Descriptive Essay Example

Exemplification Essay on ways to relieve stress.

Are you stressed out? Well, you are not alone. We all experience stress and have different ways of dealing with it. Many of us use physical activities such as sports, athletics, or exercise to cop with stress. Others seek recreational activities such as going to the movies, to dinner, concerts, or other forms of entertainment. If you have tried any of these examples and are still stressed out, then I have the perfect thing for you. My ten simple skills for quick effective stress relief:

#1. Learn to relax. While this may sound almost too simple to believe, go ahead and give it careful practice. Relaxation benefits not only your physical condition, but your mental and emotional states as well.

#2. Fight the stress. Eating a balanced diet keeps us feeling fit. Every day you should eat a variety of foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads, cereal, lean meats, fish, poultry, and low- fat dairy products. Avoid excessive sugar, salt, fat, caffeine, alcohol, and crash or fad diets. The food pyramid is an excellent source for healthy eating.

#3. Quit smoking. Nicotine doesn’t relax you; it increases nervous irritability. While quitting a habit can be a stressful process, you’ll feel much better physically and mentally once you’ve quit smoking.

#4. Change your outlook. In addition to the daily events that cause stress, your thoughts and behavior can add to your problems. Does a simple setback cause you to think that you’re a total failure and you’re never going to be successful? Does a bad date lead you to believe that you’re going to spend your entire life alone? Are you a passive person who lets others walk all over you?

#5. Keep a positive attitude. Focus on the positive side of the situation. See if you can turn the problem into an opportunity to try something different. Give yourself a pep talk or repeat certain sayings like, “things could be worse,” or “it’s always darkest before the dawn,” or “every cloud has a silver lining.” Looking on the bright side lightens your load.

#6. Reduce your frustration and anger. Human beings are not perfect. You might not like the way the world is run. You might not like certain things about yourself or your life. But rather than be frustrated by things you cannot change, try to accept them and work around them. Instead of pushing and rushing, slow down a little and think about your choices. You can turn frustration into relaxation, even if you are stuck in a traffic jam. For example, instead of feeling aggravated by the situation, use that time to stretch your neck and to breathe deeply. It is important to look at all problems in different ways and try new strategies.

#7. Be realistic. Do you worry about things that never happen? When faced with a problem, think about the advice you would give a friend in the same situation. How important is the problem in the course of your life? In a year? In a week?

#8. Set goals. One of the major causes of stress and depression is a feeling of going nowhere, a feeling that life is just passing by. Think about your life and values and hopes. Imagine your ideal life and what steps you can take to get a little closer to your dream.

#9. Create good friendships. Having close relationships with people you can confide in reduces stress and increases emotional satisfaction. Having social support from other human beings whom you can count on in times of uncertainly allow you to live in a more relaxed, confident fashion.

#10. Keep a sense of humor. Go see a funny movie or read a funny book. Keep a humor journal with all the funny jokes and stories you hear each day. Tell a joke. Look for the funny side in a situation. Hang out with happy people. Put on a happy face. Use humor instead of anger! And most importantly laugh at your self from time to time.

If you try any of these ten tips that I have offered you, and for some reason they don’t work, then I recommend that you find some sort of medication for your stress problems. Professional help may also be necessary.

Romeo and Juliet Persuasive Essay. Which is better, the book or the movie?

Romeo and Juliet is a play about tow young adults that fall in love with each other. The only thing that is holding these tow lovers back is the feuding between the two families.

‘Was Franco Zeffili’s film version of the play ‘Romeo and Juliet an improvement over Shakespeares play?’ Yes, Franco Zeffelli’s film was an improvement over Shakespeares play because he changed the dialogue a little, he made the location better, and the Tybalt and Romeo duel was action packed.

I really liked the real elaborate scenery in the movie. I liked all the nice looking buildings. I also liked the scenery because it was real open and right in the center of the city.

Franco Zeffelli really added a lot to the great battle scene between Romeo and Tybalt. In the actual play the fight sounded stupid and it seemed like it barely lasted a minute. In the movie the fight scene was great because it was a long fierce fight.

Franco Zeffelli’s film was a great improvement over Shakespeares play. He made it better by taking out some of the boring dialogue. He changed the scenery around a lot. The fight scene was a lot better also. Over all the film was twice as good as the play.

Contemporary Arts Essay

I will discuss how the growth of technology and the effect of globalisation over the past century has impacted contemporary art practices, and why it has created a `remix generation’ amongst artists and musicians.

Advancements in technology throughout the past century have significantly altered the way artists produce and distribute their work. Personal Computer (PC) software is now readily available to consumers, which allows anybody who wants to be an artist the resources they need to create a work. Ranging from music sequencer programs to Photoshop and imovie, each household with a PC has become a multimedia studio. The Internet and globalisation has given artists a direct source for worldwide inspiration and also a resource for various forms of media which can be downloaded and manipulated to produce new compositions. Within the different artistic disciplines, remixing, sampling and the re-use of existing media has become a trend amongst artists. Not only does the Internet give consumers access to media, it also gives them a tool to share their finished work with the world. Self Promotion and digital distribution of Music and Art has become a feature of `generation flash’ and the `remix generation’. Over the past decade we have seen an increase of the `long tail ` of the market, where the amount of unknown artists working from their home is increasing, creating more and more niche genres within the worlds of music and art.

“The development of post-production and image processing technologies received fresh impetus in the late eighties with the introduction of digital editing and effects software, which offered a series of improvements from previously available technology”. The greatest aspect of the digital age is the ability to conduct processing without the deterioration of quality, which previously occurred with analogue technologies. This allows artists a lot more freedom when creating art. All digital media (texts, still images, visual or audio data), share the same digital code. This allows different media types to be displayed using one machine, a computer, which acts as a multimedia display device.

“Regarding Music, Remixing became possible by electronic and digital technology -sampling. With the availability of sampling technology, the practices of collage and montage that were always central to the twentieth century culture, became industrialised.”

Software tools such as Photoshop 1989 and After Effects 1993 have had the same effect on the fields of graphic design, motion graphics, commercial illustration and photography as sampling had on music. The Digital revolution has allowed the storage of different forms of media in the digital format, which allows for easily reproduction and manipulation, also the internet provides us with a library of already existing sources ready to be remixed. Now this is simply the basic logic of cultural production.

Manovich explains, “A `new media’ object can be described formally (mathematically). For instance, an image or shape can be described using a mathematical function (binary code), A new media object is subject to algorithmic manipulation, for instance, by applying appropriate algorithms we can automatically remove `noise’ from a photograph, improve its contrast, locate the edges of shapes or change its proportions. In short, media has become programmable.” In this day and age digital manipulation within music, art and movies, is a given. Digital effects are constantly being used to manipulate, or enhance media across all disciplines. In this day and age when we watch a film, we barely notice so called `special effects’ because within the film industry it has become standard industry practice to utilise current digital technology to help create a work. Enhancements in technology has altered the way contemporary artists create their work, making it easier to produce not just movies but music, images and other media.

New Media’ allows for random access, in contrast to film or videotape, which store data sequentially. Computer storage devices, which make it possible to access data from anywhere in the world along with the Internet, has had a huge effect on the production and distribution of Contemporary art.

Terry Flew states that as a result of the evolution of new media technologies, globalisation occurs. Globalisation is the expansion of activities beyond the boundaries of particular nation states, a “process in which geographic distance becomes a factor of diminishing importance in the establishment and maintenance of cross border economic, political and socio-cultural relations.” In this day and age, personal computers act as a multimedia device where consumers are able to research endless data in the form of Music, Images, and Video. Interactive 2.0 websites such as Last.fm and Youtube provide places for people with niche interests to interact regardless of geological location.

“Most technologies described as “new media” are digital, often having characteristics of being manipulable, networkable, dense, compressible, and impartial.” With all media now stored in digital format and easily accessible from the Internet, alterations and manipulation of media can easily be done to create `remix’ works. If an Artist wants to use a particular image in a work, say a picture of a sunset, or mountain ranges, rather than going out and taking that picture, they would more likely `google’ the words `sunset picture’ or `mountains picture’, to search for an already existing images which are stored in cyberspace. The Internet is used as a pallet of already existing artworks where consumers can resource and utilise existing media. The same goes for music, if a musician wants a hip-hop beat or a particular sample, rather than going out and recording a drum kit. They could download existing musical sample from the internet, and then use their PC’s to produce or manipulate it

The Digital age has provided many advantages for artists. Data in the form of Mp3, images or video can be stored on memory card or sent over the internet. . An advantage of storing media on digital format is the ability to digitally manipulate images or audio. Sampling and remixing has now become a large part of contemporary music practice.

There are several genres of music where it is common practice for an artist to sample a phrase of a well-known recording and use it as an element in a new composition. Two well-known examples include the sample of Rick James’ “Super Freak” in MC Hammer’s “U Can’t Touch This” and the sample of Queen/David Bowie’s “Under Pressure” in Vanilla Ice’s “Ice Ice Baby”. There are legal issues involved with sampling another artist’s material, especially when profit is involved. Lawrence Lessig proposed the concept of free culture which is a social movement that promotes the freedom to distribute and modify creative work, where he promps for audio works to be licensed under a creative commons licence that allows for legal sampling of the work.

Remixes have become the norm in modern dance music, allowing one song the ability to appeal across many different musical genres or dance floors. Such remixes often include “featured” artists, adding new vocalists or musicians to the original mix. The remix is also widely used in hip-hop and rap music. The Avalanches are an Australian electronic music group who are best known for their 2000 album Since I Left You, “which was assembled from approximately 3,500 vinyl samples”. The Avalanches have also `remixed’ a number of other bands music including tracks by Gerling, Wolfmother, Franz Ferdinand and Belle& Sebastian. Remixing and Sampling has become a large part of Contemporary Music especially in the genres of Dance and Hip Hop. Manovich states that `Remix practice extends beyond culture and internet’.

Remixing originally had a precise and a narrow meaning that gradually became diffused. Gradually the term became more and more broad, today referring to any reworking of already existing cultural work. Around the turn of the century people started to apply the term `remix’ to other media besides music. , visual projects, software, literary texts.

Lev Manovich explains how we live amongst a `remix culture’, Remixing is generally associated with Music, and however Manovich explains how the trend has affected various other forms of cultural production including fashion, design, art, and web applications.

In his 2004/2005 winter collection, John Galliano, who is a fashion designer for the label `Dior’, mixed vagabond look, Yemenite traditions, East European Motifs, and other sources together, which he collected during his extensive travels around the world. This form of eclectic fashion can be seen as a result of `remix culture’. Another example of `remix culture’ is Baz Luhrman’s 1996 film, `Romeo and Juliet’. The film is a modernization of Shakespeare’s play, designed to appeal to a younger modern audience. The Montagues and the Capulets are represented as warring business empires and swords are replaced by guns.

When we hear the word `remix’ we generally think of music, however the term can be used to describe the trend of Borrowing, or appropriation within other Art forms. The term remix can be adopted to describe a work that made use of already existing material. `Remix culture’ can be defined as the global activity consisting of the creative and efficient exchange of information made possible by digital technologies that is supported by the practice of cut/copy and past.

The effect of globalisation combined with available technology has allowed a global marketplace of digital media which is accessible from your home computer We as artists and consumers can download various forms of media, whether it be video, audio, or pictures, we can use available technology to manipulate and remix the media, and then we can use the internet once again, to upload and share our work with the world.

