Descriptive Essay Example

Globalisation

”Globalisation has joined imperialism, colonialism, capitalism and communism in becoming an all purpose tag, which can be wielded like a club in almost any ideological direction. It is the defining political, economic and social phenomenon of the new millennium” Discuss.

The world is shrinking. Not physically, of course, but socially, culturally and economically. The nations of the world are coming closer together in terms of cultural contacts and economic transactions (Taylor, Richardson, Yeo, Marsh, Trobe, & Pilkington 1995). Globalisation can be interpreted differently by theorists. Anne Kruger (2000), deputy managing director of the International Monetary Fund, defines it as ‘a phenomenon by which economic agents in any given part of the world are much more affected by events elsewhere in the world’. David Henderson (1999), former chief economist of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, defines globalisation as ‘free movement of goods, services, labour and capital , thereby creating a single market in inputs and outputs; and full national treatment for foreign investors (and nationals working abroad) so that, economically speaking, there are no foreigners’. This defines globalisation but how does it compare to imperialism, colonialism, capitalism and communism?

Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial conquest or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. Colonialism refers to the extension of a nation’s sovereignty over territory and people outside its own boundaries, often to facilitate economic domination over their resources, labour, and markets. Capitalism has been defined in various ways. In common usage, it means an economic system in which the means of production are overwhelmingly privately owned and operated for profit, decisions regarding investment of capital are made privately, and where production, distribution, and the prices of goods, services, and labour are affected by the forces of supply and demand in a largely free market. Communism refers to a conjectured future classless, stateless social organisation based upon common ownership of the means of production, and can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement (Wikipedia 2006).

These are classed as ideologies as they are a unifying system of beliefs, attitudes, and values (Harris 2006) which form a comprehensive set of political, economic, and social views or ideas (IMUNA 2006). It is the differing of opinions which makes them move in different directions. There are right wing and left wing views on each, each with their own merits and downfalls.

So does globalisation deserve an all purpose ‘tag’? Are there differing views on its sociological, economic and political aspect?

It is difficult to separate the effects of globalisation into each aspect, as many overlap. The consequences of globalisation affect equality, labour, government, culture and community and the environment, so each will be considered as inter-related factors of a global effect. This essay will serve to introduce both transnationals companies and foreign direct investment as they form the basis of globalisation.

Transnational Companies and Foreign Direct Investment

A transnational company (TNC) is a firm which sells its products to world markets. They have subsidiaries in two or more countries, and are currently owned entirely by the West (Taylor, Richardson, Yeo, Marsh, Trobe, & Pilkington 1995). Foreign direct investment occurs when a TNC invests directly in facilities to produce a product in a foreign country and when a firm buys an existing enterprise in a foreign country (Hill 2005). The motivation of this FDI is the desire to disperse production activities to optimal locations and to build a direct presence in major foreign markets (Hill 2005).

Figure 6 shows how the volume of FDI has grown more rapidly than the volume of world trade in recent years.

There has been an increase in the amount of FDI undertaken by firms based in developing nations (Hill 2005) but 2001 saw the first shrinkage in volume of international trade and FDI since 1982 due to a slowdown in the world economy (Wolf 2003). Over 90 per cent of FDI is sourced in ten developed countries, and about two thirds originated in only four; USA, UK, Japan and Germany (Waters 1998).

Modernisation theorists focus on the benefits from the growth of TNCs; the introduction of foreign capital and advanced technologies, the training of local workers, the boost to local markets of more disposable income and the access to world markets. They also note their role in helping integrate the nation states of the world in a general process of globalisation (Taylor, Richardson, Yeo, Marsh, Trobe, & Pilkington 1995).

Underdevelopment theorists on the other hand, argue that the disadvantages of globalisation outweigh the benefits. Industrialisation, which TNCs introduce into Third World countries, is typically only a specialised part of a whole process, different parts of which are spread internationally, each of which is vulnerable to the strategic planning decisions of the parent company. TNCs draw more money from the Third World than they put in by the widespread practise of ‘transfer pricing’. This allows TNCs to send back profits to their own city (Taylor, Richardson, Yeo, Marsh, Trobe, & Pilkington 1995).

Neo-populism is a theory taken up by countries such as Tanzania and Nicaragua. It rejects large scale capital intensive industrialisation on the grounds that it is inappropriate for the Third World. It is in favour of small-scale agricultural, manufacturing and servicing enterprises claiming that they can be more productive as well as less dehumanising and environmentally damaging than large scale ones. Neo-populists disagree with the build up of large scale cities, which are seen as destructive to their agriculture (Taylor, Richardson, Yeo, Marsh, Trobe, & Pilkington 1995).

Equality and Poverty

There have been four main trends in World equality and poverty since 1980, when the expansion of globalisation began. These are briefly stated below.

1. Growth rates in poor economies have accelerated and are higher than growth rates in developed countries for the first time in modern History. From the Table 1 in the appendix, we can see that in the 1990′s developing economies income per capita grew by more than 3.5 per cent per year (Dollar 2005).

2. The number of people living in extreme poverty in East Asia and the Pacific has decreased by 41 percent from 1990 to 1998 (Manzella 2006). Table 2 in the appendix shows that the share of people living on less than 1 USD per day has been cut by half since 1981.

3. Global inequality declined, thus reversing a 200 year trend toward higher inequality (Dollar 2005). The Gini coefficient and the mean log deviation are shown in Tables 3 and 4 respectively. They both show a decline starting around 1980, mainly because of the faster growth of developing economies. The mean log deviation prediction shows inequality may continue to decline up until around 2015, when global inequalities will once more become more pronounced. The rapidly growing countries will have caught up with the rest of the economically advantaged world, leaving behind only the poorest countries in places like Africa.

4. Two billion people live in countries which have become less globalised including Pakistan and African nations. Income per head actually decreased by about 1% in the 1990s (The Economist 2002).

Open developing economies grew by 4.5 percent per year in the 70s and 80s, whereas closed developing economies grew by only 0.7 per cent per year. Open developing economies double in size every 16 years, whereas close developing economies double in size every 100 years (National Bureau of Economic Research). It would appear that openness to trade distinguishes growth (Manzella 2006). The Progressive Policy Institute (2005) state “no country has managed to lift itself out of poverty without integrating into the global economy” (Manzella 2006). The International Monetary Fund and World Bank estimate that if the remaining world merchandise trade barriers are eliminated, potential gains are estimated at 250 billion to 650 billion dollars annually, with one third to half going to developing countries (Manzella 2006).

Labour

Globalisation encourages the growth of technological change. Better technology increases the need for more skilled labour, leading to higher wages and better working conditions. TNC’s offer higher wages and better training programmes than domestic firms (Wolf 2003).

At first glance globalisation appears to be mutually beneficial to all parties, but unfortunately a TNC may act like a Trojan. Globalisation is responsible for job losses and wage cuts. Globalisation brings about technological change and it follows that the introduction of new labour saving technology makes labour demand more inelastic which will increase the likelihood of job losses. Trade liberalisation tends to increase the demand for more highly skilled workers, while the mass of less skilled workers are forced into less attractive jobs in the non-traded goods sector (Huberman 2005). This adds further support to the notion of escalating intra-national inequality.

Trade unions have picked up on this and often oppose the move towards new technology. They were able to stop the introduction of new printers in the UK in the 60s (Lommerud, Meland & Straume 2006), which was a similar case to the original Luddites, who campaigned against the mechanisation of the textile industry in 1811 (Ryder, 2006).

In relation to wage, Figure 5 in the appendix shows how inequalities within countries are growing. It was obtained from a study by Freeman et al in 2001. It demonstrates that wages have generally been rising most rapidly in more globalised developing economies, followed by rich countries, and then less globalised developing economies (Dollar 2005).

Wages are increasing more rapidly for skilled workers than for the lesser skilled due to the introduction of TNCs and expansions of technology. Mechanisation has made the utility of many unskilled workers redundant and thus greater financial reimbursement can be reserved for skilled workers.

It has been known for TNCs to take advantage of the third world cheap labour and for exploitation to occur. Companies such as Nike, H&M and Nestle have reached headlines due to maltreatment of employees and appalling wage atrocities in developing countries such as Pakistan and Bangladesh. Employees have been subjected to gruelling long shifts without breaks, in cramped and unhealthy factories. It has been highly publicised that these workers earn only a tiny fraction of the product’s retail value in return for these inexcusable practices.

Culture and Communities

Globalisation can also affect the foundations of communities. Erosion of local culture is a main social concern with the increase of globalisation. The term ‘Hollywoodisation’ brought about by mass media is used by many critics. The global media networks transmit their programmes across many countries and regions and there is a risk that these networks might impose their own cultural values on the worldwide audience. When Euro Disney was built near Paris, many French people complained that this would undermine the distinctiveness of French cultural life (Taylor, Richardson, Yeo, Marsh, Trobe, & Pilkington 1995).

Some critics argue that openness to trade is purely destructive on culture but this may be confusing globalisation with Americanisation. In Cowen’s book, ‘Creative Destruction: How Globalization is Changing the World’s Cultures’ (2005) he deems the process of cultural exchange to be positive. It can create opportunities and diverse options so consumers can enjoy niche and differentiated products (Bianchi 2005). It makes countries richer in culture through the free exchange of ideas. It supports and promotes innovation and creativity through the trading of concepts and knowledge and therefore may be thought of as positive cultural evolution.

The technology brought about by globalisation can help people grow. It provides artists with new tools for expressing themselves and allows the formation of networks of artists and consumers, thereby spurring demand for local artistic endeavours such as Caribbean music (Clardy 2005).

Governments and politics

Globalisation transcends national borders and involves governments from different countries, sometimes leading to conflicts of interest. Problems can be caused by disputes between TNCs and governments or between governments themselves.

The sizes of TNCs allow them to have a certain power over governments. They are often larger and more powerful than many governments (Waters 1998). As they become more numerous and grow in size they potentially become more of a threat. By increasing economic and cultural connections governments can become ineffective by having no control over the flow of ideas and economic items at their borders.

There is now need for global governance. Without it, there may be war and conflict. States can become part of a large political organisation, join multilateral treaties and international organisations.

The United Nations (UN) is an international organization established in 1945. The UN describes itself as a “global association of governments facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equality.” The founders of the UN had high hopes that it would serve to prevent conflicts between nations and make future wars impossible (Wikipedia 2006). However, the large number of nations protected under the umbrella of the UN makes reaching consensuses extremely difficult. Even when agreements are reached, they can sway towards the opinions of countries which have more leverage within the organisation.

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international, multilateral organisation which sets the rules for the global trading system and aims to resolve disputes between its member states, all of whom are signatories to its 30 agreements (Wikipedia 2006). Its aims are to promote trade and stimulate economic growth. Many believe that free trade is not the right way to make people’s lives more prosperous but only grants the rich the means to become richer through the loss of the general population. Argentina realises this from experience of opening its trade barriers.

During the 1990s Argentina abolished their trade barriers, opened capital markets to international money and sold everything and anything. By December 2001, Argentina was 155 billion dollars in debt and collapsed into political and economic chaos (The Economist 2002). The country had relied upon a fixed exchange rate and massive foreign borrowing to fund reckless high government spending.

The European Union was formed in 1993 and is an intergovernmental and supranational union of 25 European countries. A key activity of the EU is the establishment and administration of a single common market, consisting of a customs union and a single currency (adopted by 12 of the 25 member states). As highlighted by the Euro currency, agreements between governments remain difficult to reach as each member state seeks what is best for its populace.

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty (Wikipedia 2006). The parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all. Since America’s invasion of Iraq, concerns have mounted about the relative utility of NATO amongst fears that it may have become obsolete. The fall of communism in the former USSR may appear beneficial, but it now allows the USA a monopolistic superpower role, either to intervene in the case of Iraq, or to leave poorer, strategically less important countries to fester or stew.

Environment

Environmentalists are concerned about whether globalisation will make the world greener or will degrade to a state worse than the current state. The Northern countries may be pulled down by the poor South or the poor South could become more like the rich North. These theories are called environmental protectionism and ecological modernisation respectively.

If globalisation leads to Ecological Modernisation, the developing economies could benefit from the developed economies greener environmental attitudes. They are likely to be more environmentally friendly due to stricter regulations and greater media pressures. They will have derived superior technological know-how to adhere to the regulations and avoid negative press (Boyce 2004).

The developing countries could benefit from the developed countries by foreign direct investment. The increase of inflows would increase income per capita which will lead to a knock on effect of being able to afford a cleaner environment.

Environmental protectionism could be seen as convergence of the lowest common denominator. Globalisation increases competition. Firms may wish to drive down costs so they can reduce their price against their competitors. There are two ways to drive down costs, either increase efficiency or lower standards. Firms may lower their standards by decreasing wages, safety and health care or increase pollution. Free trade encourages industries to shift their production activities to the countries that have the lowest standards of cost which is the opposite of global efficiency. There is little evidence of this, however, as high pollution industries have moved to developing countries (Boyce 2004).

Developing countries could however be seen as cleaner than the developed countries. Places such as India make more use of renewable energy resources such as solar power. Bicycles are often used as a substitute for cars. Less synthetic material is used and disposed of in developing countries, although more and more developing countries are beginning to adopt the use of plastic bags. The production of maize is greener in Mexico, but it is cheaper to produce in the US due to subsidies, pesticides and conditions.

Conclusions

The areas discussed only scratch the surface of globalisation. There are many more factors, aspects and ideas which hinge on the title ‘globalisation’. This essay has outlined a cross section of ideas and evidence on transnational companies, labour, equity, poverty, governments, culture and environment. Each of these elements holds social, economic and political aspects.

The main economic issues fall into the labour, equality and TNC groups. We see benefits of foreign direct investment and openness to trade bringing benefits of increased income per head, increases in wages which in turn lead to a reduction in the poverty gap and accelerated growth rates for developing countries.

However, gains to a given party are simply redistributions resulting from losses to someone else (Jareell, Brickly and Netter 1988). Labour in the developed nations has suffered. Many workers have been forced out of work by technology and the moving of unskilled labour to developing countries where labour is cheaper.

The growth in technology has been helped with the integration of cultures. Being able to understand and gain concepts from other cultures can only lead to more knowledge.

The treatment of labour and the culture aspect cross over with sociological aspects. Trade union opposition to globalisation has been strong due to the decrease in employment opportunities. Many feel that culture is being eroded away and that globalisation is, in fact, Americanisation.

Sociology and political issues focuses on the trade organisations to protect the developing countries from being out done from trade. Organisations such as the WTO and the UN have been formed to try and protect nations. The EU and NATO are agreements which integrate nations. There has been controversy as to how successful these really are.

These organisations have been setup to help the environment. Economic pressures increase the need to reduce costs to compete in the new global market which may lead to cutting corners. However, the south could gain from spread of environmentally friendly technology designed by the north.

Although globalisation has undoubtedly tasted much success, there have been many examples of failure. The problem lies in continued progression whilst respecting the rights of man, and not in demonizing an unstoppable phenomenon (Anon 2002). If globalisation is to continue, it must diminish financial instability, manage migration, help failing states and secure a working balance between national sovereignty and international regulation (Wolf 2003).

We have seen that globalisation does cover a range of social, political and economic aspects. But enough so to be the new defining phenomenon of millennium?

Maybe yes, but maybe not global. We are still not fully globally integrated. There are some countries such as Pakistan which choose to opt out for fear of Americanisation and other countries in states in Africa which are not suitable for foreign direct investment and have little to trade. Globalisation is not and never was global (The Economist 2002), it is internationalisation. As Wolf (2005) observes “If we want a better world, we need not different economies, but better politics.”

This a cause and effect essay on Global Warming

One of the hottest topics in the United States is the issue of global warming. This issue, once discounted and ridiculed as the wild imaginings of over enthusiastic environmentalists and “tree lovers,” is now being taken seriously by scientists, politicians, business leaders, and the American environmentalist community. Environmental scientists have been trying to warn these groups that our continued use of coal and petroleum products, as well as established business practices such as dumping industrial wastes into the air and waterways, would be the cause of a natural phenomena called the greenhouse effect, or global warming. Now, when the earth’s biosphere is obviously suffering adverse ecological effects from a century of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions, it is apparent to even the most skeptical anti-environmentalists that global warming is real. Effects such as El Nino and uncharacteristic seasonal changes are real occurrences in our lives. Global warming is an ecological issue that has been caused by humans who overload the earth’s natural ability to metabolize carbon, and the effect is that world temperatures and climate conditions are beginning to drastically change. An examination of the cause and effect of global warming show that this is an issue that cannot be ignored if the earth and its people are to survive.

How important is the issue of global warming in today’s society? It is considered by most environmentalists to be the top priority item because if the problem persists, the earth will eventually be uninhabitable and all of the other problems of the human race will be moot. Phenomena such as El Nino are a direct consequence of global warming. Global warming is defined by The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia as a gradual increase of the temperature of earth’s lower atmosphere as a result of human activity. A layer of atmospheric gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone; called greenhouse gases) allows radiation from the sun to reach the earth unimpeded and traps infrared radiation from the earth’s surface. This process, called the greenhouse effect, keeps the earth’s temperature at a level suitable for life. Growth in industry, agriculture, and transportation since the Industrial Revolution, however, has produced gases that have augmented the earth’s thermal blanket. Some researchers believe that continued production of greenhouse gases will lead to global temperature increases, which could melt the polar ice sheets, resulting in a rise in sea level and damage to coastal development and estuaries; dry soils, producing profound changes in agriculture; endanger many species; and spawn more frequent tropical storms such as El Nino.

The current global warming is historically related to American industrialization and the greedy consumption of manufactured goods by consumers. In the 1800s, America experienced a huge industrial revolution that changed the country from an agrarian society into an industrial society. The invention of mass production, interchangeable parts, and especially the steam engine fueled American industry to generate huge amounts of money as it provided goods for a growing consumer market. America Past and Present states,

American industry owed it remarkable growth to several considerations. It fed on an abundance of natural resources: coal, iron, timber, petroleum, and water power … Eager to promote economic growth, government at all levels – federal, state, and local – gave manufacturers money, land, and other resources. Other benefits, too, flowed from the American system of government: stability, commitment to the concept of private property, and initially at least, a reluctance to regulate industrial activity. Unlike their European counterparts, manufacturers faced few legal or social barriers. (America Past and Present 536-537).

Like modern industrialists who are hostile about the industry restrictions on CO2 emissions, the old industrialists wanted the freedom to use natural resources and generate their profits without regulations or having to pay the price for the consequences of their actions. It is interesting to note that The Los Angeles Times reports that modern industrial chiefs are beginning to “squeal like pigs” (Times A27) because their industries are being forced to commit to the reduction of toxic emissions that result from their manufacturing processes and that are adding to the global warming problem.

The government eventually created laws that began to curtail the destruction of the environment. One U.S. Government agency that is attempting to deal with the global warming problem is the Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). The EPA is an independent U.S. agency in the executive branch of the government. It was established in 1970 to reduce and control air and water pollution, noise pollution , and radiation and to ensure safe handling and disposal of toxic substances (Concise Encyclopedia 324). The EPA was formed to deal with the massive problems of pollution and hazardous waste that had been dumped into and onto the environment by companies that had no conscience about how they disposed of their wastes. The EPA has spent billions of dollars cleaning up the mess that one hundred years of industrialization has inflicted on the environment.

An article in the Los Angeles Times dated 10/22/97 and titled “Clinton Backs Broad Plan to Fight Global Warming” states that American President Bill Clinton was in the process of attending global warming talks in Bonn, Germany, to discuss the pressing issues surrounding the concerns of global warming. The European Union is pressing for what Clinton considers to be extremely harsh measures in reducing the emissions of toxic gases. The European Union plan calls for a 15% reduction in emissions by 2010, and Japan has advocated a 5% cut. The Times states, “The Arab oil-producing states, on the other hand, have objected to any such mandatory targets, going so far as to suggest payments to them if the agreements result in lower oil purchases” (Times A27). This says a lot about the Arab states’ commitment to the environment and their global conscience. At any rate, Bill Clinton is rejecting the proposals by the European Union by buckling to pressures from American industry to be more lenient about the emission reductions. The Clinton Administration’s plan would “call for industrial nations to commit to reduce by 2008 their emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide to 1990 levels. Because such emissions are expected to rise significantly – by some 13% in the United States – administration officials have argued that this amounts to a significant reduction, even though it simply stabilizes gases at a recent level” (Times A27). Bill Clinton, who ran for election in 1992 as an environmental advocate, seems to be back peddling on his proclaimed commitment to the environment and world ecology. Environmentalists see his watered-down proposals, as well as his traffic with American industrialists, as an environmental sellout. They feel that global warming is directly related to industrialization and consumption of manufactured goods by consumers (Times A27). We, the people of the earth, will have to wait and see whether the voices of the environmentalists, scientists, ecologists, and concerned human beings will win out over the greedy screams of businessmen and the politicians who they support.

After examining the cause and effect of global warming, we can see that the result of a hundred years of dumping carbon and toxic emissions into the air and waterways has caused an ecological problem that may prove to be irreversible. The only way to change the effects of global warming is to change the cause. We need to find alternatives to coal and petroleum products, be willing to sacrifice the conveniences that we take for granted, and be aware that there is little time for discussion about percentages/reductions of toxic emissions. When El Nino comes this winter, it will be a wakeup call to all of us that the time to take action is NOW.

Narrative essay about Education

Education is the Key to SuccessThe disadvantage of not completing high school is missing the prom, senior day, and graduation. Looking back, as a teenager my judgment was idle toward negativity and peer pressure. I struggled throughout the years without my high school diploma. To pursue higher education, my high school diploma was a necessity. In order to achieve a successful career, education is vital towards my career goals.

TransitionAt age 14, my parents moved to a low-income apartment building on the west side of Stamford. I believe this was the worst decision that my parents had made for us. The transition of living in a suburban area in Stamford, moving to the projects was fearful to me. I was the new girl on the block. The girls in this area smoked cigarettes in the hallways, skipped school, shoplifted, and had boyfriends. I attempt to stay away from the girls, due to their negative behaviors. As time went by, I was lonely staying in the house after school. As a result, I frequently invited the girls to my house after school to play. Suddenly, I was sneaking in the staircase with the girls smoking cigarettes, skipping school, shoplifting, and I had my first boyfriend. As time progressed, I had a bad attitude towards school and my parents. I dropped out of school at age 16; ran away from home with my boyfriend, became pregnant at age 17. This was a turning point in my life because I had to grow up quickly and become mother.

EmploymentAfter giving birth to my son, I applied for an overnight stock position for Kohl’s. On the job application, it asked, ”do you have a high school diploma?” I checked yes. Kohl’s hired me for the night position. I adapted to the late hours, and became friend with my co-workers. I enjoyed displaying the new clothes to the floor at night and dressing the manikins with the new designs. After my 90-day probationary period, there was a call from the store manager he wanted to see me. This was the longest walk down the corridor. My thoughts were racing faster than my heart. I did not have a clue as to what this meeting was going to be about. I knocked on the door and the manager said, “Come in, close the doors and have a seat”. The manager talked about an incident that happen at another store, the manager had to fire this gentleman; he became violent to the manager due to the termination of his employment. The police were called the gentleman was arrested. Management found out that this employee had a long criminal history of violence. Due to this incident, the company started checking all backgrounds of current employees. After reviewing my background the store manager said, “we have a problem with your application, we checked with the school and you were dishonest on your application ”. He had no other choice but to terminate my employment. I sighed in disbelief, my mouth was very dry and I could not swallow, I stood up from the chair, disappointed, embarrassed with my head held down. I reached out and shook the managers hand. I said, “ You have to do what you have to do: thanks for the opportunity”. When I walked out of the store, I began to cry. I learned from that day forward, to always be truthful no matter what. This incident made me realize how I would struggle if I did not pursue my education.

Pursing my DiplomaMy mother at age 60 went to night school to obtain her high school diploma. She laughed at me because she was going to receive her diploma before me. This motivated me to pursue my G.E.D. I was jealous of my mother, yet happy that she was accomplishing this for herself. The beginning of May 1998, I went to the Board of Education and applied for my G.E.D. test, the test was schedule for June. I applied myself, and studied for 30 days for this test. Early that Saturday morning, I was full of anticipation ready for the challenge ahead, the day of my test. I was nervous walking into the building, yet determined to complete and accomplish this rewarding task in my life. I was very excited when I completed my last question on the test. I waited anxiously for the test results by mail. The end of June 1998, my mother handed me a big yellow envelope; I quickly opened the envelope, and pulled out a crisp piece of paper my high school diploma (G.E.D.). After I read my results and found out my grades were above average, I jumped up and down full of happiness. My mother and I received our diplomas that month a celebration was definitely required.

In conclusionNevertheless, I missed a great deal of events in high school, I have learned to forgive myself for the mistakes I have made in the past and look towards the future. Never under estimate the lack of education, I am currently attending University of Phoenix to pursue my bachelors. I am determined to complete and accomplish this honorable and rewarding task. Education is a vital key to success in any career driven environment.

When adults look back in their childhood, they can see the mistakes they made because of lack of judgment. This is the reason why parents make the choices and decisions for their children. A child lacks the knowledge and judgment to make healthy decisions. As an adult, we cannot believe some of the things we have done to make obstacles in our lives. The author clearly understands his judgment as a child jeopardized his well- being. Nevertheless, children are responsible for their own actions, and should become leaders instead of followers.

Essay on how Juveniles should not be charged as adults

A movement has started in our country to renovate the juvenile justice system. This movement wants to erase any differences between young offenders and adult criminals. Almost all fifty states have changed their juvenile justice laws, allowing more youths to be tried as adults and abandoning long-time efforts to help rehabilitate delinquent kids and prevent future crimes. It seems to be plain and simple, a minor in this country is defined as a person under the age of eighteen. How then can we single out certain minors and call them adults? Were they considered adults before they carried out an act of violence? No. How then, did a violent act cause them to cross over a line that is defined by age? The current debate over juvenile crime is being dominated by two voices: elected officials proposing quick-fix solutions, and a media more intent on reporting violent crimes than successful prevention efforts. Minors should not be tried as adults in our society today. This is obvious through looking at propositions by our government such as Proposition 21, a proposition which used statistics to try and convince people to sentence youths to sentences.

Politicians feel that best solution is to lock up youth offenders for long periods of time. Most studies demonstrate that putting young offenders in adult prisons leads to more crime, higher prison costs, and increased violence. Yet, our nation is spending more and more on prisons, and less on crime prevention efforts. Some states spend more on prisons than they do on education. The cost of keeping juveniles in prison as compared to putting them into rehabilitation programs is astronomically higher. It can cost five thousand dollars to keep a juvenile in prison, when all they need to do is go to high school. Also the effectiveness of prisons preventing juveniles from becoming repeat offenders is low. Kids, who have already spent time in adult prisons, are far more likely to commit more serious crimes when they are released. Crime prevention programs work and are affordable. They have also been shown to reduce crime substantially. There are many crime prevention programs around the country that have been very successful in helping to reduce juvenile crime. Many states use programs that are designed to help parents of troubled kids in raising their children. These programs offer strategies and tactics for helping supervise and discipline troubled children. This is done, because it is believed that one of the causes of delinquency is that parents of kids with delinquent tendencies simply don’t know what to do with them. The parents just let their kids commit any crimes they want, because they do not have any idea how to prevent them. These programs as well as other similar ones have been shown to have quite an influence on crime prevention.

Media reports on juvenile crime are greatly exaggerated. Crime level indicators show that the male “at risk” population will rise over the next decade, but the levels are far from the explosive level that the media says. In fact, the levels are not high at all. The public also holds greatly distorted views about the prevalence and severity of juvenile crime. Contrary to what the people think, the percentage of violent crimes committed by juveniles is low. Young people commit under ten percent of violent crimes. Also, most juvenile arrests have nothing to do with violence. Most kids only go through the juvenile justice system once, and that is for some minor crime such as drug possession. Most youths will simply out grow “delinquent” behavior once they mature. But the media thrives on these stories, so they make it appear that crime is everywhere in order to sell more newspapers, or have people watch their news broadcast. This simply shows how the media exaggerates what they are saying about juveniles.

History is known to repeat itself. This saying is no lie when you look at the history of juvenile justice. Until Chicago established the first juvenile court in the United States in 1899, children 14 and older were considered to be as responsible as adults for their actions. Minors as young as 13 were occasionally sentenced to death, and some were executed. Discomfort with the death penalty and with imprisoning children with adults led to the creation of a separate court. This court acted as the “parent or guardian” of young offenders. Solutions include therapy, education, and community service. If we already felt that children should not be able to be tried as adults and we created a juvenile system to correct this, why turn our backs on it and go back to our cruel ways of more than 100 years ago? The answer is simple, we shouldn’t. We need to improve our juvenile system, a system that has been working fine since 1899.

The government has taken the initiative to come up with a plan of their own called Proposition 21, which would try offenders as adults rather than juveniles. Proposition 21 would require juvenile offenders 14 years or older to be charged as adults. It would limit confidentiality for juveniles who are charged with or convicted of specified felonies. The largest change under Proposition 21, is that it would require that certain juvenile crime offenders be held in a local or state correctional facilities rather than in juvenile facilities. It would designate certain crimes as violent and serious, thereby making offenders subject to longer sentences. Proposition 21 was proposed so that fourteen year olds and older would be tried as adults for serious crimes. If Proposition 21 passes it is going to send thousands of fourteen to sixteen year olds to state prison. Proposition 21 does nothing to protect our communities, and all it does is imprison children. Rather than decrease, if Proposition 21 passes, crime rates are going to increase. This will happen, because children will be involved in more prison crimes and there will be more crimes used to incriminate young children. If passed, it will imprison many juveniles with “top-notch” criminals. These criminals will be in the same area as the juvenile prisoners, causing them to be at risk. These children will also not be given the opportunity for rehabilitation like in the juvenile system. Without treatment and education, the only thing a juvenile can learn while locked up with adult criminals, is how to become a better criminal. These teenagers will not be given the opportunity of rehabilitation and will come out of jail only worse then they were before. Our nation also has a tragic record of sexual and physical assaults on juveniles in prison with adult criminals. Adult criminals will then most likely take advantage of these teenagers. Proposition 21 is a horrible idea and is a step in the wrong direction that only further hurts our youth.

Many people feel that juvenile crime is getting out of control. If you look at the statistics, you can see that this is not true. The arrest rate for violent juvenile crime has fallen for four years in a row; according to the Juvenile Justice Department report released this month. If this rate is declining is there a need to make harsher laws for minors? No. When looking at statistics you must look for misleading ideas in the reports. The public rarely hears the good news coming from juvenile court systems. This alone tells us, they do deserve a second chance, and that we cannot give up on our youth.

Some people might argue, that a juvenile could be a mass murderer, and under this system escape without a large sentence. Still, under the improved juvenile system, there would be a very small chance that this would occur. If this did occur, this person would be sent to a juvenile prison for life instead of a adult prison. This would prevent him from experiencing any life in an adult prison. It would also enforce the fact that juvenile prisons are the right place for juveniles.

In conclusion, the topic of juvenile justice and sentencing minors with adult penalties is a heated debate. Many elected officials go for the quick-fix solutions. The media will always show the worst of juvenile crime, and not any positive which makes people feel that there is a huge problem. Minors should not be tried as adults in our society today, because it does not help keeping our country crime-free. Bad quick fixes such as Proposition 21 do not help, the just send our society a step back. Juvenile crime does exist and youths do commit violent acts. However, it is not on the scale that many people would like the public to believe. The statistics state that juvenile crime is falling. The solution is to this problem is not a simple one and cannot be solved by simply putting kids in adult prisons or by making propositions. More effective solutions should be thought up and put to use. We need to have confidence in our juvenile system. The law created the defining line between minors and adults, but now everyone wants to ignore the definition because juvenile crime has gotten uglier. The minor is still a minor, no matter how ugly the act is.

Example of how not to write an historical essay.

I am writing in regards to Filomena’s performance in my history class. Rather than wait until her report comes out this week to write a sentence or two, I would like to deal with her writing ability fully to keep you completely aware and hopefully come to some idea that could best help her improve. I am not sure if you are in contact with her homeroom teacher but suspect that as is too often the case, the school waits until things get too late to inform parents.

