wish to attack him he has no suspicion of the real situation” (338). The third type of irony presented in Oedipus is irony of circumstance. This is evident in the undoing behaviors of Oedipus when he learns of the terrible prophecy against him; he departs from Corinth in hopes that he can avoid his fate. However, this is the very action that brought the prophecy to its fulfillment. This is also apparent when he persists in his quest for the truth of his identity it brings down upon him disaster and reduces him to ruin. Bernard Knox describes this irony of circumstance in his essay “Sophocles’ Oedipus”, “By pursuing the question who is the murderer of Laius soon Oedipus discovers the answer is not what he expected at all and he has cursed himself for cursing Laius’ killer” (12).

A notable aspect of Sophocles’ Oedipus the King is his use of imagery, which he uses to depict horror and elicit sympathy. Sophocles used horror as a form of visual imagery that shocked his audience or reader and facilitated the tragic effect of the play. The salient example found in the scene where the messenger describes the macabre circumstances that occur within the palace when Oedipus finds his wife/mother hanging lifelessly from the ceiling. The horror is further broadened when he describes Oedipus ripping her brooches and gauging his eyes out as if to purge the sins witnessed by his own incognizant eyes.

“he digs them down the sockets of his eyes, crying, “You, you’ll see no more the

the pain I suffered, all the pain I caused! Too long you looked on the ones you

never should have seen, blind to the ones you longed to see, to know! Blind from

this hour on!”…Raising the pins raking them down his eyes. And at each stroke

blood spurts from the roots, splashing his beard, a swirl of it, nerves and clots-

black hail of blood pulsing, gushing down (Sophocles, 1425).”

Another distinguishing example of Sophocles use of horror as a source of imagery is when Oedipus is brought out in from of the assemblage, his bloody hollow eyes visible and his intolerable torment for all to see. This harrowing image strikes the heart of the audience or the reader and brings the tragic effects more vividly to the mind. The horror of the scene and the anguish of Oedipus elicits sympathy and compassion in the audience or reader.

The character of Oedipus is both at the same time proud and intelligent however too proud to the point of fault. “Oedipus is neither a very good man nor a very bad man, but one of distinction who meets with disaster through some failing of his own” (Bates, 337). He is a self-assured man who through his own aptitude and intelligence has conquered the Sphinx and earned the throne of Thebes. His determination and unwillingness to relinquish the quest of solving the question of his identity and Laius’ killer brings his fate upon himself. Francis Fergusson describes Oedipus’ character in his essay “Oedipus Rex: The Tragic Rhythm of Action”, “In one sense Oedipus suffers forces he can neither control nor understand, the puppet of fait; yet at the same time he wills and intelligently intends his every move” (38). Another author Richard Sewall in his essay “Oedipus the King” describes Oedipus’ tragic flaw as his, “temper and pride and his mistakes in judgement” (27).

The character of Oedipus is also dynamic. He begins the play as an arrogant, prideful and under goes an important change when the truth of his heritage is discovered. “The state of Oedipus is reversed from the first of men to the most accursed of men; and his attitude from the proud ruler to the humble observer of commands” (Knox, 9). Due to the heinousness of his crimes he alone bears the entire accountability for the plague. Even though in the beginning Tiresias attempts to tell him that he is responsible Oedipus refuses in his pride and self-confidence to believe him and accuses him and Creon of conspiracy and treason. After the truth is revealed by his stubbornness and the gruesome events of Jocasta’s suicide and the gauging of his eyes Oedipus demonstrates humility and veneration to Creon. “This is a stark contrast to the prideful and overconfident Oedipus of the opening scenes,” (Sewell, 42). Rene Girard points out in his essay “The Plague in Literature and Myth,” that “Oedipus is a man who bears alone the entire responsibility for the plague and he condemns himself to exile to bring about the reconciliation of the social catastrophe however no one thanks him for it” (848). Oedipus does not receive thanks and does not expect it, he accepts his fate and acts in accordance to that fate and ultimately is saved by it. He is now a seer who can not see.

Oedipus the King, the superlative of tragedies exemplifies the principles of dramatic composition laid down by Aristotle. Oedipus is a model and a guide for the many tragedies that have followed since its inception. Sophocles’ superior and masterful creation of a complex plot that contains a concurrent reversal and discovery, his use of horror as imagery, his exceptional use of irony in three different forms and the dynamic character of Oedipus sets the foundation of the effective tragedy.

This essay is about Nature Vs. Nurture. It strongly favors nurture.

In the Nature vs. Nurture debate I gravitate strongly towards Nurture, because for one you learn traits from friends, skills from your family members and you grow based on how you eat so your size is not predetermined. How would you feel if you were already predetermined to fail in life? That would suck pretty bad, but that pretty much what the Nature theory is proving. Nature pretty much says your genes will tell your body and mind what to do. The Nurture theory though says that you can choose to do what you want and what you will be good at.

Everyone has had a friend that they have been influenced by in one way or another, some are in good and some not so good. When someone begins school they meet that one friend that they will know for the rest of their lives. As you grow up with that person you start to like the same stuff and talk the same. For me my friend Shawn has influenced the type of music I like (The Beatles, Led Zeppelin…). While I have influenced what kind of cars he likes, which are Muscle Cars and not Rice Rockets.

Www.racingsmarter.com said, “One of the most influential things when you grow u is your friends and family members.” (Www.racingsmarter.com) While Www.friendspersonality.com wrote,” Friends tend to eat the same foods and get the same grades as long as they stay pretty close friends. While some friends that don’t stay in touch start to drift and start to become less alike.” (Www.friendseprsonality.com) After reading each of these quotes you realize that friends effect pretty much in all aspects of your life and if you don’t stay close to friends you start to act less and less like them.

As you grow up you learn many things from your family, i.e. how to walk, talk and do handy things around the house. Your mother teachers you how to cook and your dad teachers you how to fix cars. My father has taught me many skills such as how to clean the pool and drive a car that has a manual transmission. My brother has taught me everything about computers, and my mother has taught me how to sew. Www.womanmotorist.com said,” A most important attitude to convey to your teens is that they are vulnerable! This alone can be the difference between teens who end up as fatal or injury statistics every year and those who are successful drivers. Each year approximately 5,500 to 6,000 teens are killed due to vehicle accidents. Improper attitudes played a large part in these deaths. Teenagers believe they are invulnerable — nothing bad can happen to them. It is important to dispel this myth.” (Www.womanmotorist.com) If my parents didn’t tell me that a Corvette was made out of fiberglass I would still want one. Now that I know it’s made of fiberglass and I would be killed if someone hit me going thirty mph I don’t want one anymore. My parents taught me that an older car is much safer because of how hard the steal is. If it wasn’t for them I would be driving a car that is not that safe. I know have a 1971 Cadillac Coupe De’ Ville, and that cars a tank! (4 ½ tons). The other thing is that humans and animals can be manipulated. Harvard Skinner said, ” Early experiments produced pigeons that could dance, do figure eights, and play tennis. Today known as the father of behavioral science, he eventually went on to prove that human behavior could be conditioned in much the same way as animals.” I know that nurture is true for animals as well as humans. My dog for example can role over, play dead, speak, sit, lay down, sit, and dance around. Now don’t tell me her genes predetermined she can do those tricks.

Both Nature and Nurture effect how big you will get when you grow up. Brager said, “We know that it’s mostly genetics that determine body size, with the environment (what you eat and are exposed to) exerting some influence,” says Brager. What’s not known is exactly how much each exerts, and “which genes affect what body parts.” (Www.prematuree.com) As you see I highlighted the sentence “with the environment (what you eat and are exposed to) exerting some influence.” This sentence proves that the nurture theory takes a major role in how big you become. For me nature took over a little bit more considering my brothers and I are 5 foot 11 inch and are built the exact same way. The strange thing is they are twice my age, but if I wanted to I could get a lot more muscular by working out. This shows how the nurture effect works. Www.americanchemistry.com said, “Of course you know milk has calcium, and everyone needs calcium, especially while growing. You will need the calcium you are consuming now later in life so that your bones remain strong. Three glasses of milk are recommended daily. In those three glasses your body receives about 90 percent of the total daily amount of calcium your body needs.” (www.americanchemisty.com) In this quote I also highlighted a important sentence. It proves that if you don’t drink milk you are predetermining how you can turn out.

After reading the information I believe that your friends influence you in all parts of you life and that your size depends on what you eat and how you exercise. The most important one though is that your parents teach you life long sayings and skills that you will use for the rest of your life. If you want to believe in Nature or Nurture I hope my facts show that you will want to move more towards Nurture and not Nature.

Dumping in our Waters. This essay explains the vast water pollution we have in our waters.

Water is probably one of the most important resources we have. People can survive without food for several weeks but without water we couldn’t live for more than a week. Millions of liters of water are needed every day worldwide for washing, irrigating crops, and cooling industrial processes, not to mention leisure industries such as swimming pools and water sports centers. (Internet Source) Despite our dependence on water, we use it as dumping ground for all sorts of waste, and do very little to protect the water supplies we have. There are several threats to our water resources. Oil spills kills thousands of seabirds and can wreck water desalination plants and industrial plants drawing their water from affected coastline. (EBSCO CD-ROM source) Poor management of existing water resource can lead to these resources running out or at least shrinking. Much of the pollution in the rivers and seas comes from chemicals, mainly from agriculture. Another pollution issue, which is not brought up often, is thermal pollution. As you can see we have many problems in our waters and we need to protect the waters.

In the long run water pollution is going to harm us more than we now it, because a little bit of our ocean is dieing and sometime in the future its going to kills us. The thing that’s worries me the most is the animals. The animals in the ocean are dieing everyday in the ocean because of the bad pollution we have right now. Every year millions of animals dies because of the water pollution we have and 65% of the sea animal’s die because of the pollution. (Internet source) Companies, industries and people litter in our waters and for sure that is not a good thing. We need to learn that we are not going to live very long if we keep doing this. Every year it has gotten worse, the water pollution has gone about 3% every year and that a whole lot more litter and killing that we do. (Internet source) People like us cause water pollution. Dumping our trash into the ocean is one thing that causes this problem. Another is an oil tanker spilling oil in the ocean or not recycling our trash is seriously destroying the waters even more. The effect by all this water pollution is killing the waters but also a big part is killing our animals. Sea animals are very important to our lives.

One of the main problems is the oils spill we have every year. People call this “oil slicks” a common name for oil spills. One of the hugest media surrounding oil spills was Saddam Hussein in the Gulf War. (Internet Source) He caused many oil spills during the war and that serious killed many of the animals in the ocean. Although measures have been taken to prevent spillage from oil tankers, there will still be accidents as the world use oil, and there is always the possibility of oil being spilled in war or by terrorist activity. (EBSCO CD-ROM source) Oil also gets into the sea from many other sources. On a graph 37% of oil pollution comes from industrial discharges and urban run-off. 33% from vessel operation, 12% on tanker accidents, 9% on atmosphere, 7% on natural sources, and last 2% from exploration production. (Internet source) Oil pollution is a major problem in water pollution and there is really no simple solution to this problem but what we can do is try to prevent, come up with ideas to stop the pollution and protect our waters.

For many years has been used as coolant in industry, especially in power stations. It was never though of as a problem back in the day, because nothing was actually added to the water. However, higher temperatures can cause enzymes and microbes to speed up, and can eventually kill sea animals. Change in temperature can cause fish to migrate to regions where the water is best for them, but kill any species, which cannot move away. (Internet Source) Recently people have realized that only small changes in temperature are need to have considerable environment impact. One possible solution is to use the excess heat from industry to heat home. (Internet Source) In the book Water is everyone’s business it says this might sound very attractive but it is only practical when the homes are fairly close to the power station, and even promise cheap heating is not enough to persuade many people to live next door to a power station. (Behrman A.S. 121) This subject brings me up to my next one, which is a world without trout. If water temperatures keep rising such possibly thing might happen. Unless something is don trout and salmon will be eventually killed because of thermal pollution. The primary cause of this warming water trend and cold water fishery decline is by carbon dioxide. Although transportation produces whopping amounts of atmospheric pollution, fossil fueled power plants alone generate 40% of the carbon dioxide in our air. Ways to prevent this is to find other sources to light up our houses. Now a days companies and industries have found other resources and it has been helping a little bit at a time.

Last of all Drugs in the waters has cause many problems as well. Most drugs are in local streams, rivers, and perhaps even farms, as sewage bio solids used as fertilizer. Most drugs that are not used or have been used are being trashed in our oceans. Now what kind of people does that? This is serious is harming the waters, animals, and even us. Chemicals that come from drugs float around in the water and you don’t even now about this. How does that make you feel because, many people have gotten sick of this pollution and even died. If people have gotten sick of this it takes a while before it kicks in but for sure you get a good dose of sickness. This serious is a big problem that we can easily prevent. Its so simple just don’t trash the waters with the drugs, anywhere than the waters that we so need. This student from West Torrance high school sponsored a poll asking the students whether they think water pollution wills damage our ocean in the long run? 96% of the students think it would. The other question was do you think we should take care of the ocean more because of all the pollution? 87% of the students said yes and 13% said no. (Poll) This poll shows you that we should take care of our waters and think about what pollution is going to do to us in the long run.

In conclusion all these problems that we have in the world should try to be prevented or stopped. We all can be a part of this by not littering because you really don’t now where that trash is going. Most of it goes to the ocean and it kills the waters. Slowly and slowly the waters are going to be destroyed and we really need it. Water is probably the most important that we need to live. Without water we would die, animals would die and everything would die. This essay should be consider by all of the people because in the long run we are not going to live very long if we still pollute the waters. We need water in many different ways and we cannot live without it. Also the animals that we have should not go through the pain of dieing because we are polluting the waters. They have not done anything to us so we shouldn’t do anything to them. Prevent the water pollution in the world as little but as you can because you never now what possibilities it can do.

Abortion

Over the last thirty years, abortion policies have been the most controversial of all political and legal issues in the United States. Each state has its own laws and regulations concerning abortion. These laws mainly refer to the conditions in which abortion is legal, the requirements for minors who make the decision of having an abortion, and the government’s funding for people having an abortion. The United States government has played a more dominant role in the legalization of abortion for the past thirty years. The rules and regulations enacted by the government have tried to bring a common understanding of the topic to people all over the United States.

Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy, resulting in the death of a fetus. Abortions that are induced because of an unwanted pregnancy or a risk to a woman’s health have been a very controversial subject in the past thirty years. The government’s decisions on abortion have sometimes created violent opposing sides. Mainly in the area of a clinic or places where abortions are induced. (Grolier Encyclopedia) The legalization of abortion began in 1966. The state of Mississippi passed a law allowing abortion in case of rape. In the years that followed, other states adopted the idea of abortion and made a few more exceptions to the law. Other states decided it was acceptable to have an abortion if the pregnancy put the mother at a health risk, or in cases of incest. In 1973, the Supreme Court decided two cases involving abortion, Roe vs. Wade and Doe vs. Bolton. These cases legalized abortions for any reason before the twenty-fourth week of pregnancy, and if the pregnancy put a serious health risk on the mother after the 24th week. In 1976, the Supreme Court recognized the right to pregnant girls under the age of eighteen, known as mature minors, to have abortions. Three years later, the courts decided that they should require the permission of one parent of the minor who wishes to have an abortion. If the minor wishes to keep it confidential and not let her parents know about it, she can go before the court system and let them decide what would be in her best interest.

Ever since the decisions made by the court, many states have enforced parental consent laws. Some of these laws have been challenged in many states. For example, in 1990, the Supreme Court held a trial named Hodysen vs. Minnesota. The court held up a law requiring that prior notice must be given to both parents of a minor before she went through an abortion. The same thing happened in Ohio when a court held up the consent of one parent who’s child was going to have an abortion. (Grolier Encyclopedia) States impose restrictions on abortion that regulate who pays for the procedure, where abortions are performed, and what kind of information will be provided for women having an abortion. In 1977, the Supreme Court allowed states to regulate and limit the use of Medicaid for payment on elective abortions. The Supreme Court also allowed the city of St. Louis to allow elective abortions to be performed in a public hospital. In 1980, the Supreme Court restricted the use of Medicaid for abortions unless medically necessary. Poor women who needed an abortion to save their lives were given payments from the government. (Grolier Encyclopedia) In 1983, the court system found it unconstitutional to make a woman thinking about having an abortion read through information given out by the state. This information contained the risks involved, consequences, and made the woman wait twenty-four hours after reading this material to follow through with the procedure. The same thing happened in 1986, when courts came down on a law in Pennsylvania that required women to read information given by the state before going through with the abortion.

Since the 1989 Supreme Court decision in a case named Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services, the court permitted several state-imposed restrictions to stand. The ruling upheld a Missouri law that prohibits the use of public facilities to perform abortions. It also required a physician to determine the viability of the fetus after twenty weeks.

In 1966, the Congress of the United States enacted a bill banning the practice of partial birth abortions. President Clinton vetoed the law because it failed to permit use of the procedure when a fetus displays severe abnormalities or when carrying a pregnancy to term presents a serious threat to a woman’s health or life. Many states have since passed laws banning the use of this procedure.

Abortion clinics have had a bad history with Pro-Life protesters. Violent rages would break out often outside abortion clinics where someone usually got hurt. In March of 1993, Michael Griffin killed Dr. David Gun at the Ladies Center abortion clinic in Florida. The very next year at the Ladies Facility in Pensacola, Florida, two more people were shot and killed. In August of the same year, Dr. George Tiller was shot by Rachelle Shelly Shannon as he entered a clinic in Wichita, Kansas.

In the fall of 1993, Congress passed the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances, otherwise known as F.A.C.E. This bill sates, “Whoever by force or by physical obstruction, intentionally injures, intimidates or interferes with, or attempts to injure any person, or in order to intimidate such persons or any other person or any other class of person from, obtaining, or providing reproductive health services, shall be prosecuted.” If someone violates these laws for the first time, they shall be fined in accordance with the F.A.C.E or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. If they violate these laws for a second time they could face the same amount but could face up to eighteen months of jail time. This law helps the confrontations around abortion clinics. Also in this law is if someone kills anyone outside a clinic, he or she will be tried for murder and will spend life in prison. In October, 1994, Paul Hills was the first person to be tried on F.A.C.E. charges in a Federal Court. He was sentenced to two life sentences. He was tried for murder in Florida and he died in the electric chair.

Pro-Life and Pro-Choice activists have been feuding for almost thirty years. In a Right to Life circular, Barbara Listing wrote about different ways of dealing with unwanted pregnancies. She asks that people don’t make decisions in haste when it comes to the preservation of life. She asks that they don’t let abortions and assisted suicide be the symbol that is left behind. Finally, she asks that Americans can help people choose life. Together we can take away fear and pain from women who are faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Americans can help them to find comfort and love in giving birth to a child. The two sides of abortion will probably never be completely settled. Hopefully someday, they can resolve the conflicts peacefully.

”To Kill a Mockingbird” Similarities and differences between the book and the movie

To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, is one of the most famous novels in American literature. Consequently, it was inevitable that someone would make a film adaptation of the book. There are many similarities, as well as differences, between the movie and the book.

There are many similarities between the movie and the novel versions of T.K.A.M., dealing with characters, plot, setting, and theme. One similarity is the mystery behind Boo Radley. In both versions, Boo was considered a crazy guy who lived in a scary house. He was also exposed in both versions as a Good Samaritan when. First, he put a blanket around Scout when Miss Maudie’s house burned down, and second, when he saved Scout and Jem from Bob Ewell. Another similarity is the stories of the witnesses during Tom Robinson’s trial. In both versions, the Ewells maintained that Tom had beaten and raped Mayella, while Tom said that Mayella tried to take advantage of him. Another similarity is Tom’s crippled left hand. In the book and the film, he got it cut off in a cotton gin when he was thirteen. Another similarity is that the story takes place in Maycomb, Alabama. One theme that was consistent throughout the book and film versions was family is what keeps us together. To conclude, there are many similarities between the movie and the book versions of To Kill a Mockingbird.

There are many differences between the book and the movie versions of T.K.A.M. as well. One difference is the fact that many people in the book that made an impact in the story never made an appearance in the film. One of these people was Aunt Alexandra. Aunt Alexandra was probably the closest person to a mother figure for Scout throughout the book. The fact that she didn’t even show up in the movie was a huge difference. Another person was Nathan Radley. He took care of Boo after his dad died in the book (he didn’t die in the movie, which was another difference), but never came. Another was Uncle Jack. He was the one who got Scout to stop cussing (she didn’t cuss in the movie at all) and was going through medical school with Atticus’s help. In the book, Jem and Scout went to Calpurnia’s church while their dad was out of town. In the movie, that never happened, which was a big difference. Another difference was that Bob Ewell never got the job at the WPA in the movie, while in the book, he did. In conclusion, there are a whole lot of differences between the movie and the book.

In conclusion, there are many similarities and differences between the book and movie versions of To Kill a Mockingbird. The stories of the witnesses from Tom’s trial were the same. Aunt Alexandra never came in the movie, which was a huge difference between the book and the movie. I liked the book better because the book was more detailed, and, as usual, books are better than their movie adaptations.

Cause and effect

Jim Patrick, the foreman and partial owner of dhip Construction and Remodeling, is an ideal subject in a case study on cause and effect relationships. In November of 2004, Jim was contracted to construct a two-level roof-top deck and convert a window to a door at Zhanna and Andrew’s house in Baltimore. At the onset of the project, Jim estimated that the job would be complete within approximately three weeks. After the first week, Andrew began referring Jim to friends who needed the services of a contractor because of the apparent workmanship of the job and the fact that his project was moving at an excellent pace. Nearly immediately thereafter, Jim was hardly ever present at the jobsite, and by the beginning of April, the project was still not complete. Jim had an endless onslaught of excuses for the delays, but because Zhanna and Andrew knew that Jim was mostly working on the houses of Andrew’s friends, they knew that he was not being truthful. When Zhanna and Andrew eventually managed to motivate Jim to work on their project, his work was no longer of the same caliber they had come to expect. Many of the project details went overlooked or were rushed to completion. This lack of workmanship and professionalism infuriated both Zhanna and Andrew, and soon Andrew found himself telling his friends to not, under any circumstances, contract with Jim. To exacerbate the problem, Jim came to collect on the last of the money owed by Zhanna and Andrew while they were entertaining friends, and before the project had been completed. When Andrew refused to pay Jim before the completion of the project, Jim became enraged and began making a scene and acting as if Andrew was being unfair and unreasonable. As Jim left Zhanna and Andrew’s house without his check, Andrew returned to the company of Zhanna and their friends where he told the entire story and informed each person that they should never hire Jim. As Zhanna and Andrew live in a very close neighborhood where news travels quickly, Jim was effectively barred from working in the neighborhood. Because Jim failed to keep his promises, failed to maintain high standards of workmanship, and failed to remain professional as the job came to a close, he succeeded in eliminating the possibility of procuring new contracts in Zhanna and Andrew’s neighborhood.
Among the three principal causes for Jim Patrick being effectively barred from doing business in Zhanna and Andrew’s neighborhood, his failure to keep promises is chief. Over the course of the project at Zhanna and Andrew’s house, Jim promised that he would complete the job within three weeks. He then amended that promise to mean that he would have the project complete before Christmas. When Christmas passed, he promised completion before New Year’s Eve. Eventually, Jim gave up on making time-related promises and began promising that the quality of the project’s workmanship would be unlike that of any other in the neighborhood. Andrew and Zhanna soon noted that this was yet another broken promise when, upon inspecting the deck, they noted that nails were missing in a number of places, and that some of the stairs used to access the upper-level deck were positioned at dangerous intervals. When Jim promised to rectify the issues that Andrew and Zhanna brought to light, even this he only partially accomplished. In so doing, Jim was not only breaking promises, but also compromising his workmanship.
Another cause for the ultimate effect of Jim losing potential work in Zhanna and Andrew’s neighborhood is that, toward the end of construction, he began taking shortcut’s and compromising the quality of his work. Specifically, Jim often claimed that Zhanna and Andrew should have faith in his abilities because, given sufficient time, he could solve any problem and make anything look good while also being functional. One example had to do with the small vertical posts that span from the railing to the outer sides of the deck which are referred to as pickets. Mostly, these pickets were cut to size, plumbed (made vertical), then attached to the deck using woodscrews. However, Both Zhanna and Andrew quickly noted that some of the small posts were not securely fastened, and in some cases not fastened at all. Upon noticing these workmanship shortcomings, Zhanna and Andrew began to suspect that Jim was not only compromising the quality of his work, but being plainly negligent and unprofessional.
The final significant cause of Jim Patrick’s loss of work prospects in Andrew and Zhanna’s neighborhood is his lack of professional behavior. Although Zhanna and Andrew made it clear from the time that they contracted Jim that they would not be excessively demanding of how he or his employees conducted themselves while they were working, Andrew was utterly appalled at Jim’s reaction to the fact that he would refuse to entirely pay him until the job was fully completed. When Andrew informed Jim that he would rather not pay the remaining balance owed for completion of the project until the work was actually complete, Jim snatched the building inspector’s approval note and permit back from Andrew and told him in a challenging tone that he couldn’t believe that he (Andrew) was going to hang him up over a couple of small details. When Andrew maintained that it was only fair that full payment be remitted after full service was rendered, Jim simply stormed out of the house while asserting over his shoulder that it was not fair. Not only did Jim choose an inopportune time to visit Andrew and Zhanna in search of payment, but he made his anger very visible despite the fact that he had no real reason to be angered. This behavior, in consort with Jim’s already tarnished credibility and respectability ultimately left Zhanna and Andrew with a very negative impression of the whole experience.
The ultimate effect of Jim’s performance while working for Zhanna and Andrew is that Andrew and Zhanna, not only refused to do any further business with Jim, but they strongly advised their friends to likewise not do business with Jim. Although he had secured one contract by a mid-project referral, both Andrew and Zhanna made a point toward the end of their dealings to discourage anyone that they knew from contracting with Jim. In fact, Andrew even went so far in one instance as to actively seek out an individual to whom he had referred Jim and stress the fact that Jim was unreliable and undependable. Although the ramifications of this particular experience are hard to quantify, it is safe to assume that Jim Patrick will no longer do business in the contractor hungry neighborhood of Butcher’s Hill.
Jim Patrick’s story is one where a few key causes let to an immediate economic effect of Jim losing approximately $35,000 in gross project earnings. Had Jim kept his promises (or at least come close) maintained his workmanship level, and then, when it was most important, kept his cool and remained professional, he would be working on no fewer than two projects in Butchers Hill. However, as the primary effect of his shortcomings, Jim will have extreme difficulty in doing further business in an area of Baltimore where he had hoped to expand.