“Electronic music and software serve as the two key reservoirs of new metaphors for the rest of culture today, this expansion of the term `remix’ is inevitable. One can only wonder why it did not happen earlier Yet we are left with an interesting paradox While in the realm of commercial music remixing is officially accepted, in other cultural areas it is seen as violating the copyright and therefore as stealing. So while film makers, visual artists, photographers, architects and web designers routinely remix already existing works, this is not openly admitted, and no proper terms equivalent to remixing in music exist to describe these practices.” S

The Digital age has provided many advantages for artists. Data in the form of Mp3, images or video can be stored on a memory card or sent over the internet, which is a luxury compared to the analogue days of carrying around rolls of tape. An advantage of storing media on digital format is the ability to digitally manipulate images or audio. Sampling and remixing has become a large part of contemporary music practice. Manovich exclaims, “Flash aesthetics exemplifies the cultural sensibility of a new generation. This generation does not care if their work is called art or design”. The internet and p2p file sharing networks are forms of current technology which allows artists to access and download various forms of existing media, while their personal computer technology gives them the tools to create a remix from that media. Computer programming has become an art!

Manovich supports the idea that we live in a remix culture. Remixing is usually thought of within the music industry, often a dance remix of a song is made for nightclubs, however there are not only audio remixes, visual remixes traditionally appear in the form of collages and montages, Manovich discusses a type of visual remixing software called `turntable’. Turntable is a computer program, which allows the user to remix in real time up to six flash animations. The rapid growth of technology and the development of computer programs such as `turntable’, has allowed remixing to become a function of all artistic disciplines

It has become a trend amongst contemporary artists to incorporate existing media within their work, but why? Perhaps its because media now available in digital format and therefore able to be manipulated. Perhaps it’s just much easier and just as effective to use existing media rather than starting the work, (audio or visual) from scratch. If you needed a photo of the sunset you could go out with your camera and take an original photograph, or you could just download one in about 5 seconds. Pastiche no longer needs a special name. Now this is simply the basic logic of cultural production.

Marcel Camus believed that a single frame from any film would and should define the film like a fingerprint. In our world, which merges art, culture and the reflection of history, these single frames of creativity demonstrate the emergence of a new and interactive culture, one that exults freedom of expression without limitations. We live amongst a worldwide pop culture where emerging art forms influence the main stream. Flash art, is growing in popularity especially on the Internet which has become one enormous worldwide exhibition of media. When a work is created or remixed from existing media

The Problem with everybody having the resources to create is the overflowing amount of so called `art’ circling the Internet. Youtube is a web 2.0 site which allows internet users to upload movies it is currently overload with flash compositions, which are often composed using existing media and would be regarded by Lessig and Manovich as part of `remix culture’. One phenomenal flash video is `This is Sparta – techno remix’, which remixes the visuals from the movie 300, and the iconic phrase “this is Sparta”, with dodgy techno music. This so called Art has a huge impact on Popular culture with over twenty million views on Youtube, which is far far more exposure than other Art forms.

The film `300′ has also spoofed in various other media, spawning the “This is Sparta!” Internet phenomenon with parodies also appearing in film and television. These include the short United 300, which won the Movie Spoof Award at the 2007 MTV Movie Awards. Skits based upon the film have appeared on Saturday Night Live and the popular cartoon Robot Chicken, the latter of which mimicked the visual style of 300 in a parody set during the American Revolutionary War, titled `1776′. 20th Century Fox released the film Meet the Spartans, a spoof of 300. Universal Studios is planning a similar parody, titled National Lampoon’s 301: The Legend of Awesomest Maximus Wallace Leonidas. 300 was also parodied in an episode of South Park. Once again, pastiche no longer needs a special name. Now this is simply the basic logic of cultural production.

The band Radiohead have been managerially creative through their use of new media technologies. The Band released their 7th album as a digital download where fans were able to choose the fee, bicotting their former record label EMI. Singer Tom Yorke told Time Magazine, “I like the people at our record company, but the time is at hand when you have to ask why anyone needs one. And, yes, it probably would give us some perverse pleasure to say ‘F**k you’ to this decaying business model.”

Other Bands and artist have used the Internet as a source for promotion and distribution. Radiohead’s success of digital downloads was highly successful due to their already existing fan base, however bands such as `the Arctic Monkeys’ have bypassed record companies altogether using the internet as a world wide promotion tool. Many remix dj’s provide mixed tracks on the Internet for download. It’s uncanny that the Internet firstly being the supplier of media for all consumers also becomes the promoter and distributer when the artist creates a work.

Myspace is the most popular networking site on the Internet and has been used as a promotion tool for artists and musicians, allowing them their `space’ where they can share their work with the world. This trend has increased the `long tail’ portion of the music industry. Where the amount of unknown or less popular artists continues to grow. Manovich asks the question, “As future arts practitioners how will your voice be heard within an environment where everyone is a maker?”

The growth of technology has significantly effected the production and distribution of art and the effect it has had on the creators. The effect of globalisation caused by the Internet has allowed a world full of inspiration. Current computer software and the internet has enabled consumers to become a new generation of artists who can access various forms of media online which can be download and possibly manipulated in order to create pastiche or `remix’ works. Not only does the Internet give consumers a resource library to find existing media, it also gives them a way of sharing their art with the world. The trend of self-promotion is gaining and today consumers have the resources to be their own creator, promoter and distributer.

An essay about the theme of appearances vs reality as it appears in Shakespeare’s Hamlet

One of the major themes in Hamlet by William Shakespeare is the concept of things not always being as they appear. This is demonstrated by most of the major characters in this play. Claudius brings up this factor in more than one aspect; his love for Hamlet and Gertrude can be examined in regards to appearances versus reality. Hamlet can also be viewed in this manner with respect to his sanity and his love for Ophelia. Polonius’ character demonstrates clearly the theme of things not always being as they appear; he can be viewed as a caring and loving person, or a sneaky and deceitful politician. Ophelia’s sexual innocence can also be questioned; as can the friendship between Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and Hamlet.

Claudius, the new king of Denmark, allows us to clearly examine the theme of appearances versus reality. Claudius appears to love Hamlet so as to seem a worthy king to the people of Denmark. He does not want Hamlet or the people of Denmark know about his guilty conscience, so he hides it by treating Hamlet with respect and affection. Early on in the play he tells Hamlet that he has confidence in him by revealing to him that he is “the most immediate to our thrown/ And with no less nobility of love” (Hamlet, I.ii.109-10). This is Claudius’ attempt to make Hamlet and the people of the court believe that he loves his nephew and his new son. He also requests that Hamlet stay in Denmark, making it appear as though he enjoys Hamlets presence and worries about his well being, “It is most retrograde to our desire: / And we beseech you, bend you to remain / Here, in the cheer and comfort of our eye, / Our chiefest courtier, cousin and our son” (Hamlet, I.ii.114-17). He also tries to deceive Hamlet by referring to himself as Hamlet’s “loving father” (Hamlet, IV.iii.51). However, the reader and some of the characters in the play know of his true feelings towards Hamlet. When he feels that Hamlet knows of his murderous act, he decides to send Hamlet away with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern so as not to have his position threatened, “And he to England shall along with you” (Hamlet, III.iii.4). Later on, in Claudius’ soliloquy, he reveals his plan to have Hamlet killed. His plan involves another person acting on his behalf to kill his son, “Thou may’st coldly set / Our sovereign process; which imports at full, / By letters conjuring to that effect” (Hamlet, IV.iii.63-65). This is so as to again protect his position in Denmark and his position with Gertrude.

Claudius’ love for Gertrude can also be questioned. In his opening address to the state, it appears as though he sincerely loves Gertrude. He later on lists Gertrude as one of the reasons he killed his brother. This implies that the feelings he had for Gertrude were real. However, when Gertrude goes to drink the poison that was intended for Hamlet, Claudius makes no real attempt to stop her. He simply says, “Gertrude, do not drink” (Hamlet, V.ii.282). Had he sincerely loved her, he would have physically prevented her from drinking the poison that brought her death.

Hamlet’s madness can be questioned in its validity. At points it appears that Hamlet is actually mad, but the reader, Marcellus, Horatio and eventually Gertrude, know the truth; that his madness is feigned. Hamlet originally tells Marcellus and Horatio that his is “to put an antic disposition on, / That you at such times seeing me, never shall, / With arms encumber’d thus” (Hamlet, I.v.173-74). At this point he reveals to them that he will be acting strangely, but warns them not to take it seriously for it is an act. However, certain characters in the play believe his act so much as to suppose it real. Before Hamlet convinces Gertrude of his clear mind, she believes him to be mad, “Alas! he’s mad” (Hamlet, III.iv.107). Claudius also believes that he is mad and sees it as a threat, “I like him not, nor stands it safe with us / To let his madness range” (Hamlet, III.iii.1-2). Claudius fears that Hamlet’s madness may in some respect eventually harm his social or political position.

The love Hamlet has for Ophelia is also questionable. When Hamlet has on his “antic disposition” he does not appear to care for Ophelia in a sense that is beyond sexual. He constantly jests about her, either to her father or to her face. At the play, he makes sexual suggestions, yet she believes he does not love her for he said “You should not have believed me: / … / I loved you not” (Hamlet, III.i.117-19). At this point however, it is an act put on so as to make himself appear consistent in his new manner or madness. Hamlet later reveals however, that his love for her was genuine, “I loved Ophelia; forty thousand brothers / Could not, with all their quantity of love, / Make up my sum” (Hamlet, V.i.263-65). He reveals to the reader and Laertes that he sincerely loved Ophelia, which allows us to see that the way he treated her before was just an appearance, as part of the act put on to seem mad.

Polonius’ character is that of appearance. He wants to appear to be a loving and caring person so as to keep up his political standing. When he lectures Laertes before sending him off to France, he sounds sincere in his address,

“And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.

This above all: to thine self be true,

And it must follow, as the night the day,

Thou canst not then be false to any man.

Farewell; my blessings season this in thee.” (Hamlet, I.iii.77-81)

He gives him fatherly advice which appears to be heartfelt. He appears to really trust his son in these matters as he simply gives him advice. However, the reader can see his true nature when he sends a spy to watch his son. Polonius is a sneaky and devious person. This is demonstrated when he uses his own daughter to spy on Hamlet, and his constant eavesdropping and plotting.

Ophelia’s sexual innocence is questioned in this play. She appears to be inexperienced because of the way she accepts the advice from her brother. She states that she will not give in to temptation if he himself will do the same. This implies that she understands the importance of her virginity and will not easily give it up. However, the way Hamlet speaks of her to her father does not imply the same message, “Let her not walk i’ the sun, / Conception is a blessing, / But not as your daughter may conceive” (Hamlet, II.ii.182-184) This statement is full of puns which imply that she is not as innocent as she says she is. It makes constant references to sex and pregnancy. Late on in the play, Ophelia, herself, in a state of madness reveals her true sexual experience,

“Quoth she, before you tumbled me,

You promised me top wed.

He answers:

So would I ha’ done, by yonder sun,

And thou hadst not come to my bed.” (Hamlet, IV.v.61-65)

In this song, Ophelia reveals that she slept with Hamlet because she felt they were to wed, yet he left her after having intercourse. This exposes the fact that in her case, things were not as they appeared to be.

As for Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, their friendship with Hamlet can be questioned in the extreme. Not only did they come to Denmark on request of Hamlet’s enemy, they then proceeded to spy on him continuously and report the findings back to Claudius, all while appearing to be friends with Hamlet. They try to appear to be sincerely worried about him, and to hide the fact that they are working for Claudius. However, Hamlet figured out their doings and was able to conceal from them his true intentions. Nearing the end of the play, Rosencrantz and Guildestern were to deliver Hamlet to his death in England. However, Hamlet learned of this and changed the letter so as to have them killed for their deceiving him.