I find that this school admits and promotes any student regardless of ability and then by the time they reach IB2 they are far out of their depth with the school unable or unwilling to help them. One of my IB1 students for example cannot even write an English sentence and yet he was placed in my grade 11 history class with native speakers. So too was a Chinese girl who had failed all of her final exams, all but one of her remake exams, all her history homework and tests, and yet was still allowed to pass from pre-IB to my IB1 history class, one which demands a high ability to read historical sources and write the most difficult analytical essays in the whole of the IB. I do not want this to happen to your daughter and wish to give her whatever help I can and therefore write this in the hopes you could guide me, knowing that she is already under tremendous pressure given her brother’s achievements.

Allow me to start by saying that in every essay she submits to me she relies on ideas unrelated to structure, relevance to the question, or historical fact while writing in a very immature manner. The essay she wrote in today’s mid-term exam is a clear example of this, and I wish to use it to offer you clear examples which a report card would not allow.

I offered students three questions of which they could choose one. The one Filomena chose was one she had done previously for homework: Why was the First World War especially hard on civilians? I wish to write out what she wrote going over certain concerns.

One of the examples of civilians being treated hard is disease. They were kept locked in houses with no cleaned drains which caused gangrene and other disease, they didn’t have fans which were used to push the germs out through the window. Many people were dying because of poor health care and no medical treatment. In order to keep the civilians alive they would have to move them to another house that was clean, had a good environment and a good medical treatment.

Such a paragraph concerns me for a number of reasons. Firstly, it was again the same question I had assigned for homework. I WENT OVER IT INDIVIDUALLY WITH FILOMENA BOTH IN CLASS, AFTER CLASS AND ONLINE. Secondly, after some time writing essays, there is still no topic sentence, concluding sentence, structure. This must be the case for all her classes. Most importantly, the ideas are completely off the mark. There is no evidence, no facts, no justification. To be told that civilians were simply moved to other accomodation due to lack of fans which led to gangrene is ground for deep worry. I know of no European country at that time that left its citizens without any medical treatment etc. As the next paragraph shows, pronouns are used without any reference so that one never understands who ‘they’ are:

Another example of poor civilians is hardwork, they made them work very hard, even little kids. In 1914 they decided that children have to work also, they were sent to different places like factories, yards and the mills. They weren’t even opaid for their jobs, thousands of kids which worked in a sewing machines, died because when the machine got stuck cause of the tread. The kid had to go under the machine and untangle it, it was a huge risk because once you fix it, it starts working and you will get killed. Parents had different k\jobs there were times that were locked in another place without seeing their kid for years. They even splited mothers from their babies. Because of this people were loosing their lives so they could satisfy someone.

It goes without saying that none of these points were mentioned in class or can be found in her textbook. To be asked to accept that “thousands” of children died due to faulty sewing machines and that babies were taken from mothers during the Great War at this level is impossible. No attempt has been made to use real facts we learned in class and studied, or any sense of context. This leads me to her last point:

The civilians were treated really harsh no matter if it meant it was a woman, man or child. They thought that being a man was a successful way of what they intended to do, but it wasn’t because they kiled innocent people. One of the ways of killing civilians by Germans was by putting them in a room naked and spreading poison gas, which killed them slowly. Another way is either to make them die of hunger and thirst or either hang them or shoot one by one. In the battle of Versailles over 30,000 civilians were killed during the war. In 1916 it was more or less not a crime to kill civilians.

We will deal with Hitlerism next year. To confuse the Holocaust with what we studied goes beyond questions of her efforts of reviewing. Not only is claiming such a thing dangerous, but as there was no battle of course at Versailles, and the Geneva conventions as explained in class certainly did not allow for mass murder, this is now lying while expecting credit for it.

Of course I have sat down with Filomena and explained this to her. I have shown her other students’ work. I have told her to stop using slang and to write in a more formal style. Above all, I tell her to answer the question using the facts and evidence I test her on every class. Nevertheless, she still uses her mid-term to conclude

I am going to conclude this insane and harsh topic by saying it is wrong killing civilians. The question is, How are civilians from anybody else? they are not, just cause they don’t wear suits and carry a gun it doesn’t give any reason to kill them because they are still humans with civil rights. They should all be treated equal. If I was the leader for example Germany, I wouldn’t ever kill a human that was innocent unless I really had to. Woodrow Wilson said that they had to revenge Germany in a very harsh way. Maybe that’s the only way to resolve this fight.

I promise you I have urged her not to write in such a personal, irrelevant way. By claiming that Wilson demanded vengeance against the Germans shows me she has understood nothing in my class as he wanted the opposite.

This essay was only half the mark for the exam; the other half was simple quiz questions such as “What was the name of Germany’s ruler 1888-1918″ and “Which country defeated Russia in 1905?” which she received 30.5/66. I feel it is critical to find some way to deal with this issue, not only for the sake of my class but for all her classes that rely on essaywork. As Bartek knows, TOK essays and Extended Essays are required to graduate, and one cannot pass history or geography without being able to write intelligent persuasive arguments. What Filomena is writing for me at this level is the same as what she wrote last year, and the year before.

I assign at least one essay a week for her which students email to me (I always save their work if you ever want to see her progress). Perhaps she could have you at home peruse her work. I am very cautious because I know that Filomena is very self-conscious and insecure. I talk to her a lot and she tells me how she needs to live up to her brother’s lofty example. I don’t want to do anything to add to her pressure, and therefore think it would be best if we kept this email private between ourselves.

Dual Identities Write an essay exploring the concepts of identity

What is identity? We know from intuitive self-awareness that personal identity exists. It seems to be a fact of conscious life, as common as the word “I.” But the real question is how to define it? I have come to realize that there is no set definition on what makes an identity, so if my understanding is correct anything and everything can make an identity. There is no wrong answer. It varies from person to person. For example Andre Dubus, the author of “Witness”makes his identity clear through stories in which he shows his disability. In his case having a disability is part of his identity “I cannot stand or walk . . . I cannot live as normals do.”

As for myself, I can relate, although not to the extent as Dubus, I can understand the anger that goes along with a disability. My disability is anemia, and while most people that suffer from anemia do not see anything other than minor side effects, I do. I am severely anemic, and so it affects my everyday life. I have trouble getting up in the morning because I am too tired, even after a good night sleep. I have to take iron pills and I eat red meat almost every day. Furthermore, I have seen more doctors than I wish to remember and they all tell me the same thing “you’ll grow out of it.” “Really, thanks Doctor, you’ve been so helpful,” I reply sarcastically. Few people know about my sickness, which I plan to keep that way. For some reason I feel that if many people knew about it they would feel bad for me, and could possibly think I was weak, which is the last thing that I want.

Part of my identity is being strong and un-afraid, which is a difficult thing to pull off for a girl. Dave Barry the author of “Guys vs. Men” thinks that a lot of men give “guys” a bad name. Just like Barry I think that a lot of girls give females a bad name. Let me explain. I think that a lot of girls are overly dramatic, way too emotional, and acted dumber than they really are, for reasons that are very unclear to me. I know that I am feeding into the stereotype, but some girls fit the stereotype too well to not comment on.

I refuse to take guff from anyone, unless I deserve it, and I speak what is on my mind. I have heard that I can be very threatening, but I do not believe that I should refrain from speaking my mind when I see it necessary. In Keith Bradshers essay “Reptile Dreams” Clotaire Rapaille describes teens very well by commenting that “They want to give the message, …’I want to be able to fight back, don’t mess with me.’” Clotaire seems to sum up the thoughts of the American youth very well, or at least me. I think that I acquired that aspect of my identity from when I lived in Los Angeles. Zora Neal Hurston explains it well “I left Eatonville, …as Zora…When I disembarked on the river boat…She was no more,” in her essay “How if feels to be Colored Me.”She expressed exactly how I felt when I moved to Sacramento. I felt like I wasn’t myself anymore.

When I lived in Los Angeles I developed an eclectic personality; because I was friends with so many different types of people I took on other aspects of my personality. Unfortunately because I lived in LA I always had to have my guard up, im not sure how to explain it correctly other than, if you lived there you would understand. For the most part everyone had to fend for themselves, and if you weren’t able to do that than you were a follower of someone who did. I later came to realize that ones sense of self, or ones identity is developed through, among other things, external influences including friends, family, and situations.

Now looking back I can see where I have gotten my attitude. I’m smart mouthed, sarcastic, and blunt. Through those traits I have also acquired nicknames. A recent nickname as of this summer was, “Ms. Attitude.” This summer I went wake-boarding with some family friends, their friends, and my best friend. So basically it was my friend and I, and 7 guys. What I came to realize though this summer, is that most guys aren’t used to girls that talk back. Because I am very sarcastic the guys were very surprised, which is why I developed the nickname. They thought it was hilarious, and I was recently told by one of them that they miss my attitude, so I guess I left an impression. What is shocking to me though, is that I usually get that reaction from most guys, which leads me to believe that they have never met any girls from LA.

I moved last summer before senior year to Granite Bay, and attended Granite Bay High School my senior year. I moved from my moms house to my dads house, willingly, to avoid a lot of un-necessary drama. The move was quite unexpected for everyone but myself. I left because I came to realize that my friends were no longer my friends. Many of my friends had begun to do some very hard drugs, and so I no longer wanted to be around them. I knew it was a bad environment, so I left. I have always been very independent and have never relied on anyone else to make decisions for me. I only did what I thought was right, yet after sharing my story with a few new friends in Nor*Cal I witnessed a lot of jaw-dropping, everyone thought that it was such a big deal. My identity quickly developed, I was the girl from L.A. I valued that identity, I almost felt like superman, I was Clark Kent when I was home in LA, and Superman when I was in Sacramento. I say Superman because a lot of people kind of looked at me like that, like I was invincible. I was like nothing any of them were used to. Other than being influenced from where one lives or lived, I believe that family can have a huge impact on ones identity.

For instance, because I was raised by my mom, I turned out differently than if I was raised by my dad. If I was raised by my dad I think I would have turned out much more emotionally detached, and much more independent. I say this because my dads a guy, he doesn’t seem to care about anything other than himself and definitely shows no sign of emotion or feeling, that means no hugs. If I was raised by him Im sure I would have had a job at thirteen and would probably be living on my own now. But because I was raised by my mom I grew being very spoiled, because my mom believes that school is more important than work so I was never allowed to get a job. Unfortunately I grew up having everything handed to me. Which is good because I got everything that I wanted very easily, but bad because I got used to having everything handed to me. In addition, because I grew up living with my mom I became more compassionate and caring because that’s what I was taught. I consider the way I was raised part of my identity, I grew up with very strong ties to my family and that’s part of who I am.

In conclusion, I believe that there is no one way to decipher where an identity can come from. So once again what is identity? humans are the only animal that can be aware of oneself, and so we are also the only animal to contemplate who we are, and why we are that way. Through this constant mission of self discovery everyone seems to have an ever-changing view on their personal identity. It is a fact of conscious life, as common as the word “I,” to want to know who we are. I have come to realize that there is no set definition on what makes an identity, so if my understanding is correct anything and everything can make an identity. There is no wrong answer. It seems to vary from person to person and if any given event, person, action, etc, has effected someone greatly enough it can become part of their identity, even unknowingly. For me writing this paper was a mission of self discovery, I have never really considered who I am other than the obvious. I now know who I am and why I am the way I am. To me that was the hardest thing to answer. Why?

Biographiccal essay on E.B. White as an essayist with some personal references and commentary.

I don’t remember exactly how I first learned the story of Charlotte’s Web. I don’t remember if Mom or Dad read it to me or if a baby-sitter popped the tape in the VCR. I do remember that I was obsessed with pigs by the time I was three. E. B. White had infiltrated our home. White’s essays are not only enjoyable, but are filled with important lessons for the prospective writer as well — White’s candor combined with wit and a dash of humor has transformed the newspaper columnist into a prominent, uniquely American literary figure.

The essays of E. B. White are masterfully composed. His imagery departs a grand demonstration that few writers can ever accomplish. His style flows through all of his essays and illustrates the world around him as he tells his stories. No matter what topic he writes about, his words flow smoothly to paint a scene of pictures and leave a sense of understanding. Through his imagery and style, the reader learns a unique aspect of the world.

With this in mind, E.B. White writes in a manner that moves in a smooth path to its final destination. He mentions all details that reside in the surrounding area, while presenting an intrinsic idea that is concluded at the end. Showing how the simple joys of a place recover many memories, in “Once More to the Lake,” is one example of his style. Here, he flashes back to his summers as a child, when his father takes him to the lake, describing the coves, streams and his experiences as he ponders if the lake remains the same, and ending by revealing his final thoughts and findings. To this end, his words flow freely from the first sentence to the last, combining with his descriptions to easily set the mood.

Consequently, whether the essay is sullen or spirited, he vividly portrays a true sense of how the setting appears. Accordingly, the burial sight is described with a sort of ease, in “The Death of a Pig,” causing the reader to feel as though he or she is present. Gloomy, saddening weather adds to the description of the grave being dug, with the dog patrolling around in a circle. These descriptions add much to the varied topics of each piece.

While these central themes vary, all depart a sense of understanding. Each possesses the quality of imagery and style of composition that combine to form a complete picture. He writes about Florida in, “On a Florida Key,” telling about the scenery around him, while glancing into the differences between the North and the South and the treatment of Negroes at the time. Departing from this would be his description of a young circus rider in, “The Ring of Time.” E. B. White recounts how time is always changing; that the girl will never be the same age again. In “The Essayist,” he even moves to comment about his own; writing about what an essayist is. He shows no fear in criticizing himself, and this shows in his compositions.

All of these aspects combine as E.B. White writes. Each one adds to the essay, making it a complete work. An essay needs to deliver a point to the reader, while holding the reader’s interest. His essays do well to hold interest, and the imagery provides much for this. His topics are chosen well, and all excel in conveying his ideas. This masterful composition of various elements makes E.B. White’s name almost synonymous with the word “essay.”

Everyone wishes that they had their families in the 1950′s, things were simpler the 1950′s are like any other decade, with its own problems.

Coontz and Crittenden both, in their own essays, agree that the 1950′s were a time of optimism about marriage, although, they disagree with each other on the motivation and outcome of that optimism. The 1950′s are looked back upon as the “Golden” family years. Everyone wishes that they had their families in the 1950′s, things were simpler, there were less temptations for their kids, but the reality is, the 1950′s are like any other decade, with its own problems. The difference about the 1950′s is the problems were swept under the carpet. Problems were not dealt with, they were pushed back and left to simmer on the back burner, hoping that they would just go away.

Crittenden’s opinion is that families were based on the “mutual sacrifices husbands and wives make for each other, which understood marriage as an arrangement of give-and-take rather than quid pro quo.” (Crittenden, p72) Which, more or less says, that, now, we look for what we can get in a marriage rather then what we can do to make the marriage better. I think a good example of this is the TV show bachelorette. Where men, go on the show and try to win the women over so that, in the end, they could take a million dollars or the women for their wife. On the flipside of that, the lady plays to win two million dollars if the one she chooses picks her instead of the money. Her view, is that marriage is failing because society’s opinion that “marriage is a good and laudable, that separation is a calamity and a failure, and by the opinion of the husband and wife themselves that only the gravest incompatibility can justify divorce.” (Crittenden, p70)

Crittenden writes that as a society “we must also understand that family has never been about the promotion of rights but about the surrender of them – by both the man and the woman. Crittenden’s opinion about family is very sensible seeing as though, we as a society care less about making a marriage work and more about what we are going to get from the marriage, in the past there were no divorces, unless there was an extreme issue between the husband and wife. Marriage is more about tying of fates, making them so that they don’t waver and separate (Crittenden, p73), more about “life and death, blood and sacrifice and about this generation and the next.”(Crittenden, p74) Crittenden’s opinion is compelling because it makes you wonder how much truth is in her words, if it is our falling sense of society, and that now that women, unlike the 1950′s, are able to go out and make money for the family and sustain it.

I think that Crittenden’s opinion of family is accurate and precise. If marriage was about what was to gain, what would the children turn out like? Marriage is about something more, blood and sacrifice. I believe that everything that you strive for in life should be about blood and sacrifice, if you don’t put everything into it, it’s probably not worth it in the end, or you’re not setting good goals for yourself.

On the other hand you have Coontz’s view of how family was better off in the 1950′s is that marriage rates went up, with divorce rates at a all time low. But, Coontz

points out that the 1950′s were not all that they were cracked up to be, such as it was

nearly impossible for a wife, that had been abused or taken advantage of by her husband to divorce him. The 1950′s had no help for battered women. Women were oppressed during the 1950′s, they couldn’t even open a bank account in their own name, or take out credit for that matter, seeing as though they were the bill paying authority of the households. The 1950′s were of the last years that a person could get out of high school and get a good enough job to support a family, so teenagers, right out of high school would move away with their “high school sweethearts” and get married. Coontz breaks the 1950′s down as a time of high income growth, and oppression. Coontz represents the 1950′s as teenagers running off and getting married, but then not getting divorced because it wasn’t done then, lack of assistance to do so, or social exclusion.

Coontz provides extensive data for her claims that adds to her plausibility. Her ideas seem sensible enough, seeing as you look back upon the shows of the time; it’s what’s described in the shows.

Both Essays seem to be sensible enough. Coontz’s provides the actual data from pools and book, while Crittenden supply’s the theory behind her ideas. I don’t know which is more sensible; they both supply their argument fully and provide enough detail to let you make your own means to their ideas.

Although Crittenden’s essay makes her idea seem reasonable enough, Coontz

seems more plausible because it has all the data ever needed to prove her point. Coontz

has an extreme amount of references, from polls, to references to books, to magazines

and newspapers. Coontz also weaves all her information into her essay seamlessly giving you a lot of stats and information “in your face.” While Crittenden has about 2 references in her whole essay, but her personal opinions come off as “expert advice.”

Coontz essay, although, is very hard to handle, with all the stats and references. On the other hand, Crittenden’s essay is much easier to read and follow; it pulls you into the topic more than Coontz. Coontz drawback is the sheer load of stats, it’s full with them, and it’s like reading a dictionary.

Coontz and Crittenden both have views on why family’s worked in the 1950′s, both their essays seem sensible enough, with well thought out reasoning. While they both are sensible, Coontz essay is more plausible, having its sheer size of data and references, but with this gain, it is also its loss. Crittenden’s essay is more compelling, if not for just the lack of data and references, for the well thought out essay and the flow of it. I don’t think either paper is better than the other, although I believe that each has its good points and flaws. Like Coontz uses a lot of, and at times excessive amounts, of quotes and statistics. But on the other hand, Crittenden uses a lot of situations and examples. Thus, I believe the essays are equals, neither better than the other, but each has theirs goods and bads.

A Example of an Expository Essay on Values.

Lots of people are relatives and aren’t friends. Lots of people work together who aren’t friends. Lots of people say they are friends but aren’t. You can appreciate or admire someone, but that doesn’t make them a friend. So, what makes a true friend then? Friendship is one of many values that I have, the other two that I will write about are family and freedom.

Developing and maintaining friendships is a challenge. You may discover that the person you thought was a good and trusted friend was in fact not. Friendship is not a matter of the amount of time you spend with someone. Rather, it is a measure of the depth that arises between the two. Even meeting someone for the first time, you might feel an unexplainable sense of familiarity.

“A man without a family is not a man.” Words spoken from the godfather, even though a fictional movie, have truth to them. What defines a family? Is a couple a family? Is a group of three adults a family? It seems today that, many people believe you only have a family when there are children involved, I say if more the one person calls a certain place “home” then they are indeed a family of sort.

Freedom, it’s what allows us to function as we do today. To most, going to the church of their choice, or voting is second nature. Not everyone is so lucky. Look at Cuba for example, how do you vote when there is a dictator? Freedom is something that is taken for granted everyday, but, whether we realize it or not, it plays a major role in our daily life.

Whatever your values may be, just realize that they are the basis of our life. Friendship, family, and freedom are the ones most important to me. Now, yours may differ from mine, but, that’s what makes us human. Everyone has their own beliefs, but just think, what if we had to live life without the values you cherish most…

Gun Control

Introduction

(Issue/Topic of the essay ) Individual ownership of guns (your position on this issue) should be strictly supervised via gun control as this may reduce gun violence.

(Quick synopsis of support reasons) Adults can kill each other in a moment of great anger. Young children have been known to have accidentally found their parents’ gun with fatal consequences. Criminals will not be discouraged from using guns without stricter regulations.

(Premises) Guns, are far more lethal than knives or baseball bats, especially in the wrong hands or in a tense situation. Both situations can’t be guaranteed against and both have led to tragic endings. Stricter gun control could lessen the occurrences of such situations.

(Conclusion) Gun Control can hence lessen the occurrences of gun violence.

Body

1. (Reasons. In this and subsequent paragraphs, one for each premise, you must

state the evidence you have for believing that your premises are true: )

There have been cases where people have shot a colleague, school mate

or spouse from sheer anger. Traffic disputes leading to gun assault have also

been committed by people owning a concealed guns permit. Pulling the trigger

is one of the easiest and yet most lethal acts of violence, much easier and

much more lethal than executing a karate chop or hitting someone with a

baseball bat. Such acts of violence can be done at a safe distance (at least

safe for the gun owner). Furthermore, automatic and semi-automatic guns are

lethal on a larger scale as they let off a round of ammunition in a minute’s

firing. Shooting a random number of people from a distance at a post office, in

a school yard or from a drive-by car presents little hardship if one owned a gun

rather than a switchblade.

A waiting period prevents immediate purchase during such tense times.

Homicides dropped by sixty percent in the first quarter of 1985 when police in

Palm Beach County enforced an ordinance that required a seven to fourteen

day waiting period for handgun purchases. The National Rifle Association, all

the way up to the late 1970s, declared that a waiting period might help reduce

crimes of passion as well as prevent people with criminal records or dangerous

mental illnesses from acquiring guns.

2. Most gun owners have been warned by public authorities that they

should have their guns locked away and that they should have a safety lock

on the trigger. The problem is, quite a number of gun owners buy guns for self

defense; hence quick access and a trigger ready to fire provides that sense of

security. However such easy access can be fatal to one’s own family. In

America, there are approximately two hundred and eighty to three hundred

child fatalities caused through firearm accidents, that’s about one child

per day. If one has to go through driver education as well as a driver test

before being allowed behind the wheel, shouldn’t there be stricter

requirements about gun awareness and gun ownership? A comprehensive

course about gun safety and gun usage should be made mandatory as well

a firearms test before a gun licence is issued.

3. Gun control in the form of enforced registration, strict background checks, limitation of concealed weapon licensing as well as extended waiting periods have been cited as effective methods of deterring criminals from gun ownership.

In California, over one thousand prohibited persons were stopped from

buying guns in 1981. In Columbus, Georgia, the city’s three day waiting period

caught two felons per week trying to buy guns. There should also be a strict

ordinance against concealed weapons in public places. According to News

Journal Web Edition, two counties which have a high number of concealed

weapons permit, Volusia and Flagler, also have some of the highest county

crime rates in the whole of Florida compared to other counties with a lower

number of concealed weapon permit holders.

In Canada, which has stricter gun control, between 1961 and 1990, an average 130 homicides were committed with guns each year. This was almost hundred times less the average in the United States. Naturally the population of the States is much larger but other statistics pull frightening percentages. For example, handguns are used in about 2.3 per cent of violent crime in Canada, as opposed to about 10 per cent down south.

4. (Rebut objections to your argument : )

Making it difficult to own guns across the board also make it more difficult

for inexperienced criminals to own an arsenal. Even though countries like the

United States had a cowboy pioneering history where guns were used

for hunting as well as to protect one’s land against marauders and wild

animals, does this mean we should allow our modern inner cities to become

populated with urban cowboys? We have to adopt a more civilized attitude to

protecting one’s property. If across the board, we legislate serious penalties

against gun stores who do not enforce strict checks and registration, as well

as against gun buyers who have used guns in crimes, hence reducing future

criminal ownership of firearms, wouldn’t there be less need for firearm

protection? Is it not a coincidence that gun homicide averages correlate with

gun ownership numbers where in 1990, there existed about 200 million guns

in private American hands compared to about 6 million in Canada?

Conclusion

(Briefly restate your argument and discuss the logical relationship between your premises ie. reasons and your position. )

In a moment of great anger or passion, a gun can prove fatal not merely to one victim but to many without the offender even being in close proximity. A waiting period as well as a strict ordinance against concealed firearms are two

ways to confront such situations. Young children have accidentally found their parents’ gun with fatal consequences. Stricter rules and maybe even a mandatory firearm course (inclusive of gun safety awareness) prior to a mandatory gun licence should be considered. Most importantly, a comprehensive screening process as well as a tough clamp on lax gun store owners could discourage criminal ownership of firearms.

In 1985, about 11,692 Americans were murdered by guns while about 1,580 were accidentally killed. These are not small statistics. Firearms, are lethal, especially in the wrong hands and the wrong circumstances. Both situations can’t be guaranteed against and both have led to tragic endings. Legislation for stricter gun control can reduce the occurrence of such situations and hence reduce gun violence.

Below is an actual essay. In a real exam paper, you should not have subtitles or titles for each paragraph. It is only given as a guide to the student.

Expository Essay

Multiculturalism

(Introduction)

The word multiculturalism has been touted and expounded on for many years. This is due to extensive immigration as well as to the world becoming a much smaller place because of communication technology, world travel and international trade. It obviously has some importance in our society and its benefits would probably not be quite as appreciated if we could see a time and a place where such a practice was not encouraged.

(Body)

(1.Trade & Investment)

Multiculturalism encourages good relations with different nationalities be they local students, foreign students, visiting workers or visiting trade officials. Even immigrants with relatives and friends overseas provide good trade and investment contacts. Better trade relations ensures the exchange of different goods, this is important where vital imports like wheat and electronics is concerned.

The influx of overseas investment is necessary in the growth of our local industries and this cannot be done if other nations hear about our poor civic race relations, particularly towards people who had originated from their shores. Australia realized this uncomfortable fact when certain conservative politicians made speeches sanctioning a whiter country with less tolerance for ethnic migrants. Its Asian neighbours responded by sending less students and making less business investments.

(2.Science & Education)

The learning of different technologies from other countries and the import of talented professional foreigners is a practice that the United States, Japan and Singapore have executed with positive impact. In both countries there exist a group of highly skilled expatriate workers, quite a few who have decided to permanently make these countries their home. Also, the employment of foreign professors and the attendance of foreign graduate students raises the level of information exchange and technical knowledge of universities.

The learning of different cultures in the area of history, literature, science and the arts widens the scope of every young student and this again is done by the school having an awareness of its country’s rich multicultural fabric. In America, colleges from Brown to Berkeley have advocated creating an American cultures section as part of a mandatory requirement for either one of their social-sciences or humanities course. A faculty committee at the University of California has proposed such a requirement to give students a better understanding of the country’s cultural diversity. Such awareness makes one’s country a more open and welcoming place for both visiting and settling workers.

(3.Social)

On a city and suburban scale, racial harmony also ensures social and political peace. Multiculturalism can do two things for a multicultural society. It can make one proud of one’s heritage as well as educate others about the different cultural or religious practices of other races. The friends that we make as well as the experiences of listening to different histories and learning different family perspectives is something that isn’t comparable to just reading a book.

When we learn to understand such differences, we learn to communicate more effectively with one another. Multiculturalism can also show us our similarities. It can point out to us certain values as well as cultural practices that are not really that different from one another.

In younger countries like the United States and Canada, where the large cities have a long history created by migrants and where cosmopolitan metropolises have arisen, “multiculturalism” is often touted as the buzz word. Maybe it is so because we have seen the other side of things, the other side where racial disharmony in close quarters has made life uncomfortable because of endemic distrust but where it has also proven lethal causing gang fights and city turmoil such as the 1992 Los Angeles Riots.

(4. Political)

On a national scale, there have been countries at one time or another who have ignored the policy and practice of multiculturalism to their detriment.

In South Africa, during the Apartheid period a few years ago, the blacks, although the majority of the population, had very little say in the political, economical or educational aspects of their lives. White children did not learn about black history and heritage in the public schools though ironically black children learned about their country’s colonial past. Children as well as adults did not mix socially with white people and many civil skirmishes were not uncommon.

Without the sound co-operation between various races, it is possible for one single majority race to dominate the lives of other minorities. This happened to Germany after World War One and after the collapse of the Weimar Republic, at a time when it was not faring well economically. It is usually during such tense times that racial disharmony can be a dangerous fuel for various political groups. Hence, in the early 1930′s and 1940′s, Hitler and his Nazi armies managed to incarcerate, torture and kill more than six million jews; their fascist success eventually led to a maniacal desire to conquer other neighbouring powers.

(5. Critics)

From a mercenary point of view such as the enhancement of investment to the altruistic point of view of learning to live peacefully with one another, the question begs, how do we execute a so-called multicultural policy? So far, Canada has succeeded in including in its government work policies, educational curriculum as well as in its arts funding considerations, programs that are either aware of and that directly deal with one’s cultural identity. There have been public complaints that such programs have either not gone far enough or have become too painfully obtrusive.

In the former case, more open dialogue between different cultural groups should be encouraged. Dialogue at a young age, between student and teacher

for example, can teach citizens to express what they feel they would like to learn and what they would like to see on a more practical level happen with their own country’s multicultural development.

With the latter problem, one could argue that the civil rights movement of the sixties as well as the women’s liberation activism of the seventies were obtrusive; going against years of conservative practices always is. But sadly, sometimes that is the only way things change for the better .

(Conclusion)

As seen from the above examples, there are benefits in all areas when people of different cultures can live harmoniously together. In this day and age where economic, educational, social and artistic exchanges are on the rise, an awareness and the practice of multiculturalism is vital. The government is usually the first official body that can lead the way in such matters, but every citizen has his own part to play; we have seen the consequences otherwise.

Problem-solution essay on child labor

Child labor is an increasing problem in the world. The children who work in factories are more likely to become physically and mentally underdeveloped than children who go to school. Asia and Africa have over 90% of the children who work in the world. These places also have the highest death rate for children 10-16 years old. That isn’t a coincidence due to the fact over 60% of children who work at factories die before they earn $1,000. The major reason for these deaths is they live in poverty. Major companies (i.e. NIKE) take advantage of this by hiring children and paying them less money than adults. This is a major problem and it can be solved.

To solve this problem, we, the people of the world, would need an international restriction on the working age. With these restrictions in place worldwide, we would be able to enforce them better. The enforcement must come from an unbiased group with delegates from every country ( a group much like the UN). By using an unbiased group, it would be harder to have a country not obey and enforce the law. We would also have to have developed countries, such as England and America, help the undeveloped countries by supporting schools and giving children a valid reason to go (i.e. free food and free textbooks). We have to do this with the realization that the child’s income is equal to ¼ of the families income and that some children work in order to go to school. By giving them a free meal and books for education, you alleviate the reason they work.

Underdeveloped countries around the world have children working in factories to help support their families. Many of these children don’t have a childhood filled with fun and games because they are caught in the nightmare of child labor. This simple solution can change the lives and dreams of the many children who work for just $0.11 a day or less by giving them an education and hope for a brighter future.

Education in America as Seen in “Now and Then”

Within the textbook “ Now and Then”, author Eudora Welty and Malcolm X both discuss their views and opinions on Education in America. From their writings, it is obvious that their views are radically different due to their different perspectives of Education, they both create a different tone, style, towards their intended audience. Each author also developed and used a different array of techniques to influence their readers. Reading two very un-similar writings from two very un-similar authors, will likely attract different readers from all over the spectrum. These two authors have un-similar ways to make their argument and present their subject. Because of this, it cause’s questions to be asked such as, how these things( style, techniques) function in their writings and the effectiveness they have in presenting their arguments, and the affect that they have on readers.

In Eudora Welty’s Essay, “Clamorous To Learn” , she openly retells a fictionous story of events during her childhood years in school. Welty’s main writing technique that creates the bridge for readers to relate to her experience was her great use of descriptions. Welty’s descriptions are so well written, that it creates a impression that these events that she is discussing, seem like they have just occurred the day before. Not only does Welty’s descriptions assist her in retelling her experience but it also helps Welty present her subject. Another technique that Welty uses great is her selection of point of view. As well as using techniques to increase the impact of her essay, Welty also decides to a humorous and at some times a serious tone throughout her essay. For example, she playfully retells her past experience’s of her grade school teacher, Miss Duling.Using a 1st person point of view also helps Welty in making her essay more effective overall.

Eudora Welty’s style of writing was very effective in her essay “Clamorous To Learn”. Welty’s choice of style made her essay more relatable and in edition made her essay more effective. Eudora’s style seem to be to give her experience in school as well as explanation on how her family, friends and teachers had a major effect on her life. Her intended audience is greatly affected by her style because it allows her audience to create a relation to her own experience. Allowing readers to relive their childhood experience through her essay makes her writings much more impactful. The style of Eudora Welty also presents her subject of education through her experience in school. In the end , Welty’s essay achieves its message she intended to send out, that education is a important part of life, no matter how hard the journey is.