College Essay: Procrastination

Procrastination is more than just a negative custom that needs to be taken out of society.

It is a trait that sucks the life of one’s dreams and goals. Many have strong feelings of annoyance when they see people procrastinate. The ironic part is that procrastination is a cliché, and everybody does it. However, it is not to say that only an unprincipled person is one who practices procrastination. Furthermore, procrastination is not a covert. We see people, including ourselves procrastinating everyday. As a matter of fact, it is the most common explanation for motivational problems. Most people I know are willing to admit this is a great problem in their lives, and would benefit from a course in How to Eliminate Procrastination, but say they have to much to catch-up on, and will take it later. This is a perfect example of how procrastination grows into a natural action done self-consciously.

Being lavish with time will lead to many unaccomplished goals. Goals which in turn are our dreams. All the things we want to accomplish in life can simply be thrown away with the snap of one’s finger. The bottom line is that the more people rely on each other to achieve their goals, the less that person accomplishes in the long run. You have to be able to fend for yourself. I mean if you can’t do that now, there is no way you’d be able to make your way though college.

Our highschool teachers have been stressing that from day one. Nobody else is going to achieve your goals for you. If you want something, you must make the effort to go out and perform.

As far as procrastination goes, and any other negative aspect that may cross my path, I will make it my duty to not let it ruin the potential of my goals. With determination, and the pure desire to achieve my dreams, success would be inevitable. Thus, being goal-oriented and self-sufficient will create a successful person, which in my opinion is the ultimate purpose of college.

A Comparison Contrast Essay on Perceptions of the Supernatural in lives of Mary Rowlandson and Benjamin Franklin

A Comparison and Contrast of the

Supernatural’s Active Role in the

Lives of Mary Rowlandson and Benjamin Franklin

The literature written during this time period reflects

the important part the supernatural (God) played during

those changing times. The new world was struggling for a new

identity. Were these individuals also defining the role of

God to themselves?

In the preceding discussion the lives of Mary

Rowlandson and Benjamin Franklin will be discussed. Each

wrote a narrative of their life experiences. There are

marked contrasts and comparisons between these two

individuals related to their perceptions of God.

Religion was a vital part of life in colonial America.

A shift from theism to deism was occurring. The Puritans of

this time were fleeing the Church of England. Their hope was

to return to the more primitive ways, to reject the churches

hierarchy and ritual.

Mary Rowlandson, a puritan in Lancaster, Massachusetts

was captured by Indians, along with three of her children in

the year 1676. In her narrative she relates the story of

her survival in the wilderness for a period of three months.

She is taken away from her home and husband, ‘all was gone

(except my life); and I knew not but the next moment that

might go too’ (127).

Benjamin Franklin’s The Autobiography is an account of

his life and begins with his boyhood life in Boston. He

later flees to Philadelphia to escape his brother’s rule

over him. He relates how he was ‘dirty’, ‘fatigu’d’, and

‘Want of Rest’ (222).

In these depictions we can see an analogy. These

individuals are removed from their homes and families.

Although Benjamin Franklin’s removal was of his own free

will. They each suffered as they no longer had the comforts

of which they were accustomed.

Rowlandson’s faith was remarkable considering all that

she endured. Through out the narrative she must rely on her

faith in God. She incorporates numerous verses from the

Bible to offer explanations for all that she has suffered,

‘Wait on the Lord: be of good courage, and he shall

strengthen thine heart: wait, I say on the Lord’ (129). It

is also noted that she was able to use her trade to survive,

‘knitting a pair of white cotton stockings for my

mistress’(130). This is also a parallel to Franklin in that

he also used his trade to survive. But one must ask what is

motivating Rowlandson? Is she writing for posterity or is

she merely egocentric? Rowlandson has depicted herself as

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the ultimate Puritan. Was the glory to God or to herself?

She also relates here ‘how many Sabbaths I had lost and

misspent’ (128). It is interesting to note that toward the

end of the narrative she begins to see that her fate is in

God’s hands, ‘When thou passest through the waters, I will

be with thee’(133). At the end she recounts her old ways, ‘I

have seen the extreme vanity of this world’ (134).

Franklin, states, ‘ I had been religiously educated’,

Iseldom attended any Public Worship’(226). Some of the dogma

he described as ‘unintelligible’, ‘others doubtful’ (225).

He saw a need to center authority for our lives not in God

but in oneself. He also noted ‘My conduct may be blameable,

but I leave it without attempting farther to excuse it’

(227). Franklin is explaining his behavior but not making

apologies. It is also noted that he reveals that he had

undertaken ‘the bold and arduous Project of arriving at

moral perfection’ (227). He had also written a ‘Form of

Prayer for my own private use’ (227). In Franklin’s

‘Thirteen Names of Virtues’, He lists the qualities he deems

‘Desirable’ (228). Originally there were only 12 but ‘a

Quaker friend kindly inform’d me that I was generally

thought proud’ (233). The last virtue is humility, and his

statement ‘imitate Jesus and Socrates’, reflect deism(228).

Although Franklin does state that he was not able to achieve

this virtue, he reveals, ‘ I had a good deal with regard to

the Appearance of it’ (233). Franklin also had a ‘Memorandum

Book’, in which he kept

track of his virtues. The book was lined in red ink and his

faults were marked in black, ‘which marks I could easily

wipe out with a wet sponge’(231). Could this possibly be an

analogy to God? Franklin is forming his own destiny in

relation with his deist beliefs. The ideas he projects are

rectitude, justice and belief that happiness may be found in

secular values.

Near the end Franklin reviews his ‘Scheme’ and relates

it ‘was not wholly without Religion’ but it did not

necessarily reflect any ‘particular sect’(233). Is this an

elusion of the America to come? A new world which offered

religious freedom? This America in its infancy was

establishing an identity free from the mother land. Breaking

the tie that binds is never easy. In his Autobiography

Franklin was seeking to establish a new identity for the new

world. This parallels Rowlandson in that she at the end of

her captivity has evolved into a new person. Although

Rowlandson has placed her fate more in the hands of her God.

Franklin suggests that man controls his own destiny but

also makes reference throughout to God. He must deal with

his excessive pride, even as Mary Rowlandson has dealt with

her own vanity.

Thus the supernatural (God) did help to shape our

country to what it is today. Our beliefs reflect what our

purpose is, what our identity is. Mary Rowlandson and

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Benjamin Franklin were setting the standards for Americans

to aspire to be.

Tropical Deforestation

The clearing of tropical forests has been occurring worldwide on a large-scale basis for many centuries. This process, known as deforestation, involves the cutting down, burning, and damaging of forests. The loss of tropical rain forest is more profound than merely destruction of beautiful areas. If the current rate of deforestation continues, the world’s rain forests will vanish within 100 years-causing unknown effects on global climate and eliminating the majority of plant and animal species on the planet.

Why Deforestation Happens

There are many reasons for deforestation. Most of the clearing is done for agricultural purposes-grazing cattle, planting crops the area (typically a few acres) is cleared and then the tree trunks are burned – a process called Slash and Burn agriculture the burning creates short term nutrience for crops to grow on. This way of living is known as subsistence farming. It is continually occurring, as the tropical rain forest soil is actually low in nutrience. This is because the trees and plants use all of the nutrience. This means that the cleared area will only last for one crop (season) and will then be infertile and the farmer has to move on to another ‘patch’. Charities and various organisations are trying to re-educate the subsistence farmers in the rain forest as a way of trying to stop this process from happening. (See diagrams below)

Slash and burn farming, tree cutting, and destructive environmental practices are all linked to the economic plight of the rural population.

Commercial logging is another common form of deforestation. This consists of cutting trees for sale as timber or pulp. Logging can occur selectively-where only the economically valuable species are cut-or by clear cutting, where all the trees are cut. Commercial logging uses heavy machinery, such as bulldozers, road graders, and log skidders, to remove cut trees and build roads, which is just as damaging to a forest overall as the chainsaws are to the individual trees. These machines not only contribute to the clearing of forests but they also damage the wildlife in the area. The loud noise and human talk will inevitably petrify the birds, insects, and larger animals such as monkey’s millions of different varieties of animals are killed each year by this process.

The causes of deforestation are very complex. A competitive global economy drives the need for money in economically challenged tropical countries. At the national level, governments sell logging concessions to raise money for projects, to pay international debt (many of which are owed to America or Europe). For example, Brazil had an international debt of $159 billion in 1995, on which it must make payments each year. The logging companies seek to harvest the forest and make profit from the sales of pulp and valuable hardwoods such as mahogany.

Figure 1. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon in 1986. The darker the area, the more forest that is remaining.

Deforestation by a peasant farmer is often done to raise crops for self-subsistence, and is driven by the basic human need for food. Most tropical countries are very poor by U.S. standards, and farming is a basic way of life for a large part of the population. In Brazil, for example, the average annual earnings per person is U.S. $5400, compared to $26,980 per person in the United States (World Bank, 1998). In Bolivia, which holds part of the Amazon rain forest, the average earnings per person is $800. Farmers in these countries do not have the money to buy necessities and must raise crops for food and to sell.

There are other reasons for deforestation, such as to construct towns or dams, which flood large areas. Yet, these latter cases constitute only a very small part of the total deforestation.

Sustainable development

Sustainable development is the using of resources without directly affecting the environment. This style of farming and agriculture is currently being used worldwide in an attempt to reduce the potential affect that humans are having on the rain forests. In areas of the world this has been happening for hundreds of years already, for example the Indians of Santa Rosa practice a form of agriculture, which resembles shifting cultivation, known as the milpa system. This is labour intensive but allows the population to grow crops with out using up too many of the natural resources. It is only recently that the Western world has realised the importance of this style of agriculture.

Agroforestry

Agroforestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. Agroforestry is a “social forestry” – its purpose is sustainable development. Practices are focused on meeting the economic, environmental and social needs of people on their private lands. At the farm level, Agroforestry is a set of practices that provides strong economic and conservation incentives for landowners. Agroforestry practices help to attain community/society goals for more diverse, healthy and sustainable land-use systems.

The Rate of Deforestation

The actual rate of deforestation is difficult to determine. Scientists study the deforestation of tropical forests by analysing satellite imagery of forested areas that have been cleared. Figure 2 is a satellite image illustrating how scientists classify the landscape. Contained within the image are patches of deforestation in a distinctive “fishbone” of deforestation along roads. Forest fragments are isolated areas left by deforestation, where the plants and animals are cut off from the larger forest area. Regrowth-also called secondary forest-is abandoned farmland or timber cuts that are growing back to become forest. The majority of the picture is undisturbed, or “primary,” forest, with a network of rivers draining it. The diagram itself is actually labelled.

Figure 2. Satellite image of deforestation in the Amazon region, taken from the Brazilian state of Para on July 15, 1986. The dark areas are forest, the white is deforested areas, and the grey is re-growth. The pattern of deforestation spreading along roads is obvious in the lower half of the image. Scattered larger clearings can be seen near the centre of the image.

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that 53,000 square miles of tropical forests (rain forest and other) were destroyed each year during the 1980s. Of this, they estimate that 21,000 square miles were deforested annually in South America, most of this in the Amazon Basin. Based on these estimates, an area of tropical forest large enough to cover North Carolina is deforested each year!

The rate of deforestation varies from region to region. Recent research results showed that in the Brazilian Amazon, the rate of deforestation was around 6200 square miles per year from 1978-1986, but fell to 4800 square miles per year from 1986-1993. By 1988, 6% of the Brazilian Amazon had been cut down (90,000 square miles, an area the size of New England). However, due to the isolation of fragments and the increase in forest/clearing boundaries, a total of 16.5% of the forest (230,000 square miles, an area nearly the size of Texas) was affected by deforestation. Scientists are currently analysing rates of deforestation for the current decade, as well as studying how deforestation changes from year to year.

The much smaller region of Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam) lost nearly as much forest per year as the Brazilian Amazon from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, with 4800 square miles per year converted to agriculture or cut for timber.

Deforestation and the Hydrologic Cycle

Tropical deforestation also affects the local climate of an area by reducing the evaporative cooling that takes place from both soil and plant life. As trees and plants are cleared away, the moist canopy of the tropical rain forest quickly diminishes. Recent research suggests that about half of the precipitation that falls in a tropical rain forest is a result of its moist, green canopy. Evaporation and evapotranspiration processes from the trees and plants return large quantities of water to the local atmosphere, promoting the formation of clouds and precipitation. Less evaporation means that more of the Sun’s energy is able to warm the surface and, consequently, the air above, leading to a rise in temperatures.

Deforestation and the Global Carbon Cycle

Deforestation causes an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The plants and soil of tropical forests hold 460-575 billion metric tons of carbon worldwide with each acre of tropical forest storing about 180 metric tons of carbon. When a forest is cut and burned to establish cropland and pastures, the carbon that was stored in the tree trunks (wood is about 50% carbon) joins with oxygen and is released into the atmosphere as CO2.

The loss of forests has a profound effect on the global carbon cycle. From 1850 to 1990, deforestation worldwide (including the United States) released 122 billion metric tons of carbon into the atmosphere, with the current rate being approximately 1.6 billion metric tons per year. In comparison, fossil fuel burning (coal, oil, and gas) releases about 6 billion metric tons per year, so it is clear that deforestation makes a significant contribution to the increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. Releasing CO2 into the atmosphere enhances the greenhouse effect.

Deforestation and Biodiversity

Biological diversity, or biodiversity, is the variety of the world’s organisms, including their genetic diversity and the groups they form. It is the blanket term for the natural biological wealth that assists human life and well being. The span of the concept reflects the interrelatedness of genes, species, and ecosystems.

Worldwide, 5 to 80 million species of plants and animals comprise the “biodiversity” of planet Earth. Tropical rain forests-covering only 7% of the total dry surface of the Earth-hold over half of all these species. Of the tens of millions of species believed to be on Earth, scientists have only given names to about 1.5 million of them, and even fewer of the species have been studied in depth.

Many of the rain forest plants and animals can only be found in small areas, because they require a special habitat in which to live. This makes them very vulnerable to deforestation. If their habitat is destroyed, they may become extinct animals such as the Golden coqui, Puerto Rico, 1980s, the Web-footed coqui, Puerto Rico, 1980s and the Puerto Rican ground sloth, Puerto Rico, 1500 there is a full list of all the extincted or endangered species at the end of this essay.

Every day species are disappearing from the tropical rain forests as they are cleared. We do not know the exact rate of extinction, but estimates indicate that up to 137 species disappear worldwide each day.

The loss of species will have a great impact on the planet. We are losing species that might show us how to prevent cancer or help us find a cure for AIDS. Other organisms are losing species they depend upon, and thus face extinction themselves.

Leaching and Erosion of soils

Unfortunately deforestation has its own consequences as well as harming wild life and ruining scenery it’s also permanently damages soil, this is due to a process called leaching. This process takes place when it rains. The rain runs through the soil and ‘picks up’ vital minerals and nutrience from the soil when the rain water reaches its destination, usually a river, stream or in some cases a glacier, it deposits the ‘collected’ nutrience and minerals in to the river, stream or glacier. When this happens the rain has removed the nutrience from the soil making it less fertile and less likely to grow anything, so it is unlikely or will take a longer amount of time for the forest to grow back.

The second process which directly affects the rain forest is the erosion of soil. This takes place through much the same process as leaching but the rain washes away the top layer of soil so there is a thinner layer of soil so less nutrience for the vegetation to grow in. Both of these are a direct environmental effect of deforestation.

The Greenhouse Effect

The greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring process that aids in heating the Earth’s surface and atmosphere. It results from the fact that certain atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, water vapour, and methane, are able to change the energy balance of the planet by being able to absorb longwave radiation from the Earth’s surface.

Without the greenhouse effect, life on this planet would probably not exist, as the average temperature of the Earth would be a chilly -18 degrees Celsius, rather than the present 15 degrees Celsius.

How does it happen?

As energy from the sun passes through the atmosphere a number of things take place, a portion of the energy is reflected back to space by clouds and particles. Some of the energy available is absorbed by clouds, gases (like ozone), and particles in the atmosphere. Of the remaining amount of the solar energy passing through the Earth’s atmosphere, about 4 % is reflected from the surface back to space. On average about the rest of the sun’s radiation reaches the surface of the earth. This energy is then used in number of processes including the heating of the ground surface; the melting of ice and snow, the evaporation of water; and plant photosynthesis.

The heating of the ground by sunlight causes the Earth’s surface to become a radiator of energy in the longwave band (sometimes called infrared radiation). This emission of energy is generally directed to space. However, only a small portion of this energy actually makes it back to space. The majority of the outgoing infrared radiation is absorbed by a few naturally occurring atmospheric gases known as the greenhouse gases. Absorption of this energy causes additional heat energy to be added to the Earth’s atmospheric system. The warmer atmospheric greenhouse gas molecules begin radiating longwave energy in all directions. Over 90 % of this emission of longwave energy is directed back to the Earth’s surface where it once again is absorbed by the surface. The heating of the ground by the longwave radiation causes the ground surface to once again radiate repeating the cycle described above, again and again, until no more longwave is available for absorption.

The amount of heat energy added to the atmosphere by the greenhouse effect is controlled by the concentration of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. All of the major greenhouse gases have increased in concentration since the beginning of the industrial revolution (about 1700 A.D.). As a result of these higher concentrations, scientists predict that the greenhouse effect will be enhanced and the Earth’s climate will become warmer. Predicting the amount of warming is accomplished by computer modelling. Computer models suggest that a doubling of the concentration of the main greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, may raise the average global temperature between 1 and 3 degrees Celsius. However, the numeric equations of computer models do not accurately simulate the effects of a number of possible negative feedbacks. For example, many of the models cannot properly simulate the negative effects that increased cloud cover would have on the radiation balance of a warmer Earth. Increasing the Earth’s temperature would cause the oceans to evaporate greater amounts of water, causing the atmosphere to become cloudier. These extra clouds would then reflect a greater proportion of the sun’s energy back to space reducing the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the atmosphere and Earth’s surface.

A number of gases are involved in the greenhouse effect (see Table below). These gases include: carbon dioxide (CO2); methane (CH4); nitrous oxide (N2O); chlorofluorocarbons (CFxClx); and tropospheric ozone (03). Of these gases, the single most important gas is carbon dioxide, which accounts for about 55 % of the change in the intensity of the Earth’s greenhouse effect. The contributions of the other gases are 25 % for chlorofluorocarbons, 15 % for methane, and 5 % for nitrous oxide. Ozone’s contribution to the enhancement of the greenhouse effect is still yet to be confirmed.

Concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are now approaching 360 parts per million. Prior to 1700 levels of carbon dioxide were about 280 parts per million. This increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is primarily due to the activities of humans. Beginning in 1700, societal changes brought about by the industrial revolution increased the amount of carbon dioxide entering the atmosphere. The major sources of this gas include fossil fuel combustion for industry, transportation, space heating, electricity generation and cooking and vegetation changes in natural prairie, woodland and forested ecosystems. Emissions from fossil fuel combustion account for about 65 % of the extra carbon dioxide now found in our atmosphere. The remaining 35 % comes from the conversion of prairie, woodland and forested ecosystems primarily into agricultural systems. Natural ecosystems can hold 20 to 100 times more carbon dioxide per unit area than agricultural systems.

Artificially created chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) are the strongest greenhouse gas per molecule. However, low concentrations in the atmosphere reduce their overall importance in the enhancement of the greenhouse effect. Current measurements in the atmosphere indicate that the concentration of these chemicals may soon begin declining because of reduced emissions. Reports of the development of ozone holes over the North and South Poles and a general decline in global stratospheric ozone levels over the last two decades. Caused many nations to cutback on their production and use of these chemicals. In 1987, the signing of the Montreal Protocol agreement by 46 nations established an immediate timetable for the global reduction of chlorofluorocarbons production and use.

Since 1750, methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by more than 140 %. The primary sources for the additional methane added to the atmosphere (in order of importance) is: rice cultivation, domestic grazing animals, termites, landfills, coal mining, and oil and gas extraction. Anaerobic conditions associated with rice paddy flooding results in the formation of methane gas. However, an accurate estimate of how much methane is being produced from rice paddies is difficult to obtain. More than 60 % of all rice paddies are found in India and China where scientific data concerning emission rates are unavailable. Nevertheless, scientists believe that the contribution of rice paddies is large because this form of crop production has more than doubled since 1950. Grazing animals release methane to the environment as a result of herbaceous digestion. Some researchers believe the addition of methane from this source has more than quadrupled over the last century. Termites also release methane through similar processes. Land-use change in the tropics, due to deforestation, ranching, and farming, may be causing termite numbers to expand. If this assumption is correct, the contribution from these insects may be important. Methane is also released from landfills, coalmines, and gas and oil drilling. Landfills produce methane as organic wastes decompose over time. Coal, oil and natural gas deposits release methane to the atmosphere when these deposits are excavated or drilled.

The average concentration of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere is now increasing at a rate of 0.2-0.3 % per year. Sources for this increase include: land-use conversion; fossil fuel combustion; biomass burning; and soil fertilization. Most of the nitrous oxide added to the atmosphere each year comes from deforestation and the conversion of forest, savannah and grassland ecosystems into agricultural fields and rangeland. Both of these processes reduce the amount of nitrogen stored in living vegetation and soil through the decomposition of organic matter. Nitrous oxide is also released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels and biomass are burned. However, the combined contribution to the increase of this gas in the atmosphere is thought to be minor. The use of nitrate and ammonium fertilizers to enhance plant growth is another source of nitrous oxide. How much is released from this process has been difficult to quantify. Estimates suggest that the contribution from this source represents from 50 % to 0.2 % of nitrous oxide added to the atmosphere annually.

Ozone’s role in the enhancement of the greenhouse effect has been difficult to determine. Accurate measurements of past long-term (more than 25 years in the past) levels of this gas in the atmosphere are currently unavailable. Moreover, concentrations of ozone gas are found in two different regions of the Earth’s atmosphere. The majority of the ozone (about 97 %) found in the atmosphere is concentrated in the stratosphere at an altitude of 15 to 55 kilometres above the Earth’s surface. In recent years, the concentration of the stratospheric ozone has been decreasing because of the build-up of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere (see stratospheric ozone depletion). Since the late 1970s, scientists have discovered that total column ozone amounts over Antarctica in the springtime have decreased by as much as 70 %. Satellite measurements have indicated that the zone from 65 degrees North to 65 degrees South latitude has had a 3 % decrease in stratospheric ozone since 1978. Ozone is also highly concentrated at the Earth’s surface. Most of this ozone is created as a by-product of photochemical smog.

This shows the Global climate change from 1880 until 2000. The overall trend of this graph is in a positive correlation as the dashed line shows, but as we’d expect the temperature varies yearly due to the season changes.

Conclusion

Deforestation starts with the use of trees in agriculture. This normally happens because local farmers cut down the trees and burn them as the burning provides nutrience for the soil. This is called slash and burn agriculture. Larger agriculture actually contributes more to deforestation as it is estimated that 53, 000 square miles of forest are destroyed each year. Scientists are trying to introduce sustainable resources, which will have minimal effect on the environment.

The deforestation not only ruins the precious rain forest but it also contributes to the current greenhouse effect, which is plaguing the planet’s atmosphere. This ‘greenhouse effect’ basically is the way in which the sun’s radiation is unable to leave the atmosphere. The major greenhouse gases are Nitrogen (N), Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Water (H2O) these gases are responsible for the major heat change in the atmosphere. In the early 90′s CFCs were also partially to blame. These have been banned in many countries now. Water is the major problem which we have. There is too much condensation which causes clouds this then reflects much of the suns radiation back down to the earth’s surface. If there were no water in the atmosphere the earth’s temperature would be -18 degrees centigrade.

Deforestation also affects the land it and is currently taking place with no trees the precipitation (rain) is able to fall directly on to the soil this causes leaching and erosion of the soil and both these mean that the nutrience is deplenished or removed from the soil. Therefore meaning that there is not enough nutrience to sustain vegetation. This in turn causes a process called desertification to occur this is the complete drying out of the soil and thus making it desert like. Nothing is able to grow. Therefore the Antarctic can technically be called a desert.

Although deforestation mainly affects plant life it does have a substantial effect on wildlife too. By cutting down trees and plants many species become extinct cause less diversity of species so fewer ‘new animals’ can be bred. This would theoretically mean that Darwin’s theory of evolution is being compromised by deforestation.

Education in America as Seen in “Now and Then”

Within the textbook “ Now and Then”, author Eudora Welty and Malcolm X both discuss their views and opinions on Education in America. From their writings, it is obvious that their views are radically different due to their different perspectives of Education, they both create a different tone, style, towards their intended audience. Each author also developed and used a different array of techniques to influence their readers. Reading two very un-similar writings from two very un-similar authors, will likely attract different readers from all over the spectrum. These two authors have un-similar ways to make their argument and present their subject. Because of this, it cause’s questions to be asked such as, how these things( style, techniques) function in their writings and the effectiveness they have in presenting their arguments, and the affect that they have on readers.

In Eudora Welty’s Essay, “Clamorous To Learn” , she openly retells a fictionous story of events during her childhood years in school. Welty’s main writing technique that creates the bridge for readers to relate to her experience was her great use of descriptions. Welty’s descriptions are so well written, that it creates a impression that these events that she is discussing, seem like they have just occurred the day before. Not only does Welty’s descriptions assist her in retelling her experience but it also helps Welty present her subject. Another technique that Welty uses great is her selection of point of view. As well as using techniques to increase the impact of her essay, Welty also decides to a humorous and at some times a serious tone throughout her essay. For example, she playfully retells her past experience’s of her grade school teacher, Miss Duling.Using a 1st person point of view also helps Welty in making her essay more effective overall.

Eudora Welty’s style of writing was very effective in her essay “Clamorous To Learn”. Welty’s choice of style made her essay more relatable and in edition made her essay more effective. Eudora’s style seem to be to give her experience in school as well as explanation on how her family, friends and teachers had a major effect on her life. Her intended audience is greatly affected by her style because it allows her audience to create a relation to her own experience. Allowing readers to relive their childhood experience through her essay makes her writings much more impactful. The style of Eudora Welty also presents her subject of education through her experience in school. In the end , Welty’s essay achieves its message she intended to send out, that education is a important part of life, no matter how hard the journey is.