Hamlet is one of Shakespeare’s greatest plays. It tells a story of deception on the part of most of the main characters. Claudius was deceitful in his feelings displayed towards Hamlet and Gertrude. Hamlet was deceiving in his appearance of madness and his love for Ophelia. Polonius’ character was based on appearances; he wanted to appear to be a caring politician while at the same time being a deceitful spy. Ophelia appeared to her peers as an innocent girl, yet her experience with Hamlet is beyond what it appeared to be. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern attempt to appear as Hamlet’s friends, yet their correspondence with the Claudius makes them an enemy to Hamlet. Therefore Hamlet is as play that clearly demonstrates that things aren’t always as they seem.

Global warming (Definition essay)

What is Global warming? This vast topic has many definitions for different reasons. Global warming could happen due to the pure existence of human life. The day to day things that we do could result in global warming. Driving our motor vehicles, burning of fuel and trees could trigger the warming mechanism. There are different aspects to this. I chose this topic since it has an in-depth argument point and it can be very well detailed in to several different parts. For my research I will be discussing a sub topic of how factories are responsible for global warming. Are all factories responsible for this and have they taken key measurements to avoid or reduce such threats or are they just ignoring the fact would be a much more interesting to research about.

This paper would mainly be on how the definition of ‘Global Warming’ could be characterized and discussed. The timely topic of global warming has triggered many nations and many are on discussion of the matter. All most all major industrial nations are now concerned about their effect to the environment. This came about in the early 70′s as many major industries bloomed with the open economic expansions. United States, China, Soviet Union, Japan and Korea were the leading industrial nation that came forward with the study of global warming. United States mastered the studies with advancement in technology, space and health. The first study of global warming and its effects came to the public awareness in the 1980′s as the electronic media took over the world. People started worrying about the warming and many protests came forward by several health and environmental agencies.

United State’s Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA), World Wildlife Fund (WWF), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Natural Resources Defense Council are some of the key agencies that are researching about this issue. Depletion of ozone layer, warming of glaciers, change in sea water currents, change in climate, acid rain and heat distribution patterns are some of the facts that these agencies are keeping a close watch on. They analyze each year of how much change is happening and predicts the future changes. But during the last decade sudden unpredictable changes have occurred around the world. There were several issues in the United State itself such as;

* Glasgow, Montana — No sub-zero days, 1997. For the first time ever, temperatures remained above 0?F (-17.8?C) in December. The average temperature was 10.9?F (6?C) above normal.

* Bermuda — Dying mangroves. Rising sea level is leading to saltwater inundation of coastal mangrove forests.

* Hawaii — Beach loss. Sea-level rise at Waimea Bay, along with coastal development, has contributed to considerable beach loss over the past 90 years.

* Texas — Deadly heat wave, summer 1998. Heat claimed more than 100 lives in the region. Dallas temperatures were over 100?F (37.8?C) for 15 straight days.

* Chesapeake Bay — Marsh and island loss. The current rate of a sea-level rise is three times the historical rate and appears to be accelerating. Since 1938, about one-third of the marsh at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge has been submerged.

These are a few of thousand that were recorded all over US. And there are several thousands of incidents all over the world. To truly define Global Warming is to study its core reasons, therefore I intend to give you a detailed research as possible on how certain issues contribute to the matter.

The Effects Of Music

Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in.

Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in.Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in.

Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in.Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in.Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in.

Music has a great effect on us and causes us to feel great emotions. Everyone has their own taste in music making them different from others in many ways. Listening to music give some a sense of peace and comfort while causing anger to others. Our taste in music is verified do to generation gaps and environmental put in. that is a bomb essay.

No-Panic Steps To Writing A Process Essay

“I want you to write a process essay on anything you want to write about by next time we meet,” your English teacher says to you as the bell rings, ending the class. But you don’t even know the first thing about process essays. You don’t even know what a process essay is! Don’t panic. The book “Keys to Successful Writing,” by Marilyn Anderson, defines a process essay as “a writing strategy that explains how to do something or how something works” (475). Even you can write a great process essay with a few basic steps: brainstorming, prewriting, drafting, and revising and polishing.

The first step when writing a process essay is to brainstorm for a topic. Choose something that you are good at: hobbies, interests, or jobs are great ideas. Your topic can range from fixing a flat tire to fixing a bite to eat, from making clothes to selling clothes to shopping for clothes. It can be absolutely anything that you know how to do, anything you can dream up. Your topic should be something that is interesting or unusual. It should be something that is interesting to read about as well as something that you will enjoy writing about. Sit down with a piece of paper and something to write with and write down every idea that comes into your head, no matter what it is. After you have a good size list compiled, narrow it down until you have the best topic for you to write about. You have picked your topic! You are now ready to go on to the next step.

The next step to writing an effective process essay is prewriting. “Keys…” says that prewriting “involves exploring and gathering ideas and information and selecting and grouping this material” (471). In other words, in this step you get all of your ideas about the topic written on paper in rough groups. In a process essay, these groups will be the steps that lead to the desired outcome or a completed product. This is a very informal step and may not even resemble a paper. There are many ways that this step can be done. The most simplistic way to prewrite is to sit down and write about your topic for a fixed amount of time. By writing in chronological order, you set up the paper to be divided into steps. Another way to complete this stage in the writing process is to make a list of all the steps needed to finish the task, and then describe each step in detail. Ask yourself journalists’ questions like “Why do I do this now?” or “Where does this piece go?” There are many ways that you can prewrite, but you should always be sure to take your time. The more prewriting you do, the more the paper will seem to write itself and the easier it will be to combine thoughts and make them flow in your rough draft.

Creating a rough draft is the next step in process writing. Your introduction should describe the task at hand. It should start with something that will catch the reader’s attention, like questions, a definition, facts, or a story. Be sure to define all necessary terms. Your body paragraphs should explain, step-by-step, precisely how to complete the task. Each step should form its own paragraph, and each paragraph should make one point and only one point. This should not be hard to do if you used good prewriting skills. Your conclusion should restate your introduction in different words and show that you have arrived at a completed product. During the rough draft stage, you should not worry about punctuation or spelling. You should instead focus on getting your ideas in a good format, in some sort of order that makes the paper flow well. After writing your rough draft, you are ready for the last step in the writing process.

Revising and polishing is the final step toward completing your paper. There are many ways to revise your paper. Start by reading it aloud to yourself and finding points where more information is needed or extra information can be deleted. Ask questions like “Are my steps well developed?,” “Is there enough detail to come to the desired outcome?,” and “Do my thesis and conclusion correctly and fully serve their purposes?” Next, proofread your paper for incorrect parts of speech, spelling, punctuation, and sentence problems like run-ons and fragments. After you’ve done all you can do to your paper, let your peers read it. Have them ask themselves the same questions you asked yourself about the content of the paper. Also, have them check for proofreading errors. Sometimes other people notice things we do not notice about our own writing. Be sure that you selected the correct language for the paper to get the right effect. Check your format and make sure that there is enough variety in your sentences to not bore the reader. After you have done all of this and you feel comfortable with what you have, come up with a catchy title, and you should have a very good paper.

Process essays are easier to write than they initially seem. Although following these simple steps may not transform you into William Shakespeare, it will help you to get an excellent grade on that English paper.

The Vital Environment

The environment is a strongly arguable issue in today’s world of highly dense populations and forever growing technologies. People rely daily on the use of cars for example as means of transportation to and from their work. People travel far distances much more than they used to a century ago due to the ease of traveling by plane, and the fact that they will reach their destinations in a matter of hours. The point is, for such great advantages that we take for granted, comes an even greater disadvantage, the destruction of our environment. We are abusing our home. Something has to be done to help save the environment for the sake of our children and grandchildren, for their health and our health, and for the natural beauty of earth itself.

There are mainly three strong sources of pollution in general which are: water pollution, waste pollution, and air pollution. From their names you can acknowledge that the third type “air pollution”, is the most harmful due to the fact that we as well as animals and plants breathe it in. The noxious gases emitted by automobiles, industrial factories and power plants such as sulfur-dioxide and carbon-dioxide are very harmful to our health and the health of animals, causing damage to the lungs and intoxicating our respiratory system and those of animals. People living near power plants and factories are more likely to live a shorter life than those living in the clean atmosphere of the mountains far from pollution. Scientists believe that all cities with populations exceeding 50,000 have some degree of air pollution (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2004).

Carbon-monoxide also emitted from car exhausts and factories is a strong damaging greenhouse gas. Automobiles also release nitrogen oxide contributing 30% of NOx in the earth’s atmosphere over the 76% that carbon-monoxide contributes to it from cars (Ibid). Both these gases are causing drastic environmental problems such as acid rain, which can damage health by increasing coughing, asthma, and stinging eye (Ibid). Smog also creates respiration problems to humans and damages crops and is the result of a combination of harmful gases. The ozone plays a very important role in our atmosphere by absorbing radiation from the sun and protecting us from ultraviolet rays. Without this protection humans wouldn’t be able to survive due to skin cancers, the damaging of plant life, marine life, and animal life. Therefore protecting the ozone layer is one of the most important reasons why we should save our environment.

Rain forests are disappearing at a drastic rate. They are being cut down and burnt to use the land for highways, agriculture or to expand cities. Some third world countries use a slash and burn technique to build roads and highways such as the Brazilian super highway (The Essay Organization, 2004). Billions of animals and trees are killed for these roads (Compassion Over Killing, 2004). Environmentalists argue that animal diversity is being lost. Currently about one species a day is lost from the forest (The Essay Organization, 2004). This could have a drastic affect on the food web. If a certain species of animals becomes extinct, then another species dependant on that animal for survival will also become extinct and so on.

I do understand that industrial work is vital, but that is not an excuse for destroying something else that is even more vital in a different way. With all the modern technology and the great knowledge of today’s scientists, other solutions and methods for construction and substitutes to natural resources can be thought of if only the issue were focused on more. Preserving the environment is now becoming a necessity and soon we will no longer hold a choice.

In conclusion, the environment is a valuable, if not the most valuable resource and should not be squandered away by man. It should be preserved, as it is a critical requirement for the continuation of all life.

Investigate the way love is presented by three different poets in at least two different historical periods

Investigate the way love is presented by three different poets in at least two different historical periods

The three poems chosen for this essay where The Sunne Rising by John Donne which was written in the early 1600′s with the best guess being around 1603, Sonnet 116 by William Shakespeare written in the same time period around 1600 and the modern poem Reminders by Geoff Goodfellow written in the late 1990′s. All three poems focus on love from the poets prospective circulating around different subjects the poets decided to base their poem on. It is important to state that the views represented in this essay on the way love has been interpreted by the poets are my own interpretations and influenced by my own feelings on the subject.

Sonnet 116, The Sunne Rising and Reminders are all love poems however the poems subject matters and meanings are very different. Sonnet 116 is about love in its most idealistic form. It glorifies lovers who have come together through their own resolve and entered into a relationship based on trust and understanding alone. The Sunne Rising written in the same time period is an eccentric poem for its time. It is arrogant and full of conceit as he glorifies himself and his lover ‘She is all states, and all Princes, I, Nothing else is’ implying he and his lover are every country, every where placing them in a status above Kings. The poem itself is about the legitimacy of the suns authority over the two lovers. Reminders unlike the previous two poems is modern, written in the late 1990′s. It portrays the struggle of the poet as he is faced with the reality that his lover has left him as he finds all her little physical marks she left behind. The three poems are about completely different issues with Sonnet 116 focusing on the strength of true love, The Sunne Rising on the suns right to impose itself upon the two lovers and Reminders on the poet finding all the little things left behind by his lover. The only meaning these three poems have in common is there focus on love.