In Malcolm X’s essay,” Can Prison Be a School?”, he descriptively describes his experience in prison, as it was there that he gain most of his knowledge. From his essay, Malcolm X uses writing techniques and styles to discuss his time in prison, where he read books from authors such as H.G. Wells, J.A. Rogers, and W.E.B Du Bois, taking in different things from each as well as having encounters with Mr. Muhammad , a muslim leader. Malcolm X uses almost a similar technique has author Eudora Welty’s uses, where it is basically a retelling of his past experience in prison. Because of the technique that Malcolm X chooses to use, it allows his audience to get a better understanding of what he is discussing about. Malcolm X also uses another technique that he chooses to use to help back up his argument and subject , in which he uses other sources, whether it be books or other people in met in prison, to bring across his point of view.

Malcolm X’s tone in his essay seems to take a very serious route and for his subject it is very appropriate. Malcolm X seems to have chosen a stricter tone because it would help support his argument stronger than a humorous kind of tone would have on a essay such as this. His style of writing is very effective , in the way that his examples from other sources as well his own personal experience really reaches his audience to where he wants it to reach them. Malcolm X creates a really effective essay because he has some strong feelings towards certain races and it can easily be seen in his essay. Some of his audience may differ some his essay and in that way it can be very effective.

Both Eudora Welty and Malcolm X ,create really intriguing essays that are in their own right effective . Each of their messages or purposes for writings their essays are achieved at the end of each essay and allows many of their audience to create their view whether it be the same or different.

an essay about how social classes played a huge part in the american revolution.

American Revolution Essay

The American Revolution was a huge step for the young colonies to take regardless of the reason or purpose. Although, this essay is not intended to dispute how large of a step this was, but to dispute what the colonists’ reason for taking this step was. In Gary B. Nash’s essay on the subject, he concluded that the colonists came to the point of the American Revolution because of a social upheaval followed by a chain reaction of events that could not be stopped. Then on the other hand, T.H. Breen’s essay on the subject leaned towards the idea that the American Revolution occurred due to political reasons. Although these two men thought that the Revolution occurred because of one reason or the other I feel that in most cases it happened because of both. See, even though there was not a well-defined class or status level set yet, it was still there and it bothered those put on the bottom. Those laborers, women, and all other groups placed at the middle and bottom of the ladder went into the American Revolution based on the social upheaval in hopes of getting there independence from England and truly making there land a land of opportunity. On the other hand, the “upper” classes were going into the American Revolution mainly for political reasons. The upper classes were all your politicians and gentry who had come over from England and they were just tired of having to answer to England for everything they did.

First of all, the middle and lower class families and how they were involved in the American Revolution was based on the cultural aspect of it all. See, the people at the middle and bottom had to work hard every day to be able to afford eat and go on with every day life. So when the English start taxing everything they bought heavier and heavier in the end it hurts the middle and bottom classes and not the upper classes because the upper classes can afford to pay. Another thing is that the majority of these middle and bottom class individuals were placed in the same class when they were in England, and America was supposed to be the land of opportunity, so why were they still being treated the same way and not being able to try to advance and change there lifestyle and status. These were the main reasons that I saw for the lower classes to rise up and go against England. Even though the lower classes were the bulk of the population they did not want to take over the nation or change the way a democracy was supposed to be run, they just wanted their freedom; they wanted to be able to change their life. These people were actually fighting for a better way of life not only for themselves, but also for all those who would some day follow in their footsteps. (Gary B. Nash)

Finally, the upper classes were in the American Revolution for mainly political reasons. See, it was not that they could not afford the taxes that England putting on them because the upper class was not the bulk of the population, it was the lower classes. And the upper classes were not looking to change their lifestyles or their status in the cultural aspect. They were just tired of being bossed around by a country that about nothing else but the money they gave them. For the upper class they still wanted to be called Englishmen even though they did not live in England but they were not looked at in the same way. So they decided that since they lived in a different country, with different rules, they did not need to be tied and or associated to England any longer. It all started here, once everyone was fed up with it it was all over. The upper class, although smaller than the lower class, had an easier time starting a (winning) revolution for the main part because they were able to obtain the money to fund the revolution. Another thing with the upper class is that they are the politicians; these are the people that make these things happen. Even though the upper classes may not have been fighting for their freedom to change their lifestyle, they were fighting for their individualality and independence as a nation so that everyone could have any and all of their freedoms. (T.H. Breen)

In conclusion, the American Revolution was fought for different reasons for different classes but that does not change the fact that it was still fought. Everyone should be happy that this war took place and regardless of what classes there were then and what tax bracket you are in now, we have all benefited in some way, shape, or form from these extraordinary chain of events. What makes this whole thing amazing is that after everything was said and done, everybody in America got what they needed regardless of there class or status, whether it be the opportunity to improve their lifestyle and status or if they just wanted to be independent from another countries rule. Not to say that wars are not bad, wars have terrible consequences, but there are times when wars are needed and this obviously was a time when it was needed. This one moment in history opened up a floodgate of opportunities and possibilities for all of America to grow as people and as a nation. That, I believe, is why so many historians love the time surrounding the American Revolution because of the simple fact that it shows just how many opportunities America opened for itself and historians enjoy going through the pages of time and watching a country that is as strong as this one grow and mature through time of peace and war. So the next fourth of July when you are sitting around watching fireworks take a minute to think about what our ancestors had to sacrifice for us to be able to shoot these fireworks and wave our own flag in the air with pride.

An Essay On Recycling

Did you know that we have a BIG problem in our world? The problem is that there is too much waste being produced by humans. Waste is left over material like paper, lunch bags, cans, bottles, plastic bags, wood and metal. Waste is stuff we throw into the garbage because we do not want to use it no more. It’s stinky and filling up the landfill sites. We are littering and polluting the land, water and the air we breathe. It’s just too easy to throw papers and other stuff you don’t need on the ground. Too much garbage hurts our environment and the animals. When the landfills are full, where are we going to put all that garbage?! We don’t want it in our backyard! Instead of recycling, we throw most of our waste away. People litter too much and create too much air pollution. Nobody cares about our world anymore. The problem is that people are throwing away things that can be recycled or composted, like plastic, bottles, cans and apple cores. More people need to learn how to recycle so that there is less waste. Many people still don’t care enough to do anything about this problem. Many people simply don’t want to recycle. We need to get more people involved in recycling to make a big difference – to make our planet a nice, clean and better place. Everyone needs to take better care of the world and think about the world’s future. Think about it. People really need to use the four R’s: Recycle, Reuse, Reduce and Rethink. Our class has thought about other R’s: Repair, Reclaim and Responsibility. Some people are trying to make a difference by using these R’s as much as they can…

Waste pollutes the world. This affects everybody. We have become a throwaway society. Why does this problem exist? Perhaps, people think it’s a waste of time to recycle and they don’t care about their environ-ment Not enough people are choosing to recycle. People don’t realize how much damage wasting can do and they don’t care what they throw on the ground anymore! There is too much over-packaging of pro-ducts and way too many disposable items. They fill up our garbage dumps with plastics, glass, metal and compostable materials instead. How often have you seen candy wrappers thrown on the ground? People throw cans away or into the ditches, and dump garbage, oil and toxic waste in the water. Too many people don’t recycle. Do you want to see your planet destroyed by waste? We use toxic chemicals for weeding, cleaning and killing those pesky mosquitos with sprays. These chemicals go into the ground and pollute the soil and the water which causes fish to die. Other chemicals go into the air and make air pollution, like the industries and automobiles. Pollution is a byproduct of industry. Rather than walk or ride bikes or take busses, they drive separate vehicles and the exhaust pollutes the air. All this pollution affects people, birds, trees and other plants. Too many trees are being cut down, destroying the homes and lives of many animals. Tons of paper is made from trees that take many years to grow, only to be wasted in the landfills, rather than recycled. People can get asthma and other diseases. One students’ grandparents are living next to a landfill site and are getting very sick. Birds could choke and die on plastics. Animals drink dirty, polluted water and they get sick. Maybe, if more people did care, we would have cleaner land, water and air. We have to stop this problem! We should find more ways to recycle garbage, reduce the landfill sites which produce leachates and destroy the environment.

How is the environment affected by all this waste and pollution? When people litter, it pollutes our envi-ronment with garbage that is not biodegradable. Farmers pollute the land when they dump chemicals, fertilizers, and human sewage. The water is polluted when leachates from landfills leaks into the ground-water and get into our water supply. Factories pollute our water (rivers, lakes, oceans, seas) by dumping industrial waste into them instead of filtering and reusing the chemicals and water. When we dump toxic chemicals into the ground, this will kill the nutrients in the soil so that nothing will grow. This can also pollute our water supplies, kill fish, waterfowl and make us ill. Animals can also die from chemicals that pollute the water such as oil and gas. The air is polluted by the methane gas that comes out of landfills. Car exhaust also pollutes the air. Factories pollute the air with the smoke they produce when they burn coal and natural gas to make electricity and heat our homes, offices and buildings. Other poisonous gases like car-bon dioxide, CFC’s and even cigarette smoke escape into the air and make it hard for us to breathe, like people with asthma. The air smells from gas fumes and industry. Big factories fill our clean air with pollution. When we clear cut trees, animals and other wildlife will die. Many fruits and vegetables are treated with sprays to protect them from insects. Who wants to eat food with harmful pesticides on them? Who is affected by this problem? Everybody (every single one of us) and every living creature in nature is affected because it is a big problem! People, animals, birds, plant life, insects and sea life have all been affected one way or another by this problem. We are are all affected by this waste problem. So are many other nonliving things! Factories affect us with the smoke they produce. The smoke goes into the air we breathe. When we breathe that air, we get sick. Other living things get sick form that air too. Some even die! When farmers and other factory workers dump chemicals and sewage into lakes and rivers, it kills the fish and other things that live in the water. It also makes us sick when, or if, we drink that water.

Being aware of the waste problem is the first step we must all take to solving this global problem. So, how can we correct the problem? How can we make a positive difference to make our world a cleaner, greener place? The second step is to realize that you, yes, you can make a positive difference to help save and pro-tect your environment! In our school, for the last five years, we have been helping the environment by doing a number of different things. Here are some ways we have contributed to make our world a better place.

1. We have been recycling items like: juice boxes, milk cartons, cardboard, paper, metal, plastics, glass, wood and pop cans, as much as we can. We are trying not to waste. We wish the everyone in the whole world would do that…

2. We have a composter to make nutrient-rich soil for the plants that we grow in our greenhouse (for our garden club) and around our school. We reuse milk cartons to transplant the flowers, herbs and vegetables that we grow. We also save our lunch scraps (‘chicken num-nums’) and apple cores (‘goat goodies’) for a lady on our school staff who feeds them to her animals on the farm.

3. We make crafts with recyclable plastics, cardboard and other odds and ends. We even have an Enviro-Invention Convention in our Grade Four classes to see who can come up with neat ideas using all kinds of recycled materials! We had fun and thought it was pretty cool to see how many art projects and toys we could make out of left over garbage! 4. We make booklets out of used one-sided paper. Teachers and students find these to be quite handy and useful.

5. We are also making a website to share information about recycling with others, helping them to become more aware of pollution from the Internet.

6. We are learning about and practising the 4 + R’s as much as we can…

7. Our whole school participated in the SEEDS program and earned the EARTH status. That is, we worked together to complete more than 1000 environmentally – friendly activities! 8. We have had school-wide toy and book exchanges, rather than throwing them away. (It is important to note how caring, interested and supportive our parents and staff and volunteers have been. We appreciate all their help!) 9. We collect pop can tabs to help build wheelchairs.

10. We collect UPC codes. The money we collect from them goes to help our school.

Here are some other suggestions that you may find useful to help the environment.

1. We could put up posters or post a report in a newspaper so that more people would know about the problems of waste and the advantages of recycling.

2. We could tell others how important it is to recycle and reuse so that there would not be so many dump grounds. We hope they would listen. It would help alot! 3. Don’t throw toxic waste in rivers or lakes. Take them to your nearest Recycle Station, like the Eco-Station, where they can be disposed of safely. Organize a community toxic and waste roundup.

4. Try not to take unnecessary trips in your car. Carpool instead if you can.

5. Try to recycle more than you throw away! 6. If our school had the money, we would build a big recycling shed for the community and ask volunteers to take turns bringing in the recyclable to the appropriate stations.

7. Reduce the packaging of products by buying more bulk and reusing containers.

8. Try organic gardening. Take a course on composting.

9. Encourage family and friends to recycle.

10. Continue to learn and share your knowledge with others.

11. Keep your environment clean! Don’t litter! Pick up garbage at your school, your home and in your community. Make sure there are enough garbage and recycle bins available for people to use.

12. Plant a tree whenever you chop one down.

13. Use both sides of the paper when writing or drawing.

We are making a big difference by caring for the environment and working together. It is our RESPONSIBILITY. We like to think of our school as environmentally-friendly. We are proud of ourselves! It is important to keep our planet cleaner and greener so it is a better place to live in. We think it would be nice if everybody were responsible about their environment. We want to tell everybody how to help save our planet. All of us that are recycling, reusing, reducing and rethinking are making a difference. It’s never too late. What are you doing to help make a positive difference? Save our world!

The pros and cons of globalisation

Advocates of globalisation say that globalisation brings the first real chance of prosperity to the impoverished corners of the world. Opponents say globalisation is the cause of growing poverty and inequality on the planet. Those in the middle see how unbridled globalisation could wreak havoc on some while simultaneously opening the doors of opportunity to others. But what actually is globalisation?

What is globalisation?

The term globalisation was originally started in the 1960′s to describe international capital flows. Today however, globalisation is not just capital flow, but a revolution to make individual nations part of a global village, under one legislation. Basically, it’s to remove the distance between countries. As a result, it’s also the restructuring of everything, from politics, to the economy, to make it part of a global economy. The defining characteristic of globalisation is a free market capitalism and trade liberalisation. The consequences of these changed however, have not been discussed and are under heated debate. While some people think of globalisation as primarily a synonym for global business, it is much more than that. The same forces that allow businesses to operate as if national borders did not exist also allow social activists, labour organizers, journalists, academics, and many others to work on a global stage. With the technological revolution, it is now a lot easier to do so.

Organisations such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (MTF) and the United Nations help police globalisation, but have not discussed the consequences of it politically or culturally.

What are some of the benefits of globalisation as put forward by the pro-globalisation movement?

At a global level, globalisation has many benefits. For some people, it has been seen as an alleviation of poverty. One such example is the use of labour in 3rd world countries. At world level, globalisation creates hundreds of millions of jobs, not unemployment. These are mainly in the developing countries, but they are only marginally at the expense of jobs in advanced countries. As a result, the extra income would go to food and an improved lifestyle for some of the people living in 3rd world countries. For an example, the Japanese motor industry, Honda is manufactured in Thailand, and the U.S. Nike sports wear clothing are manufactured in China and South East Asian countries. This can create more jobs in the poorer countries and it also helps the wealthier countries. Due to the lower labour costs, larger quantities can be produced at a lower price. According to the World Bank report, it has said that developing countries have experienced high income growth, longer life expectancy, better schooling, higher wages and fewer people living in poverty since becoming integrated in the global economy.

Environmental protection could also be pursued at a global level. Where international impacts, international cooperation and technology innovation, each of which is enhanced by the process of globalisation, can significantly accelerate efforts to find solutions. One such example is the whaling in Japan. With the population whales in the world declining, Japan was pressured into a Whaling Ban Treaty. Through this process, the amounts of whales around the world have gradually increased. More fundamentally, globalisation fosters economic growth, which in turn generates and distributes additional resources for environmental protection. Increased trade and investment also promote opportunities to exchange more environmentally efficient technologies, share good practices, and contribute to environmental capacity building, particularly in developing countries. Green house gasses are one example. Through the Kyoto Treaty, most of the world’s leading nations have signed a contract to reduce greenhouse emissions. Only America and Australia have not signed.

What are some of the disadvantages of globalisation as put forward by the anti globalisation movement?

In this utopian idea, there are still flaws and disadvantages; mainly concern the developing countries. Some countries are just not able to compete with the cheap labour costs of other nation. The reason why countries such as Russia remain not integrated with globalisation is because they would lose many jobs. They are not able to compete with the prices of foreign products and many of the local manufacturers would begin to close down. Employment, nationally, would decrease as the factories move to countries of cheaper labour costs. Also, Australia has suffered because of the lamb tariffs in the U.S. As a result of this, many Australian farms will become bankrupt. George Bush, though an avid supporter of free trade and trade liberalisation has puts tariffs on lamb to help the ailing U.S. farming industry. Such hypocrisy however, does not help promote the benefits of globalisation.

Despite claims from pro-globalisation companies the globalisation helps alleviate poverty, the Oxfam Community Aid Abroad estimates the 60 countries, a third of which are African, have become poorer since 1990. But why? Before some developing countries can join the globalisation market, they have to meet a certain criteria before entering. This might include dismantling trade protection policies and privatising public assets. This would allow rich and powerful multinational companies to buy up everything at a cheap cost, which

would leave developing countries without many assets.

Conclude the essay with your evaluation of the arguments.

In today’s corrupt society, it is hard to see globalisation work in a beneficial way for everyone. If it were to work, many of the rich and powerful nations would have to help many of the poorer nations, and not just with “jobs (cheap labour)”, but use initiatives such as dept reduction or cancellation. Although some good has been done through globalisation more damage has also been caused. A global effort to improve and upkeep the cultural, living and economic standards of every country would be required. Also, powerful nations would have to follow the rules and guidelines set instead of bullying poorer countries to allow them not to follow it. Globalisation is advantageous for the globe, but the world has to think globally instead of nationally. This would be difficult as there are many “rogue” countries that disagree with the globalisation paradigm e.g. Iraq.

ESSAY About My Generation

I decided to write my essay about the positive and negative aspects of my generation because I can write more thoroughly about a subject that is affecting me, than about something I have no real connection with.

Every new generation is different from the one that perceded it, but today the difference is very marked indeed. The gap between the different generations is widening and the children growing up at our time have to face many problems that did not even exist in the past.

This generation is split up in two completely different groups of interest, on the one hand those seeking a career and recognition and on the other hand those who are just interested in having fun.

On the one side the young people of today are better educated, they have more money and they enjoy more freedom. They are able to grow up more quickly and are not so dependent on their parents because they think more for themselves and do not accept the ideals of their elders. The young generation is questioning the assumptions of their parents and disturbing their complacency. They take leave to doubt that the older generations have created the best of all possible worlds. What they reject more than everything is conformity as for example, office hours or clothing. They ask themselves why violent means are part of our world and why so many elders are unhappy and guilt-ridden in their personal lives. The young generation claims that the old have lost touch with what is important because they are obsessed with mean ambitions and material posessions. What the generations of the past could learn from the new one is that enjoyment is not sinful because you can enjoy work and leisure time and get rid of existing inhibitions. It is not wrong to live in the present rather than in the past.

On the other side one defining characteristic of my generation seems to be that we do not care to achieve something in life. The children are spoiled by their parents and that is why they have no ambitions to become independent. The main problem of the kids growing up nowadays is materialism and superficiality. They have no interest in anything but spending the money of their parents for going out and shopping, in general they simply want to have fun. That is why my generation is also called the fun loving one.

As we are living in a world full of terror and hatred, this generation tends to become criminal and dependent on drugs or other substances very easily. It is a generation of sophisticated and egoistic children who do not like to take any obligations or responsibility at all. In most of the families there exists no solidarity between the family members because everyone lives his own life regardless of what is happening next to him. My generation does not show any respect or understanding for older generations because they feel misunderstood by and superior to them. While the kids are struggeling to find an identity, the generation gap that exists today in the eyes of older generations is getting bigger and bigger.

One of the major conflicts today is that there is no social cooperation among human beings and the young people are not interested in changing that situation. That is why the generations of the past despair because of nowadays situation.

An essay on the history and present western and american intervention in the middle east.

Since the Second World War, the United States has been the dominant world power in the Middle East. Every political campaign or military intervention has been carried out to ensure the control of the world’s most valuable energy source. Despite new discoveries of oil reserves in Central Asia, the Middle East still has two-thirds of the world’s oil reserves, and its oil is still the cheapest to pump and produce. The U.S. has relied on repressive regimes such as Iran under the Shah, Saudi Arabia, and Israel to do its work. When necessary, it has intervened directly to punish regimes that have challenged its dominance in the region as it did to Iraq in 1991. To this day, the U.S. spends billions annually to maintain a large military presence in the region. It provides billions of dollars in military equipment to Israel, which the U.S. carefully regards as the region’s most influential military power. The U.S. has done what it has done to preserve one thing, to secure its control over what came to be called “black gold.”

After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Britain and France drew the boundaries of the new states in the Middle East with absolutely no say from the people of the regions. All promises of Arab independence the British had made to various local leaders during the First World War were ignored. For example, the call for a single united Arab state was ignored, for they saw that it would be easier to negotiate with a group of rival Arab states lacking any sense of unity, than with a powerful independent Arab state in the Middle East. (Richman) Britain took the areas that became Iraq, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia and France took Syria and Lebanon. Each state was then handed to local kings and sheiks who owed their position to their imperializing country. Britain gave Ibn Saud Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait to the Al Sabah family. Jordan was given to King Hussein, and Lebanon to the Christian minority.

When the postwar settlement made Israel a British protectorate, Britain backed Jewish immigration to Palestine, hoping to create a strategic settlement in the Arab world. American policy in this period was mainly concerned that countries in the region did not come under the control of nationalist regimes. The first sign of that was when the democratically elected president Mohammed Mossadeq, who had great popular support, nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. (Richman) The U.S. organized a coup and toppled Mossadeq, replacing him with the pro-western Shah, whose power was funded by the great aids the US provided for Iran.

Israel is conceived to be the most reliable ally for the U.S. in the Middle East because of its basis. The Jewish state was formed from the mass expulsion of local Arab populations, and so the people would want the aid of the U.S. against any rising from the local Arabs. Israel is also considered as a source of instability in the region that the U.S. can firmly rely on. The U.S. can rely on Israel’s superior military power to help police the region because Israel’s history makes the majority of its citizens keen defenders of the Israeli state. (Isseroff) In addition, Israel’s dependence on America to pay for its massive military power over its neighbors makes Israel firmly pro-Western. On the other hand, the forced expulsion of Palestinians by Israel has created a source of resistance in the region that threatens to disturb U.S. relations with Arab states.

Following the Second World War, as the U.S. attempted to expand its supremacy over the Gulf States, Washington viewed Israel as an ally, but only as one among many. However, as the threat of Arab nationalism rose after Mossadeq’s, who nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, and Nasser’s, who nationalized the Suez Canal, rise to power in the early 1950s, U.S. aid to Israel began to increase. (Isseroff ) By the 1960s, U.S. officials realized that Israel could be counted on to work, to restrain the expansion of Arab nationalism in the region, especially after Israel proved its self superior to the combined forces of several Arab nations in the Six Day War.

But it was Israel’s ostentatious victories in the Six Day War and again in the 1973 war against Egypt and Syria that helped to bring Egypt into the U.S.’s side. Under President Anwar Sadat, Egypt became the first country to recognize the state of Israel. Ever since, Egypt has become the second largest recipient of U.S. aid after Israel, and thus, the U.S. adds another country to its ‘under control list.’ (Isseroff)

U.S. failure in Vietnam to impede communism convinced U.S. planners in the late 1960s of the importance of securing their control in the Middle East without direct military intervention. The new Nixon Doctrine looked to local powers to be America’s regional police force. In the Middle East, Iran, Israel, and Saudi Arabia became the three ‘pillars’ on which U.S. power depended on in the region. Saudi Arabia has long been considered one of the most important Arab ally of the U.S. in the Gulf. Economically, it is the most oil producing country in the Gulf, where 65 percent of the world’s oil reserves are in the Gulf region, 38 percent of that is in Saudi Arabia. (Richman) When oil was discovered there in 1938, many U.S. oil companies invested in forming the Arabian-American Oil Company (ARAMCO). A draft state department memo in 1945 described Saudi Arabia’s oil resources as “a stupendous source of strategic power, and one of the greatest material prizes in world history.” (Richman)

Until the 1950s, when regional rulers began to demand more control over oil profits, Ibn Saud and other local rulers requested higher percentages of the profits handed to them by the oil companies. Protecting the Saudi Arabian oil became a chief aim of U.S. policy in the Gulf. After the oil-producing states, eager to gain a greater share of the profits from their oil, formed the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1960, keeping Saudi Arabia in America’s side became even more important. As the world’s largest single oil producer, Saudi Arabia can be relied upon to use its influence to ensure, among other things, that enough oil flows to keep prices down. This way the U.S. can make sure that no other oil producing country can control the price of its oil. (Richman)

It was when the pro-U.S. Shah of Iran was overthrown in 1979, that U.S. policy in the Middle East faced a severe crisis. It had lost one of its key allies in the Middle East. The revolution which overthrew the Shah in 1979 totally changed the strategic situation in the region. Saudi Arabia was never a serious political candidate as it was an economic candidate to play a role comparable to Iran. The new regime in Iran, led by Khumayni, was a strict fundamentalist regime that opposed the U.S. This was when the Carter Doctrine replaced the Nixon Doctrine, which placed emphasis on the need to use direct military force if U.S. interests were threatened in the region. (Richman) Accordingly, President Jimmy Carter promoted the idea of a U.S. “rapid deployment force”, as he called it, that could intervene quickly in the region. Saudi Arabia became the home of this strategy. Unable to openly declare support for the U.S. and Israel for fear of opposing their own populations, Gulf rulers were forced to act discreetly, allowing U.S. air and naval forces limited use of military facilities in the region. The outbreak of the Iran-Iraq War in 1980 provided the U.S. with the perfect opportunity to bring Saudi Arabia into even closer military partnership. Saudi fears of an expanded war gave the U.S. power to extract more friendly Saudi cooperation with U.S. military plans.

U.S. policy during much of the eight-year Iran-Iraq War was to encourage it as a means to weaken both Iran and Iraq, which were considered the strongest two nations in the Middle East. Western nations made use of this war by selling arms to Iraq, as did Russia with Iran. The U.S. also gave Iraq military aid, agricultural credits, and crucial intelligence information, and used the excuse of freedom of navigation in the Gulf to mobilize a massive fleet to attack Iran’s navy. After the war ended in 1988, U.S. support for Iraqi President Saddam Hussein increased. (Richman) The aftermath of the war was pleasing for the U.S. where the two nations have significantly weakened, giving the U.S. an easier job in the Middle East.

The 1991 Gulf War marked the first time since 1958 that the U.S. launched a full-scale invasion of the Middle East in order to protect its interests. Up to the day that Iraq invaded Kuwait, Saddam Hussein was under the impression that his actions would be acceptable to Washington. Exhausted by the war with Iran, Iraq was angry over Kuwait’s insistence on ‘dumping’ oil on the world market when Iraq needed the oil profits more to pay for the war. At first, the U.S. said that it didn’t need to intervene in an Arab-Arab conflict, but when Saddam invaded Kuwait, the U.S. could not allow him to break the balance of power by taking control of a quarter of the Gulf’s oil. (Richman) Saddam Hussein was a brutal military dictator long before he tried to get control of Kuwaiti oil. Bush took the opportunity to put together a military coalition under the United Nations that included not only European powers such as Britain, France, and Germany, but also Middle Eastern states such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Syria. In six days, U.S. and coalition ground troops swept across Kuwait and southern Iraq, forcing Iraqi troops into a full-scale retreat. In the last 40 hours of the war, before Bush called a cease-fire on February 28, U.S. and British forces built up an assault against the retreating Iraqi soldiers. This was another bloody victory for the United States.

Iraq was destroyed and kept permanently weak, and the coalition allowed the U.S. to create stronger ties with many of the Arab states. The success of the United States in the Gulf War sent the message, in George Bush’s words, that “what we say goes.” American interests, Israel, oil and anti-communism, have been secured for half a century by intervention in its different forms: culture, education, and military power. American financial officials can write the domestic economic policy for most governments in the region. The U.S. military enjoys access and acceptance from North Africa to the Gulf, or that’s what it appeared to be. (Richman)

The policy of “dual containment” of Iraq and Iran pursued by the U.S. after the 1991 Gulf War has been more or less abandoned, but no policy has replaced it. The sanctions regime against Iraq has eroded, and Arab states’ support for sanctions has weakened, while the changes in Iran have created an unsure relationship between it and the United States. Apart from Britain, other European states are no longer interested in maintaining the sanctions against Iraq. The increasing suffering of the Iraqi people has weakened the ability of the U.S. to justify the sanctions, particularly within the Middle East. (Baram) Arab regimes have begun to resume political and economic relations with Baghdad. Taking advantage of resumed civilian flights to Baghdad by several states, dozens of Middle Eastern officials and celebrities have broken the ‘no-fly’ rule to fly to Baghdad. The problem that the United States faces, even after its success in the Gulf War, is that, outside of Israel, it has no reliable replacement in the Middle East, and Israel, as the Gulf War demonstrated, must sometimes be held back. So, the U.S., using the events of September 11, created a new cause that would make them continue oppressing Iraq; possible sponsoring of terrorist figures and possession of weapons of mass destruction. (Grant) Only 12 years after they had defeated the Iraqi regime did the U.S. think of toppling the regime, and replace it with a less threatening one. The U.S. has planned to launch a full scale war on Iraq if any sign of weapons of mass destruction are to be found. But launching the war and overthrowing Saddam will not be so easy.

The U.S. has been involved in Middle Eastern issues for over half a century, peacefully when possible, or militarily under certain circumstances. The Middle East seems to be of great interest to U.S. because of all the financial gains the U.S. could benefit from. Oil has been the U.S.’s main reason for it to seek involvement in Middle Eastern issues, as Lawrence Korb, former assistant defense secretary said, “If Kuwait grew carrots, we wouldn’t give a damn.”

Persuasive essay on school uniforms

Nearly all students do not support school uniforms; however they do not know the benefits in wearing them. Believe it or not, there are a lot more pros than cons when it comes to wearing school uniforms. First off, school uniforms will develop a better teaching and learning environment. They will also save families a good deal of money. And lastly, school uniforms will eliminate a lot of bulling and labeling. A school would be a better place, for teachers and students, if school uniforms were required.

The most important benefit of school uniforms is the atmosphere it would create. With school uniforms kids couldn’t wear anything outrageous or abstract. This would limit distractions in the classroom, producing a better teaching and learning zone. Also, school uniforms would make for a better student teacher relationship because everyone would be looked at as an equal. Another distraction uniforms could remove is the problem with females wearing reveling clothing. Lastly, a majority of students can take up thirty minutes picking out there clothes for the next day. If uniforms were mandatory that time could be used to do school work or get a better night sleep for the following day.

Families would save an unbelievable amount of money from school uniforms. Students wouldn’t have to worry about buying the newest, hippest clothes which cost a fortune. That would save families hundreds of dollars. Sure, kids would still need clothes other than their uniform, but not as many. Families would also be more time efficient with uniforms. One example of this would be a smaller laundry load. In addition, you wouldn’t need to worry about rushing to get something washed for the next day because you already know what you will be wearing.

Bulling and labeling would be cut down if school uniforms were accepted by a school system. If uniforms were mandatory everyone would be equal and no biases could be set by someone’s apparel. Like wise, students couldn’t label someone as a scrub or high maintenance. When someone gets picked on, it is most likely because they are wearing something that is “not in” or because they are dressed “different”. If school uniforms were worn this would be a non-issue. Lastly, you couldn’t be labeled regarding your personal interests. For example, if you were wearing a band’s tee-shirt or a preppy clothing line. If this wasn’t and concern everyone would be open to each other and groups wouldn’t be made based on what you are wearing.

The only reason Student do not wish to wear uniforms is because they only care about looking good. However, they don’t know they can till look good in a school uniforms. Also, much more students would be open to school uniforms if they knew all the success they would get from them. Student and staff would have a much better school year if school uniforms were worn.

Persuasive Essay on the Harmful effects Marijuana has on the Human Body

English Persuasive Essay

-Marijuana

This essay will attempt to persuade its readers that the use of marijuana is in actual fact more dangerous than is generally thought. Marijuana is a mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of the hemp plant. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is the active hallucinogenic in marijuana. Marijuana is smoked, chewed and eaten in various methods and forms.