In Malcolm X’s essay,” Can Prison Be a School?”, he descriptively describes his experience in prison, as it was there that he gain most of his knowledge. From his essay, Malcolm X uses writing techniques and styles to discuss his time in prison, where he read books from authors such as H.G. Wells, J.A. Rogers, and W.E.B Du Bois, taking in different things from each as well as having encounters with Mr. Muhammad , a muslim leader. Malcolm X uses almost a similar technique has author Eudora Welty’s uses, where it is basically a retelling of his past experience in prison. Because of the technique that Malcolm X chooses to use, it allows his audience to get a better understanding of what he is discussing about. Malcolm X also uses another technique that he chooses to use to help back up his argument and subject , in which he uses other sources, whether it be books or other people in met in prison, to bring across his point of view.

Malcolm X’s tone in his essay seems to take a very serious route and for his subject it is very appropriate. Malcolm X seems to have chosen a stricter tone because it would help support his argument stronger than a humorous kind of tone would have on a essay such as this. His style of writing is very effective , in the way that his examples from other sources as well his own personal experience really reaches his audience to where he wants it to reach them. Malcolm X creates a really effective essay because he has some strong feelings towards certain races and it can easily be seen in his essay. Some of his audience may differ some his essay and in that way it can be very effective.

Both Eudora Welty and Malcolm X ,create really intriguing essays that are in their own right effective . Each of their messages or purposes for writings their essays are achieved at the end of each essay and allows many of their audience to create their view whether it be the same or different.

This is an essay about how my grandfather’s story changed my stubborness to a respectful attitude.

A Lesson to Remember

I remember it clearly. It was a cold winter night near the end of December. After losing a basketball game for the ninth time of the season I had finally lost all hope and given up. Stomping up the stairs towards couch I was trailed closely by my grandfather some five minutes later. My stubborn attitude and selfish manner forced me to tell my loving grandfather to go away because of the fact that I did not want to hear his sanctimonious platitudes. Knowing I was always right and thinking that would never change I never paid any attention to what others had on their minds. He hastily responded, “You know ‘Pop-Pop’ will always love you.” Ignoring my grandfather, he decided to share a story that would forever change my perception about life as well as my attitude and overall personality.

As his old and paw-like hand crept around my minute shoulders, he started his story. “After landing in Germany with rest of the 91st Airborne we made our way towards Birkenau..,” my grandfather began. While he continued the story I discovered the misfortune of the Jews at the death camp Birkenau. Although Americans were dying in great numbers as they marched in to central Germany, more and more Jews were liberated. My ambitious grandfather told me that during this campaign 83 of the 110 troops of his division had perished or disappeared; the 27 remaining troops made their way closer to Birkenau until surrounding it. Shortly after ten minutes of bullets whizzing by and horrid screams of the wounded had ceased, the miniature battle ended. My grandfather and his troops secured the grounds and rescued all of the remaining forces. “Even faced with tremendous adversity, I never gave up or ever took on a pessimistic attitude. Remember this story and you will have a whole new perspective on life, I promise you.”

Thinking about this courageous story, I realized my stubbornness and how self-centered I was. My grandfather was not stubborn and by no means did he ever surrender. This made me realize how downbeat I was and that it was time to change my attitude. From there on, I have used my grandfather’s story to my advantage by becoming more positive, obedient, and caring. My grades have escalated as well as my allowance, which is tied to my educational success, because of the new and improved me. In the coming years I will continue this mind-set and hopefully become more successful for a better future.

Essay on how Juveniles should not be charged as adults

A movement has started in our country to renovate the juvenile justice system. This movement wants to erase any differences between young offenders and adult criminals. Almost all fifty states have changed their juvenile justice laws, allowing more youths to be tried as adults and abandoning long-time efforts to help rehabilitate delinquent kids and prevent future crimes. It seems to be plain and simple, a minor in this country is defined as a person under the age of eighteen. How then can we single out certain minors and call them adults? Were they considered adults before they carried out an act of violence? No. How then, did a violent act cause them to cross over a line that is defined by age? The current debate over juvenile crime is being dominated by two voices: elected officials proposing quick-fix solutions, and a media more intent on reporting violent crimes than successful prevention efforts. Minors should not be tried as adults in our society today. This is obvious through looking at propositions by our government such as Proposition 21, a proposition which used statistics to try and convince people to sentence youths to sentences.

Politicians feel that best solution is to lock up youth offenders for long periods of time. Most studies demonstrate that putting young offenders in adult prisons leads to more crime, higher prison costs, and increased violence. Yet, our nation is spending more and more on prisons, and less on crime prevention efforts. Some states spend more on prisons than they do on education. The cost of keeping juveniles in prison as compared to putting them into rehabilitation programs is astronomically higher. It can cost five thousand dollars to keep a juvenile in prison, when all they need to do is go to high school. Also the effectiveness of prisons preventing juveniles from becoming repeat offenders is low. Kids, who have already spent time in adult prisons, are far more likely to commit more serious crimes when they are released. Crime prevention programs work and are affordable. They have also been shown to reduce crime substantially. There are many crime prevention programs around the country that have been very successful in helping to reduce juvenile crime. Many states use programs that are designed to help parents of troubled kids in raising their children. These programs offer strategies and tactics for helping supervise and discipline troubled children. This is done, because it is believed that one of the causes of delinquency is that parents of kids with delinquent tendencies simply don’t know what to do with them. The parents just let their kids commit any crimes they want, because they do not have any idea how to prevent them. These programs as well as other similar ones have been shown to have quite an influence on crime prevention.

Media reports on juvenile crime are greatly exaggerated. Crime level indicators show that the male “at risk” population will rise over the next decade, but the levels are far from the explosive level that the media says. In fact, the levels are not high at all. The public also holds greatly distorted views about the prevalence and severity of juvenile crime. Contrary to what the people think, the percentage of violent crimes committed by juveniles is low. Young people commit under ten percent of violent crimes. Also, most juvenile arrests have nothing to do with violence. Most kids only go through the juvenile justice system once, and that is for some minor crime such as drug possession. Most youths will simply out grow “delinquent” behavior once they mature. But the media thrives on these stories, so they make it appear that crime is everywhere in order to sell more newspapers, or have people watch their news broadcast. This simply shows how the media exaggerates what they are saying about juveniles.

History is known to repeat itself. This saying is no lie when you look at the history of juvenile justice. Until Chicago established the first juvenile court in the United States in 1899, children 14 and older were considered to be as responsible as adults for their actions. Minors as young as 13 were occasionally sentenced to death, and some were executed. Discomfort with the death penalty and with imprisoning children with adults led to the creation of a separate court. This court acted as the “parent or guardian” of young offenders. Solutions include therapy, education, and community service. If we already felt that children should not be able to be tried as adults and we created a juvenile system to correct this, why turn our backs on it and go back to our cruel ways of more than 100 years ago? The answer is simple, we shouldn’t. We need to improve our juvenile system, a system that has been working fine since 1899.

The government has taken the initiative to come up with a plan of their own called Proposition 21, which would try offenders as adults rather than juveniles. Proposition 21 would require juvenile offenders 14 years or older to be charged as adults. It would limit confidentiality for juveniles who are charged with or convicted of specified felonies. The largest change under Proposition 21, is that it would require that certain juvenile crime offenders be held in a local or state correctional facilities rather than in juvenile facilities. It would designate certain crimes as violent and serious, thereby making offenders subject to longer sentences. Proposition 21 was proposed so that fourteen year olds and older would be tried as adults for serious crimes. If Proposition 21 passes it is going to send thousands of fourteen to sixteen year olds to state prison. Proposition 21 does nothing to protect our communities, and all it does is imprison children. Rather than decrease, if Proposition 21 passes, crime rates are going to increase. This will happen, because children will be involved in more prison crimes and there will be more crimes used to incriminate young children. If passed, it will imprison many juveniles with “top-notch” criminals. These criminals will be in the same area as the juvenile prisoners, causing them to be at risk. These children will also not be given the opportunity for rehabilitation like in the juvenile system. Without treatment and education, the only thing a juvenile can learn while locked up with adult criminals, is how to become a better criminal. These teenagers will not be given the opportunity of rehabilitation and will come out of jail only worse then they were before. Our nation also has a tragic record of sexual and physical assaults on juveniles in prison with adult criminals. Adult criminals will then most likely take advantage of these teenagers. Proposition 21 is a horrible idea and is a step in the wrong direction that only further hurts our youth.

Many people feel that juvenile crime is getting out of control. If you look at the statistics, you can see that this is not true. The arrest rate for violent juvenile crime has fallen for four years in a row; according to the Juvenile Justice Department report released this month. If this rate is declining is there a need to make harsher laws for minors? No. When looking at statistics you must look for misleading ideas in the reports. The public rarely hears the good news coming from juvenile court systems. This alone tells us, they do deserve a second chance, and that we cannot give up on our youth.

Some people might argue, that a juvenile could be a mass murderer, and under this system escape without a large sentence. Still, under the improved juvenile system, there would be a very small chance that this would occur. If this did occur, this person would be sent to a juvenile prison for life instead of a adult prison. This would prevent him from experiencing any life in an adult prison. It would also enforce the fact that juvenile prisons are the right place for juveniles.

In conclusion, the topic of juvenile justice and sentencing minors with adult penalties is a heated debate. Many elected officials go for the quick-fix solutions. The media will always show the worst of juvenile crime, and not any positive which makes people feel that there is a huge problem. Minors should not be tried as adults in our society today, because it does not help keeping our country crime-free. Bad quick fixes such as Proposition 21 do not help, the just send our society a step back. Juvenile crime does exist and youths do commit violent acts. However, it is not on the scale that many people would like the public to believe. The statistics state that juvenile crime is falling. The solution is to this problem is not a simple one and cannot be solved by simply putting kids in adult prisons or by making propositions. More effective solutions should be thought up and put to use. We need to have confidence in our juvenile system. The law created the defining line between minors and adults, but now everyone wants to ignore the definition because juvenile crime has gotten uglier. The minor is still a minor, no matter how ugly the act is.

An essay on Theater of the absurd

An essay on Theater of the absurd

The issues involving Theater of the absurd has been a popular topic amongst scholars for many years. I find my self constantly drawn back to the subject of Theater of the absurd. While it is becoming a hot topic for debate, Theater of the absurd is not given the credit if deserves for inspiring many of the worlds famous painters. Since it was first compared to antidisestablishmentarianism much has been said concerning Theater of the absurd by the over 50, trapped by their infamous history. Here begins my indepth analysis of the glourious subject of Theater of the absurd.

Social Factors

There is cultural and institutional interdependence between members of any community. When The Tygers of Pan Tang sang ‘It’s lonely at the top. Everybody’s trying to do you in’ [1] , they saw clearly into the human heart. Difference among people, race, culture and society is essential on the survival of our world, however Theater of the absurd irons out misconceptions from our consciousness.

Did I mention how lovely Theater of the absurd is? It grows stonger every day.

Economic Factors

Economics has been defined as ‘I’ll scratch your back if you scratch mine.’ To my learned ear that sounds like two people with itchy backs. Of course, Theater of the absurd fits perfectly into the Lead-a-Duck-to-Water model. Taking special care to highlight the role of Theater of the absurd within the vast framework which this provides. Cost

Of

Living

Theater of the absurd

The statistics make it clear that Theater of the absurd is a major market factor. Obviously the cost of living sings a very different tune. What it all comes down to is money. Capitalists love Theater of the absurd.

Political Factors

Machiavellian politics is rife. Are our leaders justified in pursuing and maintaining political power? Politicians find it difficult to choose between what has become known in politics as – ‘The two ways’ – Theater of the absurd now, and its equivalent in the 1800s.

Consider this, spoken at the tender age of 14 by that most brilliant mind Augstin Rock ‘A man must have his cake and eat it in order to justify his actions.’ [2] This quotation leads me to suspect that he was not unaccustomed to Theater of the absurd. It speaks volumes. I feel strongly that if politicians spent less time thinking about Theater of the absurd and put more effort into their family life, that we would have a very different country.

One thing’s certain. The Human species liberally desires Theater of the absurd, and whats more human than politics?

Conclusion

In conclusion, Theater of the absurd deserves all of the attention it gets. It establishes order, ‘literally’ plants seeds for harvest, and never hides.

As a parting shot here are the words of super-star Christina Kournikova: ‘I wouldn’t be where I am today without Theater of the absurd.’ [3]

Thomas Paine: Propaganda and Persuasion

Thomas Paine, often called the “Godfather of America” was an eighteenth century writer who used propaganda and persuasion techniques to motivate Americans in the fight for freedom from Britain. In one of several editions of his pamphlets titled The Crisis, Paine used several propaganda and persuasion techniques including over generalization, either/or fallacy, bandwagon appeal, parallelism, analogy, repetition, anecdote, and loaded language. During the winter of 1776, American soldiers fighting in the Revolutionary War under the command of George Washington had little food, insufficient shelter, and many were deserting. The reading of The Crisis to these troops had a profound effect upon their morale which lead to a victory at Trenton. George Washington’s famous crossing of the Delaware River ultimately became a turning point in the war. As noted by John Keane in his book, Tom Paine: a Political Life, “Tom Paine strikes our times like a trumpet blast from a distant world.”

Thomas Paine used propaganda methods to induce a desire for freedom in the reader in one of his works, The Crisis. One type of propaganda used was over generalization. His use of broad generalities was demonstrated when he concluded, “Not a man lives on the continent, but fully believes that a separation must sometime or other finally take place…” A second type of propaganda used was either/or fallacy. Paine had the sentiment that a man either fought for freedom or would always be known as a coward when he stated, “The heart that feels not now is dead; the blood of his children will curse his cowardice who shrinks back at a time when a little might have saved the whole, and made them happy.” The third and final use of propaganda in Paine’s The Crisis was the bandwagon appeal. To truly be an admired American, Tom thought that one had to support and fight for freedom for all. This was exemplified when he said, “The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country, but he that stands it now deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.”

Tom Paine also used many forms of persuasion in his essays contained in The Crisis. The first type of persuasive style used was parallelism. He noted the similarities between England and a house burglar when he stated, “…but if a thief breaks into my house, burns and destroys my property, and kills or threatens me, or those that are in it, and to ‘bind me in all cases whatsoever’ to his absolute will, am I to suffer it?” A second genera of persuasion used was the analogy. Thomas Paine concluded that the King of England was an impious criminal when he declared, “I cannot see on what grounds the King of Britain can look up to heaven for help against us: a common murderer, a highwayman, or a housebreaker has as good a pretense as he…” The third example of persuasion used was repetition. He continually claimed God’s assistance for the American cause when he expressed, “…God almighty will not give up a people to military destruction, or leave the unsupported to perish…” and “Neither have I so much of the infidel in me as to suppose that He has relinquished the government of the world, and given us up to the care of devils.” A fourth instance of persuasion Paine utilized was loaded language. Emotional excitement was certainly provoked when he declared, “Britain, with an army to enforce her tyranny, had declared that she has a right not only to tax, but ‘to bind us in all cases whatsoever’; and if being bound in that manner is not slavery, then is there not such a thing as slavery upon earth.” The fifth and final example of persuasion contained in The Crisis was the anecdote. Paine told the story of a common man who wanted to see freedom in his lifetime. “A noted one, who kept a tavern at Amboy, was standing at his door, with as pretty a child in his hand, about eight or nine years old, as I ever saw, and after speaking his mind as freely as he thought was prudent, finished with this unfatherly expression, ‘Well! give me peace in my day.’”

Cause and Effect on Hamlet

The issues of love, hate, jealous, incest, power struggle, and most importantly the revenge. These themes are all present in Hamlet, and were a theatre element that was most enjoyed by Elizabethan audiences. There are really only two great “speeches” in Act IV of Hamlet, one by Hamlet and one by the King Claudius. The King’s speech, in Act IV, Scene 5, which begins “O, this is the poison of deep grief,” gives a sort of summary of the situation in the play at that particular point. Hamlet’s speech in Act IV, Scene4 is probably the most affective one in the play “Rightly to be great Is not to stir without great argument, But greatly to find quarrel in a straw, When honor’s at the stake.”

In the Elizabethan era version of Hamlet by William Shakespeare, many characters’ actions have an effect on the audience viewing the play. In Act I Scene IV King Claudius discovers that Hamlet has killed Polonius, his chief counsellor. This enrages Claudius and he expresses anger, fear and disappointment. These actions shown by Claudius affect the audience of the Elizabethan era because it shows that a King feels authority, humanity and inefficacy.

Authority has always been a principle part of society. All rulers have used authority as control over people and their lives. King Claudius feels so powerful and has abused his authority with no regrets. He wants hamlet to be jailed for the crime he has committed. This expression of anger and authority by the King would have a great effect on the Elizabethan audience. This would probably make the audience fearful of committing any crime. It would also make them respect their King more because they would not want to do anything to anger him.

Humanity is the quality of being human. Claudius is scared that he will be blamed and held responsible for death of Polonius and he does not know how he could explain it. This presents an interesting point that would definitely affect the audience of the Elizabethan era. For a King to fearful and compassionate would confuse the audience because they expect a King to always be powerful and merciless. They only know their King as being a superior being that is always in control.

Inefficacy is the feeling of lack of power and the lack of ability to produce a desired effect. As King Claudius feels authority followed by humanity, he begins to change and feel insufficient and unsuccessful. He feels that he’s made mistakes in his actions and is unsure of what to do next. He also feels that he should have had the forethought to lock up Hamlet before he had the opportunity to murder Polonius. These actions would cause a very unusual effect for the Elizabethan era audience. To see such a powerful figure displaying such feelings would be alarming and the audience may feel confused and wonder how a King could feel that way because Kings have always been portrayed as being confident in everything they do.

The Elizabethan era was an interesting time period. Kings were rulers of the free world and everybody had to follow him. For the audience in today’s era to witness King Claudius showing so many emotions would cause them to feel different. The social, cultural, and economic values and viewpoint of the audience manoeuvre the themes and understandings of a text. Act IV soliloquy was one of the most important soliloquies in the play that influence the interest of audience and readers. Shakespeare plays are still being examined and executed all over the world and he did prove himself worthy of Elizabethan audience.

Admissions Essay

The Pantheon, the Egyptian Pyramids, and the Great Wall of China are all examples of architectural masterpieces that have stood the test of time. One of the major reasons these structures have endured for so long is that they are built on strong foundations. Thus, when I compare this basic tenet of architecture to the basics of an education, there is a clear lesson derived. The importance and the need of a strong intellectual infrastructure in order to construct a life’s work. For this reason, I wish to attend Your University.

Your University has a reputation for excellence, an unparalleled tradition, and an extensive core of resources and expertise that will provide me with the skills, insight and perspective to become successful. I believe that your MBA program will permit me to develop the business insight required for a qualitative and quantitative understanding of today’s marketplace. My long-term goal is to attain the knowledge and skills through education and work experience to build a virtual architectural enterprise by integrating architecture, 3D modeling, and electronic business. A customer using this service will have the capability to create floor plans for residential homes or additions, and get an estimated cost for labor and materials from sources in their local vicinity.

Throughout my academic career I had the challenge of maintaining a full time job and going to school full time. When most students were leaving the architecture studio at 12am I was just arriving. My schedule taught me many valuable lessons about time management and dedication.

My rewards along the way have included a scholarship from the National Science Foundation, Architectural Department recognition as Outstanding Student, Second Place in a Design Competition from Walt Disney’s Imagineering, and more. My father taught me that excellence comes from a willingness to work hard and staying focused on what is important. That early guidance and support has defined what I have become.

I also learned the importance of setting and achieving goals for both long term and short-term success. If given the opportunity to become a student at Your University, I would bring my creativity, curiosity, persistence, ambition and intellect and use them as building blocks to my goal of an Masters in Business Administration. The MBA will serve as an important tool in my understanding of risk, providing clarity for my goals, and helping me manage finances.

In closing, I have a blueprint in my head, a compass and t-square in my hands ready to add a new wing to my future, now under construction. A Your University MBA would be a great foundation for that new addition. I hope I merit your serious consideration.

This is an opinion essay on the first amendment in the United States’ Constitution. This essay does include many factual things, but it mostly what I think about the amendment.

The first amendment in the United States’ Bill of Rights states:

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Our founding fathers made this a right for all American citizens in 1791 and it has not been altered in 213 years. In society today, as in many cases in the past, the government has to vote on very racy issues. Two of the major issues in politics today are homosexual nuptials and whether or not the words “One nation under God” should be removed from the United States’ Pledge of Allegiance. Most people arguing against the issues are Christian and most of their logic comes from the bible. According to the first amendment though, this is unconstitutional.

The founding fathers never included anything pertaining to homosexual relationships in the constitution or the Bill of Rights. At the time that these documents were drawn up, there was no need for such laws or regulations. Now, though, society is changing and homosexuals are more accepted into society and they should be treated as American citizens. The first amendment does not give these people the right to marry or have a civil union, but it does give them a stronger case in court. The majority of the defense says that homosexuality is not custom or tradition; it should be man and woman. If these same people are asked the simple question “According to whom?”, they more than likely will not have a response that is political at all. If they claim it is stated in the bible that has always been man and woman; Adam and Eve; then these politicians are not obiding by the constitution! Marriage itself is a religious tradition, however the government has never said that, it is no where in the constitution that it is, so there should be no guidelines or requirements. People should not be denied the right of marriage because the partner they have chosen has the same body parts as they do. This is discrimination; saying people of the same gender cannot marry is equivalent to saying people of the same age or race cannot be married. It is wrong to deny the right to these people, they are American citizens and should be treated like American citizens. Gay nuptials are not illegal according to any federal document ever written, so these people should be allowed to marry.

The Pledge of Allegiance was originally written in August of 1892 by a Baptist minister, Francis Bellamy. The original pledge is as follows:

I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

As one can see, God was no where in this pledge. In 1924, against Bellamy’s protests, the pledge was altered to say:

I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

Then again, in 1954, the pledge was altered yet again. This time the pledge was changed by congress after a campaign by Knights of Columbus, which was a very strong Catholic group. The pledge now read:

I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

The Pledge of Allegiance was now, not only a patriotic oath, it was now a nationally and politically recognized prayer! These are the only changes that have been made to the Pledge of Allegiance in 112 years. Many non-religious or atheist groups have protested to have God taken out of the pledge and it is now at the supreme court level. Being a Christian, it would be justified to leave God in the pledge, however being a U.S. citizen it is wrong and unjust. Adding God to the pledge is showing that the United States’ government does respect religion, even if it is not a specific denomination. If words or phrases can be added to the Pledge of Allegiance, why can’t they be removed? If the law passes to remove God from the pledge then more issues will be brought to attention; should the phrase “In God We Trust” be taken off all of America’s currency?; should we be able to add more into the pledge such as “justice for all, born or unborn”? Congress is not ready for all these issues! America is at war, our economy is suffering, and it is in the middle of presidential elections. According the first amendment God should be removed from anything political or American; according to the first amendment America has no religion and all of its citizens are independent in their beliefs.

America is a free country, or at least that is what it is referred to in the constitution. If America were truly free, people would be allowed, legally, to marry whomever they wish without the government interfering. Of course all of these marriages would have to be consensual. If America were truly free and did not respect any religion there would be no objection to legalizing homosexual nuptials, and there would be no problem whatsoever in removing God from the Pledge of Allegiance. America does not recognize any religion and so neither should the law. People should not be asked to participate in things that are unconstitutional or not allowed to participate in things that are not mentioned in any legal document. America is a free country and if the government bans gay marriage and then they leave God in the pledge, there is not limit to what they can do if the people do not stop them! American citizens should learn their rights and know them and these cases would be settled much less expensively and quicker!

This is a basic case study about urban problems in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Problems described are prostitution drugs and traffic.

Urban problems in Amsterdam

Introduction:Amsterdam, a city of exquisite beauty and unimaginably rare cultural items & artifacts. That’s how we all know Amsterdam to be, that is what one call’s a stereotype. Unfortunately, the truth is far from this. In fact, there are quite a few extremely severe urban problems there. The reason why I chose Amsterdam as the target city of my essay is my sincere interest in this city. I have always been fascinated by the rich culture of Amsterdam… But I could never have imagined that a city of this status could have so many problems. This essay will describe the major problems, and also give some slight advices and theories on how to improve the condition of this magnificent city.

Evidence:Since Amsterdam is such a big city, the crime rates are quite high. No wonder, if you consider how much money is exchanged in the form of art and jewelry! The largest diamond in the world has been cut there, Rembrandt’s paintings have been sold & painted there, in other words, it is a rogue’s heaven… Not to mention that Amsterdam is one of Europe’s most important and largest port cities. And one form of organized crime which goes with sailor’s all around the world, is prostitution, though prostitution is perfectly legal in Holland. Probably due to this Amsterdam is very famous (or infamous) for its Red Light Districts. Also drugs are a major problem there, as some of the drug addicts might just die in the middle of the street due to over dosage in broad daylight, even though Marijuana is the only “legal” drug in Netherlands… Here’s some statistics about the problems;

* 80,000 – 100,000 unemployed

* 18,000+ illegal immigrants

* 3,000+ homeless

* 7,000 drug addicts of which some 2,000 live on the streets.

* 8,000 prostitutes of which 80% operate in Amsterdam’s central red-light district.

* Increasing incidence of violent and racist crime.

Also, since Amsterdam is so densely populated city, the traffic jams there are becoming a major problem quickly. It would be such a shame if all the fine 17th century buildings and streets would end up being corroded by the acid rains. Naturally for a city of such importance, Amsterdam is one of Netherlands most famous tourist attractions. Of course the harbor shouldn’t be forgotten, and due to the harbor a major part of Amsterdam’s population consists of immigrants. In 1994, 41% of Amsterdam’s population consisted of immigrants. Immigrants, in this case refer to the people living in Amsterdam, but who do not posses a Dutch nationality.

Of all the problems, the drugs are the most severe one. The drug lords and addicts are always finding new ways to get “high”. The latest trend & problem in Amsterdam is that drug addicts lick the backs of a special toad breed. The South American giant cane toad produces a white milky substance from behind its eyes, this liquid when licked gives ten times stronger hallucinations than LSD. Enough about the problems, now it is time for solutions.