The views on love in all three poems differ, however even more so for Reminders of which focuses on a more sexual modern view on love found in a short term relationship compared to the more traditional views of the two poems written in the early 1600′s. Sonnet 116 looks at an idealistic form of love that is strong, noble and everlasting of which is typical in most Shakespearian poetry. The Sunne Rising has a very romantic, erotic view on love and even though it still portrays a view of the traditional idealistic values it implies ecstasy and a more sexual intimate side of love as well. ‘Must to they motions lovers season runs ‘ This line is asking why must the sun govern when love ‘intimacy or sexual encounter’ takes place. It implies sexual conduct and in many other of John Donne’s work in his early career a more sexual view on love is portrayed frequently. In the poem Reminders a very modern view of love is expressed. In this poem a short term relationship is implied. It portrays the more sexual side of love that is more apparent in our present era. Lines such as ‘you left your white lacy G-string in the pocket of my bathrobe ‘ and ‘but most of all you left your sent berried deep inside my pillow ‘ really push this view of love. Sonnet 116 and The Sunne Rising definitely push the idealistic form of love (Torte by the churches at the time that where a dominant factor in their life with John Donne going on to become a preacher later on in life) even though their personal ideas on the topic do shine through, Reminders on the other hand shows a view on love in a short term relationship with more sexual implications.

Woman in the 1600′s where discriminated against in a strong male dominate society. This is clearly visible in Shakespearian poetry and is openly exposed in Sonnet 116 with Love being referred to as “his” implying love is of male origin in numerous occasions throughout the poem. ‘Within his bending sickles compasse come ‘ This is a perfect example of such an occasion with ‘his’ in this sentence in the place of love. Another significant example is the finishing sentence of the poem ‘I never writ, nor no man ever loved ‘ here Shakespeare has chosen to write no man ever loved instead of no one ever loved with woman not holding any importance in a relationship in his view. However at the same time it must be taken into account that maybe this was just part of the language and it is the way I have interpreted the text. Man in the sentence I never writ, nor no man ever loved could have the meaning mankind which we still use today meaning all human beings. This must be taken into account and comes down to the readers prospective. John Donne’s views on woman are however a lot different to that of Shakespeare (taking on the view Shakespeare did view woman as being inferior). In his poem he worships his lover. ‘She ‘is all States, and all Princes ‘ this being a perfect example. He admires woman and admits to their power over him in the line ‘But that I would not lose her sight so long ‘. Reminders being a recent poem expresses the view of the majority of western society today holding woman in equal status to that of the male. It is exclusively about a woman the poet had a relationship with and at no point degrades her status due to her sex. Both Reminders and The Sunne Rising expose a view of equality between sexes however Sonnet 116 portrays the male as being the dominant sex through the wording the poet chose to incorporate, even though the views on woman expressed in Sonnet 116 where the most popular in the 1600′s it came down to individual preference which is demonstrated in the view expressed by John Donne and also the way the reader chooses to interperate what is written.

The two poems written in the early 1600′s take on traditional poetic ideals with Reminders written in modern times demonstrating the free verse style we are accustomed to today. Sonnet 116 and The Sunne Rising use traditional genre Shakespeare’s taking the shape of a Sonnet and Donne’s that of a Dawn poem in Lyrical verse with the rhythmical structure in each ten line stanza a,b,b,a,c,d,c,d,e,e , Reminders on the other hand use a modern form of poetic verse, that of Free verse freeing it from the strict traditional conventions. Sonnet 116 takes on a noble and maybe even authoritative tone; The Sunne Rising on the other hand is full of conceit with a tone that reeks of arrogance and vanity; Reminders has a more honest, thoughtful but sad tone that continues throughout the poem. Both The Sunne Rising and Reminders are written in direct address. All three poems use imagery with Sonnet 116 referring to stars, tempests and rosie lips and cheeks. The Sunne Rising and Reminders however are full of imagery to a greater extent to that of Sonnet 116. The Sunne Rising uses a lot of Sun related imagery and also imagery of India’s of spice and myne. Colour is used to the greatest extent in Reminders with references throughout the poem to ‘yellow toothbrush, pink lip gloss with glitter and white lacy G-string’. The two pomes written in the 1600′s and the modern poem Reminders are very different brought about by changes in the strict poetic conventions but even Sonnet 116 and The Sunne Rising very greatly in tone with The Sunne Risings arrogant tone probably out of touch with the time period the poem was written in.

All three poems views on love and there presentation changes greatly. Shakespeare’s Sonnet 116 expressing the Nobel view of true love being an ever fixed mark as taught by the church. A sentence that best summs up the poem for me is ‘In short, the poet has employed one hundred and ten of the simplest words in the language and the two simplest rhyme-schemes to produce a poem which has about it no strangeness whatever except the strangeness of perfection. ‘. I found it to be beautifully written pushing across its noble views on a perfect interpretation of love. The Sunne Rising even though written in the same time period to that of Sonnet 116 takes on a more sexual cross traditional view of love with the poet infatuated with his lover. John Donne was eccentric for his time and this shines through in his poetry. Reminders is once again very different from the previous two poems. The overthrowing of the traditional conventional poetic restrictions is obvious in this modern free verse poem. It also demonstrates the view of love in our short term sexual relationships common in modern western society. Even though time has changed perspectives on love specially in western society where the church has become less influential with their views of a love lasting an eternity which is clearly visible in Sonnet 116 in the lines ‘Love alters not with his breefe houres and weeks, But beares it out even to the edge of doome: ‘ it comes down to personal prospectives of the poet and the interpretation of the reader however time has definitely changed wording and the structural presentation of poems demonstrated in the three poems I chose.

Essay on Women Rights

It was long ago when women were looked upon as slaves to the hard working man. In today’s society women now are more respected and are acceptable for as many jobs as men are. Yet, long before our time during World War II, women thought many different things that they could only imagine. During the postwar period, women were then equipped with many different abilities colliding with their home chores and knowledge. Women then took their stand and many acts were passed in their favor.

The war’s demand had made the proposition for the women to do the man’s work. Women were encouraged to take these jobs for the first time in history. To some it was a shock but to many it was a divine privilege. By 1942 a poll showed that only 13% of Americans opposed women in the workforce. Many of them also became war nurses and helped many of the men recover. It would seem that women’s interests in occupational equality were directly linked to the nation’s state of distress. Many women were exceptionally well at making bombs and took the place of men.

During the war women received many different opportunity and advancement in their lives. Even though there were many laws prohibiting women from working they still came through for our country. For once women were looked at as producers and not reproducers.

After the war the men had returned home and back steps began to take place with the women. In 1945, 3/4 of the women polled by the Women’s Bureau of the Department of Labor wished to continue working which showed their interests in the skills they possessed. During this point much frustration ran through these women for the men had created “homemaker” for the description of a women’s job and life. Women continued working during the postwar and grew stronger.

The veterans of the war were not so opposed but more rejecting to the fact of women taking their places. Knowing that the women would help the war’s progress greatly many issues were discussed before allowing them to work. The government wanted power towards them, to have possession of influence that the women undergo. Giving them the freedom of choice or the act of selection when postwar would take place. Even though women now have the act of selection choice and somewhat of power to my view the government is still grateful for giving them that privilege.

The years following World War II were unique in the history of American women. It was realized by many that women could be producers as well as reproducers and looked at in a different way. The government used women in their survival during the war. Women were encouraged to take wartime jobs only then return to their homes to make room for the returning veterans. Women of those years have affected the women of today greatly. They have given the women of today hope and acceptation of their right to decide how they would like to live.

Is globalization good for the LDCs?

The wars fought in the past two decades and the increasing threats of terrorism and Aids are quite dramatic and have reshaped our world. Other forces though less dramatic are also reshaping our way of life in an even more dramatic fashion. Such a force is, globalization, which though less dramatic is undoubtedly reshaping our world today and will set a platform for future generations. In an ideal situation, globalization aught to benefit all those involved and whereby the result is win-win for all. However, globalization also has big potential for fuelling political, economical and social problems if some parties are affected negatively by this force. The ultimate natural outcome of globalization could be a mixture of races and culture resulting from a melting pot as that of the United States. In such an environment it would be highly possible for the world to adopt similar political systems or even one global system because with globalization we imagine a world converging towards the same social, political and economic structures.

Globalization can easily achieve the above due to technological advances in communication and transportation; the only missing link is reaching a shared ground on the way forward between different cultures and nations. To achieve the above scenario, globalization has to be a force that takes into account the needs of all people and countries. Globalization has to push every one towards better economical situation, better political systems and at the same time avoid allowing some culture and ideologies to murder other ones. The question then becomes: is globalization as structured today a fair force and one which does not favour some while being detrimental to others? This essay will explore globalization by examining whether the structure as stands today is favourable to some regions or nations while being destructive to others in the short or the long run. Specifically, we will discuss this phenomenon as it relates to its benefits for the developing countries versus the richer and more developed countries which are actually the initiator and staunch supporters of the movement. In short, we will attempt to asses its expected benefits for the developing nations versus what the developed countries are set to gain.

The structure of the essay is as follows, definition and history of globalization will be outlined and then arguments of proponents to globalization and their counterparts’ arguments will be highlighted. Then an analysis of the arguments of the two sides followed by a summary of the discussion will be provided in the form of a conclusion.

Globalization

The term globalization is new but the phenomenon has been ongoing for a long period. It has in fact been around longer than modernization and capitalism. It has become widely known for only about two decades and many observers attribute that fact to the advancements in technology, especially the information technology sector. It is a phenomenon that entails giving up domestic way of doing things locally which in turn become as reflectors of global markets and political systems (Poverty and Development, 2000). The most crucial element of globalization is its ability to normalize the way business is conducted and the way the political seen is run. It entails openness and freedom to trading and investing for anyone and anywhere around the world (Globalisation and the Post Colonial World, 2001). The promoters of globalization assert that it is the only process capable of facilitating improvements in economic situations of the developing countries, increasing political stability and eventually open doors for social dialogue which will ultimately lead to a more harmonious world. The following segment discussed whether globalization is a force for good or it is just the beginning of economic, political and social meltdown in the developing world.

Advocates of Globalization

Many arguments are presented by supporters of globalization and some of the arguments are quite compelling. Proponents argue that because rules that regulate entrance into the globalization playfield are by nature conducive of development, anyone who enters will benefit. For example, some of the rules precondition the removal of trade barriers as prerequisite for becoming globalists. This they argue will open doors for many countries to increase their exports and because the barriers are lowered cost of importables will go down as well. This they argue is a direct side effect of relaxation and simplification of tariff systems.

Moreover, since the cost of imports will be cheaper the effect will be more selective and efficient production by reallocation of domestic resources towards the production of exportable (Global Shift, 1999). As a matter of fact, proponents argue that since developing countries entered this globalization ride their global market share soared by ten percent for the period between 1971 and 2000. More specifically, some countries started benefiting from globalization in less than one decade; namely Uganda who managed to increase not only the production of coffee but also its production capacity. East Asia, they argue, is another region that had visible successes attributable to globalization. As a matter of fact some countries from this region benefited so much from globalization that they are now globally recognizable economic forces (http://www.imf.org).

It is also argued that capital flows from richer countries towards the developing countries has been phenomenal during the globalization era. They also contend that investment increases and bank credits during the 1990s has been a major force in the creation of more jobs for the citizens of the LDCs and increased tax revenues for the host governments that result in more international corporation entrance and higher incomes of the locals (Globalization and Dev. Study, 2001).

Other effects of globalization are less visible but are quite impact-full, they argue. For instance, globalization made it possible for people to seek work in developed countries, this transfer of the workforce will facilitate means “through which global wages converge”. Furthermore, the exportation of workers will automatically help the transfer of skills from the advanced nations to the less developed countries (Globalisation and the Post Colonial World, 2001). Technical innovations and more know how of advanced production methods and management skills are also some of the expected benefits of workforce transfer. By the same token projects such as “Motorola’s low earth orbit” satellites will provide cheaper methods of knowledge transfer through live talk and video conferences and wireless Internet access (Globalisation: the Reader, 2000).