This has adverse psychological, physical and behavioural effects on to those who consume it.

Immediately after consuming the narcotic one may experience harmful effects from marijuana use such as hallucinations, paranoia, psychotic episodes, impaired coordination, impaired motor ability and extreme mood swings The anxiety can range anywhere from mild anxiety to complete panic.

The THC in marijuana is believed to change a psychoactive compound in the liver, which may be the cause of the psychological and subjective effects. The psychological effects of marijuana are most often seen in altered perceptions of distance and time, impaired memory and physical coordination, and a heightened sensitivity of the visual and auditory senses.

Marijuana has often been touted as one of the safest recreational substances available. This is perhaps true; many reputable scientific institutions, such as the National Medical Board support the conclusion that cocaine, heroine, alcohol, and even cigarettes are more dangerous to the user’s health than marijuana. Smoking marijuana regularly damages the cells in the bronchial passages, which protect the body against inhaled micro-organisms and decrease the ability of the problems with memory and learning; distorted perception, trouble with thinking and decision making, loss of motor coordination; and increased heart rate. Long Term effects of marijuana may include: the loss of brain cells, lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, energy loss, slow confused thinking, apathy, and blood vessel blockage. According to the National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse, 44% of people who had an extensive history of smoking Marijuana developed forms of psychosis and schizophrenia. Although there are celebrated pharmacological properties of cannabis have led some states in Australia to permit its use as a therapeutic drug for, among others, those suffering from AIDS; various painful, incurable and debilitating illnesses; the harmful side effects of cancer chemotherapy, and glaucoma

However, it would be fallacious to conclude that because the chemicals in marijuana have been found to present fewer dangers than some very harmful substances. In a recreational context, marijuana has been shown to affect health, brain function, and memory. Marijuana contains five times the amount of tar and more carcinogenic than a normal cigarette.

The consumption of marijuana has been proven to have unpleasant effects on the users behaviour. All forms of marijuana are mind-altering. One is subjected to extreme mood swings and neurotic behaviour when experiencing withdrawal symptoms. Marijuana can be a gateway drug, which means it can lead to the use of many other harmful drugs. According to the study by the Queensland State Resources and Services Related to Alcohol and Other Drug Problems 1995, Children ages 12-17 are 85 times more likely to use cocaine after using marijuana. One may say that marijuana is harmless, that it does not cause one to convulse or dehydrate as other harder drugs such as ecstasy or heroin would; that there are no dangers with overdosing. However this is not the case. Marijuana affects memory, judgment and perception. Prolonged use of marijuana can have detrimental effects on one’s life and peers. This may generate a loss of interest in appearance, schoolwork/work and life.

There are also subjective effects refer to those effects that are going to change from person to person. Euphoria, lowered inhibitions, drowsiness, contentment, and relaxation are generally the desired effects of people who use marijuana. As the video illustrated marijuana has serious effects on ones ability to safely, marijuana use can make it difficult to judge distances and react to signals and sounds on the road. A majority of people, who smoke marijuana, may habitually consume alcohol in conjunction with marijuana. This would increase one’s chances of involvement in a car accident.

Thus concluding, that with the combination of the adverse psychological, physical and behavioural effects smoking marijuana has it on the human body, it is far more dangerous than is generally thought.

The similarities and differences between the sciences and the arts as intellectual discipline

During the course of this essay, I will attempt first to criticise science and scientists and show the arrogant assumptions that are made about science. I will then discuss the similarities between arts and sciences in the light of my criticisms, and finally look closely at the many differences between arts and sciences. There are several different criticisms that have been commonly levelled at science and scientists as a whole. I shall begin by attempting to identify these criticisms and identifying the reasoning behind each of them.

The first of these criticisms is that science has been given similar status to a religion. It was commonly thought in the early days of science that science would eventually develop a theory for everything, thereby replacing religion through removing the ambiguous and the incomprehensible parts of life with which religion dealt. In many ways science has replaced religion in the 21st century, as it has become the object of faith and even devotion. A blind faith has been placed in the unquestionable correctness of science and scientific research. It was Emile Durkheim who first advanced the theory that given enough time, science would replace all traditional religions to be replaced by a formal, unquestionable religion based upon science. It is the arrogance of many scientists that leads us to believe that scientific theories are facts, and can be treated as ‘truth’ replacing religion by explaining the facts behind the creation and existence of the world. The problem with this belief that science is unquestionable fact and can be treated in a similar way to a religion is twofold. First, scientific theories are advanced through observation and experimentation, these theories can never be proved entirely correct since they are based only on certain observations, as the full facts can never be known, a theory can only be said to be correct in so far as it is correct from the observations made given the facts available. Secondly, science and religion can never be directly linked since they do not overlap in any shape or form. Science deals with the physical, religion with the insubstantial. In their very essence the two are diametrically opposed to one another and can’t be compared. In short, science deals with the how, religion, the why. Although science attempts to understand the world around us, how it was created and how we and other creatures came to exist, it can never fully explain the automated human search for a higher being. There seems to be a desire within humans to believe in something larger and greater than that which is visible and physical, something science can never explain. For this reason, science can never replace religion, as it simply does not explain enough. It’s explanations fall far short of what would be needed to satisfy human curiosity. Religion, in general, does a much better job of explaining what needs to be explained about human nature.

However, Scientists in recent years have attempted to give their work a status of being unquestionably correct. As I have already explained, the truth of science or the correctness or otherwise of a given theory can never be entirely proved. A theory can only be proved correct in so far as it is correct given a certain set of facts, and without having all the facts available, a theory can never be given the status of absolute fact, and consequently, no scientific theory can ever be proved, although it can be proved false through further research. However, this strong criticism of science can be taken even further. Karl Popper put forward the theory that scientific ‘facts’ of the present day are simply probabilities, and only hold this status until such time as new evidence emerges allowing the theory to be dropped or adapted. Thomas Kuhn took this criticism of scientists even further, he believed that scientists, for the vast majority of the time, went to great lengths to fit their experiments to already existing theories, or when new information was taken into account, and it was simply accommodated by existing theories rather than new theories being created. Kuhn went further in his criticism; he claimed that when new theories were advanced, it was normally due to a competition between two scientists. Eventually, one theory would emerge victorious, however, this emergence, claimed Kuhn, had little to do with the correctness or otherwise of the theory and more to do with the political connections and status of the scientists involved in the battle. Feyerabend takes his criticism of the methodology of science to the extreme and claims that the scientific experiments are not based on observation of facts, but interpretation of what was seen. He claimed that theories were not so much formulated by experimentation and careful experimentation, but more through conjecture, metaphysical speculation, inspiration and revelation. This treats scientists as creative and irrational, making observations fit preconceived ideas, instead of the objective, rational, self-critical people they attempt to be.

A further criticism that has been levelled at science is that it is heavily dependent on cultural background and presuppositions, and not the value-free discipline that it is so frequently thought to be. This relies on the idea that a culture will only examine and discover that which is important to that culture. Science is currently accused of ‘Eurocentricism’. This refers to the western dominance that is exerted over scientific research. The result is that scientific study revolves around solving problems that afflict the western world, rather than attempting to solve far more difficult and profound problems afflicting the third world. For example, much funding is currently being given towards finding a cure for cancer. A further criticism of western science is that it is based on economics. Those who benefit most from a breakthrough in medical science are not those who benefit from the treatment as patients, but those who benefit as investors as they are the ones who receive the money from the sale of the treatment to health services and hospitals.

There is also arrogance about western methods of conducting scientific experiments. The western scientists appear to believe that there is only one way in which to conduct scientific experiments, there are no exceptions or contradictions. In actual fact, there are many varied ways of approaching science, and different cultures have different emphasise when examining the world around us according to their individual culture.

The ‘supremacy’ of science, its entire correctness has been brought about by the arrogance of western scientists. For many years, scientists, through deception, have implanted the idea in people’s brains that scientific theories are unquestionably correct despite all information to the contrary. In fact, scientific supremacy has been taken so far through arrogance that the truth of science, as well as being rarely questioned, has gained the status of religion in our modern society, although science can never explain the human tendency to a belief in a ‘God’ or a supernatural being, nor can it prove to the contrary. In this, however, I believe we see even more apparently the human desire for something to believe in, and despite its many flaws, for some people, science provides the alternative to a religion. Furthermore, in the attempt to maintain the belief that all scientific theories should be taken as gospel, scientists simply attempt to fit new information into old theories, or when a theory must be disregarded, it is described as ‘unscientific’. Scientific theories are also subject to human observation and therefore preconceived ideas, notions and creative thoughts. In this respect therefore, the observations can be made to fit the preconceived ideas. The supremacy of western science over other scientific cultures is also questionable as there are different ways to conduct science. In short, western science has arrogantly given the impression that there is only one true scientific method, that which is used by western scientists. This arrogance has led western peoples to believe unquestioningly in what scientists say, and those who read it unquestioningly apparently regard all scientific theory as absolutely correct.

When these criticisms are examined under close scrutiny, one finds that many of the criticisms that are levelled at arts and their relative biases due to human thinking are also being levelled at science. The creative nature of science, a concept that most people would not initially grasp given our set perception of science is most definitely a part of the creation of new theories. It is often the case that scientists are vulnerable to flashes of imagination and inspiration leading to preconceived ideas or bias when conducting an experiment based on observation. In this way, it can be shown that despite the perceived rationality of scientists. In fact, many of the observations made are seldom questioned, as it appears, when the scientist expects something to happen, that is what they see. It might be interesting to bring an impartial observer to an experiment of this kind and see what they saw. As it is, we are all so indoctrinated by the correctness of science that theories are seldom questioned. I can therefore state that science is not only based mainly upon inspirational thought, a creative aspect of the human brain, but is also subject to bias and human error. These are all concepts that can be directly compared with the arts.

In many ways, as I have proved both sciences and arts are based largely upon perception, and how an individual perceives a given event. The fact is that whether it is a reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid, a beautiful sunset or a set of events, the chemist, painter and historian are all subject to the brains interpretation of that which is set before it. The chemist may carefully observe the reaction noting down the changes, but this image is only understood through the brains interpretation of what the eyes see. Similarly, the brain of a painter may interpret a beautiful sunset through the eyes and hence the painter will paint an image based upon his perception. The historian, in a similar way to the way in which a scientist analyses his collected data, will analyse the facts that are presented to him in order to come up with a theory. In this way the many similarities between the sciences and arts as intellectual disciplines can be seen clearly, they are all ultimately reliant on perception and interpretation.

Therefore, it can be assumed that although scientists attempt to distance themselves from and repute any claims that science as a discipline is subject any form of human error and instead attempt to give the impression that scientists are meticulous, rational, careful, observant and prepared to check and recheck theories until it is certain that they are correct, they are in fact as subject to human creativity and capability to make errors as their artistic counterparts. It is this reliance upon humanity in the discipline of science that makes it so similar to the arts in its ability to make assumptions and mistakes.

However, despite all of this criticism, it is difficult to compare sciences and arts directly as they are evidently a considerably different in their very essence as they essentially deal with entirely different concepts, and all though some of the analysis and observation skills are common to both sorts of discipline the two are in many ways diametrically opposed to one another. Essentially, science is intent upon understanding that which exists in the world around us, whereas the arts are more concerned with interpretation of that same world. This fundamental emphasis that science places upon understanding may rely upon human observation and inspiration and therefore involve and element of human interpretation, but ultimately it is far more concerned with looking closely at the already existing interrelations between two things and upon close scrutiny, an interpretation can be made that can explain for the most part a complex interrelationship. On the other hand, the arts will not delve below the surface and look at the very fundamentals of life itself and break this down through complex analytical processes, instead the arts are concerned with that which exists in a different way. The arts are far more concerned with an appreciation of that which is perceived, and an interpretation of the same. For example, instead of breaking down a wheat field into many stalks of wheat composed of a stems, composed of vascular bundles and pith etc, an painter or poet will simply look at the beauty of the field in its entirety and write about or paint a picture of what he sees.

In conclusion, the sciences and arts have much in common; they are essentially dependent on the human imagination for inspiration. The creative influence of the human mind exerts a powerful influence over both intellectual disciplines, and scientific theories can be considered just as dependent upon this creative factor as the artistic disciplines. However, it can be said that in many ways science is more concerned by observation of facts reducing the scope for creativity after the initial idea. The scientific may not be able to suppress entirely his creative, artistic side but this is certainly less apparent in the scientist than in the artist. The scientist must be objective and look at everything as impartially as is humanly possible, rather than letting himself be swayed by what he expects or wants to happen. It is obvious that there is a certain element of bias is all scientific theories, but this is less apparent than with the artistic disciplines, where the artist has total control over how he portrays a given instance or scene and what bias he personally has. Sciences and arts separate essentially in what they deal with as a discipline. Science is essentially concerned with understanding, whereas the arts are more concerned with perception. This is the fundamental difference between the sciences and arts as intellectual disciplines, and although there are many comparisons to be drawn between to two intellectual disciplines due to their common dependence upon the frailties and faults of human nature, they are never the less essentially different in what they concentrate on.

How Can We Help the Homeless and Should We? Personal essay, referring to work by Peter Marin, Awalt and Wright

Just a few months ago I was with my friends Mike and Kim and we had been walking around having a great time in the city. We then exited a store and Kim said something under her breath like, ‘Oh, no,’ when I looked in the same direction to find a middle aged man with a drunken stare to him. She knew this man as ‘the town drunk’ and he had been homeless for years. He asked us for the time and we replied, but he didn’t just stop with that and followed us across the street talking up a storm. He was telling his whole life story in the fifteen minutes we stood there: he talked about how he grew up living poor with his family and how he wanted to be educated and go through college to get a good job so he could live well. But he said his parents just didn’t have the money and it was impossible. I felt threatened as did Mike and Kim from the drunken gestures of this man and thought to myself, if this man wanted to make something of his life, I mean if he really wanted to, he would try harder and somehow do what he wanted. We tried to leave as soon as possible.

But then I began reading these essays about the homeless and it started to change my mind. The essay ‘Virginia’s Trap’ by Peter Marin especially effected me because of the way it portrays the young woman that has nothing going for her and almost everything against her. I though about this and decided I had misunderstood the whole plight of this population and thought there must be a better way to help these unfortunate people. How should we help the homeless and should we try even though they may not help themselves? I figure that is the most important question that needs to be answered if anything is to be done.

Of the essays I analyzed Awalt’s ‘Brother Don’t Spare a Dime’ was the one essay that went against the idea of helping the homeless because the author thinks it’s their own fault for being the way they are. The other two essays are easier on the homeless and want to lend a helping hand. In ‘Address Unknown: Homeless in Contemporary America’ James Wright thinks that helping the homeless by giving them more benefits that they will be more prosperous. Peter Marin has the same idea in ‘Virginia’s Trap’ where the young woman is in need of just a little bit more money to stay the way she is in a home but doesn’t receive enough. While Awalt’s narrow view of homeless people gives him the idea that all should not be helped in anyway, Wright and Marin go towards the idea of helping the people because they have already had a rough life and do in fact need this help to go anywhere in life.

Awalt’s statement that homeless people are a ‘waste of time’ is a very general statement in the least. Throughout his essay he only mentioned working with one homeless person trying to help him through a detoxification program. This person failed the procedure and left to go back to the streets and drink again. (Awalt 239) Just because this one person didn’t have the endurance to undergo such an operation doesn’t mean others wouldn’t. What we need to have is a more ‘hands on’ program with these homeless people to give them the attention that they need so that a majority of the people will not end up like this but eventually in their own homes.

The opposite view is shared by Wright and Marin in their more lengthy and detailed essays. Wright starts out saying that not all homeless are the same and should not all be treated the same. He states there are different classes of homeless people and there are the worthy and unworthy homeless, meaning that only some deserve to remain this way because they don’t try to live otherwise. These small amount of people, about five percent, don’t deserve the time and money spent on trying to get them off the streets but the only way to find out if they don’t is to try at least once with them. If it doesn’t work out that’s a small amount of effort wasted but if it does work it is a grand success and another homeless person is off the street. Marin has the same view with ‘Virginia’s Trap’ adding a great deal of sympathy for the main character in the story by telling it from her point of view. Virginia is also in a different class of homelessness, the subset of the poverty that is marginally housed. She is ‘trapped’ in between housing and none at all because of her poor background and problems with low income. The author even tries to help Virginia stay in her house at the time but it all collapses financially on her again. (Marin 250) That is why benefits for people who are actually trying to get back on their feet should be raised according to their situation.

I believe that Awalt’s view of the homeless is a narrow-minded, stubborn one and that Wright and Marin should at least try to help these people and give them the benefit of the doubt. I realized that I was wrong from my first interpretation of the middle aged man I met in the city and that it is hard for him to have a chance in this world without the proper money and help to back him up. In some cases the homeless may not deserve all the help we try to give them but if we are to destroy this ongoing problem we have to: as Wright states, ‘The federal government must massively intervene in the private housing market, to halt the loss of additional low-income units and to underwrite the construction of many more; and benefits paid to the welfare-dependent population must double.’ (Wright 265) I believe that this is a very good idea along with the increased effort of individuals that try to help these homeless and that it could seriously help the problem.

Global Warming

Global WarmingAccording to a website, www.planningforpeople.ca/terms_and_definitions.asp, global warming is defined as, “The gradual increase in global temperature caused by the emission of gases that trap the sun’s heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. Global warming is a very big issue in the world today because everyone is worried about the temperature going hot and causing bad things. The humans cause the global warming as we all have been using things, which are not environment friendly and causing things like the OZONE LAYER to get thinner, and pores being created due pesticide, insecticide and CO2 emissions. In global warming, the Earth’s average temperature has increased from the past. The temperature has been expected to rise by 3-9 degrees Celsius in the USA. What causes global warming? Carbon dioxide and some other gases that are polluting the air cause well global warming. Also thickening blanket is bad because it traps the sun’s heat and it causes the planet to warm up. Nowadays technology is helping us prevent global warming happening like making cars that are environment friendly. For example, do not pollute as much and do not have much carbon in them or are electric cars. In this essay, I will talk about in what ways global warming is affecting us and how can we prevent this happening to us.

There are many causes of the global warming. The main causes are deforestation, carbon emissions from various different things; another cause is methane emissions, tundra’s, and permafrost. In addition, other things affect the climate change and the global warming that is a common term nowadays, human activities such as eating beef causes methane, because camels eat grasses and we eat their meat, when camels eat meat they cause methane gas emissions. We also have to avoid using our cars for short distances, and we have to buy electrical cars, than cars that emit carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The factories and industries should be eco-friendly, especially in countries like China, USA, and India.

Global warming has effects on the weather. In global warming, the temperature is increasing the precipitation will also increase. Over 20th century, the evaporation rates have reduced around the world. As the climate is warm, the ocean will be warm and that will cause evaporation to increase. As the evaporation will increase, it will cause heavier rainfall that will cause floods and potholes. As a result, the mosquitoes will increase leading to many deaths, as the spread of malaria will grow. Due to climate change, globally the deaths have increased to about 150,000 and expected to double if climate change gradually increases by the year 2030.

This erosion will take place more in tropical areas such as Africa and this will lead to desertification. In other areas, heavy rainfall will cause growth of forest in dry desert areas.

Other effects are the greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases are those gases that trap in heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. When the sunlight hit the surface of the Earth instead of bouncing off some of it is absorbed and this makes the surface warm due to the pores in the ozone layer. Since the surface of Earth is much cooler than the sun it gives off much stronger energy than the sun does. The greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and CFCs. From the greenhouse gases, the important ones are water vapor. This causes around 40-70% effect on the Earth. Another important gas is carbon dioxide; this gas causes around 26% effect on the Earth. Due to more CO2 being produced, the trees can take in. Methane and ozone cause effect on the earth around 7%.

From the graph, you can see how much annual greenhouse gas emissions. From the graph, we can see how much percentage of each sector is consuming the greenhouse gases. This also shows us how much gases we are using for different type of needs. As industries give out 16.8% of gas and the power station gives out 21.3%. In addition, the lowest Greenhouse gas emissions are by waste disposal and treatment that is 3.4%. For our needs, we are polluting the Earth so much and from polluting these gases we are making the Earth’s atmosphere warmer day by day. USA takes up 4% of the world’s population but produces 25% of the world’s carbon production. It produces more carbon dioxide than China, Japan and India.

Global warming can also drastically affect the rise in sea level. This is due to the melting of the ice in the North and South poles. This effect pressures the countries that are low land as they can be flooded with water, places like Shanghai and Maldives can be affected due to the rise in sea level as they are only 6 feet above sea level (http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/qthinice.asp, NRDC). The ice in the Arctic has already started to melt and the ice sheet is becoming thinner. The biggest ice block that broke and split into two in 2000 it was called Ward Hunt Ice Shelf; it took 3000years to break due to the rise in global warming (http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/qthinice.asp, NRDC). In the graph above we can see that the sea level has risen gradually from 1880 up to 2000. There is a gradual increase in the sea level there was an increase in about 20cm in the sea level in 2000.

One of the other effects that global warming contributes to is that the spread of diseases such as malaria and other disease caused due to ticks as now they can reach in places which have become warmer. Insect borne diseases have increased due to the warming of the earth.

We all can help this global warming stop in one way or another. We can decrease the input of carbon dioxide/monoxide into the atmosphere. This can be done by using battery powered cars (hybrid) and this can cause less burning of fossil fuels. If this takes place then we can decrease the carbon in the atmosphere by 650 million tons (http://www.nrdc.org/globalWarming/f101.asp#12, NRDC). We should start making things which are recyclable so as we can recycle them and save our environment and also make the world a safe environment. USA can also play a major role in this. USA can help by not producing so much of carbon as it is the highest producer in carbon in the world.

Women’s Friendships

Friendship refers to a co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. Friendships are an integral part of every individual’s life as it helps you grow as a person and makes you look at the world in a different way. The process of making friends begins from when you are a child and continues on throughout old age. As an individual grows older, they become wiser in choosing friends and thus feel more satisfied with their companions. Old women’s friendships have many valuable functions to offer that can fill the emptiness and loneliness that older women may experience in their later lives. Such experiences can include divorce or the death of a spouse. This is the time when old women most need a friend which can help them overcome their feelings of depression and solitude. Thus, friendships are important in later life as it opens the door to new experiences and offers emotional support when deemed necessary. In this paper, I will use: The Last Gift of Time by Carolyn Heilbrun to analyze the theme of friendship among old women which is evident in The Diary of a Good Neighbor by Doris Lessing to demonstrate how friendships among older women are significant as they provide a way for older women to connect to other women, and gain a sense of self-worth and belonging in the world but can nonetheless bring stress and conflict to a women who are providing these valuable resources.

To start off I will provide a brief summary on my two chosen texts. In the collection of essays The Last Gift of Time, Carolyn at age 60 begins to realize that aging does not have to be a negative experience. She begins to appreciate the many pleasures and joys that the golden years have brought her. Growing old is seen as a blessing that not all women get to enjoy. Carolyn goes through several phases in her life which make her re-consider the decision of taking her precious life at the age of 70. In the essay titled Time, she talks about how her retirement has given her an opportunity to take time in thinking about her friends. She felt that now was the time in which she would be able to enjoy the company of friends more than ever. She was pleased to know that she would have the time to understand and really get to know and connect with long lost friends.

Moving onto to the essay titled E-Mail, Carolyn discovers the convenience and accessibility of using e-mail to communicate with the outside world from the comfort of her own home. The purpose for using her computer has shifted from using it for work to using it as a form of communication. The danger though is that it can be time-consuming due to the high volume of replies. But those who are isolated will most likely choose to engage in lengthy discussions though e-mail. Email is a quick and easy way of communicating one-on-one. “It reaches into our privacy without invading it, an astonishing accomplishment; it connects us to those with whom the possibility of connection might have remained unexpected; it offers us welcome without the necessity of social arrangements; it inspires us to confidences and the practice of wit” (Heilbrun, 1997, p.68).

In the essay titled England, she realizes that friendship is the key to happiness and one of the greatest gifts of her sixties. Her rejoice is expressed in the words of W. H. Auden: “At twenty we find friends for ourselves, but it takes Heaven to find us one when we are fifty-seven” (Heilbrun, 1997, p. 101). I think this quote is significant in that it speaks reality because it shows how young people take friends for granted but it all changes as you age.

In her essay titled Unmet Friends, she learns that unmet friends can never be lost. She takes notice that the secret to unmet friends is that they have gained courage and strength to escape or endure the same kinds of circumstances that most women have encountered. Last but not least, in her essay titled Listening to the Young (ER), Carolyn values friendships with the younger as they offer satisfying knowledge and experiences that indirectly affect the old. One of the dangers evident in friendships among the old is that they are no wiser now than they were before; one usually knows them all too well. One thing that she came to understand was that the only thing was important to the young was the simple presence of the old. It does not have to be experienced by them being directly involved in the lives of the young but just knowing that they will be there is enough to satisfy the soul. However, even after all the pleasures she experienced in her later years, she committed suicide at the age of 77 as she felt her life had concluded.

The memoire titled The Diary of a Good Neighbour discusses the role that the old play in society which is not very often talked about. The diary is narrated by Janna, an intelligent middle aged woman who is the editor for a magazine called Lilith. For most of her life, she has dedicated her time to her appearance and her job which has had an impact on her friendships. She was never close with her husband, not to mention her family. But once her husband and mother passed away from cancer, she steps back and begins to question her place in the world. One day, she meets an old lady named Maudie Fowler and before she knows it, she is growing closer to her which makes her view the old in a different way. Janna realizes that along with the pleasures of old age come difficulties that are hard to deal with alone. This makes her spend more time with Maudie as she feels responsible for the well-being of her friend. Her co-workers frequently criticize her on the fact that she chooses to dedicate her spare time to looking after an old lady even after she is often restricted by her choices. Although, Janna and Maudie are different, they share a special and powerful connection which fills their lives with satisfaction.

Maudie experiences the power of friendship through the deep connection she forms with another old woman. Maudie, a ninety two year old frail woman does not have much contact with the outside world which makes her last years very depressing and meaningless. “Diminished contact with outside sources has been found to lead to a sense of disorientation in an old person’s daily life” (Aday et al, 2006, p.59). She lives alone and must manage it all on her own from the time she wakes up to the time she goes to sleep. Women living alone with few friends, especially those with a particular supportive friend are more prone to falling into depression (Aday et al, 2006). Her family abandoned her and she has no one to take care of her or even appreciate the fact that she is still alive. This could be part of the reason why she is rarely in a good mood and refuses to show any form of emotional affection towards others. It is interesting to see how after meeting Janna, her life changed and she began to feel good about herself and her existence. For example when after having met at the chemist shop, Maudie asks Janna if she will ever see her again and Maudie invites her to come over to drink tea together and Janna accepts. “And there was a moment between us of intimacy: that is the word” (Lessing, 1985, p. 22). This quote is significant because it shows how Maudie was in need of someone to share her time with as solitude was taking over her life. It was also mentioned how Janna really liked Maudie from the very first time they met, so she goes out of her ways to gratify and please Maudie. “On the Saturday I took her some roses and carnations, and a cake with real cream (Lessing, 1985, p. 23). Why would she want to please or impress a woman she barely knows? It could be that she felt connected to her more than she did with her mother. I am thinking it could also be a way to make up for the lost time and lack of connection she had with her mother. So since the opportunity presented itself, she is making the most out of it because now that she is aging, she realizes that she would not want to be taken for granted as most old women are.

It is important that old woman have friendships that will allow for intimate exchanges of both positive and negative experiences. “Although, when women lose friends through death, they find it hard to use available opportunities for making connections because many women fear aging, deny their own aging, and project their hate of their aging upon other old women” (Jacobs, 1990). Those who could make friends were women who viewed themselves as being different because they could not admit that they were old (Jacobs, 1990). This finding is to no surprise as old women are often stigmatized and negatively viewed in society. The old are not valued as much because they cannot contribute to society and instead place a burden on people who have to take care of them. In general, interacting with others makes individuals feel more integrated into society (Antonucci, 2001). In other words, they feel connected to family, friends, and the community.

Now I will move into how Maudie develops a sense of self-worth and belonging as her friendship with Janna transmits into a more serious commitment. As Janna becomes more involved with Maudie by visiting her everyday and taking care of her, she beings to feel attached to Janna and develops a sense of reliance towards her. Since, there is now someone who cares for her, Maudie feels a sense of self-worth in her life. The feeling of being loved and cared for provided Maudie with a sense of belonging. She has someone to live for whereas before she was living for her own sake. Stevens and Van Tilburg have emphasized that friends contribute to well-being by helping older individuals sustain a sense of continuity in their lives (Aday et al, 2006). Janna took on the “mother” role in a sense as she would clean her flat, bathe her, buy her food and clothes, and most of all offered her a pair of ears that would be willing to listen to her. Their daily visits would be a time to exchange stories of the past which provided a sense of emotional intimacy for each other. It appears to be the case that we seek and achieve a sense of integration and belonging by feeling able to talk to others about things that are important to us (Antonucci et al, 2001). Maudie became so used to it that when Janna would not visit her, she would complain as if though it was her obligation to do so. She felt that she belonged in Janna’s life and heavily relied on her too fulfill things that she once did on her own. Janna enriched the last few years left for Maudie by giving her all she could to ensure her satisfaction. Studies have shown how individuals can benefit from social close relations by deriving comfort and reassurance from them (Antonucci, 2001). This was the case with Maudie; she was getting too comfortable with her new lifestyle that was placing impediments in Janna’s life.

So far throughout, I have demonstrated how friendships in old age can provide positive feelings for women but there are also negative aspects of older women’s friendships. The women receiving the emotional support and company are not the problem but instead the problem lies within the women who are providing these resources. For example, while Maudie is receiving a great deal of care both physically and emotionally, Janna finds herself in a regretful situation that she wishes to escape. She expressed her true feelings as she says “I wished I had not responded to her, and I was wondering all evening how to escape” (Lessing, 1985, p.31). This quote demonstrates how Janna is realizing the negative outcome of her friendship with Maudie as she is severely restricted to enjoying her own golden years. Thus, many old women make strong commitment to refrain from becoming too involved with other women because they fear that they won’t be able to get away from them (Jacobs, 1990). She also says “In the morning I woke up and it was as if I was facing some terrible fate. Because I knew I was going to have to look after Mrs. Fowler. To an extent, anyway” (Lessing, 1985, p.31). Hence, a main reason why old women choose not to make friends in old age is due to fear of losing a beloved friend, but realistically speaking many women have learned that friendship at older ages may sometimes become a burden (Jacobs, 1990). Janna’s desire to make friends in her old age has taken a completely different turn than she expected. Janna can be seen as a friend/caregiver who to Maudie feels great as for the first time, she is feeling appreciated by someone. On the other hand, Janna feels constricted and is trapped with a responsibility that she would rather not have to do. Janna says “I went to bed that night saying I had made a contribution to Mrs. Fowler’s welfare that was more than she could possibly expect. And that was enough. I simply would not go near her again (Lessing, 1985, p.34). As Coyne, Ellard, and Smith claim, having supportive others who are constantly needy creates a conflict for the support provider. On the one hand, the service provider wants to offer help but after prolonged periods of providing support, the caregiver may become ambivalent about the desire to provide support that may never be correct, enough, or positively recognized (Antonucci, 2001). This may be one of the reasons why Janna was relieved to know that Maudie was soon going to pass away because she might have felt that this would be the best for both of them. Janna had put in so much time and dedication towards Maudie, that she felt like she had done so much and she could do no more. She has dedicated a great portion of her life to making Maudie’s life satisfying but now it was time to make space for her own satisfaction.

In conclusion, it is evident through the memoire of The Diary of a Good Neighbour that friendships can provide both positive as well as negative experiences to old women. The positive aspects of friendships are that they provide a long lasting connection and they offer a sense of belonging in the world. The negative aspects are that they can induce stress and conflict for the service provider by placing restrictions on the freedom they get to enjoy. Overall, friendships among old women are beneficial to the happiness and well-being experienced throughout the golden years. They can help to ease adjustments to old age and affirm the past and present events that formed the person they are today.

A problem/solution essay on Animal Testing, and why it is wrong.