Analysis:Problem number 1, the drug addicts:. Well the drug problem has already gotten out of hands, and there is very little anyone can do to stop people from using them. But then, if you can’t make people stop using the drugs, make it as hard as just possible. The toad issue is probably by far the easiest to handle, as it’s such a new trend. The Dutch government could ban the selling, or even importing of these animals. Of course this wouldn’t stop these drug addicts from obtaining these toads, as they would just simply be smuggled into the country. But that would naturally also increase the price, and the quantities would be quite small. So that would most certainly lower the number of “toad lickers” in Amsterdam, as the price and accessibility of the toads would become much less “user” friendly. As for rest of the drug’s and users, only real thing that you can do is to increase the number of law enforcement officers. To make the job seem more pleasurable, the government and police forces should do some work together, like raise the pay of police officers and the working conditions. Problem number 2, the massive traffic congestions: The government has already tried to decrease the amount of traffic, but so far these attempts have more or less failed. One method was to persuade the people to use bicycles instead of cars. A decent idea, though unsuccessful which didn’t really work after all. This just caused traffic of bikes. Also this caused much more danger to pedestrians than cars, as bikes and pedestrians are somewhat forced to use the same sidewalks. My personal idea is that the government should increase the number and quality of public transportation, and naturally minimize the price of the tickets. This would naturally attract customers of all age groups. Also if the government would wish to attract even more customers for public transport, building separate bus lanes all over the city would hasten the movement of buses. This of course would mean that moving with public transport would be far quicker than with an own car. Problem number 3, prostitution: Well this probably only one of these problems that is not really that harmful. Naturally it gives the city a bad reputation, and is considered by some a way of organized crime. But what can you really do, when the prostitution industry has already become one of Amsterdam’s land marks, and without a doubt, one of the most famous tourist attractions? Well one thing the government could easily organize, they should make a separate red light district, which would be the only area in the city where prostitution would be allowed. To some extent, this has already been done, except that only 80% of the prostitutes work in the central red light district. There isn’t really much anyone can do about this problem, it is even harder to control than the drug problem, though not as severe of a problem.

Conclusion:Reading this document has made me realize, that these problems do not seem that terrible. The old culture & history of Amsterdam will still stay the same, even if the city’s younger people do become drug addicts or so. When you look at Amsterdam, and compare it to rest of its neighboring major cities, it is somewhat unique. There aren’t that many as culturally rich cities in the whole Europe as Amsterdam is. That is probably the reason why we consider Amsterdam so weird, it is after all a totally different city from rest of Europe.

Romeo and Juliet essay by William Shakespea. Essay question: Why did ‘The pair of star-crossed lovers’ take their lives?

Romeo and Juliet essay by William Shakespea. Essay question: Why did ‘The pair of star-crossed lovers’ take their lives?

The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet is one of the most dramatic and influential love stories of all time. The play, written by William Shakespeare in the late sixteenth century tells the anguishing tale of ‘star-crossed lovers’ taking their lives to be together in death. This essay will discuss three points that I believe to be partly a cause of their deaths. Was it the prolonged feud that caused them to die? Was Friar Lawrence at fault, or could it have been merely fate? I will discuss these topics in detail and evaluate what I think was to blame for their tragic deaths.

In this essay I have mentioned three points which I consider to have played a part in the tragic deaths of Romeo and Juliet. Many people have thought of different reasons for their deaths, but I conclude that it was the family feuding to blame. Although many presume it was fate, I do not believe that your future is already chosen for you. As for Friar Lawrence, although he ensured nobody discovered anything about his actions, he didn’t cause any distress or grief.

Nevertheless, if there had been no feuding, would Romeo and Juliet have ever met?

The Metamorphosis- Critical Essay

Frank Kafka is considered one of the most influential writers of all time. Helmut Richter would agree with this statement. Richter agreed that Kafka was a very prominent figure in world literature and was amazed by his mechanics and word usage. I feel that his essay is supportive of Kafka’s writing, but also leaves out many important details in its brevity. Richter did not include Kafka’s flaws and tendencies in his essay.
Helmut Richter analyzed the plot of The Metamorphosis in his essay. He depicts the main plot of the story to be Gregor’s failure at his work, which leads to his death. The climax of the story starts off early in the book. When Gregor wakes up one morning, he realizes that he has turned into a giant insect. Gregor was a salesman and his job required that he was very determined in his work. Kafka proves to us that Gregor did not do a good job as a salesman by transforming into a bug: a strong work force. Kafka’s use of this metaphor stresses the poor work that Gregor does as a salesman.

Many people would argue that Kafka reflects his personal life in The Metamorphosis. These people would describe it as an autobiographical work. Kafka’s parents were very similar to that of Gregor. He was born into a wealthy family and his father was an overbearing man. His mother was a very nice woman, as Gregor’s was in the novel, but she often took the side of his father. The striking resemblance of the families is that of Gregor’s sister. Kafka’s sister, like Gregor’s sister Grete, was the only person in his family that was supportive of him and that he was close to. Helmut Richter admired the self-depiction that Kafka included in The Metamorhosis.

Richter discusses the main theme of The Metamorhosis as change. He feels that Gregor’s entire family, not just Gregor, undergo a metamorphosis. When Gregor turns into an insect, the life of everyone in his family is deeply changed. Gregor’s family often takes the work that he does for them for granted. Gregor’s father found himself in some trouble with his business and Gregor was forced to help support the family. The unappreciative, lazy family is greatly changed when Gregor undergoes his metamorphosis in the climax of the story. Gregor’s family soon realizes that they all of their lives will be much harder with Gregor as an insect.

The most obvious metamorphosis is that of Gregor. Throughout his entire life, Gregor has let other people make his decisions for him. The physical metamorphosis that he undergoes is the first occurrence in his life that no one in his family has told him what to do. This change allows Gregor to find his inner self and disconnect himself from the orders and hardships brought out by his family. By means of his transformation into a giant insect, Gregor has been released from his responsibility to support his family without having to assume the guilt of letting them down. He has also changed from the provider to the dependent. Richter brings up the point that the transformation of Gregor was not necessarily a bad one.

Another theme that is displayed throughout The Metamorphosis is that of liberation. Both Gregor and his family are set free of some burden during the metamorphosis. Richter believed that Gregor’s metamorphosis released him from a workingman back into a young boy. Gregor was a prisoner to his insect form after the metamorphosis, but he was freed from the burdens of his life and the burdens placed upon him by his family. Most importantly, the metamorphosis relieved Gregor from having to make a choice between his responsibility to his parents and his desire to be a free decision making boy.

I feel that Richter left out a lot of detail in his essay. He did not touch upon a deep character analysis and their relationships with Gregor. Many events that occurred in the story were based upon the relationships Gregor had with all of his family members. Gregor’s actions in the novel were not explained well enough in Richter’s essay. Although his main focus was the plot, Richter did not bring many subject areas into the picture. Overall, I felt that Helmut Richter’s essay was strong back lacking only a few important details.

How War has Effected the Role of Women in Society

The 20th Century has been the period where women in society have got the chance to be ‘accepted’ in various divisions such as labour, military and voting. I think that the period where war had a drastic effect on the role of women was in the First and Second World War. However, I believe that the war did effect the role of women in many ways, but this only lasted for the period of war.

In order to examine how the war effected the role of women in society, we must examine what were the roles of women before the wars. In the years preceding the War women had been employed mainly in service oriented jobs, such as waitress, working as secretaries, laundresses, telephone operators, dishwashers along with doing light industrial work in garment factories and teaching. This statement clearly indicates that women were excluded from jobs which were ‘reserved’ for men. These included jobs in heavy industry such as production of cars, ships, steel, etc. There was a legitimate reason for this as many people believed that lifting steel for example, was not the job for women. This was total discrimination of women, and resulted them to do service oriented jobs. Most men believed that women’s place for in the home, taking care of the family and doing chores. As soon as war arrived, the role of women in society had clearly changed.

The author of www.historyplace.com, stated in his ‘Women and War’ page that propaganda played an important role in changing the roles of women in society. I clearly agrees with this as propaganda which appeared in newspapers, magazines, radio broadcasts, movies and advertisements generally portrayed women as white, middle-class housewives and women who were dependent on men. This occurred significantly, in the United States where propaganda blamed “working mothers for the destruction of the family, the argument being that they were not home taking care of the children, cooking for the family and maintaining the house”.

In World War 2, when United States declared on Japan, millions of men were drafted to fight, thus leaving their jobs vacant. Entrance in War meant an increase in production of armaments. However, the men which were available before to work in heavy industry were now away fighting the enemy. This triggered the government in the United States to persuade women to work in the heavy industry. Thus, the propaganda which was once responsible for blaming women, now attempted to recruit them to the heavy industry. The United States government began to invest in training women to work in such heavy industry such as plane, weapons and tank production. World War 2 in United States, and other countries such as Great Britain effected the role of women in society as many of them were employed in heavy industries to fill up jobs which men had left to participate in the war.

In places such as Britain and Europe, women were allowed to be drafted into the army and were actually allowed to serve in uniform. This and other division such as Labour Force, where the role of women had changed to, symbolised gains for suffrage women in Britain and Europe. When Great Britain declared war with Germany, many women decided to draft into the Army or the raf respectively. This was one of the effects on the role of women in society, where women were allowed or persuaded to join the army, navy and the air force. This was clearly demonstrated in Canada, when 50,000 women were drafted into the army. What caused women to join the labour force or to be drafted is probably patriotism. This was demonstrated when the usa today surveyed after the World War 2 and asked women why they decided to join the labour force. Thus, the propaganda in the United States had clearly being successful as it had a desired effect on the women in society.

In Germany, in World War 2, the role of women had also been effected by the war. Most of the male population apart from the male workers, were drafted into the army by conscription, which Hitler had ordered in 1933. Hitler urged women to have more babies preferably with blue eyes and blonde hair. This was again achieved by propaganda through radio, speeches, posters, etc. This portrays that in Germany, women were mainly seen as ‘sex symbols’ or people who had potential to have babies. Thus, women were encouraged to have as many male partners, even if they loved ones had gone to war with the enemy. The role of women had been effected by war in Germany, as Hitler urged women to have as many babies as they could in order to follow the theory of Arian.

As I said in my introduction, the role of women during the war came to an abrupt end as the war ended. This was clearly demonstrated in United States, when the war ended with Japan. The percentage of women working in heavy industry dropped to its pre-war level. Men who had not yet worked were guaranteed jobs over women employed during the war because these men had risked their lives for their country and were owed, at the very least, jobs. This devastated women in the workforce. For instance, at the Ford Willow Run plant women made up sixteen percent of 93,000 employees between 1943 through 1945, but by December 1946 they comprised less than one percent would have their jobs back, and also will get a job if they previously did not have it. Also, as the war came to an end, the demands of production in factories and industries declined, thus employers, which were mostly women were laid off. After the War, propaganda came back and urged women go home. In United States, after the War, A General advertisement from 1945 shows a women standing outside of her lovely home, complete with white picket fence, with her child playing with the family dog. The subtitle, “women want homes like these”.

The War gave women a great opportunity to prove themselves in the male work sphere and prove themselves they did. They responded when the government, through propaganda, urged them to fill the gap causing a labour shortage. Not Only did the women take part in the labour division, but millions were drafted into the army, navy and air force. Either a Soviet Spy, or an raf pilot, the role of women clearly had been effected by the war from the casual housewife or a waitress. However, in the long-run much could be said about women’s performance during the War for women had proven themselves every bit as capable as men in doing male work. This ‘Freedom’ was experienced by many women and portrayed a change in modern day societies due to the war.

My college essay

When I look at this picture of myself, I realize how much I’ve grown and changed, not only physically, but also mentally as a person in the last couple of years. Less than one month after this photograph was taken, I arrived at Boston University in Boston without any idea of what to expect. I entered my freshman year of high school as an innocent “Non-English speaker” girl from Albania who was about a thousand miles from her home and was a new member of the American Life. Around me in this picture are the things which were most important in my life at the time: reading books in English so I would get a little better and not have as much difficulties communicating with people, studying different types of cars and planes, following David Beckham’s latest move (Soccer), and seeing the latest blockbuster show like “Phantom of the Opera” or “Jurassic Park”. On my T-shirt is the rest of my life – Tennis. Midway through my Junior Year at Millis High School, the focuses in my life have changed dramatically.

If there is one common occurrence which takes place for every single person in the diverse student body at Hackensack High School (New Jersey), it is that we all grow up much faster for having lived there. I do not know whether this speeding up of the maturing process is generally good or bad, but I definitely have benefited.

The classroom has become a whole different realm for me. Before, the teachers and the students alike preached the importance of learning, but it was implicitly obvious that the most important concern was grades. At Hackensack High School teachers genuinely believe that learning is the most importance objective and deeply encourage us to collaborate with each other and make use of all resources that we may find. In fact, in a certain class this year, my teacher assigned us to prepare every day of the week to discuss a certain book; there were only two requirements in this preparation – we had to maximize our sources, gleaning from everything and everyone in the school, but we were not allowed to actually look at the book. As a result, I know more about the book that any other that I have actually read. It is teaching methods such as this which ensure that we will learn more. Indeed, this matter of “thinking” has been one of the most important aspects of my experience. Whether in Chemistry or English, I’m required to approach every problem and idea independently and creatively rather than just regurgitate the teacher’s words. In discussion with fellow students both inside and outside of class, the complex thoughts flowing through everyone’s brain is evident.

However, I believe that the most important concepts which I have espoused in being independent of my parents for half of each year, deal with being a cosmopolitan person. The school’s faculty and students are conscious about keeping all of the kids’ attention from being based on the school. Every single issue of the global concern is brought forth by one group or another whether it be a faculty member, publication, ethnic society, or individual student. Along with being aware of issues of importance, after attending Hackensack High School my personality has evolved. First my mannerisms have grown: the school stresses giving respect to everyone and everything. Our former principal often said, “Character can be measured not by one’s interaction with people who are better off than him or herself, but by one’s interactions with those who are worse off.” The other prime goal of the school’s community is to convert every single timid lower-classman into a loud, rambunctious senior. Basically, if you have an opinion about something, it is wrong not to voice that opinion. Of course, being obnoxious is not the idea. The key is to become a master of communication with teachers, fellow students, all of who are a part of the community, and most importantly, those who are outside of the community.

I do not want to make Hackensack High School sound as if it produces the perfect students, because it doesn’t. Even though I now moved to Millis High School in Massachusetts, I still consider my old High School as a school that deserves a lot of credits for its efforts. Often, some part of the mold does remain. As the college experience approaches, I am still the same person, only modified to better maximize my talents. Although I still have some time to play soccer, tennis, and see movies, perhaps one of the few similarities between this photograph and me now is my smile.

Ancient China Comparison Essay

Ancient China Comparison Essay Ancient China and Japan have many similarities as well as uniqueness’. The Chinese’s writings mention that Japan was in existence at that time of China’s earliest empires and dynasties. It’s a wonder how the Japanese could show signs of existence to the Chinese because Japan is an island, while China was a very isolated country, which only thought that life revolved around the people pf their defensive walls. The Chinese and the Japanese both had a centralized bureaucratic government, which means that both countries were ruled by and emperor or empress, and the imperial court made the decisions.

China’s isolation were relative towards the fact that they blocked others beliefs, goods, and territories. For example, China had the Yangtze River, which ran through the mountains of their territories. Which made them not depend on other areas goods because they had plenty of areas where they could retrieve their own. Japan on the other hand was trading with other city-states and territories, religious beliefs and goods, too. Japan’s imperial court accepted Buddhism beliefs into their culture. Also, they had an abundance amount of sea goods, with them being an island and they evolved into good trading positions

Biographiccal essay on E.B. White as an essayist with some personal references and commentary.

I don’t remember exactly how I first learned the story of Charlotte’s Web. I don’t remember if Mom or Dad read it to me or if a baby-sitter popped the tape in the VCR. I do remember that I was obsessed with pigs by the time I was three. E. B. White had infiltrated our home. White’s essays are not only enjoyable, but are filled with important lessons for the prospective writer as well — White’s candor combined with wit and a dash of humor has transformed the newspaper columnist into a prominent, uniquely American literary figure.

The essays of E. B. White are masterfully composed. His imagery departs a grand demonstration that few writers can ever accomplish. His style flows through all of his essays and illustrates the world around him as he tells his stories. No matter what topic he writes about, his words flow smoothly to paint a scene of pictures and leave a sense of understanding. Through his imagery and style, the reader learns a unique aspect of the world.

With this in mind, E.B. White writes in a manner that moves in a smooth path to its final destination. He mentions all details that reside in the surrounding area, while presenting an intrinsic idea that is concluded at the end. Showing how the simple joys of a place recover many memories, in “Once More to the Lake,” is one example of his style. Here, he flashes back to his summers as a child, when his father takes him to the lake, describing the coves, streams and his experiences as he ponders if the lake remains the same, and ending by revealing his final thoughts and findings. To this end, his words flow freely from the first sentence to the last, combining with his descriptions to easily set the mood.

Consequently, whether the essay is sullen or spirited, he vividly portrays a true sense of how the setting appears. Accordingly, the burial sight is described with a sort of ease, in “The Death of a Pig,” causing the reader to feel as though he or she is present. Gloomy, saddening weather adds to the description of the grave being dug, with the dog patrolling around in a circle. These descriptions add much to the varied topics of each piece.

While these central themes vary, all depart a sense of understanding. Each possesses the quality of imagery and style of composition that combine to form a complete picture. He writes about Florida in, “On a Florida Key,” telling about the scenery around him, while glancing into the differences between the North and the South and the treatment of Negroes at the time. Departing from this would be his description of a young circus rider in, “The Ring of Time.” E. B. White recounts how time is always changing; that the girl will never be the same age again. In “The Essayist,” he even moves to comment about his own; writing about what an essayist is. He shows no fear in criticizing himself, and this shows in his compositions.

All of these aspects combine as E.B. White writes. Each one adds to the essay, making it a complete work. An essay needs to deliver a point to the reader, while holding the reader’s interest. His essays do well to hold interest, and the imagery provides much for this. His topics are chosen well, and all excel in conveying his ideas. This masterful composition of various elements makes E.B. White’s name almost synonymous with the word “essay.”

The main cause of environmental degradation is the size of the human population.

Fast population growth and global environmental transformation is two subjects that have received considerable public thought over the past several decades. Population boost become a global public policy issue during the mind twentieth century as mortality declines in many developing nations were not matched with reductions in fertility resulting in unprecedented growth rates.

Since Population size is naturally linked to the environment as a result of individual resource needs as well as individual contributions to pollution. As a result, population increase yields heightened demands on air, water, and land environments, because they offer essential assets and act as sinks for environmental pollutants.

Concern with environmental change has come to forefront primarily since 1970, with discernible levels of environmental degradation fuelling public concern with the scope of contemporary environmental transformations and the advent of satellite imagery aiding environmental research (Colombo B. et all 1996).

At the present date are estimated roughly 6.5 billion people in the world and the figure continues to multiply. In contrast there are a restricted number of natural resources. On the worldwide root the human population has revealed a J shaped pattern (fig 1 and 2) of escalation over the past years, while the availability of natural funds are mandatory for human survival is in slow decline (Cohen J.E.1995).

Fig 1 Human population growth till 2000 (2)

Population policies which gears to reduce future growth represent logical responses to the environmental implications of population size (Stern et all 1995) although fertility diminution cannot be seen as sufficient response to contemporary human induced environmental change. A decrease in human numbers does not necessarily suggest a decrease in environmentally significant behaviours.

In addition, supposition that each further individual has an equal impact on resources is too simplistic. Factors related to both the individual and to the social and environmental contexts will determine the ultimate nature of the relationship. For instance, the cultural context into which an individual is born will influence that individual’s relationship with the environment empirical evidence suggests that a child born in the United States will produce 10 times the pollution of a child born in Bangladesh (Stern et all 1995). Much of this is the product of consumption patterns where income focused life routine changes increase the amount of energy and materials consumed. One study suggests that, on average the Environmental Implications of Population Dynamics age, each American devour more than 50 kilograms (approximately 110 pounds) of material per day, excluding water. The vast majority of this includes the materials required for the production and distribution of consumer goods (1).

Fig 2 Estimated world population growth according to main fertility scenario (UNFPA 1997)

The trends in fertility and mortality combine to yield the population projections presented in Figure 2. According to medium-fertility projections by the United Nations Population Division, world population could reach 8.9 billion in 2050 and may ultimately stabilize at nearly 11 billion around 2100. This represents a near doubling of the current world population (UNFPA1997).

The alarming ecological effects of population size are certainly not new. British economist Thomas Malthus (2) presaged of the “sustainability” of unrestricted population growth more than 200 years ago, arguing that human population has a tendency to exceed the ability of the environment to provide subsistence. In particular, Malthus suggested that unrestrained population growth would exceed the ability of the Earth to provide sufficient provisions (2). Although this viewpoint has been criticized for its simplistic focus on population size as the sole driving force in resource change. Malthus initiated a debate on carrying capacity and his influence maintains today (2). Many contemporary population oriented interest groups focus on population size as the determining factor in environmental degradation (Campbell, M.M. 1998).

Fig 3 Land requirement estimation for food production (Meadows et al., 1992)

Global population size is inherently connected, through development, to land, air, and water environments as I said previously. While the scale of resource use and the level of wastes produced vary across individuals and across cultural contexts, the fact remains that land, water, and air are necessary for human survival.

As for resource consumption, two commonsense points can highlight the implications of population size and growth. First, each person evidently requires food, the production of which typically requires land for agriculture or other forms of nourishment production. Globally, about 1.5 billion hectares are cultivated for agriculture, representing the most suitable of an estimated 2 billion to 4 billion hectares characterized as cultivable (Southwick, 1996). To consider future land requirements in the face of increasing human population, Figure 3 above presents the hectares required to meet the food demands of projected global population, assuming constant per capita production. Although there has been an excess of potentially cultivable land throughout human history, the exponential growth of human population has accelerated the pace of land use change. Hectares required for global food production now fall near the lower limit of estimated cultivable hectares (Meadows et al., 1992), which implicates in deforestation.

In recent years, there has been a focus on the relationship between population and land use change. For example, Allen and Barnes (1985) surveyed population and deforestation data for 76 tropical countries using statistical correlation. They also examined multiple regressions of deforestation against other variables such as arable soil, round wood production, and gross domestic product. Their analysis suggested a low, but significant, correlation between population growth rates in the period 1970 to 1978 and deforestation reported for the period 1975 to 1980 from the FAO Forest Assessment (Lanly 1982). They concluded that population growth was the cause of deforestation globally.

Water represents a second commonsense link between population size and resource use. It is central to the ecological cycles on which we depend and is used by humans for consumption as well as agricultural and energy production. Global water use has tripled since 1950, now standing at between 3,500 and 4,500 cubic kilometers per year (Goudie et all 1997;). Global water consumption raised six fold between 1900 and 1995, more than double the rate of population growth. In the United States, daily per capita water consumption is currently about 185 gallons for domestic tasks (drinking, cooking and washing) (Sherbinin A. d. et all 1998).

Population size relates not only to the consumption of environmental resources, but also to the environmental pollutants associated with contemporary production and consumption processes (example of this is use of gas in U.K.). Air, water, and land environments all act as sinks, or repositories, for the pollution generated by production and consumption. To toll this, migration could be part of Population size as well as large movement of people from rural to urban areas or international migration in most developing countries has led to a growing number of mega cities that have in many cases overwhelmed the environmental resources.

The many dimensions of industrial processes make it impossible to generalize about the exact relationship between global population size and pollution. However, researchers have estimated the effect of population size for particular types of pollution in particular locales. Consider air pollution in London. Automobiles, factories, landfills, and airports contribute to local air pollution levels. In a simple sense, population can be related to each of these factors: more people, for instance, means more demand for the consumer goods produced by emission-generating factories. Yet the underlying relationships are not so simple–climate, pollution control legislation, and the technology used to produce goods all combine to determine air quality. To monitor some of these interactions, Cramer (1998) determined level associations among emissions, population size, and regulatory efforts in California, and other associated factors. Results suggest that a 10 percent raise in population produces an increase in emissions of 7.5 to 8 percent, although population growth has different effects on different types of pollutants (Cramer, 1998). Local population growth is important mainly as a determinant of the volume of consumption. More people, for instance, typically mean more vehicles in the road, which raised concentration of pollutants, such carbon dioxide in the atmosphere giving evidences of global warming. Average global temperature rose by 0.6 per cent in the 20th century and the 1990s was the hottest decade since records began and 2002 the second hottest year on record.

We know that the population growth will not stop globally the trick is to channel growth in such a way that it becomes a vehicle to protect the environment, build better communities, address air quality and congestion issues as we see in London on rising road toll taxes. Not just rising toll taxes but also empowering technologies to advance to improve environment in the edge of falling. And also there is a need of international community to come together to solve this big issue.

To conclude the human population size implication in environmental are obviously complicated and can sometimes be controversial. While some view population growth in developing regions as the primary culprit in environmental decline, others focus on the expensive environmental effects of consumption among the developed nations. Such differing emphases can lead to a disagreement about the most effective and equitable policy solution slow population increase in less-developed nations or lessen destructive production and consumption patterns of the more-developed nations. Such a debate, however, presumes that a one-step solution to the complex realities of the relationship between population and the environment exists. As demonstrated by the foregoing discussion, both population growth and consumption play a role in environmental change and are among the many factors that should be considered and incorporated in realistic policy debate and prescriptions.

In the end, many causes underlie contemporary environmental degradation, and only some are demographic in nature. Yet population does matter, and increased attention to the environmental implications of demographic dynamics can improve policy capacity to respond to contemporary environmental change.

An essay about the science fiction film genre.

Science Fiction Film: An Overview

The science fiction film genre has been around almost as long as movies have, but like the cinema it is still a fairly young art form. This genre came into existence shortly after the invention of the movie camera in 1888 and has endured for over one-hundred years. Science fiction is adaptive; it changes with the times and this trend can be seen in its incorporation of other genres, cultural history and technology. This essay will attempt to define the genre, chronicle the history and evolution, and explore its relation to technology. This is in general and in the cinema.

When discussing the science fiction film genre a problem occurs. The distinction between science fiction and other genres is not always clear cut. Many movies span between the science fiction genre and other genres. Movies such as The Ring (2002) or the Alien series (1979, 1986, 1992, 1997) illustrate how the distinction between science fiction and horror films can be obscure. (Telotte 46) Some comedies, such as Mars Attacks (1996) and Back to the Future (1985), are very much science fiction. (Mitchell 133) In fact there is an example of a science fiction film fitting into almost any genre. Starship Troopers (1997) parallels a war film and Outland (1981) resembles a western in many respects. (Telotte 45)

The characteristics that define the science fiction genre can be difficult to pin down. A genre such as the western has easily identifiable characteristics such as cowboys, guns, the wild west, and bad guys with mustaches. The average person would have no trouble picking out a science fiction film but when asked to come up with a definition, most would struggle. After being exposed to a number of science fiction films people are able to recognize characteristics and clues that together to constitute a cultural consensus of what a science fiction film is. (Telotte 56) From this, however, someone might say any film with aliens or monsters is science fiction, while others might say a science fiction film has to have ray guns and space travel. A science fiction film is a film based on currently known facts about the physical world with some type of twist which answers the question “what if.” In other words it deals less with explicit characteristics and conventions and more with cultural concerns. Science fiction films give us a taste of what our lives would be like if our technological situation were different. (Newman 80) These technological changes could be a result of humans taking a different path in the past or the present, evolving into the future or as a result of a visit by extraterrestrials. It may sound obvious but a science fiction film is fiction. While science fiction films deal with real concerns they are entirely fictional. The film Deep Impact (1998) plays on our fear of Armageddon. (Mitchell 52) While an asteroid could strike earth and destroy humanity, it has not happened. For the purposes of this essay the definition of science fiction is a film that explores the repercussions of a technological situation that differs from our current relationship with technology. This definition is adequate in describing the majority of science fiction films but is still open to debate.