Opponents of Globalization

The arguments on this side as might be expected denounces globalization and see in it a force for the destruction of the poor countries while making the rich even richer. Simply put, they contend that, there is no way that the formulators of the movement which are the developed countries would advocate it simply because they wish to improve the lives of others. Indeed, globalizations is seen as a control less phenomenon whose main drivers are major powers such as the United States which are indeed the major engineers of the globalization policies which tend to favour their interests.

The playing field is viewed as being by default unbalanced as argued by Gowan, Peter. He stresses that private financial markets are directly related to the United States monetary policies. The argument is that since the US government has authority over the Wall Street which is in turn afforded influence on world markets because the USA has control over the World Bank and International Monitory fund, it is to be expected that the policies would be pro West or at the very least pro America. For instance, the USA dollar “enjoys unrivalled dominance in the global financial markets”. Specifically, in 1995 the dollar comprised sixty one percent of entire central bank foreign exchange reserves (Globalisation and the Post Colonial World, 2001).

Since globalization implies survival for the fittest, competition between the developed countries which have a significant head start in terms of technological specialization and their developing countries counterpart is not a possibility. It is argued that, it is simply impossible for the developing countries to make a face off where the production of durable and technology demanding goods are concerned. This leaves the developing countries with only the agricultural arena in which to compete. This is argued to be a grossly uneven exchange of goods between the two spheres. An uneven trade is likely to result in even more accelerated devaluation of currencies of the developing countries involved. This is in turn likely to result in even larger borrowings by the developing countries. Maintaining agricultural competitiveness on the global level might even initiate greater and speedy exploitation of land and natural resources which could also lead to massive damages to the environment (Structure Adjustment: 1998).

There are also concerns about Trans National Corporation’s abusiveness of local labourers in the struggling third world countries. It is believed that corporations of economic powers view people in the developing countries as more manipulable and controllable. The sheer economic situation of the workers in the third world countries make them easy pray for large Trans National Corporation’s. Add to that the fact that the vast majority of them lack legal protection for either mistreatment or when faced with dangerous working conditions (Dicken, P 1999). Furthermore, local government being weakly and seeing multinational corporations as a big source of revenues through taxation and often through bribing officials, this leaves the workers with no protection from any effective source.

Other dangers of globalizations come in the form of the inability of local businesses to compete with huge international companies. Failing to compete will inevitable lead to the dying off of local industries and could lead to total economic domination of foreign companies which is a strong pretext to political domination. With politicians eager to receive bribes and governments eager to receive evermore increasing revenue sources, one might expect the unprecedented breakdown of economic situation of locals and render them in need of the multi national corporation.

While proponents argue that globalization will open doors for the developing countries to gain knowledge and skill from the developed countries, exponents argue that it will actually make it easier for developed countries to drain the former of its much needed educated sector and/or skilled labour populations.

Cultural domination of some economically powerfull countries over the developing countries cultural identities are another worry expressed by opponents of globalization. To be global, one must adopt global languages, lifestyles and even spiritual affiliations. Global ideologies are often those of the cultures with the means to transmit their ideologies and lifestyles and that requires educational and financial powers among other things. An obvious example given is the influence of Hollywood in the world arena and its effects on shaping others lifestyles and ideologies. The overpowering of local cultures would inevitably undermine local spiritual affiliations and traditions which is believed to be a fuelling factor to cultural and religious conflicts which could widen violence and terrorism (Globalisation: Reader, 2000).

Verdict

As is the norm with any hot topic the arguments of both sides are often equally compelling. In deciding on whether globalization serves the developing countries or is likely to drive the poverty stricken region deeper into poverty’, it is crucial to look at all the historical facts before the judgement is made. In assessing the situation, the most important factor to be analysed is the potential motives behind the push by developed countries towards globalization. If the conclusion is that the motives are pure and there is evidence that globalization has been a positive force for all then it would be possible to get everyone on board.

As has been seen in the discussion above, there is a sizable division between the supporters of globalization who view it as the way forward and is bound to benefit all and the opponents who view globalization as a sinister tool which the developed countries wish to utilize to make their position even more stronger to the detriment of the poorer regions. The truth is that globalization does not seem to have a middle ground; it is either highly empowering or unbelievably coercive. Foreign Direct Investments are the face of globalization and hence an analysis of statistics related to it is likely to provide true insight into the benefits or lack of in relation to globalization. The following discussion focuses on Foreign Direct Investments to the developing countries. First, as we look into the FDI phenomenon into LDCs we realize that it is a sporadic phenomenon which is concentrated in only some regions. For example, more than 70% of the FDI are received by less than 20 countries and none of the recipients are from Africa. “China alone receives 1/4 of the FDI” (OXFAM, 2002: 177). More worrisome is the fact that according to Oxfam report FDI per head is still greater towards richer countries.

However, FDI inflows into LDCs have been on the increase but that in itself is not enough indication that it is positive force. In order to assess the benefits of this force of globalization (FDI) lets look into its benefits and to achieve that we need to consider three factors. First, statistics show that for every $1 received by the LDCs in the form of FDI a third leaves in the form of repatriated profits (UNCTAD, 2003). . “According to UNCTAD, the high import costs and remittances associated with FDI had a negative overall effect on the balance of payments” (OXFAM 2002: 178). That fact alone has resulted in financial collapse of some countries as happened in Mexico in the 90s.

In jumping unto the globalization band wagon, many LDCs take further steps to attract FDI and some of these actions are in themselves detrimental. For example, some LDCs divert much needed resources towards campaigning for the purpose of attracting FDI and executing other globalization support mechanisms. Some countries even offer tax incentives in order to attract investors. These efforts often divert scarce resources from sensitive public services without achieving the expected goals. Furthermore, due to the facts that LDCs view industrialization as advancements, they sacrifice even the environment and local cultural norms in the rush for the expected development (Hansen, 1998).

Of course, globalization could have positive effects on the LDCs if it is fair and carefully managed. Globalization can result in attaining financial resources, more jobs, acquisition and knowledge of new technologies, strengthening export sector, widening market share, and increase collection of taxes, etc; however, that requires intense study and commitment before adaptation. If the environment is such that developing countries create regulations by consulting the LDCs and come up with policies that result in a win-win situation for all, then globalization can help the LDCs. If the process is dominated by the developed countries and the LDCs are inactive recipients, then they risk being led into detrimental situations for them. Costa Rica has been a positive example in that it has adopted globalistic approach that is careful in nature and is well calculated and by 1996 the result was that “Costa Rica exports more software per capita than any other country in Latin America. Unlike Mexico, export growth-exceeding 10 per cent a year has increased demand for skilled labour, and increased real wages” (OXFAM, 2002, 183).

Globalization can be an incredible empowering tool but it also has the potential for and coercion. It can create opportunity but it can also breed panic. It can be the process through which small fish become whales or whales become even bigger. It can take a country forward very fast or it can leave it behind even faster. (http://globalization.about.com/cs/whatisit/a/gzgoodorbad2.htm). Socially, it has the potential to allow humanity to share values while maintaining their cultures but it can also be the avenue for killing some cultures while affording others domination. It can result in harmonization of different religions and create an environment where people have wider choices for their religious affiliations but it can also ignite a religious infernal that will be impossible to extinguish. It can open doors for developing countries to achieve technologically advanced capital but at the same time it could achieve that by making the indigenous under the mercy of the alien.

Conclusion

So is globalization a force for good and which everyone should stride to embrace with an open chest or is it a sinister phenomenon that represents a disguised destruction factor? Is it the latest tool the former colonizer wish to utilize as the new tool to subdue their former colonies or is it an innocent movement which will benefit all?

This discussion shed light into the fact that globalization can truly be a two edged sword and it is not inherently bad; its goodness or badness is fully dependent its application. It could indeed be the tool that will open doors for increased exports, attract investors and foreign capital and increase knowledge base. However, it could also be a tool that is designed to serve its designers, namely the developed countries. Opponents to the movement worry that globalization will lead to more domination of the advanced nations and could indeed lead to reinventing imperialism. So the question remains, is globalization designed to drain developing countries even further and reinstituting last centuries practices or perhaps it is a tool that gives a much needed helping hand to the LDCs. My impression after careful analysis of the matter is that globalization is only being promoted so strongly because stronger nation see in it more benefits for themselves. It is not possible to envision strengthened position of the developing countries while at the same time benefiting the Developed regions.

This essay dicusses the cause, effects, and prevention of acid rain.

Acid Rain is rainfall that has a pH of less than 5.6. Acid Rain, a major pollution factor in today’s society damages everything in its path. For the last ten years acid rain has brought destruction over all the domesticated continents. Acid Rain is formed when oxides of nitrogen and sulfite combine with moisture in the atmosphere to make nitric and sulfuric acids. These acids can be carried far from their origins. For example, if formed in the United States they may not “rain down” until they hit Europe. In this essay, I will talk about the cause, effects, and prevention of Acid Rain.

Two primary sources of Acid Rain are Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide. Sulfur Oxide is a colorless gas that is released as a by-product of combusted fossil fuels containing Sulfur. Industrial processes, like the production of iron, steel, utility factories, and crude oil processing produce this gas. In iron and steel production, the smelting of metal sulfate ore, produces pure metal. This releases Sulfur Dioxide. Sometimes Sulfur Dioxide can be released into the air by natural means. But volcanoes, sea spray plankton, and rotting vegetation only make up ten percent of today’s problem. We were not doing poorly with the natural production of Sulfur Oxide, but adding on the addition seventy percent causes a problem. The other chemical mainly responsible (there are more minor chemicals yet they don’t pose a significant threat) is Nitrogen Oxide. These gasses are by-products of firing processes of extremely high temperatures used by car and utility plants, and fertilizer production. Natural processes like volcanic activities and lightning make up only a small amount of five percent of Nitrogen Oxide production. The remainder is made up of our transportation and industrial combustion. The most is made up of transportation. Nitrogen Oxide is even dangerous by itself. It attacks the respiratory organs and creates the likelihood of respiratory illness. It damages the ozone and forms smog.

Knowing that a pH of less than 5.6 is considered to be acid rain, the difference between regular rain and acid rain is the pH level. This can be monitored using a pH scale. A pH scale is usually color coordinated with numbers going from one to fourteen. Seven is the neutral point. It is considered to be “pure water”. A pH of 6.5 to 8 is considered a “safe zone”. In the safe zone organisms are in little or no harm. Even though no acidity sounds like a good thing it isn’t. You must be in the safe zone to be…well, safe.

The acidity of precipitation depends not only on emission levels, but also on the mixtures of Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide and the way they react in the atmosphere. Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide go through several complex steps of chemical reactions before they become the Acid in Acid Rain. The steps are broken down into two phases, the gas and aqueous phases. There are various reactions that can contribute to the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere, each having different degrees of success. One possibility is Photo oxidation of Sulfuric Dioxide by ultraviolet light. This process uses light from the electromagnetic spectrum. This causes the loss of two oxygen atoms. A second, more common, process is when Sulfur Dioxide reacts with moisture found in the atmosphere. When this happens, sulfate dioxide immediately oxidizes to form a sulfite ion. Later, it becomes sulfuric acid when it joins with hydrogen atoms in the air. This reaction occurs quickly, therefore the formation of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere is assumed to lead this type of oxidation to become sulfuric acid.

Over the years, scientists have noticed that some forests have been growing more and more slowly without reason. Trees are not growing as fast as they used to and pine needles turn brown when they are supposed to be green as grass. Obviously, since this is an essay about Acid Rain, not miracles, Acid Rain must be the cause. Let’s say a rain storm occurs in a forest. The summer spring washes the leaves of the branches and fall to the forest floor below. Some of the water is absorbed into the soil. Water run-off enters nearby streams, rivers, or lakes. That soil may have neutralized some or all of the acidity of the acid rainwater. After a while the leaves begin to lose their waxy-coating and the roots begin to absorb acid rain. The plant begins to weaken for lack of real food and becomes vulnerable to other killers like cold weather and insects.