Put a Halt on Animal Testing

Humans to this day find themselves dominant over animals. The world is becoming less aware of the pain and suffering being afflicted on animals. As a result, animals are becoming more and more downtrodden in society. Humans still continue to treat animals as if they are poverty. As if we can own animals and therefore control their lives and what happens to them. I find this very immoral. Animals are here for themselves. Just like humans, they have their own lives, in which they can think, feel, require love, reproduce, and have families. Many people are unaware that humans are biologically classified under the Animal Kingdom. Even though we do differ in external appearance and intelligence, we are animals. Humans see themselves superior to rats, mice, monkeys and other lab animals. According to evolution, we grew from all these animals. Yet we test drugs and products on these relatives.

“More than 205,000 new drugs are marketed worldwide every year, most undergo the most archaic and unreliable testing methods still in use: animal studies” (PETA). Animals may seem like the ideal specimens for testing new drugs, but the experiments are untrustworthy and cause unknown side effects. Animals have helped form useful medicines for humans like anesthesia; they have also helped put dangerous drugs on the market (AMPEF). Animal testing is plainly unnecessary and downright cruel. Testing anything on animals, and putting them at harm, for this animal testing should be outlawed.

If you think that animal testing is an effective way to give humans accurate results on whether a product will harm us or not, well think again. Practolol, a drug for heart disorders which passed animal testing was pulled off the shelves when the drug was found to cause blindness in people. Arsenic, which is toxic and causes cancer in humans, has not cause cancer in any animals that were tested (PETA). It’s a fact that animals sometimes have the same reactions to a disease or drug as humans do, but usually they experience different effects. There is no way for experimenters to notice the psychological effects on tested animals. Animals can’t express how they feel and what they are experiencing. With Milrinore, a drug that raises cardiac output, increased survival of rats with artificially induced heart failure. But with humans taking this drug who had severe chronic heart failure had a 30% increase in death (PETA). Every species has their own differences; it’s hard to predict any side effects that well occur in all animals. It’s known that rats and mice are used for most experiments, yet they share very little of out DNA. Even using chimpanzees, which shares 98% of our DNA make up, won’t greatly influence the accuracies of the experiments enough to make them effective. In example, scientists have dosed over 100 chimpanzees with AIDS the human virus, but none have developed human AIDS (Thacher 1). Many people assume that humans are intelligently advanced over all other animals and that’s why their lives can be sacrificed. However, Koko the gorilla has an IQ of 80, which is only 20 points lower than the average human. This makes her intelligence above mentally challenged people (Gorilla). For this, one cannot factor intelligence level for who partakes in scientific and medical experiments.

Animal experimentation is not the only way to make significant progress in the medical field. In fact, other methods have been proven to be less time consuming, less costly and provide more accurate results. When testing is less time consuming, the companies don’t have to pay as much out to their employees. When it is less costly, in the outcome there is more money left for future progression in their products. With the results being more accurate, the quality is better, which will ultimately attract more consumers. Such are the following methods; “epidemiological studies, clinical intervention trials, astute clinical observation aided by laboratory testing, human tissue and cell cultures, autopsy studies, endoscopic examination and biopsy, as well as new imaging methods” (Barnard and Kaufman 81). Scientists make progress in studying virus’ and diseases such as AIDS virus when they use almost any other experimentation method other than animal experimenting.

Animal testing does not solve medical problems and it does not help out county progress in the medical field. Contrary to what majority of the human population believes, animals are not the ideal specimens to test cures for diseases. The only real animal that will give us accurate results in our experiments is a human. Experimenting drugs on animals can result in keeping safe drugs off the market and dangerous drugs obtainable. Animal testing is unreliable. People should not depend on the information given out about a drug according to an animal test. Now with alternative ways to test products, animal testing is unnecessary. The other methods for getting results are moral, practical, effective and less expensive. All animal testing should stop and be outlaw, for it’s not essential in this day in age.

Giving Minorities a Chance at Higher Education

This essay was written by Shirley Strum Kenny who is the president of the State University of New York. This essay opens a great controversy about letting diversity people get into the colleges as easy as possible or just keep doing the same thing that they have been doing for a while. The author opens her essay asking a question “Does diversity in higher education justify racial preferences?” and she answered, yes, we must open college education to students of all economic and racial background.

The author points out two important thoughts; one is that diversity is not an end in itself. It is a means toward a much bigger and longer-range goal- a more prosperous and harmonious society, and second that “racial preferences” it refers to admitting African- Americans and Latino students with out judging the SAT scores because this tests themselves are unbiased measures of who is most likely to succeed in college. But this perception is false on two counts: 1) the tests are not bias free: and 2) they are not the best predictors of college success. This means that White students tend to do better than black students on the SATs. The assumption that some people make is that white students therefore have better qualifications for college as proven by an absolutely not prejudice measure of ability. SATs ignores that they are not the best predictors of college success in any case getting a higher SAT scores are recognized as good predictors of success in the first year of college work. The single best predictor of overall college success is class rank at whatever high school the student attends; being No. 1 slot indicates potential for success better than any other single factor. That’s why Universities in California and Texas have made high schools class rank their chief criteria. Now the author comes out with a question: is their new policy a ruse to open widely the admissions racially? Conceivably but it also is more accurate a foundation for admitting the students with the greatest probability of success.

The author now points out that the SAT reigns because the school district teaches have to invest time in test-preparatory, tutoring, etc. they spend far too much valuable class time for the SATs. This test preparation starts as early as sixth grade. Wealthy parents have their children tutored for this SAT test. The rich simply buy the advantage of the SAT; the author also refers about the students with less-affluence. She said that they can not afford tutors and some times they can afford to take the SAT only once. Under this balance the author said that the SAT can not possibly measure true ability of rich and poor. The fact is that there is not one sure method to predict college success.

Then she talked about how the students were prepared on the past she said that there was a time when knowing about great books and speak other languages defined a college education- students minds were filled with a well-defined body of knowledge.

Then the author attack how every college and university has “special admits” students who are athletes or children of alumni or friends of a generous donor. These students have a great opportunity to get accepted and even have a better treatment because the schools need a person to win a game of any sport or the school need that money to build new buildings, but what is amazing is that we do not hear protestations about these practices.

Next the author points out how President George W. Bush urges us to “leave no child behind,” we also must leave no capable student behind. Our economy depends on education beyond the high school level. If we do not open the doors to college education to all races and ethnicities, we condemn ourselves to failure. Putting this in simple words the author said we need these people, and we need them well-educated at the college level.

Then the author comes out with another fact, that, we need a workface capable of serving our global industries. If we look first at our own country, we’ll find a clear message to businesses that their U.S. clients are more diverse than ever. Not only in businesses but all professions will depend on knowledge of many cultures. She said that if we look back in history we’ll find how we have influence of all the cultures, on sports, fashion, even on movies we’ll find African-Americans stars are now on scene. Businesses leaders understand and support this because they need universities that produce well-educated and widely diverse set of new employees. She also points out how most of the universities seriously undertook the study of African-American and Latino cultures.

The author closes this essay pointing out saying that taking students applications will be determined by there race and not how much money they have for tutoring for the exams.

Well what I thought about this article is that is good, I really liked it; I think that the author is well supported and she has a good credential I mean she is the president of the State University of New York.

At the beginning of this essay pretty liked me because I am one of the minorities that she is talking about, so I feel really identified with this essay.

Diversity is not and end in it self. It means toward a much

bigger and longer-range goal- a more prosperous and

harmonious society (Strum Kenny, page 181)

This essay talks about how the diversity are less accepted in the universities because most of the universities just look at the SAT scores and if they have lower score they have less opportunity to get into that the ones who have a higher score. This essay also talks about how the people or most of them think that if they get a higher SAT score is easier to them get into this universities or colleges and how the wealthy people spend a lot of money on tuition because they can afforded and this is an advantage for them because the students with less-influence can afford just for the SAT test.

President George W. Bush urges us to “leave no child behind,”

we also must leave not a capable student behind.(Strum Kenny, page 183 ).

I think that this quote is pretty interesting because how the author is using some of the president words to make an interesting thought about this because she is expressing what she thinks about letting people able to success behind.

Then we have another point that I would like to say about this article and is this thing that I found interesting.

Only when race comes into the picture do Americans

find them selves in a pitched battle about college acceptance.

(Strum Kenny, page 183).

What I think she is trying to say with this is that Americans find themselves a little bit more pressure when a minority person is around because most of them can get easily into the colleges than the minority people because of them SATs scores but when we talked about race is a little harder to the white people to get into this colleges.

In conclusion I think that this article is cool, I really liked and I was totally identified with it. This essay showed me how the minority is rolling an important phase with this country and how we help this country works.

Madman, personal essay about feelings on horror,

This is a short essay (2.5 printed pages) about my feelings on horror No comment

This is no fantasy. This is no fallacious delusion of a sick, twisted

mind. This is the honest-to-God truth. I love horror novels. Stephen King

and Edgar Allen Poe are my idols. Perhaps having these two, demented madmen

as my personal mentors sounds sick, but I tend to think as they do. Most of

my writings are short stories of horror (usually about the length of Poe’s

‘The Tell-Tale Heart’ and ‘The Masque of the Red Death’). My friends often

ask me four questions: ‘Why do you not publish some of your work?’ and ‘Where

do you get your ideas from?’ and ‘What is it like writing this horror stuff?’

and ‘Why do you like writing horror stories?’

First, I do not publish my work (although some writers at the Virginian

Pilot newspaper feel I should) because it’s mine. I know this sounds

selfish, but I’m being honest. A part of my personality goes into my work

and I feel if people read enough of my work, they will discover certain

personal feelings I would prefer to keep private.

– Honesty Check…I also think my work sucks. –

As to where I get my ideas from for my sick excursions, I sincerely do

not know. Like Stephen King (who got the idea to write IT when looking off

of a bridge) I seem to receive my mad phantasms out of thin air. For

example, when I first began writing the first draft of this essay, I started

out writing about writing horror stories and ended up writing a short story

about a vampire in London. It is safe to say I get ideas out of thin air.

When I do capture the intangible, I literally feel a rushing sensation in

my head! I feel like a kid on a roller coaster. I feel astonished, excited,

and hyper. Quite often my mother will stick her head into my room because

she wants to find out what I’m giggling about. I usually tell her I’m

thinking about a joke I heard on T.V. — how can I tell my mother I’m

laughing about a clever killing scene I’ve just visualized, or the thought of

some damsel being chased by the bogeyman?

After giving my mother further reason to worry about my sanity, I sit

down and begin to type on my computer, usually until the first draft is

finished –editing and revising along the way. I take great care when

writing my pieces of dementia — as a cook would take care to consistently

baste a turkey, less it becomes dry and unwanted. I usually have only two

drafts per piece of work: the one and only, thus I usually have to create a

draft for my composition classes, which require at least one draft before the

final is done. After my short story of madness is done, I will usually read

it about 20 times.

If you are anything like me, you like to be scared. I love being in a

arm, toasty bed with only the 15-watt, reading lamp on with a good horror

novel in hand. I love the thrill generated by the expectations of something

sinister happening on the next page. I love being on the edge of screaming.

The funny thing is, when I do get to the juicy parts of a Stephen King novel,

after I’m shivering from the emotional overload, I laugh as if it was the

funniest thing on earth! Horror is my personal drug of choice.

Since I love being scared, it is only natural that I love to scare

others — I guess misery really does like company. I love the thought of

being able to plant a little seed of fear into my audience’s mind and feed it

little by little, until it burst — sort of like the bean Jack planted to

grow that big beanstalk. I want to take the readers past the point of mere

fright to the point of hysteria. I want my readers to wake up in the middle

of the night with the shivers and in a cold sweat. In a nutshell, I want to

scare the living daylights out of people.

The world of horror is not for the weak-of-heart. It is only for those

few, brave souls who are willing to plummet head-first into the abyss of

fear. There is an old japanese belief:

‘Only the warrior who is willing to die can overcome death…The warrior

who clings onto life, not accepting death as a possibility, will surely die.’

– Paraphrased: Unless you are willing to face your fear, you will never

master it. –

Now that you know what horror is, the challenge it offers, and my

personal feelings about horror, hopefully you can see why I love horror

novels, and why I love to write horror.

This is an essay on the issue of honesty while being a part of moral decisions

Honesty: The quality of honourable and upright in character and actions.

Truth: The quality or property of being in accord with fact or reality.

Honesty is involved in our everyday lives. You are expected to tell the truth about everything. To write about honesty, is to write about truth and vice-versa. Everyone you know puts trust in you, once that trust is broken; your integrity is broken, along with your honour. Integrity more so applies to the character then the person’s actions. Though your actions decide what kind of character you have. Integrity means having very high standards of the difference between right and wrong, and refusing to do anything that doesn’t measure up to them.

When you’re given the gift of trust from other people, some take it for granted, and others respect it highly. You have to be honest to yourself before you can be honest to your peers. People lie, cheat and steal everyday. The easy way out is to lie some more, but the difficult way out is honesty. Honesty is by far the most rewarding way out, though you may not be able to see it right away. Sure you can tell more lies to cover up old ones, but it is guaranteed that they will catch up with you.

We don’t realize that lying not only hurts ourselves, but everyone involved. Whether they get hurt because you caused them a great deal of trouble, or because you broke their trust, they get hurt.

What people believe in is up to them, but truth, honesty, honour, and integrity are qualities that can never go wrong. No one is saying it’s easy to tell the truth that could lead you or friends into trouble, but when honour, and integrity are in jeopardy, the truth is no mistake.

When you’re given the choice between right and wrong, people figure the easier route is better. Those who are strong and able to take the challenge and go through the difficulty, sometimes disappointing, harsh, but always unfailing path. One thing to remember is that in time of doubt, the truth will set you free.

Globalization

The topic of globalization is such a multi-layered topic that is almost impossible to make a concrete definition. It affects every sphere of our life- economical, political and social. It is present everywhere in public discourse. Even with the wide use of this concept, there does not appear to be any precise, widely-agreed definition of it. In every single instance the world “globalization” seems to have a different meaning in a different situation. A generally accepted definition is a “process fueled by, and resulting in, increasing cross-border flows of goods, services, money, people, information, and culture” (Guillen). Many other theories of what globalization entails have been proposed by numerous scholars. In Mauro Guillen’s essay, he proposes to combine the perspectives of sociologists Roland Robertson and Martin Albrow, and define globalization as “a process leading to greater interdependence and mutual (reflexivity) among economic, political and social units in the world, and among actors in general.” Because the basis of this essay is resting on the combined perspectives of these two sociologists, it is necessary to check the credibility of these men. After visiting the University of Aberdeen websitee (where Robertson is currently a professor of sociology) I was very convinced of the credibility of this man. He has won numerous awards for his journals, books, and essays on globalization. Much of his work has been translated into 10 different languages and he has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Mathematical Sociology, the Review of Religious Research, Sociological Analysis, Theory, Culture and Society, the Journal of International Communication, and Citizenship Studies. Martin Albrow has a Ph. D. of Sociology from the University of Cambridge. He is a former professor and a pioneer on the study of cultural and global aspects of globalization. His book, The Global Age, won the European Amalfi prize in 1997. Because the credibility of these two esteemed sociologists is easily verifiable, it adds to the overall credibility of Guillen’s essay. It is important to note the wide diversity of expertise that has been brought to the subject of globalization including but not limited to – “postmodernist scholars or social theorists who rarely, if ever, engage in empirical research to number-crunching empiricists, politicians, and management consultants”(Guillen 7).

Guillen discusses how the start of globalization is a contested issue. There are basically three belief groups of when globalization actually started. Some believe that the first circumnavigation of the earth and the expansion of European capitalism in the 16th century marked the start. I think it is a big assumption to say that globalization started with the first circumnavigation of the earth. The First Circumnavigation of the Globe, begun in 1519, was an attempt to prove that the coveted Spice Islands, or Moluccas, were actually property of Spain. I think it would be more accurate to say that the circumnavigation set up the tracks for globalization to happen, but it was not directly related. Globalization is an intangible concept which I believe is best measured through studying cultures. Another group (led by Robertson) argues that “globalization “took off” with the time-zoning of the world and the establishment of the international dateline; the near-global adoption of the Gregorian calendar and the adjustable seven-day week; and the establishment of telegraphic and signaling codes.” I think this argument contains a little more credibility than the first for two reasons. The obvious fist one is that the main supporter of this argument, Robertson, has already been verified as being very credible on this subject. The second reason is each of the pieces involved in the argument all unified the world in a constant and continuous manner as opposed to the circumnavigation argument. The third group argues that globalization should be analyzed after World War II, with the coming of the nuclear age, the emancipation of colonies, the renewed expansion of trade and investment, and the economic rise of Northeast Asia. The end of World War II really marks the beginning of intense westernization which many scholars believe nearly equals globalization.

Guillen points out five key debates in his essay that capture a broad spectrum of social, political and cultural themes of interest to sociologist and other social scientists: is it really happening, does it produce convergence, does it undermine the authority of nation-states, is globality different from modernity, and is a global culture in the making? While all of these issues are important and they are not an exhaustive list, I think the last one is the most important and should be examined much more critically than the other four. Therefore, I will examine how we should think of culture in relation to globalization and how it is a multi-dimensional process.

According to Webster’s Dictionary culture can be defined as “the total pattern of human behavior and its products embodied in speech, action, and artifacts and dependent upon man’s capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations.” It can be also understood as the order of life in which people construct meaning through practices of symbolic representation. Language, religion, political and legal system, social customs are the most important components of cultural identity. Guillen discusses the idea of a “global village” proposed by Marshall Mcluhan. In one of McLuhan’s well known works, Understanding Media, he states, “Today, after more than a century of electric technology, we have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace, abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned.” He chose the phrase “global village” to highlight his insight that an electronic nervous system was rapidly integrating the planet, so that events in one part of the world could be experienced in real-time from other parts, which is what human experience was like when we lived in small villages. The underlying concept of McLuhan’s view of electronic technology is that it has become an extension of our senses, particularly those of sight and sound. McLuhan wrote Understanding Media in 1964, almost 30 years before the internet really took off. A computer with equal computing power to the one that I am typing on now would have taken up a whole room at the time he did his study. Yet, the same principles that he applied to the telephone and television can even more so be applied to the computer and internet. The key question to answer is: is the emergence of this so-called “global village” a good or bad thing?

Many scholars do not like to equate the word globalization with westernization. In Pang Zhongying’s essay, Another Kind of Globalization: Investigation and Thoughts on “Anti-Globalization” Phenomenon he states, “to a large extent, globalization is the process of “Westernization” that non-western countries absorb the systems, rules and even values of the developed countries.” Why is it our privilege to decide what the quality of life is and why do we feel the need to export it? I lived in South Africa last year for over 6 months and experienced the effects of westernization and globalization like many people would not be able to imagine. Establishments that many thought would never enter the realm of Africa such as McDonald’s, KFC, and Starbucks were being constructed around every corner. Much of the fashion and music eerily resembled American tastes. Many native South Africans are currently struggling to find their cultural identity amidst the bombardment of American media, advertisements, and movies. I think this is one of the true pitfalls of globalization. In some cases, the original culture of a group is lost to the overwhelming global culture. Many scholars would argue that South Africa has been westernized for many years now, but this problem is not just confined to South Africa. It is just an entry point for the developed world to impose their “quality of life” on the rest of Africa. In Tofo bay, Mozambique, there are plans to build a Club Med resort, Holiday Inn, and McDonald’s. Just 10 years ago, Tofo Bay was a self sustaining village with no formal authority. Now that the locals have been exposed to the West, the culture is on the verge of extinction. When I was there, the only thing that kept reviving the culture was the price tag a tourist must pay to see it. Not all scholars see globalization as harm to the cultures of the world. In Tyler Cowen’s article, Creative Destruction: How Globalization is Changing the World’s Cultures, he states “Different regions may look more similar than in times past, but the individuals in those locales will have a greater scope to pursue a different paths for their lives, and will have more diverse menu of choice for their cultural consumption” (Cowen 2002). His argument is that the trade of cultural products and influences will increase diversity within societies, even reducing the one across them. The main conclusion that I drew from Guillen is that among the scholars there is no consensus about the effect of the global culture in the making or if there is even one at all.

Thomas Friedman has been a columnist for the New York Times since 1981. He has won the Pulitzer Prize numerous times and he has been the paper’s foreign-affairs columnist since 1995. In Thomas Friedman’s book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (which won the 2000 Overseas Press Club award for best nonfiction book on foreign policy and has been published in 27 languages) he wrote, “Globalization is not a phenomenon. It is not just some passing trend. Today it is an overarching international system shaping the domestic politics and foreign relations of virtually every country, and we need to understand it as such.” I think globalization can be best compared to a fire. Fire is not good or bad. If it is used properly, it can cook food, heat up homes, and sterilize, but fire can also destroy homes and people’s lives just as easily. “Globalization can be incredibly empowering and incredibly coercive. It can democratize opportunity and democratize panic. It makes the whales bigger and the minnows stronger. It leaves you behind faster and faster, and it catches up to you faster and faster. While it is homogenizing cultures, it is also enabling people to share their unique individuality farther and wider” (Friedman). What I have gathered from this is that we need to dissect and examine globalization and promote the good parts while trying to slow down the bad parts.

The Invisible Consequence, child education

While there are many programs designed to help people with substance abuse problems, there are few programs that focus on how substance abuse affects the family members of the user. In the essay, “Substance Abuse in Families,” published in the Childhood Education Journal in 1999, Rivka Greenberg provides her professional insights on children with substance abusing mothers. Greenberg claims that children with substance abusing mothers often perform badly in the classroom. Greenberg identifies the problem and she provides various possible solutions to educators and administrators. Using many rhetorical strategies, Greenberg persuades her educator and administrator audience to first get involved with the students and second share their knowledge with parents and other professionals. Greenberg utilizes titled sections and moderately formal language in order to appear professional and create a direct organized reading. For the purpose of being credible and being informative, Greenberg uses causal claims and variety of reliable sources to appeal to educators. Oftentimes, organization and the development of the student’s education are the primary concerns for instructors. By understanding the values and interests of her audiences, Greenberg formats her essay according to educator’s needs to advocate her argument. At the same time, the essay would have been more influential, if Greenberg had provided statistical evidence.

In Greenberg’s essay, she appears professional by presenting sections and subsections with headings. There are four main sections: “Educational Issues,” “Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment,” “Education and Educators,” and “Conclusion.” The titles of the main sections appear in bold and are located one space above the paragraph. Under the section, “Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment,” the paragraphs are further divided into four subsections: “Developmental and Education Concerns,” “Environmental Influences,” “Role Reversal,” and “Out of Home Placement.” The subsections also appear in bold. In contrast with the titles of the main sections, the titles of the subsections are placed in the same line of the first sentence of each paragraph. Not only do the titled sections and subsections make her essay more organize and practical to read, but also they keep the essay focused and direct. From the title, the educational audience can automatically comprehend the content of the section without uncertainties. For example, the readers are able to guess that the subsection, “Environmental Influences” which is under the main section “Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment,” is discussing the affect of the environmental factors on children of substance abusers. This structural technique is especially attractive to the occupied educators and administrators who do not have sufficient time to read the essay completely. Educators can easily understand the content of the essay by skimming through the essay because the whole essay is organized by the sections and subsections.

In addition to using sections, Greenberg also appears professional by using a moderately formal language. Throughout her essay, Greenberg utilizes advanced vocabularies to demonstrate her proficient knowledge. Instead of simply stating that having a shared language will help bring the different professionals together, Greenberg expertly uses more developed vocabulary by saying, “developing a shared language will facilitate communication and the development of common goals and objectives. (277)” Even though her lexicon is sophisticated, it is not so overly difficult that it makes the essay strenuous to read. Instead of using “multiple” or “many,” Greenberg intentionally chooses to use the word “myriad” to describe the many issues the mother must consider regarding her children (275). The word “myriad” is rarely heard in colloquial conversation. She uses this word to appear educated. She also uses simple words like “share” to make the essay more efficient to read. Greenberg is aware that educators value their time and she assists them by writing in a moderately formal language. She effectively creates a balance between formality and practicality to suit the needs of her educator and administrator audience.

Aside from being professional, Greenberg inspires educators to help the vulnerable children by using causal claims. In order for the salesperson to sell his or her product, it is necessary to provide some history about the item. Similarly, in order for Greenberg to persuade teachers to take action, she needs to inform her audiences the cause of the problem. Recognizing this strategy, Greenberg first explains what causes children from substance abuse families to do poorly in the classroom. Under the subsection, “Developmental and Education Concerns”, Greenberg states, “children’s speech development, motor development, social and emotional development, and cognitive processing may be affected as a result of living in a drug-abuse environment. (275)” Greenberg further clarifies that, children with substance abuse parents tend to live in “inconsistent and chaotic environments” which can affect their “ability to pay attention” in the classroom (276). Second, she claims that the children exposed to substance abuse environment take on too much responsibility too fast and as a result they may not be able to form healthy relationships with other people. Third, Greenberg implies that because the children are often placed in foster cares and face many multiple home placements, they are more at risk to do poorly in school. By identifying the factors contributing to the problem, Greenberg challenges her educator audience to take action. She appeals to the emotions of the educators by identifying the roots of the problem. Greenberg describes the reasons behind the children’s low achievement in school. She creates sympathy to the teachers when she describes the affects the substance abuse environment has had on the children without using an emotional tone. Knowing that educators are concerned with student’s well being, Greenberg uses the causal claims to effectively arouse their compassion. Recognizing that the academic audience values the objective tone rather the emotional tone, Greenberg uses causal claims to create a sentimental response.

In order to support her claims, Greenberg uses multiple respected sources. Ranging from American Journal of Orthopsychiatry to the Infant Mental Health Journal, Greenberg firmly confirms her credibility by referring to thirty-three references. The variety of sources she presents implies that she has done intensive research on this topic. She defends her argument by paraphrasing the data from her sources. Nevertheless, Greenberg’s essay would have been more persuasive if she presented statistical evidence to support her causal claims. Presenting real numbers would have presented a sense of urgency to the educators and made the negligent problem a reality. Presenting more statistics would have been more convincing. Educators are attracted to facts and data.

Having a clear understanding for her audience, Greenberg uses many writing strategies to appeal to them. Greenberg utilizes sections and subsections, moderately formal language, causal claims, and reliable sources to express her concerns about children with substance abuse mothers. As an academic writer, it is important to understand the values and interests of the audience the writer wants to persuade. When the car seller is selling a car to women, he or she needs to point out the safety features of the car. When the car seller is selling a car to men, he or she needs to stress the engine power of the car. If the car seller fails to understand the interests of his or her customer, then the car would not be appealing. Overall, Greenberg was able to persuade the educators to get involved with the children’s life. However, the educators would be more passionate if Greenberg provided more statistical evidence. Greenberg informs the audience that children growing up in substance abuse environments also need to be treated. Oftentimes, due to the unstable and chaotic environment the children grew up in, they are unable to perform well in school. The teachers should be aware of this problem and provide the children with the necessary attention and assistance they lack from their mother. This problem is rarely discussed and there are few programs designed to help the children.

Education

School the great Equalizer In his essay, “I should have never quit school”, D. DeMott rejects the myth that all social classes receive the same education. He supports his essay by denying that the stating line is the same for all students in the American educational system. DeMott begins his essay by giving us an example of the mythological belief that school is a fair institution where everyone begins at the same starting line. Next, DeMott gives general ideas about the American publics denials, and the educational system, provides for students. To support these denials DeMott gives us some assumptions of the general public’s beliefs on education. The first assumption is about intelligence, an individual is college material, intellectual because he/she was born smart and it’s up them to take advantage of it, and that teachers see this genetic trait. According to your intellectual level the school system will see this and place you in the proper educational training which best sues you.

The next assumption is that your community motivates lower class students to attend institutions of higher education by providing them with financial assistance. The difference of the social economic level of the community abilities to provide for the student differs in how much the town can invest in your education. The inequality differs in the sense that wealthy communities see as smartness as a gift. Your occupation is determined by you level of intelligence. Poor people don’t share these ideas. The rich believe that if they tax themselves heavily, they will produce better quality of students, they call this fairness.

DeMott then analyzes American education by its beginnings and how this question of education being equal came to be. The belief that immigrants saw that in order to be Americans you needed an education, therefore there are many different ways different people from different backgrounds apply the education system, and that one system is better than the other. The education systems are divided, and approach different views between the rich and the poor.

Autonomy was the question and education give autonomy to individuals.

To gain an autonomy that was best suited for the new immigrants two developments were to be discussed. The rich cowed the schools and therefore were biased. The other was that schools were un-coerced by societies powerful and was fair.

To support the first development; education was not design to be equal for all but it supported its purpose, high school educational success was due to social nurturing, people who could afford to stay out of the manual labor market, could get a better education.

Although education was provided there wasn’t any change in privilege.

The second development is supported, by the triumph of social science. In order to have the triumph of social science; social conflict was extricated from school. These led to the foundation, which claims education advancement to be the cause of justice. Supported by mass intelligence tests during, World War I. The use of this new approach was used to revolutionize and find fairness.

DeMott, then discredits these developments and abandons these myths. With researches done over the last recent years. The Coleman report for example, showed that class status determines a student’s achievement from start to finish, American education doesn’t complete its mission as an equalizer.

Even when schools begin to do their job they didn’t allow lower class students to achieve their highest intellectual ability. Well off students with weak academic records was still far off more likely to attend college than poor students with strong academic grades.

The idea that only for minorities school was seen as an alien culture. This approach of fairness had an education problem. Public education institutions are largely attended by children of higher social classes, therefore under privilege students tend not to take advantage of an education because they seem not to understand the greatness of an education.

DeMott then gives examples of how teachers tend to prefer rich students to poor or minority students.

The mythology of school and life being fair concerning education is clearly stated by DeMott as unrealistic. We all begin the race towards an education some are motivated towards achieving an education while others are not. Wealthy people have the clear advantage over disadvantage people, and minorities.

Exemplification Essay detailed description about trip to grnadma’s house with family/ family reunion and relate to feelings

Every year my dad’s side of the family gathers for a family reunion at my god-mother’s house. My god-mothers house located far out in the warm, dry, deserted neighborhood in dusty Lemon Grove, where my family anticipates the grand event about to be rekindled once again, but I wasn’t looking forward towards the event. With my family and friends about to be reunited with each other, each family member is trying not to notice how long the last kilometer will take. The trees along the road seem to crawl by slower as my dad pushes his foot gently down on the gas pedal. I was sitting in the car, with the windows sealed and the air-conditioning blowing in my face, my thoughts running through my mind reminiscing about last years gathering. With a gentle sigh thoughts ran through my mind telling me that it’ll just be for today. I wasn’t looking forward towards our reunion so I quietly sat in the car and kept quietly to myself, counting down the hours to counting the minutes, down through the seconds. Second by second, inch by inch, slowly through each mile we finally approached the long awaited destination.

We finally arrived at my god-mother’s house knowing that the long journey is over. I was just thinking about the drive back to my house. My siblings and I, each took a huge breath as we step out onto the crispy lawn hearing that crackling grass walking towards the door. The air was dry and humid, which created a sticky, dripping sweat down my spine. I was making my way toward the gloomy, wooden, front door, illuminated by all the decorations she had plastered. As I open the door and step into a house full of cheek pinches and hugs, an array of sweets and bake goods odor engulfs me, and makes my mouth water. As I greeted everyone with a simple, “Hello”, I hear voices laughing, talking, and asking, “Who is at the door?” In the next second as I glanced into the family room, all seventy of my relatives are giving me there greetings and gladly inviting us into the house with more hugs and pinches. As my family and I are quickly made comfortable, I looked around and made my way out to the back yard hoping that no one would notice.

I walked towards the other side of the door, leading into the kitchen. The aroma of the sweet baked goods caught my attention. As I walked through the glass, sliding door, one of the tables had a cake full of colors of edible ribbon intertwined, forming thin swirls. Layer after layer, each smaller than the last, stacked up. The cake stood on display, rotating on a type of turn table. The white frosting glistened, almost sparkling until only a tiny cake the size of ones hand remained. Purple and pink frosting connected by the ribbon, circle the entire display, shrinking as they neared the top. Sugar, white and in small sand like granules, dusted the dessert titled “Do Family Reunion 2001.” Next to the cake there was a table with plates full of pastries, Asian desserts and fruit juices that lightly penetrated the air filling up the entire house as the family socializes with each other. The constant murmer of the voices, serves as a background for the music. My cousins, nephews, and nieces were running, making their laps around the living room, while playing tag and laughing to their hearts content.