Throughout its history the science fiction film genre has paralleled the current fears and concerns of people at the time. The science fiction film genre got its start in 1902 with Le voyage Dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) by French film maker and magician Georges Méliès. (Frank 13) It shows how during the industrial revolution, people were afraid of industry destroying the planet, forcing them to search for new places to settle. This film, and other early science fiction films such as The Mysterious Island (1929) and The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951), also shows how pre 1960′s science fiction films dealt largely with the fantastic voyage or alien invasions. (Telotte 45) While these types of science fiction film did not disappear, the 1960′s ushered in a new type of science fiction film that dealt more with science, the human identity and political issues. It came at a time when major technological and social changes were occurring. The civil rights movement, assassinations of government figures and the Vietnam War were all happening in this time period. People began to have a new outlook on government. They no longer view the government as a solution to the problem as in Godzilla (1954) where the government’s determination saved the day.

In the movie E.T. The Extra Terrestrial (1982) the government captures and plans to experiment on a friendly alien stranded on earth. This new view of government is illustrated in Star Wars (1977). The first line in the opening text is “A long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away”. (Telotte 82) It immediately removes any type of association to politics or society. Star Wars came out in response to peoples’ mistrust of government. Many people ere rallying against the Vietnam War at this time and Star Wars reflected their distrust in government.

2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) is an early example of a science fiction film dealing with technology and the human identity. The HAL 9000 computer paralleled peoples’ fears of technology brining the downfall of humanity. Other post 1960 examples include Westworld (1973), Terminal Man (1974), and Demon Seed (1977). These films were made at a time when computers and machines were beginning to replace humans in the work place. (Telotte 46) They reflected concerns at the time about the future role of technology and artificial intelligence by showing how things could go wrong. The films Westworld and Demon Seed show how technology can turn against its creators. Terminal Man explores what can go wrong when people begin to enhance their bodies with machines.

Science fiction films today often depict humanity or government as an obstacle to finding the solution, or the cause of, a problem within the movie. It is often humanity’s faults that are responsible for its downfall, such as in the movie 12 Monkeys (1996) where the government created a virus that killed most of the earth’s population. The Matrix (1999) shows how the technology created by humans turned against and enslaved them.

Much of modern science fiction deals with philosophy and psychology. The Matrix Revolutions (2003) is an extreme example of how philosophical a science fiction with its twist on the “brain in a vat” paradox. (Pope) Some modern films explore the ethics of creating artificial intelligence. They make us wonder if creating machine life is playing god, and whether we have the right to do with that life as we please. A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001) is excellent examples of this type of philosophical movie.

The science fiction genre is continually reinventing itself. It has evolved and continues to evolve as technology changes. The modern science fiction film borrows heavily from real science. (Newman 60) A Trip to the Moon (1902) shows how people at the time envisioned space travel. This view has evolved considerably since the invention of real space vehicles and actual trips to the moon. The movie Red Planet (2000) provides an excellent example of how changing technology affects the science fiction film. Red Planet is far more realistic in its depiction of space travel. It uses current ideas about how a manned mission to mars could be accomplished.

The future of science fiction is difficult to predict. It is a safe guess that the science fiction genre will continue to reflect our deepest concerns and values. Spiderman (2002), X-Men (2000) and X2: X-Men United (2003) show the increasing popularity of action hero science fiction. These films deal with our value of tolerance. In these movies super heroes are often ostracized by the very people they are trying to save. Spiderman must disguise himself so that he can continue to live his normal life and be accepted by society. In the Movie X-Men people fear and hate mutants. A future example of this trend is Spiderman 2 will be in theaters later this year and is expected to be wildly successful.

The science fiction genre relates to technology more that other types of films. While technology affects science fiction, science fiction also affects technology. This is why we must discuss special effects. Many science fiction films have to rely heavily on special effects to advance their plot. Star Wars (1977) had to some how show a world filled with technologies that do not exist such as hover cars, laser cannons and star destroyers. Special effects are the only way to bring these types of stories to the big screen. This is why science fiction film has been at the forefront of the special effects industry for its entire existence. Many special effects, some of which are still used today, were fist used in science fiction films. A Trip to the Moon (1902) was not only the first science fiction film but one of the first films to make extensive use of special effects. (Frank 134) It was revolutionary in its use of editing and trick photography. The Lost World (1925) made extensive use of stop-motion animation and Star Wars (1977) used computers to assist in creating realistic motion while filming models. (Telotte 90) CGI, which was first used in Tron (1982), was used to make incredibly realistic dinosaurs in Jurassic Park (1993). The Abyss (1989) used a newly developed CGI technique called morphing. It was later used in Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) to create a liquid metal terminator that could mimic anything it touched. (Telotte 93) The special effect “bullet time” was developed solely for the movie The Matrix (1999). It is clear that the science fiction genre is pivotal in the development of new special effects technologies. It is responsible for the invention or creative new use of almost any special effect used today or in the past.

The science fiction film explores the repercussions of a technological situation that differs from our current relationship with technology. It shows us what our lives could be like in ways no other type of film could. Science fiction is adaptive; it changes with the times and this trend can be seen in its incorporation of other genres, cultural history and technology. It reflects problems within society adapting as we do. The science fiction genre has been constantly changing since its beginnings in 1902. It has evolved as new technologies have been invented and as peoples’ perceptions of the world have changed. Science fiction film is responsible for many advances in special effects and is affected by changes in real science. Science fiction is truly a genre that reflects society and its values.

A Example of an Expository Essay on Values.

Lots of people are relatives and aren’t friends. Lots of people work together who aren’t friends. Lots of people say they are friends but aren’t. You can appreciate or admire someone, but that doesn’t make them a friend. So, what makes a true friend then? Friendship is one of many values that I have, the other two that I will write about are family and freedom.

Developing and maintaining friendships is a challenge. You may discover that the person you thought was a good and trusted friend was in fact not. Friendship is not a matter of the amount of time you spend with someone. Rather, it is a measure of the depth that arises between the two. Even meeting someone for the first time, you might feel an unexplainable sense of familiarity.

“A man without a family is not a man.” Words spoken from the godfather, even though a fictional movie, have truth to them. What defines a family? Is a couple a family? Is a group of three adults a family? It seems today that, many people believe you only have a family when there are children involved, I say if more the one person calls a certain place “home” then they are indeed a family of sort.

Freedom, it’s what allows us to function as we do today. To most, going to the church of their choice, or voting is second nature. Not everyone is so lucky. Look at Cuba for example, how do you vote when there is a dictator? Freedom is something that is taken for granted everyday, but, whether we realize it or not, it plays a major role in our daily life.

Whatever your values may be, just realize that they are the basis of our life. Friendship, family, and freedom are the ones most important to me. Now, yours may differ from mine, but, that’s what makes us human. Everyone has their own beliefs, but just think, what if we had to live life without the values you cherish most…

This is an essay on the issue of honesty while being a part of moral decisions

Honesty: The quality of honourable and upright in character and actions.

Truth: The quality or property of being in accord with fact or reality.

Honesty is involved in our everyday lives. You are expected to tell the truth about everything. To write about honesty, is to write about truth and vice-versa. Everyone you know puts trust in you, once that trust is broken; your integrity is broken, along with your honour. Integrity more so applies to the character then the person’s actions. Though your actions decide what kind of character you have. Integrity means having very high standards of the difference between right and wrong, and refusing to do anything that doesn’t measure up to them.

When you’re given the gift of trust from other people, some take it for granted, and others respect it highly. You have to be honest to yourself before you can be honest to your peers. People lie, cheat and steal everyday. The easy way out is to lie some more, but the difficult way out is honesty. Honesty is by far the most rewarding way out, though you may not be able to see it right away. Sure you can tell more lies to cover up old ones, but it is guaranteed that they will catch up with you.

We don’t realize that lying not only hurts ourselves, but everyone involved. Whether they get hurt because you caused them a great deal of trouble, or because you broke their trust, they get hurt.

What people believe in is up to them, but truth, honesty, honour, and integrity are qualities that can never go wrong. No one is saying it’s easy to tell the truth that could lead you or friends into trouble, but when honour, and integrity are in jeopardy, the truth is no mistake.

When you’re given the choice between right and wrong, people figure the easier route is better. Those who are strong and able to take the challenge and go through the difficulty, sometimes disappointing, harsh, but always unfailing path. One thing to remember is that in time of doubt, the truth will set you free.

Expository Essay

Almost everyone has a favorite band. People buy CD’s and tapes

to not only listen to the music that they like, but to support that band.

There are many, many different types of music, and usually a certain band

will fit into a specific type of music. I listen mostly to alternative/grunge

music. And by coincidence the three bands I’m going to talk about are all

from the west coast. I am going to talk a little bit about three of my

favorite bands in that category: Pearl Jam, Everclear, and No Doubt.

Pearl Jam is a band from Seattle. They were one of the first

alternative bands to ever become popular from this area. The lead singer

of Pearl Jam is Eddie Vedder, he does the lead vocals and plays the

guitar. The rest of the band includes, Jeff Ament, (bass) Stone Gossard,

(guitar and vocals) Jack Irons, (drums) and Mike McCready, (guitar). A

couple of the songs that Pearl Jam does are Jeremy, Daughter, Smile, Spin

the Black Circle and Tremor Christ. Pearl Jam has a knack for writing

catchy lyrics that become very popular.

Everclear is a band from Portland. They are not as popular as Pearl

Jam, but they do have a large following of fans. The three band members

of Everclear are Art Alexis, (lead vocals, and guitar) Greg Eklund, (drums

and vocals) and Craig Montoya, (bass, and vocals). Their album together

is Sparkle and Fade, and it is one of the best albums I’ve ever heard.

Among the may popular songs are Heroin Girl, Sparkle and Fade, and

Santa Monica. All of the lyrics are good, but there is a lot of profanity on

this album.

No Doubt is the last band, but is not the least. No Doubt has had a

number one album, Tragic Kingdom, and it is VERY popular. This band is

out of California. The band members are: Gwen Stefani, (lead vocals) Tom

Dumont, (guitar) Tony Kanal, (bass) Adrian Young, (drums and percussion)

and Eric Stefani (piano and keyboards) Gwen, the lead singer is the only

female in this band, and hers is the only voice you hear in all of the songs.

Some of their songs includes, Just a Girl, Spider Webs, and Excuse Me

Mister. All are popular and make an awesome album with all of the songs

on it.

These bands all are popular here in the Northwest and all have

popular albums out. People have shown their support of these bands by

buying their albums and requesting their favorite songs on the radio. Pearl

Jam, Everclear, and No Doubt are among my very favorite bands, and I

own all of their albums.

An informative essay on the causes of the Salem Witchcraft Trials.

The Salem Witchcraft trials are commonly referred to the most unnecessary savage prejudices in the history of America. Not only was the whole ordeal made up in the creative minds of little girls, but was actually explored by the population of Massachusetts. Many innocent lives could have been spared if it weren’t for such tragic events. After studying the history of the trials, most are left with the burning question: how could a town kill nineteen and condemn countless citizens to jail, only with proof of teenage witnesses? This topic is what I will touch in the essay.

The basis for Salem Witchcraft trials were anything but realistic or factual. What most don’t understand are the conditions of such a town at the time. To get a complete understanding of the accusations, you must look at the segregation and turmoil of the small, developing town in the 1690s. The village was torn in two: half of the population on the western side wanting to separate from Salem and the other half in opposition in the east (closer to town). The eastern half of the population was content, thriving off of Massachusetts’ prosperous harbors.

The Western half, however, consisted of poor, conservative farming families. They were opposed to the town’s flourishing economy, thinking it made Salem to individualistic, which happened to offend the communal nature that strict Puritanism required. Thus, the group distanced themselves from city life as much as possible.

The foundations of this prejudice can be traced to a particularly large separatist family, the Putnams. The relatives led a large group of separatists in hopes to permanently break away from Salem Town and form their own congregation. Reverend Samuel Parris was elected to lead the worshiping in the Salem Village Meeting House. At this point, there were no objections to the city’s new division.

It wasn’t until Samuel Parris’ contract as minister gave him unnatural allowances, did the other faction object. At the time, a minister was provided with a substantial salary, use of a house, and an occasional batch of firewood. Parris was also provided the title and deed to the church house, angering residents of Salem who didn’t want to separate. Objecting, the Town supporters refused to worship under Parris and withheld payment of any taxes.

In rebellion, Parris’ adversaries reelected the Salem Village Committee in October of 1961. This council objected to assessing the taxation problem under which Parris’ salary fell, as well as challenging his ownership rights to the church. The Parris family was now dependent on the individual contributions to the church. The Putnems grew concerned at the prospect of losing their minister and pushed harder for independence from Salem.

Thus Salem was in the midst of change: with the rival families competing for control of the village, a bustling business elite starting to cultivate, and lack of desire to participate in governing the village.

The people of the town considered the Devil breathing down their necks because of the bloody war raging about 60 miles away. This factor was the cause of such great suspicion among the townspeople.

In the winter of 1691, Reverend Samuel Parris lived in the village with his wife, nine year old daughter Betty, and twelve year old orphaned niece Abigail Williams. Betty was favored in the household, leaving Abigail to do all of the chores and take care of her sick aunt. One can imagine the stress from responsibility weighing down this twelve year old. Living under the strict rule of a Reverend, the girls were never allowed to play childhood games in their spare time. Parris thought playing symbolized idleness, which permitted the Devil to work mischief. The journey to Salem was a terrible eight mile hike, and the same for Boston, only twelve miles.

Often children of the town resorted to reading as a past time, especially about forcine telling. Girls causally met to perform spells and divinations. It is thought that Betty and Abigail started their unusual symptoms, such as profane screaming, spastic seizures, and trance like conditions, was a direct result of their family’s financial struggles and child abuse. They blamed their black slave, Tabitha, who regularly participated in the spells and divinations.

The conditions spread through out the town, afflicting many girls, all tied together by friendship. This linkage makes the conspiracy evident to be false. Ann Putnam, Mercy Lewis, and Mary Walcott emerged with similar symptoms and accused outcasts of the town, and those who they didn’t like.

To conclude, the outlook of the Salem Witchcraft trials has evolved over the years. The diversity of the town, war nearby and boredom of the youth population were the direct causes of the trails. Without any of these factors, 19 innocent people wouldn’t have been unjustly hanged, and many more hadn’t sentenced to jail.

Narritive Essay – The Will to Win/Martial Arts Story

”The Will to Win”

Not too long ago in my life, I was faced with an incredible challenge of athleticism and will. I was to compete in the 2003 National Championships for the martial art Tae Kwon Do. Sport Tae Kwon Do is a competition similar to boxing, only an impressive display of aerial kicks is the main arsenal of a competitor as opposed to punching combinations in boxing. A point is scored and shown on a large electronic scoring screen when one competitor lands a solid kick to the body or head of his opponent. Each match consists of 3 rounds which are 3 minutes long each. In this sport, a knockout is an automatic victory.

Like most other Tae Kwon Do practitioners, winning this competition and securing a spot on the national team is a dream we can only hope to achieve by endless tiring hours in the gym. I, on the other hand, had not put in the amount of work that most competitors normally would. Two and a half weeks prior to the tournament, I was not in the best shape that I could be, and not in any condition to capture a national team spot. The stark reality of my situation hit me when I glanced at the calendar on my wall. It was at this point that I knew that no matter what, I wasn’t going to let myself lose this tournament. This was when the rush training began.

I began working out in my basement along with the training studio twice a day for at

least 2 hours each session. After every practice my muscles ached so badly I could hardly walk. This was probably the hardest that I had ever trained for any competition, even though I had waited much too long to begin. As the days passed I noticed significant improvements in speed and power, and I was eventually in decent form. Two days before the 4th of July, I flew out to Orlando to attend the competition.

The venue was huge; it was held in the Orange County Convention Center. The day of competition was upon me, and I was mentally prepared. I waited throughout the morning until my first match number was called, and I fought my way to victory. Early in the afternoon my second and third matches were called which I fought and won as well. As I was about to enter semi-finals, my muscles were tired and sweat pored from my face. It was a long day, and the matches were hard. I wasn’t in better shape or condition then my last two opponents that day, but my mind would not allow me to succumb. I fought on pure will and heart, pressing on only by virtue of the inner-strength I didn’t know I had. That day I had become a US Middle Weight National Tae Kwon Do Team member.

As we packed up, the thrill of victory overtook all other emotions. It was time to rest now and enjoy what was left of a well-earned vacation. Going back to the hotel, my mind continually ran over the events of a day that was perhaps one of the greatest mental and physical triumphs of my life. I laughed and joked with my teammates who had competed in other divisions that day, not caring that my body tired and worn down. As we approached the hotel that night, I was startled by an impressive 4th of July fireworks display that lit up the sky. In my mind, I imagined that it was just for me

Dual Identities Write an essay exploring the concepts of identity

What is identity? We know from intuitive self-awareness that personal identity exists. It seems to be a fact of conscious life, as common as the word “I.” But the real question is how to define it? I have come to realize that there is no set definition on what makes an identity, so if my understanding is correct anything and everything can make an identity. There is no wrong answer. It varies from person to person. For example Andre Dubus, the author of “Witness”makes his identity clear through stories in which he shows his disability. In his case having a disability is part of his identity “I cannot stand or walk . . . I cannot live as normals do.”

As for myself, I can relate, although not to the extent as Dubus, I can understand the anger that goes along with a disability. My disability is anemia, and while most people that suffer from anemia do not see anything other than minor side effects, I do. I am severely anemic, and so it affects my everyday life. I have trouble getting up in the morning because I am too tired, even after a good night sleep. I have to take iron pills and I eat red meat almost every day. Furthermore, I have seen more doctors than I wish to remember and they all tell me the same thing “you’ll grow out of it.” “Really, thanks Doctor, you’ve been so helpful,” I reply sarcastically. Few people know about my sickness, which I plan to keep that way. For some reason I feel that if many people knew about it they would feel bad for me, and could possibly think I was weak, which is the last thing that I want.

Part of my identity is being strong and un-afraid, which is a difficult thing to pull off for a girl. Dave Barry the author of “Guys vs. Men” thinks that a lot of men give “guys” a bad name. Just like Barry I think that a lot of girls give females a bad name. Let me explain. I think that a lot of girls are overly dramatic, way too emotional, and acted dumber than they really are, for reasons that are very unclear to me. I know that I am feeding into the stereotype, but some girls fit the stereotype too well to not comment on.

I refuse to take guff from anyone, unless I deserve it, and I speak what is on my mind. I have heard that I can be very threatening, but I do not believe that I should refrain from speaking my mind when I see it necessary. In Keith Bradshers essay “Reptile Dreams” Clotaire Rapaille describes teens very well by commenting that “They want to give the message, …’I want to be able to fight back, don’t mess with me.’” Clotaire seems to sum up the thoughts of the American youth very well, or at least me. I think that I acquired that aspect of my identity from when I lived in Los Angeles. Zora Neal Hurston explains it well “I left Eatonville, …as Zora…When I disembarked on the river boat…She was no more,” in her essay “How if feels to be Colored Me.”She expressed exactly how I felt when I moved to Sacramento. I felt like I wasn’t myself anymore.

When I lived in Los Angeles I developed an eclectic personality; because I was friends with so many different types of people I took on other aspects of my personality. Unfortunately because I lived in LA I always had to have my guard up, im not sure how to explain it correctly other than, if you lived there you would understand. For the most part everyone had to fend for themselves, and if you weren’t able to do that than you were a follower of someone who did. I later came to realize that ones sense of self, or ones identity is developed through, among other things, external influences including friends, family, and situations.

Now looking back I can see where I have gotten my attitude. I’m smart mouthed, sarcastic, and blunt. Through those traits I have also acquired nicknames. A recent nickname as of this summer was, “Ms. Attitude.” This summer I went wake-boarding with some family friends, their friends, and my best friend. So basically it was my friend and I, and 7 guys. What I came to realize though this summer, is that most guys aren’t used to girls that talk back. Because I am very sarcastic the guys were very surprised, which is why I developed the nickname. They thought it was hilarious, and I was recently told by one of them that they miss my attitude, so I guess I left an impression. What is shocking to me though, is that I usually get that reaction from most guys, which leads me to believe that they have never met any girls from LA.

I moved last summer before senior year to Granite Bay, and attended Granite Bay High School my senior year. I moved from my moms house to my dads house, willingly, to avoid a lot of un-necessary drama. The move was quite unexpected for everyone but myself. I left because I came to realize that my friends were no longer my friends. Many of my friends had begun to do some very hard drugs, and so I no longer wanted to be around them. I knew it was a bad environment, so I left. I have always been very independent and have never relied on anyone else to make decisions for me. I only did what I thought was right, yet after sharing my story with a few new friends in Nor*Cal I witnessed a lot of jaw-dropping, everyone thought that it was such a big deal. My identity quickly developed, I was the girl from L.A. I valued that identity, I almost felt like superman, I was Clark Kent when I was home in LA, and Superman when I was in Sacramento. I say Superman because a lot of people kind of looked at me like that, like I was invincible. I was like nothing any of them were used to. Other than being influenced from where one lives or lived, I believe that family can have a huge impact on ones identity.

For instance, because I was raised by my mom, I turned out differently than if I was raised by my dad. If I was raised by my dad I think I would have turned out much more emotionally detached, and much more independent. I say this because my dads a guy, he doesn’t seem to care about anything other than himself and definitely shows no sign of emotion or feeling, that means no hugs. If I was raised by him Im sure I would have had a job at thirteen and would probably be living on my own now. But because I was raised by my mom I grew being very spoiled, because my mom believes that school is more important than work so I was never allowed to get a job. Unfortunately I grew up having everything handed to me. Which is good because I got everything that I wanted very easily, but bad because I got used to having everything handed to me. In addition, because I grew up living with my mom I became more compassionate and caring because that’s what I was taught. I consider the way I was raised part of my identity, I grew up with very strong ties to my family and that’s part of who I am.

In conclusion, I believe that there is no one way to decipher where an identity can come from. So once again what is identity? humans are the only animal that can be aware of oneself, and so we are also the only animal to contemplate who we are, and why we are that way. Through this constant mission of self discovery everyone seems to have an ever-changing view on their personal identity. It is a fact of conscious life, as common as the word “I,” to want to know who we are. I have come to realize that there is no set definition on what makes an identity, so if my understanding is correct anything and everything can make an identity. There is no wrong answer. It seems to vary from person to person and if any given event, person, action, etc, has effected someone greatly enough it can become part of their identity, even unknowingly. For me writing this paper was a mission of self discovery, I have never really considered who I am other than the obvious. I now know who I am and why I am the way I am. To me that was the hardest thing to answer. Why?

Reflective essay about rite of

Reflective Essay “Do things because you can, not because you should.” (P.155) In the book Rite of Passage by Alexei Panshin there is a philosophy, in the fake universe, that says that people should do things because they can, not because they should. I think it is basically saying that if we know we can get away with things, go for it. However this philosophy wouldn’t work in a society because everyone would be doing things they’re not supposed to be doing and eventually it would backfire.

This philosophy relates to our lives in many ways. When people know they can cheat and hide it, they sometimes take advantage of it. This doesn’t mean that it’s the right thing to do. When I go to the store and they accidentally sell me something for cheaper than what’s its supposed to be, I usually don’t say anything. Even though I know its wrong, I still do it. Just because we know we can do something and escape it doesn’t always mean it’s the right thing to do.

In society people cheat all the time, and sometimes they don’t even know they are cheating. Taxes would be a great example of this philosophy because many people cheat on their taxes. They do it because they know that there are millions of people who do their taxes every year and it would be almost impossible for the government to find everyone who cheated on their taxes. The Bill Clinton scandal is also a great example of this philosophy because he thought he could conceal what he did, but in the end it went all wrong. Bill Clinton did what he did because he thought he could hide it, but it turned out to be wrong. Cheating is wrong no matter how hard someone tries to disguise it.

This philosophy should not be a part of our society because no matter how we put it, cheating is wrong. You can never accede in life if you cheat all the time. This philosophy would never work out in a real society because it has no morals. It is basically saying that people can do anything, but ultimately that will never work in real life because everything would be a big mess. Society would become phony because people wouldn’t be doing things because they are right, they would do them because it was ok. The quote, which says, “cheaters never prosper” is entirely accurate

How does TS Eliot evoke scenes, characters and moral atmosphere in his early poems? Essay considers: ‘Prufrock’, ‘Portrait of a Lady’ and ‘Rhapsody on a windy night’.

Eliot uses a variety of techniques to evoke scenes, characters and moral atmosphere. Such techniques include the use of metaphor and simile to evoke feeling in what Eliot called the ‘objective correlative’ technique, the presence of certain recurring images, the employing of dramatic monologue as well as direct speech, the frequent use of allusion, and the creation of olfactory, aural, and tactile landscapes to compliment the visual ones. As we shall see the evocations of the three elements of poetry in question – scene, character and mood – are interdependent. First, I shall consider the use of dramatic monologue.

Many of Eliot’s early poems are dramatic monologue, most notably …Prufrock and Portrait…These are both evocations of character. In Portrait of a Lady, the narrator is not the lady of the title. We see the lady externally – she is described by the narrator – and we see the narrator internally – he is characterised by his own peculiarities in the way he views the world, which come through most clearly in dramatic monologue. Consider, for example, the following quotation from Portrait…:

Among the windings of the violins

And the ariettes of cracked cornets

Inside my head a dull tom-tom begins

The cornets are not really cracked and the sound of violins need not be winding, this is just how they appear to the narrator. Thus his reluctance to be at the concert is conveyed. Dramatic monologue is used for a similar effect in …Prufrock. Here, the fragmented, anaphoric form of the poem reflects the mode of Prufrock’s thought and so contributes to his characterisation.

As stated earlier, the lady in Portrait of a Lady is depicted externally. We see in this another strategy of Eliot’s for effective characterisation. She is effectively characterised by direct speech. The nagging, repetitious, insistent voice of hers (“And how, how rare and strange it is, to find / In a life composed so much, so much of odds and ends”) conveys the neurotic edge to her character, as well as her loneliness and desperation.