Acid rain does not only damage the natural ecosystems, but also man-made materials and structures. Marble, limestone, and sandstone can easily be dissolved by acid rain. Metals, paints, textiles, and ceramic can effortlessly be corroded. Acid rain can downgrade leather and rubber. Man-made materials slowly deteriorate even when exposed to unpolluted rain, but acid rain helps speed up the process. Acid rain causes carvings and monuments in stones to lose their features. The repairs on building and monuments can be quite costly. In Westminster, England, up to ten million pounds was spent necessitated on repairs damaged by acid rain. In 1990, the United States spent thirty-five billion dollars on paint damage. In 1985, the Cologne Cathedral cost the Germans approximately twenty million dollars in repairs. The Roman monuments cost the Romans about two hundred million dollars.

Prevention steps are already being taken. In 1991, the United States and Canada signed an air quality agreement. Ever since that time, both countries have taken actions to reduce sulfur dioxide emission. The United States agree to reduce their annual sulfur dioxide emission by about ten million tons by the year 2000. A year before the agreement, the Clean Air Pact Amendment tried to reduce nitrogen oxide by two million tons. This program focused on the source that emits nitrogen oxide, automobiles and coal-fired electric utility boilers. Acid rain is an issue that cannot be overlooked. This phenomenon destroys anything it touches or interacts with. When acid rain damages the forest or the environment, it affects humans in the long run. Once forests are totally destroyed and lakes are totally polluted animals begin to decrease because of lack of food and shelter. If all the animals, which are our food source, die out, humans too would die out. Acid rain can also destroy our homes and monuments that humans build and admire. What humans can do to reduce sulfur and nitrogen dioxide emission is to reduce the use of fossil fuels. Car pools, public transportation, or walking can reduce tons of nitrogen oxide emissions. In this day in age you don’t really have to do the recommended car pool. But buying a mostly electric car (Like those featured in Japan and Europe) can do more than even car pooling. Plus think of all the gas money you are saving. Some hybrid cars are used frequently and still only need filling once a month. Also, using less energy benefits the environment because the energy used comes from fossil fuels which can lead to acid rain. For example, turning off lights not being used, and reduce air conditioning and heat usage. Replacing old appliances and electronics with newer energy efficient products is also an excellent idea. Sulfur dioxide emission can be reduced by adding scrubbers to utility plants. An alternative power source can also be used in power plants to reduce emissions. These alternatives are: geothermal energy, solar power energy, wind energy, and water energy.

In conclusion, the two primary sources of acid rain is sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. Automobiles are the main source of nitrogen oxide emissions, and utility factories are the main source for sulfur dioxide emissions. These gases evaporate into the atmosphere and then oxidized in clouds to form nitric or nitrous acid and sulfuric acid. When these acids fall back to the earth they do not cause damage to just the environment but also to human health. Acid rain kills plant life and destroys life in lakes and ponds. The pollutants in acid rain causes problems in human respiratory systems. The pollutants attack humans indirectly through the foods they consumed. They effected human health directly when humans inhale the pollutants. Governments have passed laws to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, but it is no use unless people start to work together in stopping the release of these pollutants. If the acid rain destroys our environment, eventually it will destroy us as well.

What Makes You Better Than Me? (Essay on racism against blacks)

Today, if you were to walk through the exciting, overpopulated streets of any city of the Eastern Coast, you would be invited in any arena of entertainment or establishment. People would not look at you twice because of the color of your skin. Today, the United States is considered the melting pot of the world; every race is mingling together as a whole. Don’t be fooled by this vision you see, because it has not been like this always. Not long ago from our present time, in the 1940′s people were judged by the color of their skin. This society was a black and white picture. There was the separation of the whites and African Americans. These two groups had different rules to play by, and the rules were in favor for the whites whom made the rules for this society. Many African Americans’ lived in a world that they were not accepted due to the color of their skin, society though had no problem using them for their benefit and this poor race of the African Americans were reminded every waking day that their “kind” was not wanted by society.

African American’s were judged in many forms. For instance, people did not like them because of their dark, brown skin which was thought to be unclean and along with this they were believed to have a stench, a smell, as society would describe it and their unkempt, unruly hair. So in other words, if they did hot fit the mold, or come close to looking like the white-man, they were plainly not worthy to be in the same environment as their judgers. Maybe this came from many years that they were considered to be property just as one would keep a dog. As you can see in this photo, the segregation of the two races was a true but sad reality of life for the African American.

Being racist cannot only be taught, it can be learned and from ignorance of oneself. It can, for some, be appealing to one’s eye because of the perceived benefits. For many years, too many to count, the African American man, woman and child was brought to the United States as a donkey was brought here from the Spanish country to work hard, by tending the land bear all physical work duties as his owner demanded. Even though one can be prejudiced, as I have stated, it can be appealing to ones eye, for instance an African American was not worthy to be alive or recognized by society during this time, but as you see in this photo, they were good enough to fight and protect this country, so you ask yourself, is this a double standard or what? Don’t you think this person deserved to be recognized, treated with respect and given the same advantages as in the society he lived, after all he loved this country so much that he would give his own life to protect it.

How would like to be told that you are not wanted, verbally, in your own environment. What about if you decided to take a stroll on a summer, warm day, while the birds are singing and when the breeze is touching your body as if it was in love with you? And as you strolled in your own town you are told, silently, that you are not wanted by window signs, door signs, building signs that are all either handwritten or painted, these are displayed with ho shame, no care in the world. After all you are not worthy to live in the same world as the whites. This is what you would of read and saw if you were an African American in the 1940s. This would be a bleak, sad and lonely environment to have lived in.

Look at your neighbor; look at the people in your society. Can you really point out a true, pure one race? Today we live in a world that the pure one race person has become the rarity. We all have the same goals, want and needs as a person. There is no difference except where we came from. What makes one person better than the other? Is it money? Money can be here one day and gone the next. Is it looks? Looks can be bought. If race is what is the problem remember we all come from the HUMAN RACE. Our nationality is nothing more than a label that is handed down through time. How would you feel if you were segregated and hated because of the color of your eyes, the straightness in your hair and last but not least the color of your skin? Can you tell me what is so different about these two people? All I see is two men whom had many dreams and wants in life.

Exemplification essay

Here I have the challenge of writing an essay. It is one of the things that I dread the most in life. Many times I have been asked to write an essay for English class, and each time I despise it. Yet it has proved to be an invaluable skill, as I am writing one now. Some of the many things that I have learned from writing essays and other projects are time management, open-mindedness, and taking time to relax.

“You should have done these weeks ago. You’ll be sorry that you waited until the last minute to do this!” Mom’s words prove true again and again. Time management is one of the most useful skills I learned from my twelve years in school. I used it in planning my Eagle Scout project by spreading the work over a few weekends so the workers would not be too tired to work effectively. I used it in completing my science fair projects so that I would have time to experiment and collect data. I have also used it in doing homework so that I would have time to be with my friends while maintaining good grades in school. Without it the world would be a disaster. What if instead of declaring war after the Pearl Harbor bombing Roosevelt decided to wait until the mainland was being bombed to declare war? I would be writing this from Virginia, Japan, and it definitely wouldn’t be written in English. Effective time management is the key to success.

Being open to other people’s ideas helps in writing essays as well as every other aspect of life. On many occasions I have asked my parents, teachers and peers for ideas to help me to write essays, and other complicated tasks. I used my Scoutmaster’s advice to plan my Eagle project so that it could be done more efficiently. In this essay I asked my English teacher to review my draft so that it could make more sense to you. As they say, two heads are better than one. All around us, people use others’ ideas. The President has a cabinet to help him run the country, and most businesses have a board of directors to run the company. The board of directors in turn uses the department head’s ideas, and the department’s heads use the ideas of people in the department to make things easier to accomplish. Open-mindedness is the second key to success.

Breathe in, breathe out. Breathe in, breath out. Taking time to relax helps to clear you mind of unnecessary thoughts and to focus on the job at hand. Whenever I get writer’s block, a take a few minutes to do some deep breathing to clear my mind and think of what I want to say. Too often I see people that don’t take time to relax, and they are always too frazzled to get any good work done. Those that never relax, workaholics, can have a complete mental breakdown and are out of commission for weeks. Last winter I went with my family skiing in Colorado. There I met some of the nicest people I have ever run into in my entire life. Why was everyone so nice and happy? Everyone there was on vacation. They were all relaxing. It was a big difference from the normal here, in the Washington D.C. area: everyone is working eight hours a day or more, running around in stressful traffic jams three hours to work and back, then spending the weekends cleaning house for the relatives coming into town for the holidays, or catching up on work that was past due. I wouldn’t have been able to write this essay if I didn’t take a small break in the middle. So relax, enjoy life before it passes you by.

These are the three most important things that I have learned from writing essays and other projects. Where would my life be without those skills? Probably, I would be much worse than I am now. Using time management to study for taking the SATs, taking advice from others as to where and how I want to spend the next four or five years of my life, and having some time to enjoy myself as a young adult have made my current life much easier. They have and will continue to be the most invaluable tools available to me.

The eradication of poverty. Thesis Statement: There are many different reasons why poverty occurs and as such there are many different avenues to pursue in the eradication of poverty

Sentence Outline:

1. Government action and charity from the business sector and private individuals helps

in the eradication of poverty.

2. Education is a way of helping the poverty stricken to better themselves and increase

their standard of living.

3. The injection of money into the economy by the government, foreign investment or

foreign aid may help decrease poverty by creating jobs.

4. Family planning is a useful tool in the eradication of poverty.

5. Drug treatment centers will aid in the task of the eradicating poverty.

Conclusion:

Poverty may be caused by many factors for instance lack of jobs, lack of skills, one may be born into poverty or one may be forced into poverty by lifestyle choices. Irrespective of the cause of poverty the eradication of poverty should be a worldwide goal

as it brings benefit to no one. This is why help should be forthcoming from all sectors of the population including the government, the business sector and private individuals to rid society of the problem of poverty.

ESSAY: The eradication of poverty.

There are many different reasons why poverty occurs and as such there are many different avenues to pursue in the eradication of poverty. The term poverty may have vastly differing meaning to people from different countries or backgrounds. This occurs because poverty is not uniform everywhere and the methods of eradicating poverty need to be adapted to the different situations that exist. Nevertheless the need for support from governments, the business sector, non-profit organizations and the public is needed on a worldwide basis.

Government action, charity from the business sector and private individuals helps in the eradication of poverty. For instance, the government may institute school feeding programmes so that underprivileged children will have at least one meal a day. Members of the business sector may contribute funds towards building a shelter for the homeless and private individuals may donate items such as clothing to the poor. Provision of shelter, meals and clothing to the poor and homeless is the first step towards increasing their standard of living as their basic needs are being met.

Education is a way of helping the poverty stricken to better themselves and increase their standard of living. The government and non-profit organizations working alone or together can provide free training to the poor. The provision of training will allow these less fortunate individuals to learn a skill, which they can use to make themselves employable or earn a higher wage. This will enable them to enjoy a better standard of living as they can better provide for themselves and their families.

The injection of money into the economy by the government, foreign investment or foreign aid may help decrease poverty by creating jobs. People who were previously unemployed may be able to find gainful employment. They would then be able to increase their standard of living as they now have a reliable source of income to provide for their needs.

Family planning is another useful tool in the eradication of poverty. Many families still experience poverty even though both parents are employed. This occurs many of the times because there are too many children to support with the income being earned. Through education about family planning people can learn to have manageable sized families where they can enjoy a reasonable standard of living even if their income is not very high.