I walked back into the family room, making my entrance, I hear a voice saying “My have you ever grown up!” I turn to my left and stood up to address my complimenter but annoyed feeling like a little kid. I just smiled and crowded myself on the couch with cousins watching television quietly. The rest of the night carried with war stories, games, and family reminiscing about past memories in Vietnam as I sat quietly flipping through the television, yawning, falling asleep. My god-mother got everyone’s attention and everyone was seated at the large oak table with crazed looks upon their faces. Everyone was eager to devour whatever was set before there eyes as each family member was tempted by the tantalizing smell of the vast amounts of goods presented to them. My mind goes blank, almost like a sudden amnesia, as I started to dig into the delicious plate of delightful treasures, and then find myself in a daze lying on the couch, back to square one watching television again.

I wasn’t really looking forward to the reunion but everything made up for the wonderful presentations and great sweets we got to enjoy. Each year’s reunion hasn’t changed except for the different, delicious dishes that my god-mother makes. I just get so fascinated with her talent and what she can do in the kitchen. Next year for our family reunion, I won’t be so negative and just be delighted about the reunion and all the great food that will be served to me. I will have a better attitude and not making it a “have to” than a “want to” and take advantage of every enjoyable moment at the reunion as a family and make the best out of it.

Persuasive Essay- For Capital Punishment (Canada Only) Grade 9 Essay

Persuasive Essay Language Arts FOR CAPITAL PUNISHMENT I believe that capital punishment should be reinstated in Canada for people that commit first-degree murder. Facts show there are more reasons for reinstating capital punishment than there are to leave it eliminated. Some of the key reasons include it would decrease the cost of holding criminals in cells, eliminate risk of re-offenders, and it is a great deterrent to prevent murders. On the question of morality, there are many indicators that capital punishment is okay.

First, if a murderer is executed, there is no chance of them re-offending. 6% of young adults paroled in 1978 (in the US) committed murder within five years. Should we be risking the lives of more innocent people to save the life of a single murderer? Second, capital punishment acts as a huge deterrent towards murder. If a would be criminal knows they will be executed for a murder, they will more likely think twice before they “˜pull the trigger’ and possibly change their mind about committing murder. Without capital punishment, a murderer with a life sentence receives 25 years of all expense paid accommodations, but with good behavior can get out in 10. How much of a deterrent is that? That could be a much better life than what poverty stricken people have.

Third, many people question the moral aspects of capital punishment, especially Christians. On the contrary, there are many indicators in the bible saying capital punishment is okay and even promotes it.

1. *There must be two or more witnesses before one accused of murder can be put to death (Numbers 35:30) 2. A person judged guilty of murder must die. Do not allow any kind of bargain or ransom for his life. (Num. 35:30) 3. The blood of the victim murdered defiles the land. The only way it is cleansed is by administering capital punishment to the murderer. (Num. 35:33-34).* Also, in The Law, which God gave to Moses, the bible sanctioned the death penalty for much more than just murder, things including: · **Hitting your parents — Ex. 21:15 · Kidnapping — Ex 21:16 · Cursing your father or mother — Ex 21:17 · An animal that has the habit of injuring others and the owner does not destroy it — Exodus 21:28-29 · Witchcraft — Ex. 22:18 · Worship of other gods/goddesses — Ex. 22:20 · Working on the Sabbath — Ex. 35:2 · Adultery — Lev. 20:10 · Incest — Lev. 20:11-12 & 14 · Bestiality — Lev. 20:15-16 · False prophesying — Deut. 13:1-10 · Rape under some circumstances — Deut. 22:25** Finally, it is an obvious fact that it costs great sums of money to keep prisoners in jail. Food, entertainment, clothing, rehabilitation, prison guards, the prison building, utilities and court fees are among the costs for prisoners. According to a study done in 1994 by Time Magazine, prison cells cost between $24,000 a year and $75,000 a year (maximum security). So assuming the average murderer’s prison cost is $45,000 a year and that a murder sentence is 10 to 25 years, $45,000 a year x 10 years equals $450,000 or $45,000 a year x 25 years equals $1,125,000. That means it costs taxpayers somewhere between $450 thousand and $1.125 million for a single murder sentence. This money could go instead to prevention programs and addressing certain economic problems as there is evidence that social and economic factors affect murder rates.

In conclusion, capital punishment should be reinstated for many reasons including the four that I listed above; 1. There is no chance of re-offence by the murderer.

2. Capital punishment acts as an excellent deterrent to murder.

3. Despite beliefs that Christian morals are violated when capital punishment is carried out, there is much evidence in the bible that supports capital punishment.

4. Huge sums of money are spent keeping these prisoners in jail.

So in my opinion, Canada should reestablish the death penalty.

This essay is about my world veiw and how to make the world a better place to live in.

There is nothing which can be done to totally improve the world’s condition presently. However, there is something which can de done for the betterment of the world’s condition. The main point which could affect the condition of the world is Education. Education provides people with knowledge, communication skills, discipline, and also with dignity. “Education’s purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one” said Malcolm Forbes. The supporting idea which could improve the world’s current situation is Religion. Religion provides people with a belief system consisting of discipline, tradition, culture, and morality. Matthew Arnold had said that “the true meaning of religion is thus not simply morality, but morality touched with emotion”. Last thing that might help is looking at the world in a social aspect. Being social gives us a more understanding character, and it gives us more information about the current issues which at least makes us not ignorant, and it also makes us more open to people. If a person has knowledge, good communication skills, discipline, dignity, a belief system consisting of traditions, cultures, and moral values, understanding, not ignorant, and more open, than that person could cause no harm or trouble to anyone. If billions of people view the world as an educational, religious, and also a social place, then the condition of the world would be greatly improved and would be a “heaven” to some people.

Today, people have no time to do anything. They are so busy working that they don’t even know what is going on around them. All they want to do is to earn money. Money is everything for everyone these days. Money brings happiness to people nowadays, which is totally wrong. Money can never bring peace in anyone’s life. Money can actually ruin a persons’ life by bringing jealousy, and proud into that person. If a person has a lot of money, he tends to have more power on others, which usually leads to an evil act or a selfish act. Billions of people look at the world in an economic view which is the cause of all the politics tensions, wars, and all different kinds of riots and disasters. However, if people look at the world in different aspects, the world could be a better place to live in.

“Education’s purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one” said Malcolm Forbes. Education can improve the world’s condition greatly. Without Education, people would just live like cavemen and cavewomen. They will have no idea about anything. If everyone in this world is educated, there would be fewer problems in the world for example, over population. Education provides people with knowledge, communication skills, discipline, and also with dignity. From knowledge, we learn, understand, and analyze. We need to learn in order to know how things work. We understand by the learning and by all this learning and understanding, we can analyze things. From good communication skills, we tend to communicate well with others with created a better understanding between others. From discipline, people get self-control. Having self-control is always good because you know how and when to act. Lastly, from dignity, people learn how to respect themselves which brings in them an optimistic view. Education can provide all these qualities in a person. Education can make the world’s condition better which would create fewer problems in the world.

“The true meaning of religion is thus not simply morality, but morality touched with emotion” said Matthew Arnold. Religion could also improve the condition of the world with the support of education. Without religion, people would have no belief system or any traditions and cultures. People would not have any history of their own backgrounds and their ethnic values. A religion teaches us what is good and what is bad for us. Religion provides people with a belief system consisting of discipline, tradition, culture, and morality. We need a belief system in order to keep a systematic schedule between work and also personal life. We need discipline because we need self-control. Having self-control is always good because you know how and when to act. We need traditions and cultures because without traditions and cultures, we will just live out lives as a robot. We will not have any festivals and will not believe in anyone or God. Traditions and cultures affect the way we look at things and also affect our thinking. Our traditions and cultures make us act as we do. Lastly, religion provides us with moral values. We need moral values in order to know what is good and what is bad for us. Without religion, we are nothing but just a bunch of people looking at the world in a very practical view with results in selfishness.

Supported with education, and religion, looking at the world in a social aspect also helps to improve the world’s condition. If a person is not socially involved, it is likely that that person would have fewer knowledge of what is going on around the world as that person would not discuss about current affairs with others. That person would also not know other people properly which could results in disaster especially during bad times when you need someone’s help. Being social gives us a more understanding character, and it gives us more information about the current issues which at least makes us not ignorant, and it also makes us more open to people. You need to be more understanding in order for you to make good relationship with other people which make it easier to be socially involved. If you are more understanding, people will tend to talk to you more, which could result in being open with other people. Being socially involved can be very enjoyable yet also could be very beneficial.

If billions of people view the world as an educational, religious, and also a social place, then the condition of the world would be greatly improved and would be a “heaven” to some people. Education provides people with knowledge, communication skills, discipline, and also with dignity. Religion provides people with a belief system consisting of discipline, tradition, culture, and morality. Being social gives us a more understanding character, and it gives us more information about the current issues which at least makes us not ignorant, and it also makes us more open to people. If a person has knowledge, good communication skills, discipline, dignity, a belief system consisting of traditions, cultures, and moral values, understanding, not ignorant, and more open, than that person could cause no harm or trouble to anyone. Education is needed because it makes a person who he/she really is and what his/her capabilities are. Religion is needed because it is necessary for every individual in a society. Being social is needed in order for your own recognition in a society. Every person needs to be educated, religious, and also social. These are the three aspects of life. Billions of people’s life could be enhanced if everyone views this world in these three aspects.

Essay about Money and the love and want for money in “Rocking Horse Winner” by D.H. Lawrence

”Show me the money!”, the famous Hollywood phrase, simply states the feeling for all people in the world. For it is safe to say that money is one of the most prized possessions to most everyone. The idea of money is huge, extravagant, and because of its great significance to the world, money is extremely powerful. Money is just as important to people in the United States as it is to Japan, or The Middle East, or Australia, or London, or anywhere else in the world. Being so worldly, important, and powerful, money is strongly apparent in the day to day lives of all people on earth, for money can be found in nearly all aspects of life. Money is often found in literature. In the short story, “The Rocking Horse Winner”, by D.H. Lawrence, money is a very important factor because the family in the story always longs for more money. They feel that they are always in dire need of cash because one, they think money will bring them love, and two, because they do not want to admit that their family cannot love each other.

The family in this short story constantly wants money because they think money will bring them love. The family is very materialistic and tries spending a great portion of their money on the way they want others to view them. They look like high-class citizens to their neighborhood. The father of the family works endlessly in an office, and the family has been plagued with gamblers for a long time. As one can clearly see the family has always found money to be greatly desirable. They long for money so badly because they think it will bring them love. For example, the young son in the story, Paul, is greatly involved in horse racing for he feels that the cash winnings he gives to his mother will return him with love from his mother. Paul tirelessly rides a wooden horse in his house. He rides it with passion, and violence, until finally there comes a time when the winner of the next horse race becomes apparent to him because of some occult force greater than he. When this time comes he is either not sure, fairly sure, or absolutely positive of the winning horse. When Paul is positive, he and his partner bet all of their money on the horse that was summoned during Paul’s ceremony with the rocking horse. When Paul is positive, he wins, and when he wins he brings a handful of money to his mother. During one occasion, Paul deposited 5,000£ to his mother’s bank account so that she will receive 1000£ on her birthday for five years. Paul donates this money in hope for love from his mother. It is now apparent that most actions in this family that are done for money were because the family thought this cash would bring them love.

Another reason the family always wants more money is because they cannot come to terms with the fact that there is no love for each other. The family does not love each other. The husband and wife once loved each other, but a long time ago their love turned cold for reasons unknown. The kids had been forced on the wife and she cannot love them because they were unwanted and they only remind her of the love that she and her husband once had, that is now no longer. The husband has no feelings for his wife and kids, for there is rarely a time when he is not away from home, working in his office. The family doesn’t love each other, however they don’t know it. The mother to children relationship is wonderfully portrayed in the following: “‘They looked at her coldly, as if they were finding fault with her. And hurriedly she felt she must cover up some fault in herself. Yet what it was that she must cover up she never knew. Nevertheless, when her children were present, she always felt the center of her heart go hard. This troubled her, and in her manner she was all the more gentle and anxious for her children, as if she loved them very much. Only she herself knew that at the center of her heart was a little hard place that could not feel love, no, not for anybody’”(1). One can now see that the family surely doesn’t love each other, however they cannot admit or realize it. Since it is not readily tangible to the family that they don’t love each other, they will always need money in order to gain love. In fact the family finds this need for money to be so great that they can always hear a whisper, voice, or scream exclaiming, “‘There must be more money! There must be more money!’”(2). However, it doesn’t matter how much money they have; this money will never bring them love for deep down they cannot love one another and will forever be unhappy.

Global Warming as a Social Problem

Today’s society consists of many different social problems. Social problems can range from affecting certain parts of society to affecting the world’s society. Social problems are “situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community…” (Cancerweb.ncl.as.uk). The definition of the term ‘social problem’ can range from a minute case to a widespread problem. A social problem can also be considered as a “social condition that a segment of society views as harmful to members of society [that is] in need of remedy.” Social problems range with each individual person. Every person has a unique perspective of what is a problem and what is not. An easy way to clarify what a social problem is if there is a public outcry for a solution to it. While most commonly thought of social problems are based on discrimination and stereotypes, one specific social problem that does not fit into these standards is global warming.

Global warming is “an increase in earth’s average atmospheric temperature that causes corresponding changes in climate… that may result from the greenhouse effect” (Dictionary.com). As a social problem, global warming is a fairly large and broad topic. The greenhouse effect is an environmental condition caused by excessive quantities of carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. These definitions are simply physical definitions. In terms of being a social problem, global warming and the greenhouse affect yields harmful effects on every community and society as a whole. This type of social problem does not choose its victim based on race, gender, sexual orientation, class, income, age, or any stereotypical category a person can be placed in. Not every person is equally affected by this, but everyone is susceptible to dealing with this problem.

The greenhouse effect is a factor in causing global warming. Global warming is caused by many factors and different kinds of pollution. The main type of pollution that affects global warming is air pollution. Air pollution is simply defined as pollution of the atmosphere, which ties in with the greenhouse effect. Air pollution can also be defined as “the addition of harmful chemicals to the atmosphere. The most serious air pollution results from the burning of fossil fuels, especially in internal-combustion engines” (Dictionary.com). Air pollution, along with any other type of pollution are mostly caused by human’s actions. The way people live today, and how they use their resources in daily life results in everyday pollution. Pollution can be considered as an “undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities” (Dictionary.com). People may not realize this, but their actions directly affect their surroundings. Completing daily tasks such as driving a car has detrimental effects on Earth’s atmosphere and pollution levels.

Global warming causes physical harm to humans, animals, and plant life. A change in the Earth’s climate could be detrimental to the Earth’s life. The physical harm that is inflicted on all of living life due to global warming poses as a problem: a social problem. Global warming does not choose its victim based on any type of criteria such as race, age, gender, sexual orientation, class, income, or any stereotypical category. Global warming poses as a social problem by affecting a significant number of people, and by threatening the stability of the community’s environment.

Since pollution is one of the main factors in causing global warming, it also comes with health effects. These effects range from being short-term to being long-term. Short-term effects can be as simple as headaches nausea, and allergic reactions such as irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat. Infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia can also occur. An example in history of health effects from pollution can be found in the “Smog Disaster” in 1952 located in London. In this “Smog Disaster” a total of four thousand people passed in only a few days. The death of these civilians was due to the high concentrations of pollution (Paraphrased from Lbl.gov).

Long-term health effects “include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys” (Lbl.gov). Research has shown that younger children and elderly people are more sensitive to pollution compared to the general public. “Continual exposure to air pollution affects the lungs of growing children and may aggravate or complicate medical conditions in the elderly” (Lbl.gov). “Young children and elderly people often suffer more from the effects of air pollution” (LbL.gov).

With global warming not being in full affect, the extents of the effects are currently unknown. The effects of global warming are only just beginning with mild winters and extremely hot summers. The climate change can be subtle or dramatic depending on how quickly it occurs. The increase in temperature in the climate either way will be harmful. With temperature increase’s ice caps in the Artic and Antarctica are melting at increasing rates. The melting of ice caps can have many changes includes the destruction of the habitat in the Artic as well as rising sea levels. “Global warming could push sea levels about 40 percent higher than current models predict” (NationalGeographic.com). “Models suggest that by 2100 sea level[s] will be between four and thirty-five inches… higher than it was in 1990” (NationalGeographic.com). Ocean front properties and beaches can be destroyed and submerged in water because of these rising sea levels. The higher the temperatures and climates increase, the faster the sea levels will rise. A comparison of this at a minor scale could be like a house built in a flood plain next to a river. The more it rains the higher the water will rise. If the water rises to high, it will flood the flood plain, and destroy the house. Coastal areas will be affected similarly. A person could think of the coastal areas as a flood plain for the oceans. Ice caps melt from the rising temperatures, as the water heats up (even just slightly), the water will begin to expand. As the water expands the sea level will rise.

Solutions to global warming and its effects range vastly. There are several different types of solutions ranging from micro-level solutions to macro-level solutions. Solutions can range from fuel-efficient vehicles to more environmental laws. Solutions to global warming may not fully diminish the problem, it may only reduce it.

Renewable resources could play a main role in the solutions to reducing global warming. A key point is that if we were to switch to renewable resources it would cost the government a lot of money, which could result in higher taxes or some other means of obtaining the necessary amount of money. A plus to using renewable resources is the fact that in the long run they would pay for themselves. Not only would it provide jobs for the people who would be forced to leave the nonrenewable resources, it would also be opening up opportunities for the unemployed. Along with making our environment a safer and more hazard free living zone, we’d also be leading towards a better economy. Our current economy state is negatively thought of, and switching to nonrenewable resources could put our government in debt. After so many years renewable resources will not only repay its own debt, but it will also produce a profit. The term renewable resources are “relating to a natural resource, such as solar energy, water, or wood, that is never used up or that can be replaced by new growth. Resources that are dependent on regrowth can sometimes be depleted beyond the point of renewability, as when the deforestation of land leads to desertification or when a commercially valuable species is harvested to extinction. Pollution can also make a renewable resource such as water unusable in a particular location” (Dictionary.com).

The future problems dealing with global warming will lead to such massive problems that a solution and change will be demanded. Global warming is a social problem because of the public outcry that is already occurring. The state of our current economy is negatively thought of. If we were to invest in new solutions for global warming it would be a great cost. If we were to pay for the projects to reduce global warming that we believe will have an effect may put our country in great debt. If the country were to switch to fuel-efficient and renewable resources in all institutes and factories it would be a great cost.

A good way to evaluate the methods of our solutions to global warming would involve technology we already possess. Measuring CO2 levels in the atmosphere and the amounts of trash and liter in our surrounding environment in comparison to the current and predicted conditions would only be a start. Actually comparing climate conditions to the predicted conditions would be a good evaluation. If the climate is kept at an average as it is now, in comparison to the higher climates predicted for the future, we would be able to tell if the solutions were taking effect.

The joy luck club essay

The Joy Luck Club Essay The Generation Gap in The Joy Luck Club “Hey, Ben, are you Japanese or Chinese?” I asked. His reply, as it seems to be for a lot of minority groups, was, “Neither, I’m Chinese-American.” So, besides his American accent and a hyphenated ending on his answer to the SAT questionnaire about his ethnic background, what’s the difference? In Amy Tan’s captivating novel, The Joy Luck Club, I found out the answer to that question. Through the relationships and experiences of four Chinese mothers and four Chinese-American daughters, I was able to see a massive difference between their corresponding lifestyles. The generation gap of the women born during the first quarter of the century in China, and their daughters born in the American atmosphere of California, is a quality that doesn’t exactly take a scientist to see.

From the beginning of the novel, we hear Suyuan Woo tell the story of “The Joy Luck Club,” a group started by some Chinese women during World War II, where “we feasted, we laughed, we played games, lost and won, we told the best stories. And each week, we could hope to be lucky. That hope was our only joy.” (p. 12) Really, this was their only joy. The mothers grew up during perilous times in China. They all were taught “to desire nothing, to swallow other people’s misery, to eat [their] own bitterness.” (p. 241) Though not many of them grew up terribly poor, they all had a certain respect for their elders, and for life itself. These Chinese mothers were all taught to be honorable, to the point of sacrificing their own lives to keep any family members’ promise. Instead of their daughters, who “can promise to come to dinner, but if she wants to watch a favorite movie on TV, she no longer has a promise” (p. 42), “To Chinese people, fourteen carats isn’t real gold . . . [my bracelets] must be twenty-four carats, pure inside and out.” (p. 42) Just as they believed that gold was not real unless it was 24 carat, Ying-Ying St. Clair did not believe that a marriage was real unless it was full and without any strings attached. When Ying-Ying found that Lena’s marriage was filled with everything but her own visions, she was quite disappointed. She saw the list of items to be split fifty-fifty on the refrigerator, and immediately thought their marriage did not have the purity and honor that it should have contained. Lena’s ideas of “eliminating false dependencies, being equals, and love without obligation”(p.176) were far from the views that her mother took on marriage. It was quite easy for Ying-Ying to see how times had changed, and how the lifestyle of American born citizens widely contrasted that of her home country.

Toward the end of the book, there is a definite line between the differences of the two generations. Lindo Jong, whose daughter, Waverly, didn’t even know four Chinese words, described the complete difference and incompatibility of the two worlds she tried to connect for her daughter; American circumstances and Chinese character. She explained that there was no lasting shame in being born in America, and that as a minority, you were the first in line for scholarships. Most importantly, she noted that, “In America, nobody says you have to keep the circumstances somebody else gives you.” (p. 289) For a girl who was raised in America, it was easy for Waverly to accept American circumstances, to grow up as any other American citizen.

As a Chinese mother, though, she also wanted her daughter to learn the importance of Chinese character. She tried to teach her Chinese-American daughter “How to obey parents and listen to your mother’s mind. How not to show your own thoughts, to put your feelings behind your face so you can take advantage of hidden opportunities . . . How to know your own worth and polish it, never flashing it around like a cheap ring.” (p. 289) The American-born daughters never grasped on to these traits, and as the book showed, they became completely different from their purely Chinese parents. They never gained a sense of real respect for their elders, or for their Chinese background, and in the end were completely different from what their parents planned them to be.

By the stories and information given by each individual in The Joy Luck Club, it was clear to me just how different a Chinese-American person is from their parents or older relatives. I found that the fascinating trials and experiences that these Chinese mothers went through, are a testament to their enduring nature, and constant devotion to their elders. Their daughters, on the other hand, showed that pure Chinese blood could be changed completely through just one generation. They have become American not only in their speech, but also in their thoughts, actions and lifestyles. This novel has not only given great insight into the Chinese way of thinking and living, but it has shown the great contrast that occurs from generation to generation, in the passing on of ideas and traditions.

The Population Solution

Question…

1. Most people assume that human numbers will stabilize at some point in the future. Discuss the conditions which can contribute to the solution of the population explosion.

- The Population Problem Solution -

‘Let us suppose that the average human being weighs 60 kilogram’s. If that’s the case then 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 people would weigh as much as the whole Earth does. That number of people is 30,000,000,000,000 times as many people as there are living today. It may seem to you that the population can go up a long, long time before it reaches the point where there are 30,000,000,000,000 times as many people as there are today. Let’s think about that though. Let us suppose that the population growth rate stays at 2.0 per cent so that the number of people in the world continues to double every 35 years. How long, then, will it take for the world’s population to weigh as much as the entire planet? The answer is – not quite 1,600 years. This means that by 3550 AD, the human population would weight as much as the entire planet…. Even if that were possible, it wouldn’t give us much time. If the growth-rate stays at 2.0 per cent, then in a little over 2,200 years – say, by 4220 AD – the human population would weigh as much as the entire Solar system, including the Sun… and by about 6700 AD – the human population would weigh as much as the entire Universe.’ The preceding paragraph, by Isaac Asimov describes quite alarmingly just how bad the population problem really is, that in considerably less time that has passed since the days of Julius Caesar the population will equal in mass of that of the earth. Most people assume that human numbers will stabilize at some point in the future. Hopefully it will, but not without conditions that will contribute to the solution of the population explosion, conditions which include education, birth control methods and government action.

Although not the largest in terms of population size, Kenya has one of the highest rates natural increase in the world. This rapid growth rate, which is predicted to reach 120 million by the year 2050, is primarily due to high birthrates and low death rates. Alarmingly, more than half of its population is under the age of 15. This is partly due to the fact that before western influence, health care was relatively poor and families needed to be large in order to guarantee the survival of at least a couple of children to take care of both the land and the elderly. Presently, with much improved health care and substantially lower infant mortality rates, Kenyans are still opting for large family sizes, an average of 8 children per family. This is where education can inform Kenyans and citizens of other countries facing similar problems that large families are no longer necessary to ensure survival. There are also some serious problems that come with educating completely different cultures. For example, Kenyan men believe that if you do not have a large family and many male offspring, you are not considered a man. Also, many cultures promote large family sizes to ensure security and military status. Some may even reject education for the fear that it is a continuing form of colonialism or imperialism and that western attempts to reduce Third World populations is backed up by racist rational. These problems could be overcome by exposing children at a young age in their schools with material promoting small family sizes. The education of adults can also contribute to reducing the population explosion, mainly with the education of women. In most third world countries, the woman’s job is to take care of the children, but when educated, most will want to pursue other lifestyles such as a career instead of adding to the population problem. Another form of education that can contribute to the population problem is to educated both men and women on the use of contraceptives or birth control.

Even though statistics say that the world is headed towards a disastrously increasing overuse of precious resources because of its increasing population, many still stand against the use of contraceptives and other forms of birth control. Even those educated on the population problem regard birth control as unnecessary and perhaps even undesirable. Individuals, groups and nations who hold such views may do so for military, political, religious or even economic reasons. At one time, the Roman government rewarded mothers and taxed bachelors and the USSR passed laws that made abortion and even contraception illegal. Many pronationalist equate military or political power with a larger population and believe that it provides both a larger labour force and a larger market. They must be informed that birth control can avoid a large population which presses on the environment and its resources and take away from the capital available for new investment. Crowded cities usually equals mass unemployment which causes political turmoil. At present, the strongest opposition to birth control comes as a result to religious ideals. The Roman Catholic church still continues to ban all forms of birth control except periodic abstinence. The global education of birth control must not only encourage the use of birth control and make it more readily available, but also dispel any myths about it. A common myth among Italian women are that pills are harmful to the body, causing circulation problems, tumors and even deforming future children.

When most people learn of China’s one child policy, they usually declare it a violation of the basic human right of reproduction. This may be true, but the one child policy is working in reducing China’s rate of natural increase. Even still, the one child policy will not stop the growth in population, with an estimated increase of roughly the population of the United States by the year 2000. On the other hand, without it, China’s population will reach gigantic numbers. Implementing such a policy in other countries such as the democratic United States will most likely create a severe opposition from such groups as the woman’s rights movement. One possibility to avoid a national uprising is to instead of creating an actual policy, is to campaign through the use of television, radio, and other forms of communication that strongly promotes a two child or even one child family. Nevertheless, government action must be taken now, whether it be to create more jobs, improve pensions, reduce family sizes and/or promote the use of birth control.

As Isaac Asimov clearly states it, our planet is facing certain doom if measures are not taken quickly to avoid it. At different points in human history, we faced the danger of becoming extinct, from the overpowering animals in prehistoric times to the overpowering nuclear weapons during the Cold War. Today, our problem is very different and much more severe, the problem is that there will be simply too many humans for the earth to handle. As Tomas Robert Malthus puts it, ‘The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man.’ Without conditions such as global education, birth control and government action which will contribute to the population problem, Isaac Asimov’s unbelievable theory may one day speak the truth.

Education for children with learning difficulties

This essay is concerned with education for children with learning difficulties. The opening paragraphs look at the responsibilities of current education services and their role in educating children with difficulties in learning. Thereafter the essay will focus upon research carried out by the education Support Service on parental view of children with disabilities. Finally a conclusion will be provided so that the reader can analyse the strengths and limitations of the research.

The word disability is a broad term, which represents a complex system of social restrictions imposed on people with impairments by a highly discriminatory society. The term encapsulates all individuals who may suffer from physical, mental, visual or other forms of impairments. However there are disabilities that we cannot see, nor we can realize that they are disabled like a learning disability.

Over the recent years many organisations have been set up to provide provision for these kinds of disabled children who are facing difficulties in their educational life and school careers. This essay will suggest how such individuals can receive support and what is the role of support services to provide them provision? Furthermore the essay will also outline the services by the local education Authority (LEA) that help disabled children through the schools and what is the role of parents to educate their children.

Generous advisory and support services are a necessary aspect of LEA policy towards children with disabilities and special needs. Head teachers and governors cannot take the needs of these children seriously if the L.E.A. divide their time between ordinary schools and special schools. The special schools should receive advisory support. Yet, more than 90% of children with special needs and learning difficulties remain in ordinary schools. They merit provision and support. The success of advisory service is useful only if accepted and the services are depending on the individual advisory or psycho logic establishing a co-operative relationship with teachers. It follows that their work must be as much with teachers as with children. (D. Galloway 1985).

Now the essay will focus on a team based research that was carried out by Kathleen Murphy and his team (Vulliamy G. and Webb R. 1990). During the project, each member was expected to pursue his or her individual piece of research, linked to a common theme. Each member worked in different areas and the task of Kathleen Murphy was to look at the perception of parents. The aim of this research was to address the issue of how the Educational Support Service (ESS; an organisation founded to support children with special educational needs and learning difficulties into ordinary schools. One of the main tasks of the service is to work closely with parents and other professionals. Part of the support work involves liasing with parents of those children who were about to begin the process of a formal assessment and then making regular follow up visits to ensure that parents were kept up to date. ESS members were also available to discuss problems and involve parents in the learning programs for their children, if appropriate). A second aim was to attempt evaluation of how effectively they were supporting children with special educational needs in ordinary schools. The third aim was that research would influence future decision on LEA policy to give information and to open more channels of communication for parents within the authority.

Researchers attempted to focus the attention on parents on the role of the ESS, display what they feel about the service and discuss their understanding of ‘special educational needs’. Parents were unable to comment on all the aspects of the service. A lot of parents were complaining about the lack of communication, but none of them had any knowledge of the role of the ESS in school or of its connection with other professionals. Comments on special educational needs were confined to their own children beyond whom they were unable to generalize.

Researchers started collecting data. Interviewing seemed the most appropriate method and way of collecting data. It was a good way to approach parents rather then achieving their expressions and concerns through the more impersonal approach of a questionnaire; the group of parents interviewed needed encouragement and personal contact. As communication, or lack of communication, clearly emerged as an important issue that, it would be beneficial for both the research and the ESS if information were gathered through face-to-face contact. Three kinds of parents were chosen to provide an interview. Each sample contained the parents of three children with learning difficulties. One child with visual impairment in ordinary schools, another child with a language disorder that was educated in a special unit and, in the third area a child with hearing difficulties in an ordinary school.

Eleven interviews amongst the eighteen were with mothers only, three were with their fathers only and in four interviews, both parents were present. All of them except one father were interviewed in their own house. The researcher introduced him to some parents through telephone. Other service members then informed him that this introducing was causing unforeseen stress when parents became worried and concerned about being contracted by ‘someone from the educational department’ whom they did not know. To reduce this stress, the contact was made through ESS who worked with the parents or those that knew them. Each parent was given a brief letter, explaining the researcher and what the research is for, and therefore the researcher will be in touch with them. Contact involved telephone calls, letters and home visits. The researcher was aware that there was little control as to how these requests were presented and in the result of which some parents that may have had perceptions influenced by the service members. One parent telephoned one of the researcher’s colleagues whom she knew, to ask what she should say in the pending interview. It was emphasised to parents that they were no obligations to either the researcher or the LEA to be interviewed, and that they could refuse it if they wished to do so, but none of them did. Every parent had an interview in which the same open-ended questions were asked. Sixteen of the eighteen parents, allowed the interviewer to tape-record their interview. Each if these interviews lasted between 30 to 40 minutes. Notes were taken while the interview took place.

Tape-recording the interviews had several advantages. It could be played back whenever the researcher needed. He also did not need to rely on memory or the speed of his writing down effective notes. The researcher could relax and concentrate on how to introduce the next question in an efficient way. As the researcher says, “taping also enabled me to spot some unforeseen themes during analysis.” (Vulliamy G & Webb R 1992:108)

Each of these interviews began with asking parents to talk regarding their children and to explain any problems or difficulties they had in learning. Answering this question, almost every parent gave a biographical history. These histories began with their first contact with professionals in the health service, and ended up with their meetings with workers in education.

After the interviews were checked and analysed, the second round of interviews was conducted with only six parents. They were questioned in more depth about communication. It was much more relaxing during these second interviews. More ‘why’ and ‘what’ questions were asked. The outcomes and findings of these interviews will now be discussed under broad heading of communication problems.