Because, in the dramatic monologue poems, the narrator is characterised by the way in which he perceives his surroundings, an evocation of scene is often really an evocation of character. Thus, another technique for evoking character is the evocation of scene. Eliot makes use of simile, metaphor and the objective correlative technique. For example, in …Prufrock, the evening is described as “Like a patient etherised upon a table”. This sets the scene, as well as conveying Prufrock’s enervation with the world.

Rhapsody on a Windy Night is perhaps the poem in which scene is most important. Here, the ethereal scene is set in the opening stanza, with lines such as “held in a lunar synthesis / Whispering lunar incantations”, and the scene is added to throughout the rest of the poem. The lines:

Along the reaches of the street

Held in a lunar synthesis

Whispering lunar incantations

are an especially effective evocation of scene. The use of suggestive vocabulary, such as “reaches”, gives ominous undertones to the streets. The positioning of “held in a lunar synthesis” is ambiguous: the line could be referring to the lunar incantations or to the street. In fact, the ambiguous positioning allows it to refer to both, emphasising the idea of a “synthesis”. The assonance and sibilance of “Whispering lunar incantations” mimics the sound of incantations, rendering the narrative more vivid. The line “whispering lunar incantations” does not make logical sense: incantations cannot whisper, rather they are themselves whispered. This inversion, and the other subtle effects, serve to heighten the otherworldly nature of the scene.

Eliot often adds to the evocation of scene by stressing the time of year. For example, in Prufrock, the night is “soft October” – a time of decay, but a time of beauty. In Portrait…, it is first “December” – a barren, as well as a romantic time – and then “April” – a time of new life. But here, the boundary between scene and moral atmosphere merges: the month sets the scene, but the scene is a reflection of the mood. Thus, the evocation of scene, as well as being an evocation of character, is an evocation of moral atmosphere. Often, moral atmosphere is a product of scene and character. For example, in …Prufrock, the atmosphere of being trapped is evoked by the evocation of scene (“streets that follow like a tedious argument / Of insidious intent”), as well as the evocation of character – Prufrock’s language is trapped in a circular never-ending crisis of indecision (e.g. frequently returning to the question “…should I…”).

The moral atmosphere is further intensified by Eliot’s use of the objective correlative technique. For example, the “old crab with barnacles on its back” in Rhapsody…, which “gripped the end of a stick”, evokes a sense of yearning and desperation for escape (with death encroaching), which is a theme of the poem. The moral atmosphere of Eliot’s poetry is often similar in its gloom. Therefore, Eliot is able to use recurring images and motifs that further enhance his evocation. One such recurring image is that of being stretched. We see it in: “when the evening is spread out against the sky”, “slowly twisting the lilac stalks”, and “his soul stretched tight across the skies”. It is an image of torture, and exposure. Another such image is that of smoke or fog, present in …Prufrock, Portrait…, and Rhapsody…. This image evokes feelings of being trapped.

Eliot’s poetry often appeals to multiple senses in order to be more evocative. For example, in Rhapsody…, “the reminiscence comes…[of] female smells…and cocktail smells in bars”. This appeals to the sense of smell. In Portrait…, the sense of hearing is played upon, with “attenuated tones of violins / mingled with remote cornets”. Finally, the sense of touch is also appealed to, with such tactile descriptions as “smoothed by long fingers”.

A further method used by Eliot to render his poetry more evocative is that of allusion. Alluding to other literature allows Eliot to capture a vast amount of meaning in relatively few words. For example, “an atmosphere of Juliet’s tomb” is something very hard to describe fully. In fact, to gain an appreciation of the full range of its meaning, one must be familiar with Romeo and Juliet. Eliot is able to use the allusion to add the full range of meaning to his poem. Another example of allusion is Prufrock’s “I have seen my head…brought in upon a platter”. Here, knowledge of the circumstances surrounding John the Baptist’s death adds meaning to the poetry. Eliot often includes epigraphs at the beginning of his poems. These are evocative by suggesting one of the main themes of the poem. For example, in Portrait…, the inclusion of the line “and besides, the wench is dead” from The Jew of Malta add to the characterisation of the man in the poem as cruelly dismissive and detached.

Should the Death Penalty Be Abolished or Should It Stay?

Capital Punishment is the death penalty. It is used today and was used in the olden times to punish multiple types of crimes. Even the Bible supports death for murder and other crimes like kidnapping and witchcraft.. When the word death penalty is used, it causes both sides of the issue start to argue. Yes the subject of the death penalty has two different sides, which are the pro and con. To specify the definition of the two sides, the pro side is for it and the con side is of course against it. The death penalty is the intentional taking of a human life by a government in response to a crime committed by that legally convicted person. Throughout this essay we will be reading from both sides of the issue. Should the death penalty be abolished or shouldn’t it. We will have to decide that four ourselves, but this writer believes that the death penalty is fair and has justice.
Did you know that the death penalty has history of its own? The first known death penalty laws are found as far back as the Eighteenth Century B.C. in the Code of King Hammaurabi of Babylon, and they were for twenty-five different crimes. In the Seventh Century B.C.’s Draconian Age the death penalty was the only sentence to any crime anyone committed and also in the Fifth Century Roman Law of the twelve tablets. Death sentences were carried out by crucifixion, drowning, beating to death, burning alive, and impalement.(Part 1 History of the Death Penalty) In the Tenth Century A.D., hanging became the usual method of execution in Britain. As time passed the laws changed in Britain, by the 1700’s there were over two hundred 223 punishable crimes, which included stealing or cutting down a tree.(Part 1 history of the Death Penalty page 1)
America was actually influenced for the death penalty by Britain. For example, when the European setters came to what they knew as the New World. the first execution was Captain George Kendall. Kendall was executed for being a spy for Spain. In 1612, Virginia Governor Sir Thomas Dale came up with the Divine, Moral and Martial Laws. The Divine, Moral, and Martial Laws are laws that if you were even caught stealing grapes, killing chickens, and trading with Indians will get you the death penalty.(Part 1 History of the death penalty, the death penalty in America.)
All colonies have different laws and reasons for receiving the death penalty. The Massachusetts Bay Colony held its first execution in 1630. The New York Colony established the Duke’s Law of 1665. Under these laws, offenses such as hitting someone’s mother ort father, or denying the “True God,” were punishable by death.( Part 1 History of the Death Penalty, the death penalty in America). As you can tell, the laws for the death penalty have changed many times throughout history. Now to be convicted to a life sentence you have to be committed with murder. There are people who were against the death penalty and just thought it was useless then and now. What are their reason’s on why they are against it so much?
People against the death penalty say that the fear of the death penalty has never reduced crime. Throughout history, executions were public and brutal. Some criminals were even crushed to death slowly under heavy weight. Crime was more common than it is now. Evidence shows execution does not act as a deterrent to capital punishment. That never stopped them from committing murder and other crimes, so they should just stop.( Top 10 Pros and Cons, deterrence).
Another reason for the disagreement between the two sides are people who are convicted are innocent. You would think that the states that have the death penalty should be free from murder, but those states have the most, and the states that abolished the death penalty have less.( Top10 Pros and Cons, Irrevocable Mistakes.) Another reason why we should abolish the death penalty , is that the death penalty fails to rehabilitate. What would it accomplish to put someone on death row? The victim is already dead and you cannot bring them back. When the convicted feel the “Fear of death”, will prevent one from committing murder, it is not true because most murders are done on the “heat of passion” when a person cannot think correctly. Therefore, how can one even have time to think of fear in the heat of passion?( Top 10 Pros and Cons, Deterrence)
For the death penalty the pros point of view. There are many reasons why some think we should not abolish the death penalty, one reason is that millions are being killed and will be killed because our justice system is not working. Some are stabbed, shot, assaulted. Crime growth has been going up in the past because of too much compassion going hand in hand with the increase rate of people being mistreated. There are many loop holed created for offenders, and because of that crime rate has increased drastically.(Top 10 Pros and Cons)
The next is free will. When you commit a felony, it is a matter of free will. No one is forced to commit armed robbery, murder, or rape. The everyday person doesn’t really have the mind or intentions to become a killer. What every one is worried about is being a victim. The next reason is that the death penalty has and always will save lives and here is why. When the police or state officials catch someone who has committed murders over and over again, they are saving who knows how many lives. It gets a murderer off the street and in a penitentiary. People against the death penalty say that the state is a murderer also.( Pros and Cons of Capital Punishment, Phil for humanity,#3)
I have heard a couple people say that execution is murder, than killing someone in war is murder also. The death penalty is very important to protect the person’s right to live. Is arresting someone that same as kidnapping? So executing someone is not murder; it is punishment by society for a deserving criminal. Everyone has their own point of view on these topics, I will be expressing my opinion on whether I think the death penalty should be abolished or should it stay?
My point of view on the death penalty would have to be that it should stay the same as it is. I think that if someone decided to kill someone for absolutely no reason they should be put in prison and out to death. I know it may sound harsh but this hits me close to home. My brother died out of the U.S. borders. We struggled with the U.S. Ambassadors over in Africa to find out more information. They didn’t really help all that much, but we finally found out what happened. One of my brother’s co-workers murdered him because my brother was fixing equipment because he was ready to come home and see his family, loving wife and three beautiful kids. When we found out this information, we also found out that the company my brother was working for actually sent my brother’s murderer back to the United States. The U.S. ambassadors said that they had no jurisdiction and that we could not get justice on my brother’s death. I think that someone who kills another for money should most definitely be put to death . I am not very worried about my own safety, who knows where the murderer’s are. If we didn’t have the death penalty than the crime rate would drastically increase. I really don’t think people would like that very much.
Since we have the death penalty we now know that our victim’s families will get some type of closure. People are right when they say that it will not bring back the victim, at least the murderer isn’t on the street. The death penalty has the right to live. Just as I mentioned earlier in the essay that is arresting someone the same as kidnapping. No, it isn’t, it is called punishing someone who has done something that they should not have done. The death penalty isn’t murder it is just punishing someone who killed another.
My conclusion on the death penalty is that it has history. The death penalty has been around for hundreds to thousands of years, it all came to two sides, one side that was for it and the other who thought that it should be abolished that it was considered as murdering also. The government has their ways to protecting us. So let the government agencies do their job, it’s definitely not hurting you its protecting you. So now I leave the decision to you . Do you think that the death penalty should be abolished or do you think that it should remain the same.

Free College Essays – Rip Van Winkle as Fairy Tale

In the short story “Rip Van Winkle” , Washington Irving tells a story of a man who sleeps through the revolution. This story demonstrates two ways of looking at Revlutionary history, one of myth and one of fact. The mythical representation wins out, through popularity, over the factual representation.

In the story, Rip Van Winkle wanders off to the mountains and runs across some small men who are rolling bowling balls and drinking. Rip witnesses all this and joins them in their drinking until he passes out. When he wakes up, everything has changed the people, the town, and himself. After he tells his story, he becomes very popular among the townspeople, whereas before he was seen as lazy.

The two characters that mainly represent the opposing sides are Rip and the man with the cocked hat. The man in the cocked hat represents the factual representation. Upon Rip’s entrance into the town, the man asks him very direct question and expects very direct answers. If someone were to ask the man where he had been for the past twenty years he probably would would have told the story of the revolution and specific battles. He is not interested in tales, only the facts. From his description, “the man with the cocked hat,” cocked can also mean leadership. The man was a leader, or at least an authority at the time Rip returned. Rip on the other hand, tells a tale that is reminiscent of a fairy tale. He talks of little men and drinking. He uses symbols to represent the story of the revolution.

The community perfers the fairy tale version over fact. This is evident through Rip’s gain in popularity and the commn knowledge of his story. Irving writes, “and not a man, woman, or child in the neighbourhood, but knew it by heart” while “the self-important man in the cocked hat…screwed down the corners of his mouth, and shook his head – upon which there was a general shaking of the head throughout the assemblage.” This demonstrates that the community wants the revolution to look a certain way; they want it to be fun and symbolic, so Rip’s version fits better.

The townspeople in the story may prefer a fairy tale but this can be problematic. The symbols in Rip’s story become so far removed from the actual occurances that it is hard to tell what some of the symbols represent. In the story, the thunderous rolling bowling balls represent the sound of gun fire from the revolution. The symbolism of the small men is vague. They could represent the brittish because they are small and they disappear, or they could represent the colonists because of their odd appearance. This is caused by a divorce from the facts. The symbolism becomes lost. So although the community gets what they want, and Rip gets what he wants it is not necessarily what is best for them or the memory of the Revolution.

Carton and Darnay- a compare and contrast essay

For many years, people across the world have been in admiration, fixation, and curiosity about the inquisitive novel, “A Tale of Two Cities”, written by one of the most prestigious writers of all time, Charles Dickens. Individuals have questioned of Dr. Manette’s struggle to overcome insanity after recuperating from the troubles of prison, what the several motifs, such as “blood” written on the wall, means, and why Mr. Defarge goes to 105 North Tower. These are only a few examples of the countless subjects brought up from this novel. However, the prime unanswered question of this novel is, “Are Charles Darnay and Sydney Carton most similar or different in ‘A Tale of Two Cities’?” Numerous debates have arisen from this topic, however, the best way to find the answer is to compare and contrast Charles Darnay and Sydney Carton’s personalities, appearances, and values.

In numerous ways, Charles Darnay and Sydney Carton’s appearances are alike, and in several extents, they are different. For instance, as Carton speaks to Darnay about himself, he mutters, “Why should you particularly like a man who resembles you?” (82). This reveals that the men’s comparable mannerisms are recognized. Additionally, while in court for Darnay’s trial, the attorney points out that the prisoner and Carton are “sufficiently like each other to surprise.” (72). This is possibly the first recognition of the resemblance of the two men. After this realization in court, many other begin noticing the similarities of Darnay and Carton. However, the two men have multitudinous differences in their appearances as well. Charles Darnay is about “five-and-twenty, well-grown and well-looking…plainly dressed in black.” (60). Darnay is altogether a young gentleman. His appearance at court is presentable, respectable, and appropriate. Likewise, Sydney Carton’s appearance is “careless and slovenly, if not debouched” (72). Carton’s overall look is terribly careless and repulsive. Many people have difficulties taking him seriously while dressed carelessly. In conclusion, Sydney Carton and Charles Darnay’s appearances, similar and different in innumerable approaches, greatly influence their lifestyles.

Similar to Darnay and Carton’s appearances, both men have resembling and contrasting personalities. For example, throughout the day in court for Darnay’s trial, he is “quiet and attentive…with great interest” (62). On the contrary, in another day at court, Carton changes “neither his place nor his attitude, even in this excitement.” Both men show timidity while with a group of people. They are reserved and modest in court. On the other hand, these two men exhibit different ways of keeping promises. To exemplify, after Darnay’s mother dies, he wishes in, “seeking to execute the last request of [his] dear mother’s lips.”(112). In contrast, as Stryver’s ally, Sydney Carton is “idlest and most unpromising of men”(83). In conclusion, Darnay and Carton are most different in their personalities.

In addition to appearance and personality, the two men have similar and different values. For example, both men have a great love for Lucie Manette. Darnay has unselfish affection for Lucie, and he “had loved Lucie from the hour of his danger.”(126). Similarly, as Carton speaks to Lucie, he tells her, “For you, and for any dear to you, I would do anything”(147). However, the two men show different ways of handling their problems. While Darnay is in London, he “expected labor, and he found it, and made the best of it” Charles Darnay makes the best of every situation. He knows what to expect and tries his best. However, Sydney Carton “resorted to his pint of wine for consolation”(82) after Darnay’s court trial. He tries to cope with his pain by drinking. The two men show very similar and different values.

As long as many can remember, several readers around the world remain in wonder, enthrallment, and interest about the fascinating novel, A Tale of Two Cities, written by Charles Dickens. Individuals have questioned of Dr. Manette’s effort to conquer madness after recovering from the problems of prison, what the numerous motifs, such as “blood” written on the wall, means, and why Mr. Defarge visits 105 North Tower. These are only a couple examples of the countless subjects brought up from this novel. However, the prime unanswered question of this novel is, “Are Charles Darnay and Sydney Carton most similar or different in A Tale of Two Cities?” Several discussions have occurred from this subject, though, the preeminent method to discover the answer is to compare and contrast Charles Darnay and Sydney Carton’s personalities, appearances, and values.

Critical essay describing the theme and stylistic elements used by Ayn Rand in “The Fountainhead” with bibliography

Egoism Versus Altruism: Ayn Rand’s The Fountainhead

Ayn Rand in her controversial novel, The Fountainhead, written in 1935, depicts a man’s struggle for independence and freedom from the tyranny of a collective society. Howard Roark is the heroic, redheaded architect whose selfish desire to express his own truths makes him incapable of destruction despite the efforts of the people. Set in the streets of New York in the 1920s during the age of the skyscraper, the novel conveys the effort to retain individuality in the face of negative forces. Ayn Rand uses scholarly diction, narrative technique, and unique imagery to institute a theme of individuality versus collectivism, where the egotistical characters strive to act independently and are constantly brought down by society. In The Fountainhead, humanity has a herd mentality, and the individuals must act selfishly in order to be free.

Living in St. Petersburg, Ayn Rand was influenced into writing stories with heroic visions, which thoroughly opposed the mysticism and collectivism of Russian culture. She witnessed the Kerensky and the Bolshevik Revolutions first-hand before her family moved to America, and she immediately took the States as her model of what a nation of free men could be (The Institute of Ayn Rand). She struggled for many years at various non-writing jobs before Ayn sold her first screenplay, “Red Pawn.” Ms. Rand went on to publish a stage play, Night of January Sixteenth, and several novels such as, We the Living, The Fountainhead, and Atlas Shrugged. In all of these works of fiction, Ayn Rand dramatized her unique philosophy of the individual versus the whole in an intellectual style filled with imagery, intelligent diction, and narrative technique. While Rand believed that one ought to be selfish, Thomas Hobbes, an English philosopher, argued that the self of a human being is a vulgar thing (Machan). Ayn felt that a self can choose what to do and has a great capacity to excel, which would imply that selfishness is creative, productive, industrious, and rational (Machan). Her vision of man and her philosophy for living have altered many of the reader’s lives and unleashed a philosophic movement with a growing impact on American culture (The Institute of Ayn Rand).

Ayn Rand wrote The Fountainhead to discuss how individuals of creative genius, although the source of all human productivity, are misunderstood and persecuted by the great unwashed. Howard Roark is the epiphany of the gifted intellect who is constantly disregarded by the mob, which Ayn makes clear throughout the entire novel. In the beginning of the story when the Dean informed Howard that he was being expelled from The Stanton Institute of Technology because of his unique imagination, the Dean easily exclaimed that Mr. Roark would “outgrow all [his modernistic views of architecture],” but Howard was not swayed by his shrewd words and was determined on finding architectural work (Rand 24). At a young impressionable age, Roark was able to resist the persistence of society and remain true to himself. Rand portrays him as the lone hero fighting against the world, which makes the readers admire his talent and courage. Countless proposals to design buildings were offered to Howard, and most of them he rejected because the chairmen attempted to alter his sketches by adding ornamental porticos and facades. With each dismissed commission, Roark simply explained why “an honest building, like an honest man, had to be of one piece and one faith… if one smallest part committed treason to that idea – the thing of the creature was dead” (196). He is not sustained by the thoughts of others but by his own selfish need to create, to unleash the buildings that reside inside his soul. Roark, an atheist, treats his work with the respect and reverence that other men lavish over God. To him, insincerity towards one’s work is the worst blasphemy possible. When Howard first encounters Henry Cameron trying to acquire an architectural job, Roark is asked why he decided to be an architect, and he replies with “because I love this earth. That’s all I love. I don’t like the shape of things on this earth. I want to change them…for myself” (49). Public approval is not an issue to Roark, because when he designs a perfect building, the only reward that matters to him is the elation of knowing that he has solved an architectural puzzle. “[Howard] will be glad if people who need it find a better manner of living in a house [he] designed. But that’s not the motive of [his] work. Nor [his] reason. Nor [his] reward” (578). He wants his buildings to be erected according exactly to his designs – pure and unaltered – to reflect his integrity as an architect. Roark knows that even small compromises can weaken his morality and destroy the honor of his architecture. As a selfish individual, Roark chooses to never live for others, forever acting upon his own volition and desires.

Throughout The Fountainhead, Ayn Rand shows a very distinctive style of narrative technique, which she employs to advance her concept of individualism versus collectivism. Rand writes for pages upon pages describing her characters and situating them into different roles of objectivism. She applies values, such as the struggle of the underdog, admiration for competence, integrity, and idealism, and a passion for justice, that appeal automatically to the public (Thomas). When she first introduces Peter Keating, it is obvious to the readers that he is a foil of Howard, and while Roark’s character is utilized to represent the power of egoism, Ayn uses Keating’s character to symbolize the failure of collectivism. Keating is illustrated as being “soft and bright as a sponge to be filled, unresisting, with the air and the mood of the place” (Rand 53). Capable of transforming into whomever his audience coveted, he manipulates his co-workers and flatters his boss to move up in the architectural world. Keating is a second-hander, someone who defines himself by what others believe, and he has no true sense of self because he is too impressionable. Peter lives in fear his entire life: fear that his work will not be good enough, fear that he cannot measure up to what others expect from him, fear that someday his success will vanish (Sakuda). Keating chooses his clothes, his wife, and his actions according to accepted guidelines and has no true integrity, and because of his lack of dignity, Keating destroys himself and anyone close to him. Rand also applies the technique of inverting the value of supposed meaning of common terms, including sympathy, which becomes a symptom of profound evil (Thomas). Ellsworth Toohey is an accurate portrayal for this malevolence, which Ayn makes clear several times throughout The Fountainhead. He attended regularly several monthly meetings of the Council of American Builders, the Council of American Writers, and the Council of American Artists; he had organized them all (Rand 305). Ayn creates Toohey to be someone who cares for the masses and the struggles of the mediocre man, but in reality, he uses the weaknesses of others to control them. He thrives on power and its accumulation, which he achieves through his control of the collective opinion. Rand composes Toohey to be the true villain in the novel, and the only person to understand the concept of objectivism but not follow its beliefs.

Ayn Rand intended for The Fountainhead to be filled with American experience, with the life of the American city, with the lives of American people pursuing archetypically American occupations; she wanted the book to be a work of American literature, and so Rand uses the diction of Americans (Cox). In one scene where there is a group of writers listening to a playwright read his play, one person responds to his efforts in the way in which a cynically self-satisfied American intellectual elitist could be expected to respond. She raises her arms, stretches herself, and says, “Jesus, Ike, it’s awful…It’s perfectly awful. It’s so awful it’s wonderful.” And Ike responds in the way in which a cynically defensive American could be expected to respond. “If Ibsen can write plays, why can’t I?” he says. “He’s good and I’m lousy, but that’s not a sufficient reason” (Rand 468). The writers are trying to project themselves as individuals, but they try too hard and produce an American combination of pretentiousness and self-abasement. In the climatic episode, Roark is placed on trial before a court to determine if he is the American hero or the American villain. He wins his own trial by arguing the more general case of American individualism and vindicates America, “the noblest country in the history of men,” as well as himself (684). Rand also applies repetition for aesthetic patterning, and a succession of events is necessary for a sense of history. To form a pattern and reinforce a history, Rand introduces not just Roark but also his mentor and precursor, Henry Cameron. Roark as architect represents the individualism of the era of Frank Lloyd Wright; Cameron as architect represents the individualism of the era of Louis Sullivan (Cox). Cameron and Roark together represent the historical pattern and continuity of the American creative imagination. Through the intelligent American diction employed by Rand, she is able to shape the theme of objectivism.

Throughout The Fountainhead, Ayn Rand continuously utilizes symbols, motifs, and imagery as a means to further explore the characters’ different personalities in the novel. Granite is applied multiple times by Rand as an association with Roark’s character, which symbolizes his external and internal characteristics. Resembling the rock, Roark’s face, body, and mind are unbreakable, atypical, rigid, and stunning, but he is even more powerful than the stone that epitomizes him (SparkNotes). The symbol is first introduced in the beginning of the novel with Howard standing naked at the edge of a cliff and the lake water crashing into the granite below thinking “these rocks…are here for me; waiting for the drill, the dynamite and my voice; waiting to be split, ripped, pounded, reborn; waiting for the shape my hands will give them” (Rand 16). This is a perfect example of Roark overcoming the granite and molding it into his desires and dreams, while he never allows the general public to manipulate him into their wishes and visions. It is also very fitting that Howard is acquainted with Dominique Francon, his future wife, while working in a granite quarry during the slump of his career. She journeyed down to the quarry many times to scrutinize every move Roark made, and “she liked to think of the granite being broken by his hands,” not by the drill or dynamite (207). Dominique loathes every part of Howard and craves the demise of him, yet she discovers him irresistible and yearns to see him again and again. She vows to destroy Roark because she considers him and his work too good for this world. Ms. Francon is characterized as someone who is convinced that good does not stand a chance in this world, and as a result, she does not allow herself care about anything or anyone, which is the reason Dominique hopes Roark will be destroyed by the drilling (Sakuda). By the end of the novel, Roark’s ability to shape the granite according to his desires pleases her. Roark is tall and strong, all straight angles, like the structures he builds, and like these buildings, he also is a final perfect creation of the granite that produces impeccable men in a cruel harsh world. Rand portrays Howard’s genius and integrity as unyielding as the raw materials for his buildings-to-be.

By the end of the novel, Rand has depicted the strength of the individual and the vulnerability of the collective society, and our gallant hero overcame the odds. Ayn was able to introduce an idea of an objective society, which many people still believe in today. The Fountainhead is story that all people can grasp, and those who claim it is overblown nonsense would be surprised by how faithfully its playbook is followed. Ayn conceives the theme of egoism versus altruism through clever diction, imagery, and distinctive narrative technique. It is a book that teaches all its readers to be an individual and to stand out in the crowd, and even to be selfish.

This essay is about my world veiw and how to make the world a better place to live in.

There is nothing which can be done to totally improve the world’s condition presently. However, there is something which can de done for the betterment of the world’s condition. The main point which could affect the condition of the world is Education. Education provides people with knowledge, communication skills, discipline, and also with dignity. “Education’s purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one” said Malcolm Forbes. The supporting idea which could improve the world’s current situation is Religion. Religion provides people with a belief system consisting of discipline, tradition, culture, and morality. Matthew Arnold had said that “the true meaning of religion is thus not simply morality, but morality touched with emotion”. Last thing that might help is looking at the world in a social aspect. Being social gives us a more understanding character, and it gives us more information about the current issues which at least makes us not ignorant, and it also makes us more open to people. If a person has knowledge, good communication skills, discipline, dignity, a belief system consisting of traditions, cultures, and moral values, understanding, not ignorant, and more open, than that person could cause no harm or trouble to anyone. If billions of people view the world as an educational, religious, and also a social place, then the condition of the world would be greatly improved and would be a “heaven” to some people.