Lastly, drug treatment centers will aid in the task of eradicating poverty. Many people become destitute because of their addiction to drugs. Centers are needed where these people can go to for help to overcome their addiction. Overcoming drug addiction will be the first step to overcoming poverty for these people. Once a drug addict has been rehabilitated he can move on with his life and once more become a useful member of society and provide for himself.

Poverty may be caused by many factors for instance lack of jobs, lack of skills, one may be born into poverty or one may be forced into poverty by lifestyle choices. Irrespective of the cause of poverty the eradication of poverty should be a worldwide goal as it brings benefit to no one. This is why help should be forthcoming from all sectors of the population including the government, the business sector and private individuals to rid society of the problem of poverty.

Descursive Essay on Asylum Seekers in Britain

I have chosen to do my discursive essay on asylum seekers. I will try to separate the myths, bad press and lies from the facts. I had to think carefully about taking on this subject as the argument of asylum has many faces, there are many people with many views about this topic. The subject of asylum is not just black and white.

There are many claims about asylum seekers that give them a bad name and one of these dubious claims are that Britain is the land of milk and honey for asylum seekers, and that they can what they want here. Is Britain really the land of milk and honey for asylum seekers? In fact, no. Asylum seekers are not allowed to claim mainstream welfare benefits. If they are destitute, the only option for some is to apply for support with the National Asylum Support Service (NASS), the Government department responsible for supporting destitute asylum applicants. NASS support is very basic indeed. A single adult has to survive on £37.77 a week – 30% below the poverty line. It is irrational to suggest that asylum seekers embark on arduous and often dangerous journeys to the UK for that amount of money. From 8th January the Government will withhold support from the majority of people who apply for asylum once inside the UK, rather than at a port. According to housing and welfare experts, this is likely to lead to chronic destitution and homelessness. There is no sound factual basis for discriminating against those who claim asylum once they are in the UK – in fact the Home Office’s own figures show that around 65 per cent of positive decisions are given to in-country applicants. A joint study by Oxfam and the Refugee Council shows that the asylum system, far from making the UK ‘a land of milk and honey’ for asylum seekers, institutionalises poverty. A report was produced on the basis of studying 40 organisations working with asylum seekers and refugees, who revealed that of those with whom they have contact, 85% experience hunger, and 95% cannot, afford to buy clothes or shoes and 80% are not able to maintain good health. The report reveals that many asylum seekers do not receive the basic support they may be entitled to, because the system is badly designed, extremely bureaucratic and poorly run.

Another claim is that 9 out of 10 asylum seekers are conmen who will pretend to be in danger to get to Britain. In fact, statistics published by the Home Office figures (2nd quarter, 2002) show that well over 50 per cent of asylum seekers are given permission to stay in this country: 43 per cent of initial decisions that have been properly assessed resulted in applicants being given the right to remain in this country for their protection and around one in four appeals are successful. The fact that so many asylum seekers who are initially refused go on to win their appeals reflects the poor quality of decision making at the Home Office. Such statements fail to recognise the connection between the situation in countries of origin and the people who seek refuge in the UK. You only need look at the latest top four nationalities – Iraq, Zimbabwe, Afghanistan and Somalia – of those seeking asylum to see that this increase in positive decisions proves that the majority of asylum seekers are fleeing for their lives from harsh and oppressive regimes and severe ethnic conflict. It is unfortunate that the same government, which is planning a possible war against Iraq, citing its oppressive political regime as good cause, at the same time, fails to recognise the reasons why people flee such regimes.

The ideas that are often portrayed of asylum seekers are not just ones of foreigners trying to get into Britain but sometimes asylum seekers are accused of being criminals, one of these many alarmist headlines implying that all asylum seekers are criminals is that Britain is losing the war on asylum crime. In fact a report published by the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) recently confirmed that there is no evidence for a higher rate of criminality among refugees and asylum seekers. In fact, according to ACPO, having fled danger in their home country, asylum seekers are more likely to become victims of crime in the UK. There have been countless attacks on asylum seekers around Britain, including the murder of an asylum seeker in Glasgow in 2001 and in Sunderland earlier this year. The murder in Glasgow prompted the UN High Commissioner for Refugees to condemn the British media for provoking racial hatred.

This hatred is often provoked by the NHS related headlines like “asylum seekers are draining millions from our NHS” This statement is completely unsubstantiated. What is more, asylum seekers are entitled to NHS services, like other residents and visitors to the UK. This idea ignores the enormous contribution that asylum seekers, refugees and other immigrants make to the economic and cultural life of the UK. Refugees bring with them a wealth of skills and experience – even the Home Office has recognised this and made a commitment, though its Integration Unit, to put such skills to good use. The NHS relies heavily on foreign labour – according to the Greater London Authority, 23% of doctors and 47% of nurses working within the NHS were born outside the UK. According to a recent Home Office study carried out last year, migrants, including asylum seekers and refugees – are far from being a burden on UK taxpayers. On the contrary, in 1999-2000, they made a net fiscal contribution of approximately £2.5 billion, worth 1p on income tax. Research carried out by Personnel Today in November 2001, found that 9 out of 10 employers want to take on refugees to meet skills’ shortages, but do not due to ignorance of the law and confusing Home Office paperwork. Despite such evidence and that of the contributions, real and potential, the Government has recently reversed legislation so that asylum seekers are now prevented from working. Home Office research has shown that asylum seekers would by far prefer to support themselves than be supported by the Government, yet the law prevents them from doing so. Sadly, it is asylum seekers, who are demonised for ‘draining’ the state, when, despite commitments on refugee integration, they are discouraged from being independent.

Another claim about the rising amount of asylum seekers in the UK is that 90 per cent stay anyway. Asylum seekers are not cheats because they have been unsuccessful with their asylum application – after all, they have exercised a fundamental human right. The asylum process is not easy: the criteria set out in the 1951 Convention on Refugees, against which asylum claims are examined, are very strict. At the same time, Home Office decisions are often based on inaccuracies, failures to probe certain issues, and an overemphasis on trying to discredit the applicant during the asylum interview. A large number of asylum seekers have their applications refused on purely procedural grounds. Many are unable to complete the Statement of Evidence Form, in which they have to outline, in English, their reasons for seeking asylum, within the required ten-day deadline. 21,220 applications were refused on non-compliance grounds in 2001, representing a fifth of total refusals; such refusals have nothing to do with the substance or credibility of a claim.

Those views and facts above may have set you right on the subject of asylum seekers, but it shouldn’t put your mind at rest. Asylum Seekers are still a big problem in the UK although it’s not as bad as it was in past years.

Even thought the statistics for 2003 were down by more than three quarters, Asylum is still a huge issue in Britain today.

In this essay I have tried to show both sides of the asylum debate. I have come to the conclusion that people should not automatically judge asylum seekers; the subject of asylum is complex and not just black and white. I hope that I have been able to separate the fact from fiction on the asylum debate.

The Coca Cola Company This is a well written essay about the history of the coca-cola company i made in my 10th grade year in high school.

The product that has given the world its best-known taste was born in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886 (Hays 32). Dr. John Stith Pemberton, a local pharmacist, produced the syrup for Coca-Cola, and carried a jug of the new product down the street to Jacobs’ Pharmacy (Hays 35). There it was sampled and pronounced excellent, teamed with carbonated water placed on sale for five cents a glass as a soda fountain drink and at once deemed delicious and refreshing, a theme that repeats itself today wherever Coca-Cola is enjoyed (The coca cola company).

Thinking that “the two Cs would look well in advertising,” Dr. Pemberton’s partner and bookkeeper, Frank M. Robinson, suggested the name and now famous trademark “Coca-Cola” (Pendergrast 15). The first newspaper ad for Coca-Cola soon appeared in The Atlanta Journal, inviting thirsty citizens to try “the new and popular soda fountain drink” (Hays 39). Hand-painted signs reading “Coca-Cola” appeared on store awnings, with the suggestion “Drink” added to inform one that the new beverage was for soda fountain refreshment. During the first year, sales averaged a modest nine drinks per day (The coca cola company).

Dr. Pemberton never realized the potential of the beverage he created. He gradually sold portions of his business to various partners and, just prior to his death in 1888, sold his remaining interest in Coca-Cola to Asa G. Candler from Atlanta (Hays 46). With good judgment, Mr. Candler bought additional rights and got complete control, and on May 1, 1889, Asa Candler published a full-page advertisement in The Atlanta Journal, proclaiming his wholesale and retail drug business as “sole proprietors of Coca-Cola … Delicious. Refreshing. Exhilarating. Invigorating” (Watters 24).

By 1892, Mr. Candler’s merchandising had boosted sales of Coca-Cola syrup nearly tenfold (Watters 31). He shut down his drug business, and focused his full attention on the soft drink (Watters 31). With his brother, John S. Candler, John Pemberton’s former partner Frank Robinson and two other associates, Mr. Candler formed a Georgia corporation named The Coca-Cola Company (Pendergrast 42). The trademark “Coca-Cola,” used in the marketplace since 1886, was registered in the United States Patent Office on January 31, 1893 (Hays 51). A firm believer in advertising, Mr. Candler expanded on Dr. Pemberton’s marketing efforts, distributing thousands of coupons for a free glass of Coca-Cola (Hays 51). He promoted the product with souvenir fans, calendars, clocks, and countless novelties, all showing the trademark (Burp! Pepsi Versus Coke).

The business continued to grow, and in 1894, the first syrup manufacturing plant outside Atlanta was opened in Dallas, Texas (Documentary). Others were opened in Chicago, Illinois, and Los Angeles, California, the following year (Watters 49). In 1895, three years after The Coca-Cola Company’s incorporation, Mr. Candler announced in his annual report to shareholders that “Coca-Cola is now drunk in every state and territory in the United States” (Hays 53). As demand for Coca-Cola increased, the Company outgrew its facilities. A new building built in 1898 was the first devoted exclusively to the production of syrup and the management of the business (The Coca-Cola Company). Although Mr. Candler hailed the new, three-story structure as “sufficient for all our needs for all time to come,” it was inadequate in just over a decade (Watters 49)While Mr. Candler’s efforts focused on boosting soda fountain sales, another concept was being developed that would spread the enjoyment of Coca-Cola worldwide. In 1894, in Vicksburg, Mississippi, Joseph A. Biedenharn was so impressed by the growing demand for Coca-Cola at his soda fountain that he installed bottling machinery in the rear of his store (Pendergrast 61). He began selling cases of Coca-Cola to farms and lumber camps up and down the Mississippi River, becoming the first bottler of Coca-Cola (Pendergrast 61).

Large-scale bottling was made possible in 1899, when Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead of Chattanooga, Tennessee, secured from Mr. Candler the exclusive rights to bottle and sell Coca-Cola in practically the entire United States (The Coca Cola Company). With contract in hand, they joined John T. Lupton from Chattanooga, and began to develop what is today the worldwide Coca-Cola bottling system (Watters 60). The first bottling plant under the new contract was opened in Chattanooga in 1899, the second in Atlanta the following year (Watters 61). By then, realizing they could not raise enough money to build bottling operations nationwide, Thomas, Whitehead and Lupton decided to seek outside resources (Hays 70). They contracted with different people to establish Coca-Cola bottling operations within certain areas (Hays 70).

Over the next 20 years, the number of plants grew from two to more than 1,000 (Documentary). As the business grew, the development of high-speed bottling machinery and increasingly efficient transportation allowed bottlers to serve more customers with more products. Today, the Coca-Cola bottling system is one of the largest, most widespread production and distribution networks in the world (Burp! Pepsi Versus Coke). The bottlers of Coca-Cola in the early 1900s had their share of challenges. Probably the most persistent and serious was protecting the product and the package from imitation (Burp! Pepsi Versus Coke). Imitation may be the sincerest form of flattery, but in the business world it can mean the death of a good name.