Now the essay will focus upon the outcomes of these interviews. It will display the parental views and their expectations from the services for their children with disabilities and difficulties in learning. Most parents complained of a lack of information from professionals generally, and of little opportunity to express their points of view regarding the needs of their own children.

Parents were generally confused about the existence of the Education Support Service, its name, its role in school, and its connection with other agencies. They were unaware of the service, as the researcher says:

“Some parents saw us as being teacher. Other thought we were psychologists. Most were ensure of our connection with other professionals involved in education, realizing we were not part of schools but that we visited them and some times saw their children there. (Graham Vulliamy & Rosemary Webb 1992 p.lll)

Parents saw communication as being most important. They mentioned ‘listening’ ‘helping at home’ ‘giving information’ and ‘feed back’ in discussing what benefit they were receiving from the service. Many parents reported that it was only when there had been support service intervention. Especially the home visits. These visits allowed them the opportunity to discuss the problem of their child with some one who they saw as having little or no connection with schools. Parents were also more confident as they were in their own territory.

Most of the parents expressed difficulties regarding communication with staff in school. They complained about lack of opportunity to talk to staff, inability to discover the nature and details of problems of their children in school and being labelled as ‘fussy’ and ‘overprotective’ when attempting to seek such information. As one, parent said:

“For me it would be interesting to know what they (staff) were doing with him (child) really I would like to know what they were doing but I can never talk to them. (Villiamy G. & Webb R. 1992 p.13)

Key Conclusion reached

Several major points emerged about parental views of their contact with professionals. Parents felt strong on the point that they were not receiving enough information regarding their children. Hence they:

. Wanted easier access to professionals and contact time.

. Perceived that there were few channels of communication available for them to facilitate the exchange of opinion and to pass on feelings to professionals.

. Wanted professionals to listen to them and take their views seriously.

. Wanted help to deal effectively with formal assessment and have more opportunities for discussion arising from this process with professionals.

. Required strategies from professionals on how best to aid their children at home.

. Felt convinced that not enough information was received regarding their children’s problems.

Parents will need information for the recent educational issue such as the National curriculum, national testing and local management of schools. The local management of school could be a threat to the inclusion of children of special needs within school budgets. Although the education support service can help but the LEA is constantly looking to reduce costs where possible, therefore the future of this service is still unsure. (Vulliamy G & Webb R 1992)

The researcher concludes by mentioning that one of the most effective ways of finding out what type of information parents require is to ask parents themselves. Carrying out the interviews provide a chance for parents to put forward their views and thoughts.

Strengths and Limitations of the research

The research has a number of weaknesses:

. Parents complained of a lack of information from professionals generally and of little opportunity to express their points of views regarding, their needs of there own children. Most parents viewed these professionals, as fulfilling the rate of the expert in the worst sense, that is deskilling was intentional.

The researcher was informed by Service members that this was causing unforeseen stress when parents became worried and concerned about being contacted by someone from the educational department whom they did not know.

The research also gives the impression that it was not planned and organised properly. The researcher approached parents by telephone and did not consider the fact that this will leave parents worrying about the matter. In addition, delays were caused in the timing of the interview because the researcher was depending on the education support service members and they were all busy (Vulliamy G & Webb R 1992).

The researcher also has many good, strong points of view, which are very well structured. The researcher had a well-planned way in which to collect data for example, he began each interview by asking parents to talk about their children and to explain any problems or difficulties they had with learning.

The researcher also collects data by tape recording. It had several advantages. He could play them back as often as he needed so that he did not have to rely on his memory. As the researcher says that there were no major problems encountered in using this method of recording data (Vulliamy, G & Webb, R 1992: 109).

Conclusion

To conclude it would be reasonable to say that in this research several key points appeared regarding parental views of their contact with staff and professionals. Parents were not happy because they were not receiving enough information regarding problems of their children. They wanted easier access to staff and more contact time they wanted staff to listen to them and take their opinions and views seriously.

Parents understand the circumstances and they are aware of their children’s mentality, so it would be very helpful for teachers and professional if they keep contact with them and advise them how to deal with their children.

Finally, the Education Act can never be completely effective (or Individuals with Disabilities until the educational and legal communities work hand in hand with parents to resolve the conflicts widespread. Meaningful tools to ensure a free appropriate public education in the restrictive environment for children with disabilities can be found in the Act, but parents, teachers and administrators must work together to achieve best possible results. This means that knowledge about the choice available is essential to achieving the highest possible standard of education for these students.

This is a classification essay about the different types of love: parental, friendship, and “chemical love.”

Love, Love, Love- We are Surrounded by Love

“Your life and my life flow into each other as wave flows into wave, and unless there is peace and joy and freedom for you, there can be no real peace or joy or freedom for me. To see reality- not as we expect it to be, but as it is- is to see that unless we live for each other and in and through each other, we do not really live very satisfactorily; that there can really be life only where there really is, in just this sense, love. “1 Most of our lives consist of socializing with others, beginning new relationships, and strengthening old ones. Love is all around us, embodied in three main categories: parental or family love, love between friends, and “chemical love,” between a male and female. Each of these is experienced in a different way; each of these is approached in a different way. However, all of them share one common quality- they are unplanned, unpredicted, and unexpected. This is what gives love its beauty. Because we do not expect it, we appreciate it greatly, realizing how poor our lives have been (or would have been) without it. We simply learn to love love.

The first kind of love we encounter is at a very early age, and that is toward our parents. This is a subconscious feeling; the child is too young to decide whether to love his or her parents or not. In the usual case, when the parents show love toward their child, the child feels it and returns the warm feeling which fills the parents’ hearts. This love can be shown in many ways. For example, usually the first word a child learns to pronounce is “mama,” or something along these lines. This shows the subconscious line of thought- the thought of his or her parents dominates the child’s mind. The child wants to be hugged and kissed; he or she rebels when taken away from his or her parents, and does not go to sleep without the security of the loved parent. This kind of love is innate and unpredicted, and seen in almost every individual.

Another kind of love is the one we feel toward our friends. When we are young, these relationships are not very profound; they usually consist of getting together to play the favorite game of “duck, duck, goose,” or maybe “freeze tag .” When so young, a child’s feelings toward a friend are not as strong as an adult’s feelings toward his or her friends. However, young children hug, hold hands, and feel the need to see each other very often, perhaps to play “hide and seek,” perhaps to tell the story of how the family dog chased its tail. As we grow, we begin to encounter more and more difficulties; Mom and Dad will not always solve the problem. This is when we look for other assistance, and this is where our friends come in. Our peers have probably encountered the same problem: a row with a parent, a broken heart, a low grade. From this stage on, we become more and more dependent on our friends, and the bond strengthens until the point (and perhaps farther) when the friends feel as though they are one: the pain felt by one is equally felt by the other. For example, when my friend, the person who has been next to me for ten years through everything, including the death of a parent, was left by her boyfriend for drugs, I felt incredible pain; she did not need to tell me how she felt- I already knew. Even now, when we are thousands of miles apart, a telepathy still exists. This kind of bond can be called love- when one is dependent on one’s friend, when the opinion of that person is what determines the actions taken. However, such love is felt only toward a limited number of people, for friends are like plants- there are many that are beauteous and colorful on the outside, but poisonous on the inside. There may be just a few unique ones, not necessarily the most beautiful ones, that complete us.

“Love means to love that which is unlovable, or it is no virtue at all.” 2 This is the third kind of love,”chemical love.” When one feels this kind of love, one does not see the loved one’s flaws; one sees him or her as an angel that has come down from heaven: suddenly the large nose disappears, and is replaced by the big blue eyes. This kind of love occurs when, upon meeting a member of the opposite sex, one feels an uncontrollable desire to be with this person- a desire which cannot be subdued by mental power. This kind of love is the most unpredictable- it occurs suddenly, when it is least expected. A person might be sitting in a café, drinking coffee, when a complete stranger walks past and somehow, the coffee suddenly loses its attractiveness. The only thing occupying the person’s mind is how to catch the mysterious stranger’s attention. When one experiences this kind of love, one feels as though in a trance- the only thought occupying the brain is that of the object of desire. Even a touch on the hand by the loved one can cause extreme felicity. When a person is “in love,” the object of desire is the meaning of that person’s life; he or she wakes up in the morning, overflowing with vivacity and energy, all fueled by the thought that he or she will be with that one particular person. When someone experiences such attraction to another person, he or she is ready to risk his or her life for the loved one or for the sake of being together, just like Romeo and Juliet preferred to die rather than be separated. “Chemical love,” therefore, is stronger than the mental power and cannot be purposely controlled.

All three kinds of love share a common property- they are feelings, which are mentally uncontrollable; they completely take over the body, and the brain is helpless in stopping them. Love cannot be forced or decided upon; it controls itself and completely takes over the person experiencing it. This is why love is so potent- the human being is helpless in stopping its effects. A person usually experiences each type of love at least once during his or her lifetime. All three come together to form one of the most powerful forces in existence- love.

AN ESSAY ON SOCIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS In Relation to the Book “Code of the Streets”

In Relation to the Book“Code of the Streets”Life on the street is never easy. It has been said that a person can either be “book smart” or “street smart”. And within that saying, the “street smart” kind of person is the one who usually survives. Survival and self preservation always has something to do with a personal view of the environment. If one sees his environment as comfortable, one tends to be more relaxed and carefree. On the contrary, if one sees his environment as dangerous, one will tend to be more vigilant and aggressive.

In Elijah Anderson’s essay on urban anthropology, he said that, “The inclination to violence springs from the circumstances of life among the ghetto poor–the lack of jobs that pay a living wage, the stigma of race, the fallout from rampant drug use and drug trafficking, and the resulting alienation and lack of hope for the future.” This, coming from a social scientist, proves that violence in the streets can arise from the circumstances of life. It results in social alienation and lack of hope, which then triggers a feeling of depression, loneliness and confusion. He further said, “Simply living in such an environment places young people at special risk of falling victim to aggressive behavior.” We can now see that a pattern arises that with environments coddling crime, disorder and violence, people accustomed to crime, disorder and violence will also arise. They will use crime, disorder and violence to achieve their ideologies. In Anderson’s book, “Code of the Streets”, he described the rule of civil law in some of the most economically depressed and drug-and crime-ridden pockets of the city, as having been severely weakened, and in their stead a “code of the street” often holds sway. This “code” is actually a set of informal rules meant to organize whatever disorganization the failure of law has caused. The so-called “Code of the Street” gives rise to individuals who are bent on self preservation and the creation of their own social community where they are invincible. With this desire to preserve themselves, they form groups form mutual help and protection, commonly called “street gangs”.

The concept of Synergism finds application in this case. Probably the most familiar phrase associated with synergism is “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”. A sociological definition would be “the relation of parts, seen as a whole, creates or results in something entirely new in and of itself with a life of its own”. The import of this definition is that a whole is not merely an additive of its parts, but rather, is something more than an aggregate or summed up collection. A gang is not a mere group of people, but is actually a functioning whole having its own identity and existence. In other words, a synergistic whole is created by its parts when they are put together in such a way. Thus, a group of people accustomed to street life will most likely associate themselves as an integrated group. Here we find synergy.

As the group is formed, it necessarily has an ideology. It refers to beliefs or a set of beliefs which rationalize, justify, and sanctify vested interests of an individual or a group. They rationalize these vested interests by making actions which seem to be different than what they are. They justify by providing premises or conclusions which seem to support the interests. They sanctify by making them seem natural or inevitable. This, in sociological terms, is the concept of Ideology. These groups’ vested interests are activities in need of rationalization, justification, and sanctification. Thus, the really crucial aspect of ideology and ideological thinking is that these ideas or beliefs are the inverse of what the activities really are. If a group amasses guns, ammunition, knives and bombs, they say that it is for their own protection, when in truth and in fact, they have plans to wage war on a rival group. One final aspect of ideological thinking is that these ideas are not lies. Ideological thinkers are not lying. They really believe their ideas and are very sincere about maintaining them.

There also exists a form of trust and distrust between and among these people. A trusting relationship is formed as a necessary factor of synergism. However at the same time, a distrusting relationship is created based on the Obvious Concept. The concept is concerned with what is under the surface or behind the facade. Thus, “obvious” can mean that which is hidden, concealed, distorted and gets in the way of something else. As such, the “obvious” conceals as much, if not more than, as it reveals. While everything has a surface, it is just that and is not equal to substance or content. The surface or appearance although obvious may be concealing other realities which constitute whatever it is being observed or investigated. Sociologist Peter L. Berger called this the1st Wisdom of Sociology…that is, nothing is as it seems to be. Therefore, the obvious represents only the first step in investigation. It must be discarded and never taken for granted. The art of mistrust, as Berger put it, will be exercised here.

The whole creation of the “street code” may be supported by the Conflict Theory. Among several, a specific applicable mode of conflict in conflict theory is that of domination. Most street groups or persons living under the “street code” do not form their ideologies in the same way. Different groups and persons will struggle in conflict over what they think is right, what the norms are, and their ideologies. The ideas of the ruling class are the ruling ideas, where the ruling material force is the ruling intellectual force. The theory would explain why the very “Code of the Streets” materialized. This is the application of the theory in the micro-level. A conflict arises by reason of ideology, class, race or material possession. Conflicts also arise by reason of respect, ownership of “turfs” or territory or by some distorted version of facts held as absolute truths by opposing groups or persons.

Several factors give rise to the creation of environments where violence is most likely to arise. But to find someone or something to blame is by far the easiest solution to the problem. It never solves anything nor has it ever improved any situation. The real solution still lies within the individual himself. As the saying goes, “to better the world, one must first better himself”.

This essay is about globalization. The good, bad and how it affects the world

Globalization can be highly beneficial for all people by bestowing great fortunes on us by increased trade, spreading of cultures and information and creating choice. Globalization does however have the potential to be so much more. Globalization can perform at a peak if all countries could be involved and not just the majority.

The definition of globalization will be discussed in this essay. The positive sides of globalization will also be discussed without ignoring the negative sides.

Here is the definition of Globalization according to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP):

“Globalization broadly refers to the explosion of global linkages, the organization of social life on a global scale, and the growth of global consciousness, hence the consolidation of world markets” . Here is a definition according to the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC):

“Globalization is about worldwide economic activity – about open markets, competition and the free flow of goods, services, capital and knowledge” .

It is evident that globalization can be thought of differently by different people. The UNDP will see it from their point of view. They will think of how it could enrich and develop the lives of people. In the same way the ICC will see how globalization will benefit people economically. It would be wise to say that globalization can be thought of in many ways but it basically means that companies are treating the world as on one integrated market.

Many anti-globalists are saying that because globalization allows companies to treat the world as one market cultures are being disregarded. It is more realistic to say that globalization promoted the spreading of cultures. Here in South Africa many people support English soccer almost religiously. We eat pizza that originated in Italy. We follow fashion trends set in France. We listen to music sung by American, Canadian, Australian and even Columbian singers. We use computers made in Japan. We eat chocolate made in Switzerland. We chat to people on the Internet who do not even know that South Africa is a country. We watch “Bollywood” movies from Bombay and learn about the Indian culture. This would not be possible without globalization. Phillip LeGrain says, “culture mixing is of essence of twenty-first-century globalization”. This further illustrates that people all over the world can be educated about each other’s cultures and this allows us to become more familiar with one another. We would be more likely to embrace other cultures than shun them. With culture transfer cultural beliefs and morals will also get transferred. In this way human rights can get transferred. People in developing countries can become aware of their rights. By just watching law programmes on television many people can learn about their rights. When I was in primary school a classmate saved his friend’s life when he was not breathing because of a fatal game they were playing. The boy gave his friend mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. When asked where he learnt that he replied, “I watch Baywatch”. It is amazing what can be learnt because of globalization.

Anti-globalists state that globalization will lead to homogenization. This basically means that we will have the same or a similar culture because people around the world buy the same products or eat the same food. The American Forum for Global Education states that, “There are no surveys showing that people are becoming alike. And while some argue that globalization is an ideological process imposing a global culture, others argue that while cultural products flow around the world, people receive, and use them differently” . This shows that there is no proof that cultures are being homogenized. A South African person may enjoy McDonald’s but it will not stop him from also enjoying a boerewors roll. Muslim people can wear Nikes but still wear their traditional wear when they attend mosque. Regardless of the effect of globalization people will still have their languages and religion and is this not what constitutes much of our cultures? The spreading of cultures is a positive aspect that has allowed for all mentioned in the third paragraph of this essay.

In East Asia multi-national corporations like Nike and Levi are exploiting many workers. Anti-globalists protest against this. They have marches, rallies and they sign petitions. They are forgetting one crucial fact. If it were not for globalization they would not even know about the conditions in countries so far away from them.

If a company treats the world as a single market it has to be a big company because it has to have the money to make their products available all over the world and to market their products. These companies are multi-national companies. When they come into countries and they are faced with competition from local companies. In order to overcome this competition companies brand their products. Since these companies come from outside they add choice to consumers in the range of products to buy. Anti-globalists might argue that multi-nationals squash local companies because they cannot compete with the branding campaigns and the limelight that branded products receive. If local companies stay innovative they will not go out of business. People in their countries will always want local products regardless of all the branded products available. Prices of products are dropped because companies have to win over customers and who will respond to a cheaper product. Branding also gives us some assurance that we are getting a quality product. Branded products usually have a guarantee on them. We know that we are not getting quality. Multi-national companies also provide many jobs for people around the world. If you were working for McDonald’s you would probably be earning more than if you were working in a local restaurant. You would also have a more stable job. Since globalization causes an increase in jobs it will help reduce poverty and the standard of living. In the 2002 World Bank Policy research report it states that China, India, Uganda and Vietnam have had a remarkable improvement in poverty reduction. Vietnam has seen a large increase in per capita income since it has integrated itself with the rest of the world. Poverty fell by 40% in Uganda since integration. This shows that globalization can be a positive factor in countries.

Anti-globalists may argue that jobs are being taken away since multi-nationals manufacture their goods in third world countries as labour is cheap. But, that is just factory jobs being taken away. There are still other jobs available in other aspects of a multi-national’s business. Will East Asians work in the retail outlets or locals? There will no East Asians working as secretaries at the headquarters of the companies.

Anti-globalists often say that it is because of globalization that female workers are being exploited in East Asia. Some multi-nationals manufacture their goods in these East Asian countries. Examples of these companies are Nike, Levi and Gap. The majority of workers that work in these factories are underage females. They work up to fifteen-hour shifts. Seung Pov, a Cambodian girl who works in a factory called June Textiles where Nike and Gap clothing are manufactured says: ” Today I have to work overtime until 10 o’clock at night. I begin at 6:15 in the morning and should finish at 2:15 but I have to work right through until 10:15 at night” . These workers are clearly being exploited. Nike, Levi and Gap are huge corporations and can certainly afford to pay workers more. Nike spends nearly double on advertising than on production. This shows that these companies can definitely afford to pay more to workers by just cutting down on advertising. Multi-nationals are definitely in the wrong here, but it is their choice to exploit the workers. It is not all multi-nationals who do this. Some multi-nationals, like de Beers and Anglo-American give away millions of dollars a year for good causes. Anti-globalists should be mad at Nike, Levi and Gap and not be mad at globalization. Globalization is about selling the same products all over the world not about how these products get manufactured.

Globalization embraces increased trading between

nations. Many countries have opened us to imports. “Trade

flows increased by 16-fold in the last 50 years as a result

of the removal of trade barriers. Opening up trade has

helped many countries grow far more quickly than they would

otherwise have done”. This shows that since globalization

started after the second world war trading has increased.

There are not many countries that are able to sustain

themselves so it would be logical to open

up their markets to trade. The more countries trade the

more they can compete with the rest of the world. “As

countries such as China, India and Mexico have opened up,

their

exports have shifted into manufactured products so that they are competing head-to-head with many of the products made in rich countries” These are very positive points. I do not think that anti-globalists can argue with this. With increased trade come increased foreign investments. This brings about information transfer between countries. The transfer of technology, medical advancements and ideologies occur. Capital flow and employment also increases because of foreign investment.

This is true for many countries but some countries are totally left out from the process of globalization. Some countries in Africa, in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and some parts of Asia are being marginalized from the rest of the world. Two billion people in the world have not reaped the benefits of globalization at all. There are six billion people in the world. That means that one third of the world are suffering because of marginalization. Nothing can ever be positive for everyone in the world. It is a pity that everyone cannot benefit from globalization but just because globalization is leaving some people out does not mean that it is will still be positive for many others. Anti-globalists claim that globalziation is bad because small countries become marginalized from the rest of the world because of it. Instead of protesting and rejecting globalization we should rather focus on ways to include these countries. Globalization has done so much good in some countries. “China has grown richer by freeing its economy and opening up to the rest of the world. It has embraced international trade and foreign investment”. “Between 1990 and 1998, the number of Chinese living on less than a dollar a day fell by 150 million. That is the fastest fall in poverty the world has ever seen”. This illustrates that globalization has the ability to induce economic prosperity, increase incomes and reduce poverty. Why should we eradicate globalization when it has the ability to uplift societies?

We all benefit from globalization everyday. No one can say that they would prefer to live without these benefits. It would then be wise to focus on ways that globalization can benefit six billion people and not only four billion.

Higher Education – What is Higher Learning?

What is ‘higher education’? Higher education is the center and key element of all civilization advancements. That is one of the primary definitions that comes to mind when asked about higher education at a university. Another definition about higher learning at a university is for oneself to learn who he or she really is in life. That person is also responsible for forming some kind of lifestyle according to what he or she has grasped onto from the university way of living. Many people also consider as true that a university is a place to receive a proof that he or she is qualified to work in a particular field of study as a professional. Each person should have the right to attend an educational institution seeking their own interpretation of higher learning. There are some people that have the resources, whether it be wealth or academically, to access higher learning at a university, but for those who do not, they have to be content with what they have learned through earlier years of school to succeed in life.

It is important to enlighten a national culture on traditional values that were established in the past may they be good or bad. In Virginia Woolf’s case she was locked out of a male dominated university lifestyle where women were considered unnecessary of attaining knowledge. In her time period, at the University of Oxbridge, Woolf witnessed how only male students were taken seriously about education and even when a young woman tried to enter the library alone she was taken for a ignoramus and sent on her way. A civilization cannot further advance at any kind of distance without researching its misjudgments in the past and correcting them. Woolf’s situation is a prime example in the controversy of teaching the nation about former traditional values. If a person demonstrates that something in the days of yore did not work, then we can benefit from that mistake and construct a more appropriate world to live in.

There are those who also believe in teaching a university curriculum, based on the Great Books approach, is a worthy inspiration. That is not likely supported by Allan Bloom. Bloom believes that a college is in existence for a student to assimilate as much knowledge as conceivable. An exemplary example of Bloom’s opinion is his quote that ‘It is amateurish; it encourages an autodidact’s self-assurance without competence; one cannot read all of the Great Books carefully; if one only reads Great Books, one can never know what a great, as opposed to ordinary, book is;.’ This statement is profoundly true by reason of one person cannot conclude that one object is considered ‘great’ if that person has only been subjected to that manifestation their entire life. The single solitary way that person will have a chance of evaluating what is ‘great’ will be when they have seen every commodity in existence, and even then who are they to judge what is ‘great’ anyhow?

One more illustration of how life at a university should be, is presented to us by John Henry Newman in his essay The Idea of a University. Newman states that university living should include superincumbent collaboration between students and faculty members as well as faculty and students amongst themselves. That is an impressive way of looking at what a university habitat could include. Newman states the quote ‘He is at home in any society, he has common ground with every class;’ to express that there are not any barriers between fellow students, faculty, or anyone at the university to block out their unity. Newman also discloses in his essay that a student should acquire lessons of life such as manners, morals, management, etc. Hopefully, Newman’s philosophy on how life should exist at a university will one day become a reality.

Higher education exists in many forms of definitions in life, but it is a decision that every person that enters a university must make of which interpretation pertains to his or herself. Everyone will approach it in their own way, but it remains to been seen who will flourish into the world as a well-rounded person on their conclusion. The decisions that we make as individuals dictate the lives that we lead in society, so live and learn!

This is an essay on which i used color research to describe why my favorite colors are related to me.

There are many different environmental issues that face the world today; we discussed many of these issues in our Introduction to Environmental Science and Policy class. All environmental problems are different in some way, although many of them have factors in common. For the most part the environmental issues we discussed have to do with the degradation of the environment.

We discussed many different issues throughout the semester. These issues varied from small issues that could be changed through community involvement to large issues that affect the entire world. The solutions brought up for these issues also varied in many different ways.

I think that most of the environmental problems are not all black and white. There isn’t just one right solution to a problem. The fact is that some people do see some proposed solutions as a good course of action, while others don’t. There are also people that don’t see the issues as problems at all. This could be for many reasons. Most people don’t see how the problem affects them so they are unwilling to pay extra money to help. Money or people’s want for money I think is factor that plays a part in almost all of the environmental problems we discussed. Although impossible to achieve, most environmental problems would not exist in such extreme cases if we had an endless supply of money to combat them.

Another factor is that people don’t want to do all the work for the solution of the problem. In most of the environmental issues they don’t have one clear solution; people aren’t going to waste their time trying all the solutions if they don’t see that as the best solution for the problem.

People don’t want to buy the more expensive fluorescent light bulbs over the cheaper regular light bulbs. People would rather spray DDT, instead of the more expensive environmentally safe spray that would need to be sprayed more often. All the high level of radioactive waste would be very expensive to move, especially trying to find a way to get the liquid from one place to the other. People think that drilling in the Artic National Wildlife Refuge would help the United States financially, by offering us oil and many different jobs around the country, therefore don’t see the consequences of the drilling as bad. With environmental racism people are being offered jobs and an inexpensive place to live, to some of these people its worth more then being in an environmentally safe place. The people that live in the communities want the factories so they have a job; it’s normally people that don’t even live in the area that try to get them not to build there. Genetically engineering crops may not be as safe as regularly growing crops but it’s cheaper to grow them, and therefore the supply of the crop goes up, this probably seems like a good option for a developing country.

The book explains all the issues we discussed in a yes no format. The issue is presented with a person that believes it’s a problem and a person that believes it is not a cause for change. Given this I don’t believe that there is one policy we can make that would stop degradation because most people don’t even agree as to what actually is an environmental problem. Even if we could find a way to solve all the current issues, more issues will form, or people will say that the current solution isn’t the best solution.

I don’t believe that we can do just one thing to solve all the environmental issues that the world faces in the present day. I do however believe that the current proposed solutions would be closer to working if everyone worked together to help solve the problems. I believe that a main key to solving environmental problems is cooperation. If everyone realized how important the environment actually is, and that it is going to be as here longer then we are maybe they would be more inclined to help do their part to make it a livable place. We not only have to worry about what it is going to be like for us, but also for our kids and generations to come.

My knowledge of environmental issues before this class was not large. I had learned about the environment in several other classes, but in most of these classes the solution was not part of the discussion. Before this semester I had always thought for the most part that the issue of environmental problems was out of my hands. I thought that no matter what I did the problem is still going to be there.

Thinking back to when I was younger we were always taught that the environment is important and we have to keep it clean and safe. Earth day was big for my grade school; we would go out and pick up garbage in the neighborhood. We were also taught to always reduce reuse and recycle. To help cut back on pollution we were encouraged instead of driving to take the bus or the el, or even to ride a bike.

After doing all this when I was younger and seeing that the problems are still getting worse regardless I didn’t think it was possible for any of my actions to affect the world as a whole. But after this class I realize that if I worked with the people around me as a community it does make a difference, even if it’s not a noticeable one. If everyone worked to help the environment instead of contributing to the problem more people would see that it helps and start doing it too. People need to lead by example or nobody is ever going to see the big picture.

Exemplification Essay: Sueing

Lady Justice, the symbol of our judicial system, holds a sword in one hand and a scale in the other. Across her face she wears a cloth over her eyes. With this she tells everyone that justice is blind to race, religion, sex, or other characteristics related to the worth of the individual. When it comes to taking legal action against somebody, in order to obtain something, also known as suing, Lady Justice is not so respected. The judicial system has let the right to sue got out of hand. There are situations, restrictions, and aftermaths that are not being thought through when giving ability to seek compensation.

Courts have not placed limits on who has the right to sue. There have been cases where that accuser was in the wrong. A perfect example is a New York case where the defendant was ordered to pay the medical bills of the accuser that had fallen though the defendant’s roof. The courts determine that the defendant knew that the roof was weak and should of had it repaired. The defendant was being sued by a man that originally came to rob the defendant’s home. While trying to pry open a window, the robber stepped on the weak spot and fell though. In the fall, the robber sprained his ankle. This case should have never seen the inside of a courtroom. In this situation the accuser was committing an illegal act and this wasn’t taken in to consideration because the thief did not steal anything due to the injury. Even though, probable cause may have existed.

You have seen the commercials before, “Wrongful death, your children born with a mental defect, call my law office and will get you the money you deserve.” Nine out ten medical lawsuits the condition was uncontrollable, meaning no one is to blame. That doesn’t stop the millions of lawsuits against doctors. There are no laws setting the boundaries of what medical condition is worthy to receive reparation. Currently the manufactures of prescription drug Vixxo are being sued for wrongful deaths and pain and Exemplification Essay Eujenee Wilson suffering. Patients are claiming that the medicine caused heart attacks and strokes. Some are ligament cases, while many are not. Numerous patients had strokes and heart attacks before they started taking the medicine. But these same patients will try to get free money by blaming the company for something they already had. Rules are needed to establish when someone can qualify to be included and excluded in situations like this.

Not all lawsuits are uncalled for. A little girl trips down the stairs at school. It obvious that it was the school holds responsibility because they did not replace the slip free grid on the stairs. In the accident, the little girl breaks her arm and fractures her left leg. The school pays all expenses without hesitation, but the little girl’s family still wants some pain and suffering reimbursement. This is completely understandable. The part that is not so logical is when the child obtains 5.2 million dollars as a settlement. The judicial system has a time structure for crimes, such as murder and forgery. If convicted for murder the sentence starts at 25 years to life; and for forgery, one to six years plus fines. There should be the same structure for the amount of money you can collect. This would help control the after affect that happens with cases such as this. After the child is rewarded not only does the school suffer but also the students and staff. Now there is no money for new books or funds for school field trips. The little girl can afford to go to privet school now so her family doesn’t see the aftermath of their settlement.

If more laws were passed to address issues like the above examples, the judicial system would be more organized. Suing someone wouldn’t be so easy anymore. Hopefully, discourage the unwarranted cases from the necessary legal actions. Lady Justice would be respected in all legal proceedings.

Persuasive Essay on Overpopulation

Overpopulation

Overpopulation is becoming one of the most preeminent problems

facing human civilization. This complicated, pervasive issue will come to be

a problem of the utmost importance for people of all races, religions, and

nationalities.

Our planet now provides for approximately 5.8 billion people, with

projections of around 10 billion by the year 2050. Two billion of these are

extremely poor, the poorest of which live in absolute poverty and misery.

One very serious effect of the population explosion is its detrimental

effects on the global environment. Increasing amounts of food, energy,

water, and shelter are required to fulfill the needs of human society. Much

of our energy is derived from the burning of fossil fuels-releasing millions

of metric tons of toxins into the atmosphere annually. The amount of land

required for food production will grow increasingly larger, while the amount

of available land will grow increasingly smaller.

The affects of overpopulation on human society are many. Suffering

from a lack of resources, people are often driven to war when they become

too numerous for their available resources. Ethnic and racial differences will

grow increasingly frequent and unresolvable. Increasing numbers in urban

areas will lower quality of life in cities around the world.

The precipitators of this complex issue are unlimited. Factors such

as poverty, food distribution, and government corruption are all important

aspects. No one will be unaffected by the repercussions of an

overpopulated world. This highly sensitive and complex issue demands the

attention of all who reside upon this planet, particularly those who have the

ability to work for change.

An Essay on Higher Education

This paper explores trends in higher education in terms of Max Weber’s theory of rationalization. It is Weber’s contention that there are four basic motivators for human behavior. People are motivated by custom or tradition, by emotions, by religious or ethical values, and by rational goal oriented behavior (which Weber calls “zweckrational”). All human behavior, Weber claims, is motivated by various combinations of these four basic factors.

Weber’s thesis is that bureaucracies increasingly centralize and broaden their scope in advanced industrial societies. Bureaucracies are human organizations specifically designed for the efficient achievement of short-term rational goals. As societies become more bureaucratic, Weber states, goal oriented rational behavior becomes dominant in guiding our actions–at the expense of traditions, emotions, and values. It becomes a habit of thought, a way of interpreting our world. This trend is called the “rationalization” process.