Today, people have no time to do anything. They are so busy working that they don’t even know what is going on around them. All they want to do is to earn money. Money is everything for everyone these days. Money brings happiness to people nowadays, which is totally wrong. Money can never bring peace in anyone’s life. Money can actually ruin a persons’ life by bringing jealousy, and proud into that person. If a person has a lot of money, he tends to have more power on others, which usually leads to an evil act or a selfish act. Billions of people look at the world in an economic view which is the cause of all the politics tensions, wars, and all different kinds of riots and disasters. However, if people look at the world in different aspects, the world could be a better place to live in.

“Education’s purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one” said Malcolm Forbes. Education can improve the world’s condition greatly. Without Education, people would just live like cavemen and cavewomen. They will have no idea about anything. If everyone in this world is educated, there would be fewer problems in the world for example, over population. Education provides people with knowledge, communication skills, discipline, and also with dignity. From knowledge, we learn, understand, and analyze. We need to learn in order to know how things work. We understand by the learning and by all this learning and understanding, we can analyze things. From good communication skills, we tend to communicate well with others with created a better understanding between others. From discipline, people get self-control. Having self-control is always good because you know how and when to act. Lastly, from dignity, people learn how to respect themselves which brings in them an optimistic view. Education can provide all these qualities in a person. Education can make the world’s condition better which would create fewer problems in the world.

“The true meaning of religion is thus not simply morality, but morality touched with emotion” said Matthew Arnold. Religion could also improve the condition of the world with the support of education. Without religion, people would have no belief system or any traditions and cultures. People would not have any history of their own backgrounds and their ethnic values. A religion teaches us what is good and what is bad for us. Religion provides people with a belief system consisting of discipline, tradition, culture, and morality. We need a belief system in order to keep a systematic schedule between work and also personal life. We need discipline because we need self-control. Having self-control is always good because you know how and when to act. We need traditions and cultures because without traditions and cultures, we will just live out lives as a robot. We will not have any festivals and will not believe in anyone or God. Traditions and cultures affect the way we look at things and also affect our thinking. Our traditions and cultures make us act as we do. Lastly, religion provides us with moral values. We need moral values in order to know what is good and what is bad for us. Without religion, we are nothing but just a bunch of people looking at the world in a very practical view with results in selfishness.

Supported with education, and religion, looking at the world in a social aspect also helps to improve the world’s condition. If a person is not socially involved, it is likely that that person would have fewer knowledge of what is going on around the world as that person would not discuss about current affairs with others. That person would also not know other people properly which could results in disaster especially during bad times when you need someone’s help. Being social gives us a more understanding character, and it gives us more information about the current issues which at least makes us not ignorant, and it also makes us more open to people. You need to be more understanding in order for you to make good relationship with other people which make it easier to be socially involved. If you are more understanding, people will tend to talk to you more, which could result in being open with other people. Being socially involved can be very enjoyable yet also could be very beneficial.

If billions of people view the world as an educational, religious, and also a social place, then the condition of the world would be greatly improved and would be a “heaven” to some people. Education provides people with knowledge, communication skills, discipline, and also with dignity. Religion provides people with a belief system consisting of discipline, tradition, culture, and morality. Being social gives us a more understanding character, and it gives us more information about the current issues which at least makes us not ignorant, and it also makes us more open to people. If a person has knowledge, good communication skills, discipline, dignity, a belief system consisting of traditions, cultures, and moral values, understanding, not ignorant, and more open, than that person could cause no harm or trouble to anyone. Education is needed because it makes a person who he/she really is and what his/her capabilities are. Religion is needed because it is necessary for every individual in a society. Being social is needed in order for your own recognition in a society. Every person needs to be educated, religious, and also social. These are the three aspects of life. Billions of people’s life could be enhanced if everyone views this world in these three aspects.

Nine stages of the family life cycle.

In every person there is a similarity, which is everyone at some time in their life is exposed to the family life cycle. This essay will focus on the nine stage version on the family life cycle. People all grow, adapt, and find their own niche in society and this aspect of living would be impossible without the family life cycle. Starting with two people and covering all the bases of love, compromises, marriage, child bearing, child raising, teen rebellion, letting go of child, and old age is what will be the context of this essay.

The family life cycle is based around two solitary individuals that for some reason meet and have a connection. People will often experience a few common characteristics when they believe themselves to be in love and this is defined as limerance. Limerance is an emotional state one feels towards another that is often described as romantic love and is said to be heavenly. People are said at this stage to feel desires emotionally and physically for their partner. First to develop in romantic love is passion whereby there is a strong sexual attraction to a mate. Idealization will often occur when in limerance and the object of love will be placed on a pedestal. This is when negative and neutral traits can sometimes be overlooked or even seem impressing.

The second stage in the family life cycle consists of comprises that the couple will make for each other. This is often the breaking up stage of many couples that fail to comprise with each other. In this stage a desire for exclusivity is usually established. The psychological needs of the two involved in the relationship are set at this point and people have usually already found some negativity in their mate. Physical requirements must also be made of the two venturing into a more intense friendship. The standards are at this point set.

Marriage is an acknowledged sexual and economic union between two or more people. People usually make legal agreements to honour each other for life at this phase. A healthy relationship will not change with the title marriage and will continue to evolve as it was before the consensual agreement. People prepare for parenthood, or typically aim to do so at this stage. They join together as the foundation of a family and assign duties to each other such as housecleaning, cooking, bills, dog walking, etc. Usually people live together when married, which is common for the majority of societies. Marriage is frequently being overlooked in our Western society and common law union is becoming more frequent. Common law union is established after people have been living together for a set period of time and do not want the legal marriage certificate.

Childbearing is the next step in the family life cycle. A healthy environment is crucial to the growth of a child and is usually sustained prior to the pregnancy or during the pregnancy. Couples typically restructure their lives to allow for a complete change in their ordinary lifestyles. No more late nights partying, dinners out at nice restaurants, sleeping 8-10hours a night when the babies come along. New parents are usually very protective of their creation and feel a new sense of responsibility to care and love their babies. Of course there are people that drop babies off in dumpsters and do horrible inhumane things to their children, but that is a completely different essay. This is the stage when a new found pride and love is experienced by the couple when they reproduce or adopt.

Child-raising is said to be the most difficult task one can take on in their life and is also the next stage in the cycle. Many decisions are to be made that drastically affect the couple and their child at this point in the cycle. Whether one parent will stay home and be a full time houseparent or the child will be put into daycare or another person will watch the child, are the decisions that have to be made by the parents. A healthy environment must be maintained for the child to learn and develop. The child’s interests and talents are established when they are only 2andahalf to 6 years old. Responding to the child’s needs is critical for parents. Adapting is the hardest part of this stage and it is when many parents feel an immense amount of stress and lack of personal time. When the child becomes a pre-teen (6-13 years old) the parents must foster a healthy educational environment. Some independency is usually given to the child, which is hard for the parents to do and also hard on the child.

A child 13-20 years old is discovering their own personal interests and needs. This is hard for the parent to cope with especially when their teen’s views and morals may conflict with their own values. Freedom can either be slowly given to the teen at this stage by the parents or taken by the teen when they feel their parents are not giving them enough freedom. A responsibility for them self must be learned by the teen before they can venture into the world without mommy and daddy. At this stage the teen is being socialized to function in society on their own. Often teenagers will get their first jobs and learn how much things cost like shoes, clothes and other luxuries they before this time had had their parents pay for.

Families with young adults are preparing to send their offspring off to live on their own. Often this is when young adults live in semi-independence. They will be supported by their parents and family in some aspects but possibly live on their own or on campus or even just rarely go home. Their family may give them some money and help with the transition of becoming totally independent. At this stage a nurturing home is set up for the young adult to return home to occasionally.

Post-parenting couples are the next stage. These people must relearn to live alone together and often is not as exciting as it was the first time when they were much younger and did not have kids. A new marriage relationship is established while keeping in touch with their young adults. In this stage the children of the post-parenting couples are already beginning to experience limerance and relationships of their own.

The final stage is aging couples and includes retirement and beyond. The adapting in this stage is one that the parents have to deal with along with their children. No longer working the now retired couple has to find things to do and worry more about health. Making final wills is a difficult task many people do as they age. There may be the inevitable loss of their spouse at this stage. This can devastate most people and is also often when the remaining parent will join one of their children’s families forming an extended family.

The family life cycle is often not perfect and the way I have outlined it is not the way most people life their lives but is the “standard” way of living most people can agree to. It is a process which must continue to progress and change with the times of the world but not cut out reproducing, in order to sustain human life. The family life cycle then is a guide on to how to live and what to expect, void of all problems and imperfections encountered in life.

Almost Famous: Essay On Entertainment Criticism

04 October 2000 Almost Famous: Essay on Entertainment Criticism A rolling stone gathers no moss. If Cameron Crowe is to be believed, a 15-year-old Rolling Stone writer will gather all kinds of things. Not the least of which are life experience, sexual exploits, and rock and roll insights. Almost Famous is Crowe’s semi-autobiographical account of a young man taking the fast lane to adulthood on the tour bus with a rising rock and roll band. The critics are almost unanimous in their praise of this peek at the backstage machinations of the 1970′s rock music scene. The critics feel that Cameron Crowe’s script and direction, combined with breakout performances from Kate Hudson and Patrick Fugit in major roles, and enhanced by the scintillating talents of Frances McDormand and Phillip Seymour Hoffman in supporting roles, tells a natty tale of life by misadventure.

Almost Famous tells the story of William Miller (newcomer Patrick Fugit), an underage prodigy-writer attempting to document the thrills and spills of life on the road with a burgeoning rock and roll band called Stillwater. The first verse of this protracted rock and roll number is where we first meet William Miller (played initially by Michael Angarano). He is a precocious eleven-year-old boy living in San Diego, California. For reasons unexplained, his mother Elaine (Frances McDormand) has convinced him that he’s 13. She has skipped him forward two grades in school, so this fiction continues until his rebellious older sister Anita (Zooey Deschanel), in a great scene, forces Elaine to tell the truth.

The second verse jumps forward four years to 1973; William is now free-lancing articles and reviews for local and school newspapers. Soon William meets the legendary Lester Bangs (Phillip Seymour Hoffman) the editor-critic of the San Diego based Creem magazine. Lester becomes a mentor for William and soon hires him to cover a Black Sabbath concert at a local venue. William’s first hurdle comes when he is denied back-stage access and is forced to wait outside with the groupies. He meets the Band-aids, a group of girls including Sapphire (Fairuza Balk) and Polexia (Anna Paquin) who are led by Penny Lane (Kate Hudson). Penny says the girls are not groupies because they don’t have sex with the musicians. They think of themselves as muses acting as the inspiration for rock-and-roll music. Penny introduces William to Stillwater. The members of the band promptly dub him “the enemy” and disregard him. William will not be denied and impresses the band, particularly lead guitarist Russell Hammond (Billy Crudup) and singer Jeff Bebe (Jason Lee), with his knowledge of their music. The band members get William inside for the show and then inexplicably invite him to join them in Los Angeles. His access to Stillwater lands William an assignment with the preeminent music magazine of the time, Rolling Stone. He is given the assignment of touring with the band to document the dirty little secrets of rock music.

The third verse is the saga of the tour. This is the longest movement of the piece and is comprised of numerous vignettes connected by regularly spaced scenes from the bus, and later, by a delightful scene on an airplane. Conflicts abound for William during this segment as he develops a friendship with Russell and an infatuation with Penny. Then he loses his cherry to the Band-aids, sans their leader. William must decide if his loyalty is to his craft or to his new friends. Then he must decide who deserves his friendship when Russell’s hidden nature is displayed, Penny overdoses, and the tour ends.

The fourth verse is short and bittersweet. Russell tells William to write whatever he wants. William decides that what he wants to write is the truth and then is crushed when Russell decries the entire article as fiction. This costs William his credibility with his editor and he returns home exhausted and disenchanted.

Elaine and Lester provide the chorus that holds it all together as they try to guide William, by phone, through this developmental stage of his life. Lester is the sage with advice like: “These people are not your friends,” and “Be honest and unmerciful.” Elaine is his conscience, exclaiming, “Don’t take drugs,” and “I know what’s going on there.” In the end it is mostly a happy song. Penny sets Russell up, tricking him into visiting William at home, and everyone realizes that friends are among the most important things in life.

The overwhelming majority of critics viewed Cameron Crowe’s script writing and direction in a positive light. Most critics thought that the characters were well developed and that Crowe’s direction brought out the best of his cast. For example, James Berardinelli said the script “sparkles with wit and intelligence” (2). Roger Ebert of The Chicago Sun-Times echoed the sentiment and said the film was “funny and touching in so many different ways” (1). In a similar vein, Andrew Johnston of Us said the movie was “as exuberant and intoxicated with possibility as the music of the period the film celebrates” (48). A. O. Scott of The New York Times lauded Crowe as “an unmatched comic portraitist” (2). Crowe’s directorial style was similarly complimented. Scott Renshaw said, “Crowe’s uncanny ability to direct actors” created a “moment to moment pleasure” so powerful it masked any distractions (1). Kenneth Turan of The Los Angeles Times said of Crow: “[A]s a director he’s got the wisdom of an old soul” (2). Jay Carr of The Boston Globe called the effort, “Hollywood filmmaking at it’s best” (2). Renshaw also said of Crowe, “I’m tempted to call him America’s most effortlessly gifted film-maker” (1).

Although most critics were delighted by Crowe’s script and direction, there were some voices of dissent. Edward Guthmann of The San Francisco Chronicle, for example, called the movie “a sweet but curiously unfulfilling story” (1). Terry Lawson of The Detroit Free Press seconded Guthmann in disapproval and opined of the movie that it “never quite arrives” (2). Ben Varkentine said of Crowe’s scripts in general, “I don’t believe [they] would stand on their own,” and added of this script that it, “does little to help Fugit or the other actors” (2). John Anderson summed up the naysayers with this gem: “[T]he entire movie is as consequential as the Raspberries’ greatest hits” (1).

In addition to Mr. Crowe’s efforts in the production end of the film, the critics found the breakout performances by Patrick Fugit and Kate Hudson to be particularly endearing. The critics described the performances of these two relative Hollywood newcomers as fresh and accurate to the intent of the script. In one example of this, Jack Garner said of Hudson: “Hudson ["¦] should be propelled to even bigger things as a result of this film” (3). Similarly, Berardinelli said she ” gives what is by far the most charismatic performance of her short career” (2). Ebert gushed that Hudson “has one scene so well-acted, it takes her character to another level” (2). Hudson’s alabaster skin and golden locks caused three critics, Renshaw, Berardinelli, and Johnston, to refer to her as “luminous” (1) (2) (48). Cast mate Fugit fared equally well as demonstrated by Garners comment: “He perfectly portrays the Crowe surrogate ["¦] who can’t quite contain his enthusiasm and wonder” (3). Turan said he “is a kid we warm to at once, someone whose emotions are always accessible” (1). Renshaw clearly agreed with the sentiment when he said: “Fugit is likeable and innocent” (1).

Again like Crowe, though most critics enjoyed Hudson and Fugit in the movie, there was some dissatisfaction with their performances. Specifically, Varkentine said Hudson’s performance is “pretty but vacant” (2). In a particularly vitriolic review, Victoria Alexander said: “Hudson instantly became a star due to DNA and the hard years her mother put into her Hollywood career”(1). Alexander went on to say that for Hudson: “”Look pretty” is an emotion” (2). Fugit did not escape unscathed; Guthmann said, “he isn’t skilled enough to show us William’s inner world” (2). Varkentine added his opinion that Fugit “does not evidence the intelligence his character should most certainly have” (1).

The critics were upbeat about Crowe and seemed to truly enjoy Hudson and Fugit, but they absolutely raved about the performances of Frances McDormand and Philip Seymour Hoffman in supporting roles. In a relative understatement, Johnston called McDormand “terrific” (48). Turan pitched in with the slightly more verbose comment that she was “completely wonderful” (1). Scott was also impressed with McDormand and said she played her role “with glowing intelligence and scary intensity” (2). Berardinelli was the most vocal in support of her when he said: “Frances McDormand should be a shoo-in for a Best Supporting Actress nod for her participation” (2). Hoffman fared, if it’s possible, better than McDormand. In a typical comment, Scott said Hoffman played his role “with guile and gusto” (2). Jay Carr said he was “froggy-voiced perfection” (2). Berardinelli agreed with the assertion that Hoffman had “a wonderful turn as Lester Bangs” (2). This time it was Renshaw who provided the ultimate comment when he said: “Hoffman is yet again is [sic] so good you just want to throttle Hollywood for not allowing him to be a star” (1).

Unlike Crowe, Hudson, and Fugit, who had some detractors, McDormand and Hoffman were virtually untouched by the harsh light of negative criticism. Renshaw made the least complimentary statement when he said of McDormand, “she remains a too-mannered performer at times” (1).

Taste in movies, like taste in music, is mostly a matter of personal preference. A movie that strikes one man as a masterpiece and a “must-see” can cause another to writhe in abject discomfort. I agreed with the majority of the critics and enjoyed Almost Famous for a number of reasons. I thought the film was well cast. It was easy to forget that these were actors, not rock stars, writers, editors, or groupies”¦ or oh so slightly psychotic moms. I also found the sound track and costumes to be enchanting flashbacks to my youth. Anyone who grew up in the 60′s and 70′s will probably love this aspect of the film. I guess my feelings can be summed up with one word — nostalgia! Almost Famous won’t make anyone forget about the masterpieces of cinema, it probably won’t even be among the five best movies made this year. It will, however, make a lot of people wonder how two hours went by so fast.

Contrast Essay on Internet Shopping

Type, Click, Done. Internet shopping is one of the most convenient developments of the century; however, it’s not always the best way to shop. A positive effect, such as comparing items at different stores online is incredibly simple and proficient. It is also a plus to be able to shop at any given time. The downside on the other hand, is that the quality might not be what you had expected, which gives you the hassle of returning your unsatisfying product through the post office.

For all the bargain shoppers out there, e-commerce web sites such as the renowned amazon.com are a great tool. The ability to use the click of the mouse, instead of your foot on the gas to compare similar items at different stores is a great time saver. Even if you find the same item with no price difference, you could still save by checking the shipping costs. There are also many discount codes you can find on the internet to get a decent percent off your purchases. Instead of the conventional coupons that need to be cut out with a pair of scissors, online codes are simply copied and pasted into the discount box, with your price difference shown immediately. Many people have gone through the hassle of incorrect ring-ups while checking out their order because of coupons. Even if you’re not the one with the coupon dilemma, you could be behind someone who is. When shopping online, there are no lines, price checks, or incompetent cashiers.

Another great thing with online shopping is that it doesn’t matter if it’s 3am – while in your pj’s; or if you’re in the tub with a laptop beside you. You won’t have to be bothered with stores closing early on Sundays, or not being able to shop as early in the morning as you might like. In some cases the nearest Wal-Mart may be miles beyond miles away. This is another instance where going to www.wall-mart.com is the better alternative.

Sad to say, everything in this world is not perfect. The downside with online shopping resides in quality issues. Images can’t indicate what a product actually is. The only way to know exactly what you’re getting is if you have seen the same item in-store, and then found it online. Without the ability to touch the product, you can’t be sure if it’s sturdy enough to your liking. I have ordered a case of drinks that came in glass bottles. When I opened the box I was surprised to see a few of the bottles broken, even with all the extra packaging inside. You can never be sure what shape your items will arrive in, but most websites will refund your order right away with an added extra, but not all of us have 5-7 business days to wait.

Online shopping is a convenience, comfort, and a great money saver. The good out weighs the bad hands down in this debate. If expensive overnight shipping is out of the question, then department stores are usually a fine choice, but for the most part you can save the trip with a point and click.

Euthanasia, a big debate in America

There has been much debate in recent American society over the legality and morality of a

patients right-to-die. Current legal statue prohibits any form of euthanasia, however, there

are many moral and ethical dilemmas concerning the controversy. For the purposes of this

essay, I will define euthanasia as the implementation of a decision that a person’s life will

come to an end before it need stop. In other words, it is a life ending when it would

otherwise be prolonged. There is an important distinction between voluntary euthanasia

where the decision to terminate life coincides with the individuals wishes and involuntary

euthanasia where the individual concerned does not know about the decision and has not

approved it in advance. I will be dealing specifically with the concept of voluntary

euthanasia, for it seems intuitive that involuntary euthanasia is not only illegal but also

profoundly immoral. Opponents arguments against euthanasia which fail to substantiate

their claims, many proponents arguments highlighted by the right to autonomy, and

empirical examples of legalized euthanasia all prove the moral legitimacy of physician-

assisted-suicide.

Opponents of euthanasia generally point to three main arguments which I will

mention only for the purposes of refuting them. First, many cite the Hippocratic oath

which reads, ‘I will give no deadly medicine to anyone if asked, nor suggest any such

counsel’ as a reason to oppose euthanasia. Clearly, the Hippocratic oath does condemn

the practice, however, I do not find this as reason enough to reject the moral permissibility

of euthanasia. If the premise of the oath is flawed (i.e., if it is morally permissible for a

physician to assist in suicide), then a physician should not be prohibited from assisting in

suicide simply because of an oath. Indeed, if it is proven (as will be done later in this

essay) that euthanasia is a moral way to end needless suffering, then doctors should be

obliged to fulfill their patients requests for early death. The second argument that

opponents of euthanasia cite is based on the Judeo-Christian ethic of human life being the

ultimate value of existence. This argument is vague at best. At the most well-explained

level, it says that human life is intrinsically valuable and should be preserved in every

instance (because human bodily life is the life of a person) thus euthanasia is wrong

because it is killing before life would naturally end. This argument is proven unsound in

two ways. First, I believe that human life is distinct from personhood. Many patients

requesting euthanasia have ceased to be persons because they are terminally ill and

incapable of enjoying the gift of existence. Thus many of these individuals ( and certainly

those in a vegetative state with a living will that requests euthanasia) are living lives that

are not intrinsically valuable. Second, I disagree with the notion that life is intrinsically

valuable and should be preserved in every instance. I believe that life is valuable only

inasmuch as it is the basis for rational decision-making. (This argument will be elaborated

upon later in the essay). Therefore, we respect the value of life by respecting a persons

autonomy and allowing them to willingly end their life. The final argument given by

opponents of euthanasia is the notion of a slippery slope in which legalized voluntary

euthanasia will snowball and begin to result in widespread involuntary euthanasia. The

basis for this reasoning is that under a system of voluntary euthanasia, doctors must make

the final determination of whether a person can be euthanized or not therefore allowing

them to decide if a patients life is ‘worth’ living. Many feel that if doctors can do this to

competent people, it could snowball to incompetent patients and doctors may make

decisions to euthanize without the will of patients. However, I argue that the moral

permissibility of euthanasia depends on a patients voluntary consent. If a patient does not

expressly wish to die, then a doctor who kills a patient without the consent of that patient

would be acting immorally. From a legal standpoint, the request for euthanasia would have

to come first from the patient, which diminishes the likelihood of involuntary euthanasia

occurring. Given these two scenarios, the idea of a slippery slope is dispelled on both a

theoretical and a pragmatic level. Furthermore, empirical evidence that will be discussed

later disproves the notion of a slippery slope.

In addition to the responses to opponents claims, there are many reasons why

euthanasia is morally acceptable. The justifications for voluntary active euthanasia rest in

four main areas. First, society has a moral obligation to respect individual autonomy when

we can do so without harm to others and when doing so does not violate some other

moral obligation. This is because life is intrinsically valuable only as a result of its

necessity for decision-making and free will. Life without autonomy ceases to be of the

utmost value, rather, a persons right to choose his or her life (and death) course should be

the highest priority. This principle guarantees a persons right to have his or her own

decisions respected in determining medical treatment, including euthanasia. The second

argument for the moral acceptance of euthanasia rests on the premise of mercy and

compassion, two ideals which are essential to human dignity. In most cases when a person

requests euthanasia they are suffering unrelenting and continual pain, and there is no

reasonable possibility of substantial recovery. It is morally repugnant to watch another

person suffer through humiliating helplessness and constant pain when one could prevent

it. It is widely considered humane to put animals that are permanently physically impaired

to death, yet humans cannot currently receive the same mercy under the law, even when

they request it. When we are confronted with suffering which is wholly destructive in its

consequences and, as far as we can tell, could have no beneficial result, there is a moral

obligation to end it. The third affirmation of the moral legitimacy of euthanasia is that of

justice. Euthanasia allows for fairer distribution of medical resources in a society which

lacks sufficient resources to treat all of its people. Because we have an obligation to

relieve suffering, people have a right to whatever medical resources might be effective in

the treatment of their condition. However, the scarcity of resources ensures that not all

medical claims can be met, therefore a fair way to distribute medical resources must be

found. If treatment must be denied to some people with the result that they will die, then

it is better to deny it to those people who are medically unsalvageable and will die soon

with or without treatment. The final justification for euthanasia is that the burden of proof

for rejecting the morality of the practice should rest with its opponents. It is up to any

person or institution wanting to prevent an individual from doing something he or she

wants to do to provide sound reasoning which justifies interference. Since it has already

been proven that opponents arguments against euthanasia fail to substantiate their claim

that it should not occur, then the practice should be considered moral.

The Netherlands successful experiment with legalized voluntary euthanasia is

further proof that physician-assisted-suicide is a moral action. The Dutch legalized

euthanasia partly because they realize that the practice occurs frequently in the status quo

and is now entirely at the discretion of physicians. 85% of deaths in the United States

occur in hospitals or nursing homes; of those 70% involve withholding life-sustaining

treatment. This is certainly a form of euthanasia, yet it is uncontrolled and oftentimes

performed without the patient’s knowledge. On the contrary, the Dutch system brings the

question of euthanasia into the open and allows for regulations which lessen the likelihood

of a slippery slope. The requirements for euthanasia under Dutch law are that patients

must ask to be euthanized, they must be fully informed of their medical condition,

suffering must be intolerable, and the process of carrying out the patients death wish must

be performed by a doctor. These stringent guidelines have created an environment where

2,300 individuals have found relief in the form of euthanasia, an number which represents

just 1.8 % of all deaths in the Netherlands. Only 1/3 of all requests for euthanasia are

honored by physicians, which is proof against the slippery slope argument. A study

published by the Dutch government in 1992 further dispels the slippery slope theory. It

reported that since euthanasia had been legalized, only 2 cases have been documented

where a patient was euthanized without request. In both cases the patient was suffering

severe pain, and was terminally ill. Given the large numbers of deaths from euthanasia,

this statistic seems to be very small in comparison. Also, in no instance has a patient been

put to death against his or her expressed or implied wish. This empirical evidence

concretely disproves the notion that voluntary euthanasia will somehow snowball to

involuntary euthanasia. It is also powerful proof that voluntary euthanasia can be carried

out legally and with no great harms to society or individuals.

The unsubstantiated claims of euthanasia opponents, many affirmative arguments

supporting the moral permissibility of euthanasia, and the successful Dutch experiment

with legalization all prove that euthanasia is a legitimate moral practice. If we do not

allow for individual autonomy in determining the scope and extent of medical treatment,

then we are sentencing many terminally ill patients to a final stage of life filled with misery

and wracked with unrelenting pain. Instead, the moral and ethical course of action is to

grant patients who request euthanasia the mercy and relief of a death with dignity.

An essay looking at Time – Space Distinction and Television. Through taking a closer look at Giddens’ Theory on globalisation.

Giddens theory on globalisation indicates the key characteristics of the phenomenon to which we refer to as globalisation. His theory states that globalisation “tears away space from place’ in that it allows, indeed ‘fosters,’ relations at distance – between people who are not united in the face-to-face presence of the locale”. When we take this theory and explain it in simpler terms, it simply says that globalisation simply unites the world. In other words, it gives the impression that everyone is in the same place. Furthermore, Giddens theory goes on to state that because of the above statement it creates relationships between people from different countries even though they are so far apart and so very different. This can be assumed for the reason that people would relate to each other in the course of being exposed to globalisation.

This essay will concentrate on the lengths to which television has an impact on globalisation, and how Giddens theory implements itself through this globalising structure. The Giddens theory is a process which consists of the following structure, time – space distanciation. This structure can be better understood through the following explanation “lifting out of social relationships from local contexts of interaction and their restructuring across time and space” (Giddens, Anthony Consequences of Modernity, 1990, 21). Additionally this essay will broaden ones view on the impact of globalisation through television and also explain how this globalising factor is one of the largest influential mediums at this point in time.

We can clearly see that the first step of this 2-way structure is “time”. It is clear that television has been around for quite some time and that over the years it has become more of an everyday household item. Before the television became one of the globalising factors there were four other eras and three of these were electrical eras, specifically, “Print media in the 15th century” (Lecture 6, July 27th 2006), then the telegraph era arose, which was the first electrical age. The telegraph aided “towards political Communication among colonial governments” (Lecture 6, July 27th 2006), the second electrical age was News Agencies / News Media along the Lines of colonial structures. The third electrical era was Radio which aided towards Intra- and International communication for ‘mass’ audiences. The fourth and last electrical era was when the television came into play as a globalizing factor.

The television developed very promptly over time in the mid 1870′s, the first experiments were conducted in the US regarding this new globalising factor. In 1931 CBS studios began regular broadcasting, this studio broadcasted up to 28 hours a week, then in 1932 BBC was the second studio to begin regular broadcasting. In early 1935 in Germany the Olympics were broadcasted for the first time, after this great event the New York Fair was the first demonstration of broadcasted television in 1937. In 1940 the National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) was formed to standardize competing television standards. After the establishment of the NTSC, commercial programming began in 1941 in the US (NTSC), the FCC licensed the first 10 commercial stations. ABC was the next large established station to come into play. During the next 11 years the television sales escalated in the US, in 1949 less than one million households obtained televisions, in 1952, 15 million households had televisions, 30 million by 1955 and in 1960 approximately 90% of the US households had televisions. Television arrived in NZ in 1960, and by 1962 all of New Zealand could obtain televisions, in 1969 the first all-New Zealand news bulletin was broadcasted.

The television became a globalising factor between 1950 and 1970, reaching countries like Europe and South Africa. US Television has a lot of characteristics which could be best summed up by the following quote, “The prime driving forces of American television are not to be found in rules and regulations but in the financing of the system. With the exception of the public broadcast service (which reaches only 2-3% of the audience…), the majority of television institutions are privately-owned companies whose prime purpose is to make a profit which they do either by selling advertising space or programmes” (Barker, Chris Global Television. An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997, pp 46).

As we can see over time the television became a very large influence on globalisation. The very first phase of internationalisation occurred in the 1960′s, during this era the US started to sell their programmes to the world, a very famous and still talked about program is “Dallas”. By doing this the US applied the second step of Giddens theory which is to create relations between people at a distance. In the 1990′s the second phase of internationalisation began through 24 hour satellite delivered channels, seven days a week. The third phase was when the US began creating “Reality television”, these shows played a very large part in creating relations between people in different countries, and these shows represented people from different cultures that have to compete against each other. Reality television made people from different cultures relate to each other and therefore making it seem like there is no distance between the country in which the show was created and the country where it was being broadcasted.

To make the above statement more clear an example could be used, namely a television show that took the world by storm in 2001. The show was called “Idol”; this show was launched by ITV (UK) through Fremantle Media. The show was launched as a “global production”, and today this show is well known in eighty five countries worldwide, such as: US, Norway, Germany, France, Netherlands, Canada, Australia, NZ, South Africa and, “Superstar”: Pan-Arabic Region. The show consists of a combination of music industries (Sony and BMG) and television. At the moment there is talk about creating a very own Idol network. This show didn’t only take reality television to a new level but it saved “Fox studios” from going out of business in the US. Another television show called MTV (Music Television) also plays a part in this global phenomenon by airing “World Idol” winners.

By looking at Giddens theory we can see how his theory comes into play when we look at the globalising factor namely, television. It is clear that as television progressed over time, US studios became more business orientated and began to sell they’re programmes as a means of income. The US companies hereby placed the second part of Giddens theory in place. By selling they’re shows to countries all over the world, people started relating to the shows and therefore related them to each other even though they were far apart. Giddens theory proves that through globalising factors the world becomes a very small place and people are becoming more aware of all their surroundings and what is happening in the world. This is not necessarily a good thing, because there is so many different believes and cultures in the world, people don’t always agree on everything and therefore these globalising factors could result in creating conflict between countries.

In conclusion it is clear that Giddens theory does still apply in the ongoing phenomenon of globalisation. His theory states that globalisation “tears away ‘space’ from ‘place’ in that it allows, indeed ‘fosters,’ relations at distance – between people who are not united in the face-to-face presence of the locale” (Giddens quote. by Tomlinson, John: Globalization and Culture, 1999:53). This theory is still consistent with today’s changes in the media and how globalisation is taking place at this very moment in time and not just through television but through a lot of other mediums. The occurrence of globalisation has been around since the early 1900′s and has became a very large part of people’s lives today without them even noticing. We can see how this is occurring through analysing shows like “Idol” which was officially launched as a “global production”. Globalisation is growing very rapidly and as people we should start thinking whether this is going to go from being a resourceful way of finding out about other countries and they’re surroundings, or is it going to escalate into a defence mechanism through which countries are going to create conflict between each other.

Love Essay

Love Journal True love is something that I think is one of the most complicated things in the world. When you have never felt it, it can be the most inconceivable topic one might come across, but when you realize what it is, it becomes so clear and you begin to understand. Love is something that you know only when you’ve experienced it. Love is an expression that you feel for someone. True love is when you can not imagine your life without that person. Love is something that can make you do things that nothing else in the world can. Love can make you cry, love can bring you to your knees, love can make you do almost anything to retain it. For love is so powerful, it takes time to procure. The cliché “Love at first sight” is something that I, personally, do not believe in. It is a reflection of an infatuation with the way one looks rather that the way a person acts. You can never discover true love unless you look beyond their appearance and into their mind as well as their heart. “Love at first sight” heirs more to the side of lust rather than love.

Love is more of a process as opposed to a spontaneous action. Love is something that takes shape and form over different events that two or more people share together that bring them closer thus creating a bond or love between them. After that, the love only gets stronger. If at a certain point, that love fades away it was never true love because true love really never dies.

Nature vs. Nurture – Are Criminals Born Or Made?

Do individuals become criminals as a result of heredity or genetics or is it their environment that is in fact at play? This question has left Criminologists in debate for the better part of our modern era. In order to help answer this question we must first take a closer look at the concept of Nature vs. Nurture, a popular psychological term initially created by Darwin and other positivists. “Nature vs. Nurture” refers to internal and external factors that play a role in behaviour, in this case in reference to criminals. “Nature” is paired up with the biological explanation known as internal factors. “Supporters of the biological perspective argue that we must identify the role of heredity and the importance of biophysical, as well as biosocial factors, in the environment.” “Nurture”, on the other hand, is always paired up with the psychological and environmental explanation known as external factors. Supporters of psychological or environmental perspective argue that we are influenced less by heredity than by social external influence. (Winterdyk, 2006:117-118). For the purpose of this essay, each perspective will be written about individually to obtain a more objective view.

“Nature” – Biological Perspective

* “A study on the prevalence of mental health problems among male federal inmates revealed that a significant number of the offenders surveyed met the criteria for anti-social personality disorders (Motiuk & Porporino, 1992).”

* “Comparing 41 murderers to 41 matched control patients, Raine, Buschshaum, and La Casse (1997) found that murderers had significantly lower levels of glucose uptake in the prefrontal cortex of the brain.”

* “In summarizing the observations of several keynote speakers at the June 1995 conference called Violence as a Public Health Issue, held in Midland, Ontario, Carter noted that ‘young people are more violent than ever before’ and that there appeared to be some organic (biological) linkages (Carter, 1995:28-29).” (Winterdyk, 2006:118)

The above are three brilliant examples of how biology plays a key role in the way criminal minds are formed. These examples, to an extent prove that in some cases, people can not escape their biology. According to Scott, 2005, genetics is the most argued point of criminology today. Some believe that genetics cause people to commit crimes. Geneticists research to find out if a certain chromosome combination will automatically make you a criminal or not; if this is true you could see even before your child was born if it would be a criminal in society. These studies proved very successful. Here are some outcomes of the geneticist and their lab studies (Ritter, 2006):

One of the most used theories of why criminals commit crimes is the person’s ability to commit crime is pre-determined. If that is so, criminals have no choice of what they do. Some of the genetic abnormalities that would make someone pre-determined would be the XYY chromosomal structure (Not effective in women, just men). A chromosomal test in prisons had an outcome of 27Y, which means most of the prisoners had that many Y chromosomes. This is a chemical imbalance caused from genetics.

These theories have been tested on people in prison and have seemed to have a high outcome. The “criminal disease” could be caused by a recessive gene passed down from one or both of the parents. This means if it is recessive in a female that both parents must give 2 recessive genes to get that disease. That is why you rarely see female criminals in our society. If the parents give the recessive gene to the male offspring then the male automatically has the disease since he does not have another X chromosome to have another dominant chromosome to overwrite the disease. Therefore, a person may carry the disease and it may not show for many generations and suddenly show up in someone. You can never tell unless you study the genes and DNA very closely.

When examining the DNA of a person the geneticist has to search for very small errors in the code. Some examples of this would be broken parts off of some chromosomes or even less or more than normal chromosomes (Ritter, 2006). In the future geneticists might be able to view one’s offspring’s chromosomes and be able to alter the genes to make the person “normal”. With the help of genetic engineering it is possible to make a child with certain traits depending what traits the parents have. They can make the child “normal” and not have any genetic disorders. This might reduce crime rates in the world and make things safer. This process takes time and money, but in the future there will be cheaper and faster ways of doing this as is with all technology.

Genetically mutated chromosomes are definitely one way of explaining criminal behaviour, but there are others. For example, the interpretation and classification of physical features has been around for nearly two millennia, tracing its roots back to Socrates. This “scientific” way of classifying individuals was termed Physiognomy. Swiss theologian Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741-1801) was an active student and writer on this subject, releasing four volumes of work. He coined such expressions as: a “weak” chin and “shifty” eyes (Winterdyk, 2006).

Ernst Kretschmer (1920′s) and William Sheldon (1940′s) developed a system which showed a definite connection between a person’s physical traits and their attitude or temperament. They essentially put individuals into one of two categories and two sub-categories: cycloids and schizoids and their sub-categories being eliptoids and hysterics. Cycloids were bi-polar personalities which accounted for 10-20 percent of the criminal population. Schizoids were seen as hysterics and apparently made up 50-90 percent of the criminal community. These labels were later criticised and somewhat discredited as they did not have a corresponding body type or physical trait. Kretschmer ideas were improved upon by the American physician William H. Sheldon. Sheldon developed a system of classification which was seen to be much more accurate than Kretschmer’s. Sheldon based his concept on the interpretation of the human embryo’s three tissue layers. He was able to classify individuals by grouping them into one of three labels. Each label has a body type along with a temperament that is associated with it. For example: (a) Endomorphic – heavy set individuals, soft in appearance, smooth soft skin.

(b) Viscerotonic – extroverted, easy-going, enjoy an easy life.

Unlike Kretschmer, Sheldon did not view his labels exclusive and believed that each could be interrelated since every person is unique, thus a system could never really incorporate every single character. (Winterdyk, 2006)

Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1825) was essentially the first to create a system of phrenology. This method examines a patient’s exterior skull to measure behaviour traits associated with various curves or bumps. Although Gall is known as the developer of this systematic method, its roots can be traced back to Aristotle who used measurements of the skull in similar ways. And although Gall is given credit to the 26 faculties he identified of behaviour he found on the skull, it is Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832) who succeeded him and added many more to the list as well as bring the concept to North America. Spurzheim was a believer of the “biological deterministic perspective”; but he also noted that behaviour could be altered through “intellectual and moral development” (Nurture) (Winterdyk, 2006).

“Nurture” – Environmental/Psychological Perspective

Just as Spurzheim suspected that behaviour might have something to do with reasons outside of heredity, countless others have are do as well. Let’s now take a look at our “Nurture” perspective.

If genetic reasons don’t control crime what does? Most of the criminologist today, still believe the same thing that was thought when we first started to look into crime; it’s the environment and nothing else. Genetics has no play, because if one is never introduced to a life of crime one will not know what crime is, and will probably not attempt to break law, but if one grow up in a house of crime then one is much more likely to become a criminal; Proof of the environmental theory lies in the fact that most criminals do grow up in a broken or deviant household. But then again some don’t. Most criminals do start at an early age thus showing that they do have a desire to commit crime, which could be an indicator of the environment at play. Perhaps though, peer pressure is at play as well, could these young criminals be influenced by the children that they hang around? Do these children affect the way they think what they do, and how they do it? The answer that most studies conclude is that social circles play a huge role in developing behaviour. (Gado, 2000).

The middle to late 1800s was when psychological-based explanations arouse (Winterdyk, 2006). The “father of sociology”, Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), had a life-long interest in crime and its role in society. His innovative ideas on how social structure affects human behavior influenced sociologists for generations to come. Durkheim believed that crime is natural behavior whose composition is the result of many diversified forces. Durkheim’s ideas led to the famous Chicago School of Sociology, a set of principles that became very popular in the 1930s. This school of thought focused upon society as the force behind criminal behavior.

Robert Merton, a disciple of Durkheim, said criminal acts were the result of socially created behavior rather than simple impulses. Merton stated that society offers the same goals and rewards to all its citizens. But the means and opportunity to reach these goals are not the same for everyone in society. Merton said people will commit crimes because they feel cheated out of something to which they were entitled. However, Merton couldn’t explain white-collar crime in which the perpetrators are usually wealthy, educated and not deprived from any of society’s rewards. It simply didn’t make sense that people who were already rich would steal more money because they felt “cheated.” For those crimes, the explanation had to be elsewhere. (Spencer, 2004)

Conclusion

Applying the nature/nurture question to human behavior nearly always generates trouble. Because science is a stepwise progression of improvements of methods, scientists often avoid conclusions which may have harmful sociological or political effects on groups of people. In my opinion, criminals are sometimes not the result of nature nor nurture respectively; they are a result of both. According to Winterdyk, 2006, Charles Goring was one of the first to suggest that crime may be the result of both nature and nurture: “crime = heredity x environment” With the exception of perhaps those criminals who are solely driven by biological tendencies such as born sociopaths or pedophiles, most criminals in my opinion are a complex combination of an unbalanced biology and environment. Favoring one school of thought over the other will not give us an accurate representation of our society, thus both should always be examined in criminal cases.

Say no to SE2. This essay is about the Canadian reaction to the proposed SE2 powerplant in Sumas Washington.

We can’t have those Americans building a power plant only a few kilometers away from us! It would devastate our communities here in the lower mainland. I realize that SE2 would only be burning the cleanest source of fossil fuels available to us, natural gas, but that still pollutes our air and our water. Why should we care about their energy crisis anyways? It’s not like it affects us, after all, we are Canadians and they are Americans.

An SE2 supporter came up to me the other day and, trying to convince me to change my opinion on the topic, told me how badly the Sumas area needs new sources of energy to support increasing demands for it. SE2 would provide enough power for over 400,000 residences, however, all those residents are American, therefore why should we care? It would be one thing if it was Canadians who needed electricity, but it’s not, so why should we care? Another thing this supporter told me was about how badly people in the Sumas area need jobs, and how during the construction of SE2 at least 400 jobs would be created, with at least another 20 jobs inside the plant once the construction was completed.

So what? It’s not really giving Canadians jobs, so why should we support it? I personally care more about myself and my fellow Canadians a great deal more than those scavenger Americans. So what if they and their families are going hungry and can’t afford decent housing. I know that the United States doesn’t have the same type of welfare system that we do here, and that the majority of unemployed workers are on there own to find ways to survive, but who cares? They are American and therefore don’t matter to us. We have our own problems to deal with in our own country, so why should we help to make someone else’s life better?

Besides, SE2 would add tons and tons of pollutants into our already populated air. That would be American pollution in our already sensitive system. We Canadians contribute enough to the bad air quality, mostly just from driving vehicles within the Fraser Valley. So what if this pollution is caused by us? Just because the vast majority of us don’t carpool even though in many cases we could doesn’t mean that Americans, too, can add to our pollution problems.

We can cause pollution, they can’t.

The other day another SE2 supporter approached me and told me how unfair it is for us to say no to a natural gas power plant when we ourselves use natural gas for fireplaces and to heat our homes. Many people burn wood in fireplaces, too, not to mention bonfires and campfires that go on year round. How can we rightfully say no to something that is the exact same thing that we do ourselves? Well, for one thing, we do not burn it in the large quantities that SE2 would. Besides, we are Canadian, therefore it doesn’t matter what we do to the environment and air quality around us. If we want to pollute it, we can. Many of us smoke, too, and add pollution to the air in that respect. You don’t see us protesting against cigarette smokers or against people who don’t carpool, or even against people who burn wood and natural gas. Do you know why? Because we only care about ourselves, not about the American economy and not about the American lives that could become much better if SE2 were to be built. Why should we care about them anyway?

That is exactly what I said to an SE2 supporter who questioned me about the numerous coal and natural gas power plants which are being constructed on Vancouver Island. Those plants are creating energy for Canadians, so they are okay. No need for us to oppose them, or at least not vocally. They are creating Canadian jobs and Canadian energy, therefore they are good. Who cares that all the pollution generated from these plants will end up caught in the prevailing winds and be blown right into our basin. At least it is our own pollution! Those Americans are so proud of themselves, because if they build SE2 they will establish a new benchmark for environmental responsibility in the Pacific Northwest.

Who cares if the Americans pollute their own land? So long as they don’t pollute our environment they can do whatever they want.

If the Americans need power so bad, why don’t they just generate it in another way? They could burn coal, which is the absolute worst fossil fuel to burn; they could use nuclear energy, and risk thousands of lives in doing so (think Chernobyl-don’t know what it is? Look it up), or they could block a salmon migratory route and kill thousands of fish by building a dam, flooding mass amounts of land (thus killing and displacing wildlife in the process), and creating hydro-electricity(like our own).

In case you haven’t noticed by now, this essay is very sarcastic. Honestly, I do think that SE2 would be bad for our environment, but, with the way I look at it, how can we rightfully, with rightfully being the operative word here, say no to SE2? Why don’t we protest other things that are just as bad if not worse for our air quality and environment? How can we use natural gas and, even worse, burn wood in our fireplaces? Do you even realize how bad that is for our environment? How many of you protesters do so with a cigarette burning between your fingers? How many of you drove alone to get to that protest rally? How many of you drive alone to work or school everyday when you could just as easily be carpooling? I can not do all these things and then turn around and openly protest SE2, and I don’t understand how you can either. I think it’s time we Canadians “practice what we preach!”

People appear to be more apt to say no to SE2 just because it is a U.S. project. It’s not really making Canadian jobs or energy for Canadians, so why should we care? Wow. I think we are starting to care about ourselves a little too much.

If the world as a whole is going to continue to make babies, then the need for new sources of energy is going to rise as well. I don’t like SE2 as much as the next person, but it is needed, and the electricity has to come from somewhere.

How do you propose they obtain this energy?

Abortion: Pro-Life vs. Pro-Choice

Abortion has been a controversial issue, debating between secularism and religion since the beginning of civilization. More often than not, people have constantly been debating that abortion is murder; it is a selfish act of violence that goes against Christian and Catholic beliefs. However, I do not believe this to be the case. Throughout my position paper, I will be discussing my opinions on abortion, and why it should continue to be legal in Canada, through the topics of religion, quality of life, and biblical passages.

Within Catholicism, Christianity, Judaism, Humanism and other religious and ethical groups, the morality of abortion is based on the exact belief of the nature of the fetus. The problem associated with this is judgmental; based on multiple religious beliefs. Most of the ‘pro-life’ population, who happen to be Catholic or Christian, believes that a life is created at the act of conception. They believe once the fetus becomes fertilized, a human life is created; therefore making abortion murder, and morally wrong. Other religions such as Judaism, on the other hand, believe that human life is created once the baby exits its mother’s womb. In a country like Canada, which has almost fifty registered religions, how is it ‘morally right’ to band abortion because of a certain religions beliefs? In my opinion, that is completely biased and should not even be put up for consideration.

That being said, another issue I face is that pro-lifers focus too much on what it is they believe in, and focus too little on the potential Childs quality of life. In my opinion, abortion is not necessarily done for the purpose of one’s self, but instead because of the quality of life that potential child could be brought into. As I was researching more information on this specific topic, the pro-life population gives examples of how people such as Oprah and Ray Charles were brought into this world accidentally and have been through many things and are now inspirations to many people. However, I do not agree that they can make a basis on just these two people. Yes, they are two powerful and inspirational people, but they forgot to mention the thousands of other ‘unwanted’ children who are brought into a challenging life, and don’t end up making it. I am not saying that choosing abortion over having a child is the right thing to do, I solely believe that the people who choose abortion, choose it for what they believe to be the right reasons. They know that they cannot, either emotionally, mentally, or financially support the child the way it is should be supported.

My final argument is that of biblical passages. Often, Christian or Catholic pro-lifers make many references to our Bible. They say that in these passages, God directly tells us that abortion is bad. So, I researched these passages and looked up a few of my own; and what does the Bible say about abortion? Extremely little actually, however, I did find a few contradictions to what the pro-lifers do say. “Cursed be the day on which I was born! The day when my mother bore me let it not be blessed… let him hear a cry in the morning and an alarm at noon, because he [my father] did not kill me in the womb; so my mother would have been my grave, and her womb forever great.” (Jeremiah 20:14-17) Ironically, in spite of God giving divine status to the prophet Jeremiah, he emphatically rejects himself and wished he had been aborted. If the Bible is not providing passages that say anything about abortion being bad, but instead emphasizing it, who are pro-lifers to say that abortion is the morally wrong thing to do?“As you do not know how the spirit comes to the bones in the womb of a woman with child, so you do not know the work of God who makes everything.” (Ecclesiastes 11:5) Not one person can truly understand Gods ways and will, especially since the Bible can be, and is, interpreted in many ways by other believers. No one can play God. Ultimately, it is the woman’s decision to choose what it is she does to her body; and it wrong to make something as sacred as a woman’s body government property. Every woman has a right to choice; and it is because of this right that I believe in the future, abortion will remain legal in Canada, and as time goes, will be more accepted by society. While abortion will be a dubious subject for many years to come, I believe that is ultimately beneficial in maintaining the right and freedom of women as we know it.

To Kill a Mockingbird – The characters Boo Radley and Tom Robinson – innocent, heartless, yet persecuted

The topic concerns Boo Radley and Tom Robinson, who are said to be

mockingbird figures. A mockingbird in the film, is a bird that sings its

heart out, is innocent and harmless, yet persecuted. Boo Radley and

Tom Robinson are similar to this, and this is portrayed throughout the

film in many ways.

Through the eyes of Scout and Jem, Boo Radley is an intellectually and

physically disabled person, who is scary, stays inside his home and is

never seen.

Tom Robinson is a black man who lives on the city limits border. He is

accused of raping Mayella Ewell and taken to court for trial. But even

though it was her father, Bob Ewell, who raped her, Tom Robinson had

the perfect defence, but still lost his case, was charged guilty and sent

away. All for one sole reason, because he was a black person.

But both these characters have something in common. They have been

judged wrongly and treated unfairly because of their outer appearances.

For example, Boo Radley was the mystery neighbour, and Scout and

Jem played jokes on him, and Tom Robinson was downgraded and

unaccepted in society. But the thing is, these two are just as human as

anyone else in this world. They have emotions, they feel sad and happy,

and they get hurt as well. Both are judged inconsiderably due to their

outside appearance, but what about inside character? That is probably

the most important aspect of a person.

Boo Radley was finally understood at the end of the film. He spoke to

Atticus and gave the children gifts, as a sign of cheering them up,

because their father lost the case. From then on, the children were

friendly to Boo Radley.

Tom Robinson though, ended up getting taken away and he tried to

escape, which led to his death.

The irony of this film is the friendly and peaceful personality shown from

the once phantomous and mysterious character, Boo Radley, and the

consequences of Tom Robinson. Even though his defence was perfect,

and it seemed that he had won, he lost.

The main message shown from this film is that most people are really

nice when you get to know them. This is very true, and sometimes, the

nicest people aren’t always the ones with the best appearances. Take

for example Quasimodo, from The Hunchback of Notre Damè. He

looked horrific and frightening in appearance, but as he was understood

more, he turned out to be a person who was very caring and

considerate of others.

Fianally, all I can say is, don’t trust to outside appearances, trust inward

character instead.