The final factor that should be understood in Weber’s theory of rationalization is the phenomenon of the “irrationality factor.” Just because an action is rational in terms of fulfillment of a short-term goal, Weber asserts, does not mean it is rational in terms of the whole society. It often happens, he writes, that an excessive focus on short-term goals undermines the very goals of both the society and the bureaucracies themselves.

In the past, higher education was seldom as bureaucratically organized as corporate and government institutions. This was mainly due to European traditions and the fact that universities are very dependent upon a large number of highly educated professionals who used their numbers and expertise to demand a voice in university governance. This, however, is beginning to change.

Internal Efficiency

There are several rationalizing trends at American universities that can be considered to be home grown–internal to the university, mirroring the more goal oriented norms of measurement, coordination, and efficiency that increasingly dominate society as a whole. They arise internally to meet the needs of higher education institutions themselves–the need to increase productivity and efficiency because of tightening budgets. Universities can no longer expect significant increases in state funding and therefore further rationalize their organization by controlling instructional costs, tightening coordination, cutting programs with few majors, and raising tuition and fees. This list would include:

The tightening of coordination as evidenced by the rise of continuous evaluation of faculty through measures of student performance, student opinion surveys, and monitoring professor performance in the classroom. These reviews are conducted for purposes of merit, promotion and tenure. This change in monitoring is part of the increase in educational bureaucracy, and part no doubt is due to the general tightening of coordination and control exhibited throughout society in order to assure continuing productivity of the workforce. We no longer assume that professionals will perform unless monitored. Most recently the tenure process has come under increasing review. One proposal calls for a “post-tenure” review process–other proposals are to scrap the tenure process itself.

The standardization of course content. Some of this was accomplished through the widespread use of textbooks, but the move to standardize the curriculum comes from many modern sources–accrediting boards, state agencies, federal mandates as well as universities themselves. Most of this standardization is undertaken to promote quality and comparability across universities–apparently faculty are no longer qualified to decide on their own course content, students can no longer survive a “bad” professor, and ease of transferring credit between institutions has become a major goal of the university;

The growth in the power and influence of central administration. An increasing share of resources that go toward administrative costs demonstrates this. As the sheer size of faculty, student body, and physical plant of the university grows, the division of labor at the university increases, so to do the mechanism of coordination and control enlarge and centralize. It is also evidenced by the frequent end runs around university governing boards (faculty governance organizations and academic curriculum committees) in order to more efficiently achieve the goals of the institution itself. A university can be far more efficient without debate, discussion or the need to compromise.

The rise of professional educators in administration–instead of the more traditional administrators who came through the ranks in a variety of disciplines. Riesman (1980) indicates that most college and university presidents came invariably from the ranks and had a Ph.D. degree–doctorates of Education, he reports, were extremely rare (p. 1). Today almost 22 percent of college presidents hold the Ed.D. as their highest degree, fully 42 percent of all university presidents come from the field of education (The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1998, p. 30). It seems that holding a specialized degree in educational administration (or some related field) is rapidly becoming the credential needed for higher academic administration.

The increased use of adjunct professors (contingency workers who are even more exploited than the ones in corporate America) and graduate students (who are even more exploited than adjuncts) to teach undergraduate courses (Barkume, 1998). The percent of faculty who are part time has increased from 30 percent in 1975 to 41 percent in 1995 (The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1998, p. 29). This of course increases the bottom line.

Increasing class sizes (Barkume 1998). While I could only find passing reference to this phenomena, it is consistent with my own teaching experience and the personal experiences of my colleagues at other universities. By increasing class size, of course, the faculty become more productive in terms of generating credit hours. They also tend to rely more on multiple-choice tests and other bureaucratic instruments to manage these larger classes.

The use of technology to extend the reach of professors through the Internet, computer classrooms and labs. This refers to the growing use of “alternative delivery systems” (a term I picked up in Australia–we are not alone). Plans in Kentucky call for the establishment of the “Commonwealth Virtual University (CVU)” in which courses are taught entirely through alternative delivery systems. Courses will be conducted through public television, the web, videotape, the use of closed circuit TV classrooms to wire the campus class to other sites in the region, or simply through the mail.

These cost-cutting trends—-adjuncts and temporary faculty, web technology, and larger classes–increase the rationalization of education and tend to limit the professional wage component, (and the power of that component) and increase the “profitability” of the university.

Market Efficiency

Universities have recently proliferated in size and scope. It is readily apparent to anyone who has worked in higher education over the last 30 years that things are rapidly changing. There are a number of trends in American university education that are caused by broader social and cultural rationalization–by attempts on the part of universities to more efficiently meet the needs of advanced industrial-bureaucratic society. The list begins:

An increasing focus on numbers of students–the health of a university (as the health of a corporation) is increasingly measured by growth or, at the very least, maintaining market share. David Riesman (1980), a sociologist and advocate of educational reform through his work with the Carnegie Foundation, identifies the “student as consumer” as a primary cause of recent changes in American higher education. In response to the baby boom, both public and private American universities and colleges expanded and overbuilt during the 1960s and 70s. These same institutions are now desperate for warm bodies. Riesman attempts to look at the consequences of this competition for body counts–finding that it has impact in far ranging areas of the university as well as the society as a whole. One indicator of this vigorous recruitment of students is the growth in the percentage of high school graduates (age 18 to 24 years old) that attend college. This number has gone from 34.3 percent in 1986 to 43.5 percent in 1996 (The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1998, p. 19). Though because the pool of 18 to 24 yer olds is declining, colleges must widen their net.

Individuals and institutions increasingly focus on higher education almost exclusively as a means of occupational training for the individual (and nothing more). In doing this college students are responding to some real market conditions. Mark Mittelhauser (1998) writes of the occupational reality that recent and future graduates will have to face. “This labor market dilemma for college graduates is not new. In fact, it has existed for more than a decade and is expected to continue. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), there were about 250,000 more college graduates entering the labor force each year between 1986 and 1996 than there were new college-level jobs. This number represents about 1 in 5 of the college-educated entrants to the workforce” (p. 3). People increasingly go to college, Mittelhauser reports, because the labor market favors college graduates–they earn more, suffer lower unemployment than those with a high school diploma (2.4 percent unemployment for college graduates in 1996, less than half the 5.7 percent unemployment rate for high school graduates in the same year). In addition, major occupations that require college-level applicants are growing faster than jobs in the economy as a whole. Part of this is due to the changing nature of the economy. Part of it is also due to educational upgrading of many existing jobs (often simple “credentialization,” not a significant change in responsibilities or pay).

The bulk of the jobs available for the college graduate are “professional specialty occupations” (such jobs as engineer, registered nurse, lawyer, teacher, and social worker)–the largest and fastest growing of college level jobs. The second largest category is “executive, administrative and managerial occupations.” Together these two broad groups account for over two-thirds of college level employment in the United States (Mittelhauser, 1998). People increasingly go to college for the credentials to get these jobs.

The fact that many are flocking to college for credentials needed for the job market is evidenced by surveys of incoming freshmen in the fall of 1997. Reasons noted as very important in deciding to go to college: 74.5 percent indicated “To be able to get a better job” (the highest of any single category). The second highest percentage–74.3 percent–indicated “To learn more about things that interest me,”–which is not consistent with the career orientation (as Weber pointed out, human behavior is motivated by a mix of motivations). But the third most widely given reason was, “To make more money” (73 percent), which fits the career orientation pattern perfectly (Chronicle of Higher Education, 1998, p. 22).

This personal vocational focus is supplemented and encouraged by a political system that constantly promotes higher education as a means of economic development; an economic system that demands that higher education subsidize their training costs; and a campus system that increasingly follows these corporate and government priorities. Colleges and universities are rapidly becoming worker-training centers for the bureaucratic-industrial state–selecting, sorting, and training future workers for industrial-bureaucratic society. This vocational focus and the attempt to maintain or increase student numbers in a declining pool of applicants causes the following:

One of the most obvious consequences of marketing to students is the proliferation of professional and semi-professional degrees. This is accompanied by the precipitous decline of the liberal arts as a viable major, particularly in the fields of philosophy, English and the social studies–the bulk of the traditional disciplines that used to define university education itself. (The natural sciences, being far more amenable to career and practical application, have not suffered from these same declines.) Majors in college do not just teach a list of skills and general factual knowledge. More importantly they socialize students into the values, ideologies, and interests of the discipline (this is true of any discipline, though I would argue that the liberal arts tend to instill broader values and ideologies than do professional fields). For too many students, the liberal arts and humanities that they may be exposed to in their core courses are nonessential, to be tolerated (to varying degrees) and subordinate to their occupational major. When professors in the humanities and social studies critique society they are often teaching to students who already have a vested interest in the status quo, junior doctors, business people, social workers. This makes students much less playful, less willing to experiment with new ideas–it also goes a long way toward explaining why undergraduates no longer have a unique subculture.

The proliferation in the number and power of professional and occupational accrediting boards–these organizations often dictate both courses and course content to the faculty. This trend is a mix of standardization to both insure minimum quality and “relevance” of the educational program for student consumers, and self-interest on the part of occupational groups to restrict access and enhance the employment within the profession as well as within academe itself;

The move to increase the clientele of the university by marketing to “nontraditional” students (age 25+). Many older students need to “retool” for the ever-changing economy. This particular marketing strategy is part of the greater career focus of the university as a whole. The age of students enrolled in college has climbed markedly in recent years. Today, over 42 percent of all college students are 25 years or older (The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1998, p. 18).

The attempt to increase the number of foreign students through programs on campus that bring students from their home countries to the US campus, or in locating satellite campuses overseas. Again, this is an attempt to expand the number of students in the institution. Many have written of universities overselling in foreign markets to the detriment of the students themselves (Riesman, 1980: pp. 218-224).

The increase of resources devoted to responding to federal and state “requests” for data to insure “accountability.” This, Riesman suggests, is often done in the name of consumer protection. (If left to their own devices, apparently, colleges and universities would all become degree mills–selling credentials to those that could afford them.)

The increase of resources devoted to marketing the university to students in order to maintain student numbers or to grow in numbers. And the costs of student marketing are rising. Riesman (1980) points out that the escalation of marketing strategy was based on the irrational belief that other institutions would not follow the same strategies to increase their enrollment–thus canceling out any temporary gains in the number of students–though rendering the recruitment process far more expensive. Riesman then gives a classic example of the irrationality factor. “Each director of admissions thinks his or her stratagem is unique, failing to realize that a hundred others, no less hungry and intelligent, will think of the identical devices” (p. 113). The high-stakes costs of recruiting students has to be borne by students–either in the form of increased tuition, larger class size, inadequate library or computer support, or ignoring maintenance of university facilities (Riesman, 1980).

All of these changes (and others) can be directly related to increasing industrialization, a consequent increase in the division of labor, and the growing function of colleges and universities in training that labor. But there is still a little more, there is the “irrationality factor,” the effect of all of these changes on the educational “product” and the society itself.

The Irrationality Factor

In campus offices and in the hallways of professional meetings (where most of the real discussion takes place) professors will complain about students. We complain of students who are not conversant with their culture; students who are often overtly hostile toward the arts, humanities, and the social studies; students who are indifferent toward politics and the governance of their society; students who’s only interest (and value) seems to be pursuing a comfortable career. Some of this talk, no doubt, is a look back (with heavy doses of nostalgia) to the days when we were undergraduates–when we were going through the “most exciting time of our lives.” But by marketing to student wants, in the form of watered down core requirements and an emphasis on vocational education, institutions do not always give students what they need:

The general decline in standards at many universities. Evidence of this decline comes out in report after report. A Department of Education study in 1993 indicated that over half of American college graduates could not read a bus schedule. “Exactly 56.3 percent were unable to figure out how much change they should get after putting down $3 to pay for a 60-cent bowl of soup and a $1.95 sandwich” (Leo, 1997; p. 14). Manno (1995) reports that “We’re ‘dumbing down’ the curriculum and descending into ever lower levels of remediation. A 1992 analysis of college transcripts of recent bachelor’s degree recipients showed that slightly over 26 percent of the recipients had not earned undergraduate credit in history and almost 31 percent had not studied mathematics of any kind” (Manno, 1995: p. 48).

Remedial courses are offered in 91 percent of our public colleges, and in 58 percent of our private colleges. Some 23 percent of colleges award degree credit for remedial courses. Almost all colleges allow remedial students to take college-level credit at the same time (Manno, 1995). Manno goes on to ask: “Can it be true that large numbers of students unable to do serious college-level work in reading, writing, and mathematics are able to do serious college-level work in history or business?” (Manno, 1995: p. 48). Open admissions, Manno claims, sends the wrong message to high schools and their students. No admission standards in college lead to no exit standards in the high schools.

Both Riesman (1980) and Manno (1995) relate the decline in standards to university-student market relationships. With institutions competing ‘frantically’ with each other for students “…faculty members and administrators will hesitate to make demands on students in the form of rigorous academic requirements for fear of losing ‘FTE’s–full-time equivalent students” (Riesman, 1980: p. xiv). The erosion of the core curriculum–the number and quality of courses often designated as “general education” or “distribution requirements” that are aimed at educating the whole person–evidences this same decline in standards and rigor. Riesman (1980) again relates the decline of the core to the student market–”since any requirement is likely to turn away prospects” (p. 108).

Another factor behind the decline of general standards and of the core is the “disintegration” (in Durkheim’s sense) of broadly subscribed cultural norms, values and ideologies. There has been an increase in specialization at universities. This has led to multiple disciplines and “special” interests in campus debates about university standards. Finally there have been a number of academic movements–postmodernism in particular–which are hostile to the entire humanistic and scientific tradition of the West. Postmodernism emphasizes such themes as subjectivism and relativism; it rejects notions of objectivity, truth, and the validity of the scientific enterprise–all, they claim, is rooted in the observer himself, in his class, race, and resulting ideology (Harris, 1995). Consequently, it is now very difficult to get professors to agree about what should constitute a common core, difficult to get them to agree what forms of ignorance are unacceptable–what every student must know.

But there is another side of the issue of declining standards. A full answer to the question “why?” should discuss the types of workers “needed” by industrial-bureaucratic societies. That those on top of these bureaucratic hierarchies are in need of a broad-based traditional liberal arts curriculum could easily be argued. In an advanced industrial society that need may be as high as 15 to 20 percent–a figure that our best private and public colleges can supply. But it is difficult to make the same argument for the millions of technical specialists, semi-professionals and middle managers that the private and public universities annually produce. If we assume that most of these are destined to serve in the middle levels of bureaucracy, or, at best, as professionals dependent upon both public and private bureaucracies, it could be argued that the old liberal arts disciplines are counter to these bureaucratic needs. Critical thinking (which I would define in terms of Weber’s concept of wertrational –the ability to exercise rationality within a holistic context) is not in high demand in such positions. To have a middle level manager competent in critical thinking (as opposed to problem solving in their specialty), one that is constantly asking “why?” or “should we?” instead of executing the decisions from on high would impede the efficient operation of the bureaucracy itself. Of course, while technical expertise is very rational in terms of efficient bureaucratic structure, such narrowing of education is counter to both the traditional view of an educated person and to the needs of a democratic society (as well as, ultimately, counter to the needs of the bureaucracy itself).

What is to be Done?

In the critical analysis of social institutions the “what is to be done?” question always comes up. It seems to me that there are a few things that true believers in the values of the Liberal Arts (humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and the fine arts) can do. The list below represents only a beginning:

* Organize. We can no longer assume that the interests of the university coincide with the interests of the liberal arts. We must do our best to organize our interests within the university–active representation on curriculum committees, faculty senate organizations, and unions. Our values and interests must have active representation in all university governance structures. The liberal arts are too often fractured–both within and between colleges. It is only through organization that the liberal arts can have a clear voice in the university.

* Accreditate. Universities respond to accreditation agencies. The traditonal liberal arts disciplines, perhaps through their respective professional organizations, should develop accreditation standards for undergraduate general education programs as well as specific accreditation standards for the individual liberal arts disciplines.

* Unite. We are fractured now, there is little systematic effort at promoting the values of the liberal arts. The widespread adoption of a general liberal arts program of study could serve as an alternative to the rampant specialization in our culture. This need not replace traditional liberal arts majors but could serve as a focal point for advertising and marketing the writing and analytical skills we develop in our students to the wider society.

* Teach. We should put real focus (and reward) on undergraduate teaching, as well as scholarship and service that bring the values, perspectives, and methods of our disciplines to a broader audience.

We live in a society dominated by organization. Without organization, we are rapidly being structured out of the university and the broader society. This is to the detriment of a free democratic society; detrimental to the culture itself. We must act.

Critical essay on the personality test theory and how different issues helped us to understand the human mind.

In our study of psychology, we have applied different types of skills in our tasks. Among the different types of skills are communication, critical, mathematical, small group perception, global perspectives, societal perspectives, personal wellness, information skills, scientific views and large group perceptions. All these skills has been vital to our understanding of psychology since it combines different perspectives and facts.

On the personality test we rated the best colors that suit us and used some mathematical skills by adding up scores to determine our primary, secondary, third and last color. This test helped us to realize the color that best described certain characteristics like our abilities, thereby increasing our personal wellness.

The second is the Validation essay. This essay required us to validate whether our true color best described our behavior. The essay also demanded our critique skills about different colors and other personalities. It also brought out our communication skills out sine we had to reveal ourselves through the way we approached the task. The validation essay also gave us the opportunity to explore other global perspective or views that different kinds of people had concerning a particular color.

The third is the small group perception. This activity of determining and agreeing on what we say on the screen allowed us to explore both our communicative skills and our critical thinking, since we had to observe carefully and describe what we saw on the screen.

The lectures and large group tasks also helps to bring out our communicative skills because students have to respond to what their classmates says. We also make suggestions and thereby we use our critical thinking skill. Through this large group participation, we are able to recognize societal perspective on topics like, prejudice, colors and thinking. The large class participation also helps us to get different global views of diversity. These all contribute to our personal wellness since we are able to learn more, interact and cooperate.

The comparison of attribution essay also deals with our critical thinking since we are required to analyze and compare attributions to the poem. it also brings out societal perspectives on issues like what we often associate with poor people and the error we are subjected to. Through this essay we also explore historical perspectives, like how various people view African Americans in general.

The prejudice essay also brings out information and historical perspectives of groups that have been discriminated against as a result of prejudice. The poem ?On becoming Afro American? shows how these prejudice led to low self esteem among black or colored people. The essay also used some societal perspective on what the causes of prejudice was. An example is legislation.

The Unit 1 test also tested how well we were able to process information and apply it in our elimination process during the multiple choice questions. It also tested our knowledge on history, society and many other topics we studied.

The comparison of friendship essay, also investigates our communications skills since we had to use proper language to convey our ideas. It also used our historical perspective of what friends are mainly for. Our societal views about friendship as well as our analytical or critical thinking was also revealed.

The power of Situations video combined scientific perspective of how information travels through the brain and how we react to serious situations like flying a plane and trying to read something important which if not carefully read would cause a calamity. It also broadened our mind about why good people may act horrible in certain situations.

Global Warming (argumentative essay)

”We live in an island” and island so big that its recourses are enormous. But what if this island has limited recourses. Do we have another island to escape to? We are trapped in an island called ‘Earth’ with its natural environment threatened by our own results. Global warming is a major fact.

What is global warming? It is simply the warmer air getting trapped within our sky limit and in return warms the whole environment. According to several leading scientists global warming can be compared and contrasted in the following manner. For some it causes a change in the climate and environment but for others it’s a total hoax.

“Richard Alley discovered something 10 years ago that made him worry the Earth’s climate could suddenly shift, and it changed his life. It was a two-mile long ice core, pulled up from the center of Greenland. It contained bubbles of air that reveal what the Earth’s atmosphere was like over a period of 100,000 years. The ice core showed that at one point, in as little as 10 years, the global climate had drastically changed. Soon after that discovery, climate change became a personal crusade for Alley.” Richard Alley, Penn State University Glaciologist

Another article that was published was from the famous Climatologist John Christy : “It has been to analyze millions of measurements from weather satellites, looking for a global temperature trend. He’s found almost no sign of global warming in

the satellite data, and is confident that forecasts of warming up to 10 degrees in the next century are wrong.” University of Alabama in Huntsville

“Amazon Forest Growth Puzzles Scientists : March 10, 2004 * Forests in a remote part of the Amazon are suddenly growing like teenagers in a growth spurt. This shouldn’t be happening in old, mature forests. Scientists think it might be caused by the extra carbon dioxide humans are putting in the air. As a result, some species are getting pushed out and others are taking over — evidence that no place on Earth is too remote to be changed by human activity.” NPR’s Christopher Joyce reports.

Above were some of the articles that made me look back at the major topics discussed in the last decade. Could this be happening to our planet earth will the earth itself change in climate drastically? What will happen to the living creatures? Can they survive? The answers are yet to be found. Some are as scary as they can come. Countries and island would get flooded due to melting of glaciers.

What causes Global warming? Is it the burning of petroleum that increases this? Or is it due to our existence on this planet? Is it the ingredients of the soup, everything that we do cause it to warm little by little? All of the major science heads need to sit down at one table and discuss these contrasting ideas and come up with an answer that we could live by.

The essay is about the behaviors of students in the classroom which bothers me very much.

Student’s Behavior: Red Alert.

There is a single place in this country I despise but for Heaven’s sake, I have to be there almost every day, the classroom. Eager to learn as I am, the sight of the classroom makes me green and sick to my stomach. I feel nothing but outrage, nausea, and irritating discomfort in the classroom. The reason for all of this madness and uneasiness is the improper and crude behavior of my fellow students in the classroom toward the teacher, which is totally deplorable. American youngsters today seem to be blatantly rude, reckless and discourteous not only at school but also in public.

The biggest thorn in my eyes is the way that people attend class. Sometimes, to me, the classroom is like a street market. People can come at any time they want or leave at anytime they please. Some are devouring their quick dinner as if they were starving to death as the teacher giving his lecture. Some sit as if they were models whose pictures are being taken by photographers either with their feet resting on the table or leaning listlessly, or should I say, fully stretching out on the filthy little table. Worse, were Gianni Versace rejuvenated and present there, he would be dumbfounded at the way people dress, which is abysmally “fashionable”. Some dress as multicolored as the Scarlet Macaw Parrot. Psychedelic ones wear steel chain on their wrist and show tattoos on their torso as their Heavy Metal idols. Yet, in my opinion, the most magnificent punks are those who turn the classroom into a Victoria’s Secret show. People certainly cannot dress like that in the office, so why are they allowed to thus dress in the classroom? Am I too archaic or too conservative toward the way people dress or is it because youngsters today have lost all the formal taste for fashion?

Another fact-that bothers me is the way those fools study. They never do their assignments; yet, they expect to pass the class. And when the teacher asks them if they’ve done their assignments yet, I wonder where do they pull out the guts to be able to reply curtly, “NO!” which show total disrespect and utter impertinence toward the teacher. And when the time of examination comes, they try to “bargain” the teacher to give them the easier test or ask for all kinds of help. They are the best in keeping all the tutors down the assistance center busy and they are also the reasons for hundred of adrenaline rushes into my blood since I cannot control myself when I hear all kinds of stupid, brainless, and silly questions they ask during the review session. I wouldn’t blame my overwhelming and almost uncontrollable joy as I see a big huge D on their test paper.

Alike contagious disease, rudeness has no boundary; it spreads from the classroom to the public. No wonder why, months ago, Bob Dart of the Cox Newspaper ran a burning title, “Land of the mean, home of the rage” as to regard to the rudeness of Americans. I couldn’t agree more. Their surveys have showed that: 60% driver answered that they have usually encountered wild and thoughtless motorists, 73% replied that public relationship was more respectful and polite than it is today, 62% admitted that they felt greatly disturbed and offended to witness crass and coarse conduct. Mockingly, 44% of those who participated in the survey confessed themselves to have been boorish toward others in the past. Obviously, there will be 18% of these people who misbehaved in public, yet they felt affronted when seeing misconduct. That well demonstrates a don’t-give-a-damn attitude of this society.

So who bears the responsibility for the wide-spread of such wretched behaviors? I would like to first censure the government since they are heavily responsible in this issue. First off, they need to have a tighter grip on explicit music and TV shows. Though they have stick the decal, “Parental Advisory: Explicit Content” on the outside of a Rap record or heavy metal which contains vulgar, obscene and violent content, they really need to set the age limit for purchasing of these CDs and control it as strictly as they have done toward nicotine product and alcohol. A sixteen-year-old like me can go to a store to buy an album like, “The Eminem Show” without being asked for an ID. Also, TV show has been getting “realer” and “realer” with explicit, licentious and stupid show. How childish it is to replace a long “beeeep” with an F word, or to use a blurry dot to hide a middle finger because it made no difference. Such things must be restricted because who knows whether kids are watching these shows or not; or at least, one needs to buy or enters some specific statement to prove his or her eligibility of being old enough to watch such programs.

Part of the answer of why it is getting so bad has already been partly answered in the article-”Sleep habit leaves Americans tubby, grouchy.” As sleep deprived, the more workaholic of a nation we become since the reason for that lack of sleep is all for work’s sake: long drive to work, waking up early in the morning to beat the traffic, over time work, and all other kinds. The America is now ahead of Japan and now is “honored” to become the most workaholic nation on the globe. Thrust in the fact that Americans have the fewest holidays as well as no national health insurance, which Europeans have enjoyed for years, the situation seems to be exacerbated. It’s no wonder that Americans are “fraying at the seams of nearly all segments of their society.” So much time at work enlarges the generation gap between parents and child. The parents tend to lose control over their children and on the other hand, the children, who are free from all rules and disciplines, will get wild and naughty.

The teachers themselves also share a burden of the fault. To tell you the truth, teachers in the America are the most adorable beings on this planet. They are erudite (well, most of them are), kind, devoted and easy-going. I had a very lovely teacher in **, who taught me Anatomy. Every time I asked, “Mrs. Sorensen, could you help me?” She always answered with a pleasant, “Yes, sir.” Not only she, but many teachers also call us with a title. They always show respect to the students; yet, the students show lack of courtesy toward the teachers and some of them start exploiting the kindness of the teachers. Teaches in the America have failed to draw the limit line between themselves and the students. They need to be a lot stricter. For instance, the teacher should ask the student to get out of the class if he or she fails to come on time or fails to act positively in the classroom. The teacher should post a notice, “I RESERVE A RIGHT TO REFUSE TO TEACH ANYONE” on the back of the syllabus. That’s right!! While the bus driver is able to ask a malodorous homeless guy to leave the bus, why can’t the teacher refuse to accept “rotten” behavior in the classroom? Teachers should kick out all the idiots and save the studying for those who deserve to. Teachers of the student’s mind they are, they also need to be an instructor of their soul. It may seem a bit extravagant to say that but it is really important to shape a good person before one shapes a worker, a lawyer or a doctor.

I am inclined to think that one’s education has been in vain if one fails to learn the very first lesson to be courteous toward others. Education draws a strict line between a human beings and a wild beast. The tiger, who nature teaches him to delight in shedding blood, needs but the organs of smelling to know when his prey is within his reach and by following this instinct he is enabled to measure the leap necessary to enable him to spring on his victims. On the other hand, man, who education teaches him to loathe the idea of such “uncivilized” and “crude” action, must always act consciously. Ergo, one who does not know how to act appropriately toward others fails to bear the title “human beings.”

This is a basic case study about urban problems in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Problems described are prostitution drugs and traffic.

Urban problems in Amsterdam

Introduction:Amsterdam, a city of exquisite beauty and unimaginably rare cultural items & artifacts. That’s how we all know Amsterdam to be, that is what one call’s a stereotype. Unfortunately, the truth is far from this. In fact, there are quite a few extremely severe urban problems there. The reason why I chose Amsterdam as the target city of my essay is my sincere interest in this city. I have always been fascinated by the rich culture of Amsterdam… But I could never have imagined that a city of this status could have so many problems. This essay will describe the major problems, and also give some slight advices and theories on how to improve the condition of this magnificent city.

Evidence:Since Amsterdam is such a big city, the crime rates are quite high. No wonder, if you consider how much money is exchanged in the form of art and jewelry! The largest diamond in the world has been cut there, Rembrandt’s paintings have been sold & painted there, in other words, it is a rogue’s heaven… Not to mention that Amsterdam is one of Europe’s most important and largest port cities. And one form of organized crime which goes with sailor’s all around the world, is prostitution, though prostitution is perfectly legal in Holland. Probably due to this Amsterdam is very famous (or infamous) for its Red Light Districts. Also drugs are a major problem there, as some of the drug addicts might just die in the middle of the street due to over dosage in broad daylight, even though Marijuana is the only “legal” drug in Netherlands… Here’s some statistics about the problems;

* 80,000 – 100,000 unemployed

* 18,000+ illegal immigrants

* 3,000+ homeless

* 7,000 drug addicts of which some 2,000 live on the streets.

* 8,000 prostitutes of which 80% operate in Amsterdam’s central red-light district.

* Increasing incidence of violent and racist crime.

Also, since Amsterdam is so densely populated city, the traffic jams there are becoming a major problem quickly. It would be such a shame if all the fine 17th century buildings and streets would end up being corroded by the acid rains. Naturally for a city of such importance, Amsterdam is one of Netherlands most famous tourist attractions. Of course the harbor shouldn’t be forgotten, and due to the harbor a major part of Amsterdam’s population consists of immigrants. In 1994, 41% of Amsterdam’s population consisted of immigrants. Immigrants, in this case refer to the people living in Amsterdam, but who do not posses a Dutch nationality.

Of all the problems, the drugs are the most severe one. The drug lords and addicts are always finding new ways to get “high”. The latest trend & problem in Amsterdam is that drug addicts lick the backs of a special toad breed. The South American giant cane toad produces a white milky substance from behind its eyes, this liquid when licked gives ten times stronger hallucinations than LSD. Enough about the problems, now it is time for solutions.

Analysis:Problem number 1, the drug addicts:. Well the drug problem has already gotten out of hands, and there is very little anyone can do to stop people from using them. But then, if you can’t make people stop using the drugs, make it as hard as just possible. The toad issue is probably by far the easiest to handle, as it’s such a new trend. The Dutch government could ban the selling, or even importing of these animals. Of course this wouldn’t stop these drug addicts from obtaining these toads, as they would just simply be smuggled into the country. But that would naturally also increase the price, and the quantities would be quite small. So that would most certainly lower the number of “toad lickers” in Amsterdam, as the price and accessibility of the toads would become much less “user” friendly. As for rest of the drug’s and users, only real thing that you can do is to increase the number of law enforcement officers. To make the job seem more pleasurable, the government and police forces should do some work together, like raise the pay of police officers and the working conditions. Problem number 2, the massive traffic congestions: The government has already tried to decrease the amount of traffic, but so far these attempts have more or less failed. One method was to persuade the people to use bicycles instead of cars. A decent idea, though unsuccessful which didn’t really work after all. This just caused traffic of bikes. Also this caused much more danger to pedestrians than cars, as bikes and pedestrians are somewhat forced to use the same sidewalks. My personal idea is that the government should increase the number and quality of public transportation, and naturally minimize the price of the tickets. This would naturally attract customers of all age groups. Also if the government would wish to attract even more customers for public transport, building separate bus lanes all over the city would hasten the movement of buses. This of course would mean that moving with public transport would be far quicker than with an own car. Problem number 3, prostitution: Well this probably only one of these problems that is not really that harmful. Naturally it gives the city a bad reputation, and is considered by some a way of organized crime. But what can you really do, when the prostitution industry has already become one of Amsterdam’s land marks, and without a doubt, one of the most famous tourist attractions? Well one thing the government could easily organize, they should make a separate red light district, which would be the only area in the city where prostitution would be allowed. To some extent, this has already been done, except that only 80% of the prostitutes work in the central red light district. There isn’t really much anyone can do about this problem, it is even harder to control than the drug problem, though not as severe of a problem.

Conclusion:Reading this document has made me realize, that these problems do not seem that terrible. The old culture & history of Amsterdam will still stay the same, even if the city’s younger people do become drug addicts or so. When you look at Amsterdam, and compare it to rest of its neighboring major cities, it is somewhat unique. There aren’t that many as culturally rich cities in the whole Europe as Amsterdam is. That is probably the reason why we consider Amsterdam so weird, it is after all a totally different city from rest of Europe.