Early advertising warned of the perils of popularity. “Demand the genuine” and “Accept no substitutes” reminded consumers to settle for nothing less than the real thing (Hays 83). The battle against substitution urged evolution of the distinctive hobble-skirt bottle (Watters 75). A variety of straight-sided containers was used through 1915, but as soft-drink competition grew, so did imitation (Burp! Pepsi Versus Coke). Coca-Cola deserved a unique package, and in 1916, the bottlers approved the contour bottle designed by the Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana (Pendergrast 69). The now-familiar shape was granted as a trademark by the U.S. Patent Office in 1977, and the bottle thus joined the trademarks “Coca-Cola,” registered in 1893, and “Coke,” registered in 1945 (Documentary).

In 1919, a group of investors headed by Ernest Woodruff and W. C. Bradley purchased The Coca-Cola Company for $25 million (Documentary). Four years later, Robert Winship Woodruff, Ernest Woodruff’s son, was elected president of the Company, beginning more than six decades of active leadership in the business (The Coca-Cola Company). The new 33-year-old president from Georgia put uncommon emphasis on product quality (Hays 88). Mr. Woodruff established a “Quality Drink” campaign using a staff of highly trained servicemen to assist fountain outlets in aggressively selling and serving Coca-Cola (Hays 88). And with the assistance of leading bottlers, his management formed quality standards for every phase of the bottling operation (Watters 80). Mr. Woodruff saw potential for the bottle business, so advertising and marketing support was increased greatly (Watters 81). By the end of 1928, Coca-Cola sales in bottles had for the first time exceeded fountain sales (Watters 81).

Robert Woodruff’s leadership through the years took the Coca-Cola business to unrivaled heights of commercial success (Documentary). Merchandising concepts accepted as normal today were considered revolutionary when Mr. Woodruff introduced them. The Company invented the new six-bottle carton in the early 1920s, for example, making it easier for the consumer to take Coca-Cola home (Hays 91). The simple cardboard carton, described as “a home package with a handle of invitation,” became one of the industry’s most powerful merchandising tools (Hays 91). In 1929, the carton was joined by another revolutionary advance, the metal, open-top cooler, which made it possible for Coca-Cola to be served ice-cold in retail outlets (Pendergrast 72). The cooler later was improved through mechanical refrigeration and automatic coin control (Pendergrast 86). Factories, offices and many other establishments therefore became outlets for well-liked refreshment (The Coca-Cola Company).

The 1933 Chicago World’s Fair marked the introduction of automatic fountain dispensers, in which syrup and carbonated water were mixed as the drink was poured (Documentary). Soda fountain operators had dispensed Coca-Cola manually since its creation in 1886, and visitors to the fair were amazed to see the attendant pour a drink simply by pulling a handle (Documentary). By 1937, the automatic dispenser had become an important feature of the fountain and similar “post-mix” outlets, and today, modern fountain technology continues to dispense Company products faster and better than ever before (Hays 102).

Perhaps Mr. Woodruff’s greatest contribution was his vision of Coca-Cola as an international product. Working with talented associates, he established the global momentum that eventually carried Coca-Cola to every corner of the world (Burp! Pepsi Versus Coke). In the first two decades of the 20th Century, the international growth of Coca-Cola had been rather unplanned (Watters 85). It began in 1900, when Charles Howard Candler, oldest son of Asa Candler, took a jug of syrup with him on vacation to England, and an order for five gallons of syrup was mailed back to Atlanta (Watters 85). The same year, Coca-Cola traveled to Cuba and Puerto Rico, and it wasn’t long before the international distribution of syrup began (Hays 102). Through the early 1900s, bottling operations were built in Cuba, Panama, Canada, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam (Hays 103). In 1920, a bottling company began operating in France as the first bottler of Coca-Cola on the European continent (Hays 103).

Mr. Woodruff’s vision of the international potential of Coca-Cola is still being refined by the Company, building the Coca-Cola business into an unmatched global system for providing a simple moment of pleasure (The Coca-Cola Company). At the outbreak of World War II, Coca-Cola was bottled in 44 countries, including those on both sides of the conflict (Documentary). But far from ruining the business, the war simply presented a new set of challenges and opportunities for the entire Coca-Cola system. The entry of the United States into the war brought an order from Robert Woodruff in 1941 “to see that every man in uniform gets a bottle of Coca-Cola for 5 cents, wherever he is and whatever it costs the Company” (Pendergrast 90)This effort to supply the armed forces with Coke was being launched when an urgent telegram arrived from General Dwight Eisenhower’s Allied Headquarters in North Africa (Documentary). Dated June 29, 1943, it requested shipment of materials and equipment for 10 bottling plants (Documentary). Prefaced by the directive that the shipments were not to replace other military cargo, the cablegram also requested shipment of 3 million filled bottles of Coca-Cola, along with supplies for producing the same quantity twice monthly (Pendergrast 99). Within six months, a Company engineer had flown to Algiers, opening the first plant, ahead of 64 bottling plants shipped abroad during World War II (Watters 91). More than 5 billion bottles of Coke were consumed by military personnel during the war, in addition to countless servings through dispensers and mobile, self-contained units in battle areas (Watters 91).

But the presence of Coca-Cola did more than just lift the morale of the troops. In many areas, it gave local people their first taste of Coca-Cola, a taste they obviously enjoyed (Pendergrast 100). And when peace returned, the Coca-Cola system was poised for unmatched worldwide growth (Burp! Pepsi Versus Coke). From the mid-1940s until 1960, the number of countries with bottling operations nearly doubled (Pendergrast 100). As the world emerged from a time of conflict, Coca-Cola emerged as a worldwide symbol of friendship and refreshment.

From the late 1940s to the 1970s, the United States, like most of the world, changed at an unprecedented pace. The Coca-Cola Company also experienced its most dramatic changes in marketing and merchandising since the arrival of bottling in the late 1890s (Watters 60). World War II had changed the world, and the Company faced a new, more complex global marketplace.

Until the mid-1950s, the world of Coca-Cola was defined by a 6 ½ ounce bell-shaped fountain glass (The Coca-Cola Company). But as consumers demanded a wider variety of choices, the Company responded with innovative packaging and new technology and products (Hays 104). In 1955, the Company introduced the 10, 12, and 26 ounce king-size and family-size bottles, which were immediately successful (Hays, 105). Metal cans first developed for armed forces overseas were on U.S. market shelves by 1960, and then, following years of research into plastic soft-drink bottles, the Company introduced PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) packaging in 1977 in the 2-liter size (The Coca-Cola Company).

Through the years, jingles and slogans have set the pace for Coca-Cola advertising. One of the world’s most famous advertising slogans, “The Pause That Refreshes,” first appeared in The Saturday Evening Post in 1929 (Documentary). The 1950s produced “Sign of Good Taste,” “Be Really Refreshed” and “Go Better Refreshed” (Documentary) Many more memorable slogans followed, including “Things Go Better with Coke” in 1963 and “It’s the Real Thing,” first used in 1942, which was revived in 1969 to support a new, tremendously successful merchandising stance for Coca-Cola (Burp! Pepsi Versus Coke).

Fine illustrations by top artists including Norman Rockwell were featured in colorful ads that projected the product’s image in leading magazines (Hays 110). Noted artist Haddon Sundblom’s popular Santa Claus “portraits,” which began in the 1930s, continued as holiday ads until the early 1960s (Hays 110). Since the mid-1920s, radio had been the most important communication medium for Coca-Cola (Watters 65). The popular “Things Go Better with Coke” jingle became a hit, using successful groups to sing the jingle in their own musical styles (Watters 66). The Company’s advertising changed along with the world, reaching new groups of consumers through new channels, most notably television. In1950, Edgar Bergen and his partner, Charlie McCarthy, appeared on the first live television show sponsored by The Coca-Cola Company (Watters 68). As the medium evolved from program sponsorship to commercials that ran during different shows, many famous celebrities advertised Coca-Cola (Pendergrast 103).

Through the years, advertising for Coca-Cola has changed in many ways, but the message, like the trademark, has remained the same. The history of Coca-Cola is a story of moments that originated with Dr. Pemberton in Atlanta and have been multiplied billions of times around the world. It has been made familiar and universal by Mr. Candlers’s unique advertising and Mr. Woodruff’s vision to put Coca-Cola “within an arm’s reach of desire” (Cola-Cola Company). Today, Coca-Cola is the most universal consumer product in the world and each day, Coca-Cola strengthens its position as the world’s leading soft drink (Documentary). Every day, people experience a delicious, refreshing moment that only Coca-Cola can bring them. Through more than a century of change, Coca-Cola remains a timeless symbol of quality refreshment.

Composition I short essay on the American Educational System.

The question posed is “What should the education system be?” This question cannot be answered specifically because the education system means something different to everyone. The education system is, to an extent, what it should be, which is an institution devoted to the development of the intellect. American education should however, be more than rote instruction of mandated materials. Our children should be taught more life skills along with science and math.

Children sit in rows, facing straight, not talking. They select and use educational materials in unison, and watch the teacher write on the board. The droning sound of the teacher’s voice attempts to fill their minds with knowledge. It sounds militaristic because it is. Students remember more of what they are taught if the material is presented in a less formal, more enjoyable atmosphere. School administrators and state agencies set forth guidelines from which teachers must not deviate. The problem is, these administrators are removed from the classroom and tend to forget that children have changing needs. Today’s teachers learn more progressive teaching methods such as portfolio assessment vs. testing, and sitting in groups instead of rows. There are few administrators willing to incorporate these changes into their schools. Education management needs to allow teachers the flexibility to teach their students using whatever methods actually work. There is no reason why children should not look forward to school.

For the most part, our education system is devoted to teaching students. There is great concern that students should be prepared to move on to higher stages of education. Tests are given periodically to gauge students’ progress. There is much discussion how improving education and better preparing students for the world. Students do learn, and many excel, but school is still viewed as drudgery by most students.

If our education system is to prepare children for the world educators need to look more closely at curriculum. Art, philosophy, history, math, English and science are all important subjects. They teach us about the world around us and how things work. The social setting of the educational facilities also compels students to learn about society and what is acceptable behavior. However, are we properly preparing our students for the world? Are we teaching life skills like personal finance and relationship dynamics? Can we lower the rate of divorce or the number of poverty-stricken retirees by educating students in these areas? Our education system needs to incorporate fundamental life skills into the curriculum. The focus on education should not stop at the goal to create an intelligent adult. The education system must also attempt to create a responsible citizen, an asset to the community.

The American education system is not entirely broken. There are many positive things happening. Progressive teaching methods are being employed and the student is being recognized as more of an individual. America cannot stop here. We need to ask ourselves if the moral fabric of our country can be improved through education. The education system plays a larger role in our lives than any other one thing. The system needs to use this influence to improve society as a whole and people as individuals.

Australian playwright essay – jack davis. bibliography included

Jack Davis

* What was the playwright’s particular background?

Playwright, poet and spokesperson Jack Davis has emerged in Australian history as not only one of the most influential Australian playwrights but also as a leading and distinguishing voice for Aboriginal people.

Davis was born in 1917 in Perth and grew up in the timber town of Yarloop in the south-west of Australia. Both of his parents were taken from their tribes and raised into white families. Davis was the fourth of eleven children and spoke of his fairly conventional Western Australian childhood in “White society” with happiness. Sadly his family was broken up during the Depression when his father was involved in a fatal accident with a bull.

Davis was then taken to the infamous Moore River Native Settlement where he realized the harsh realities of what it meant to be an Aboriginal in White Australia. His nine months there made such an impression that the settlement became the setting for two of his most famous plays, No Sugar and The Dreamers.

Davis was then moved to Brook Aboriginal Settlement, where he gained an interest in the culture of his people, the Nyoongarah, and began to study their language and rituals. It was here he began to question what it meant to be an aboriginal and the meaning of ‘aboriginality’; a question he found difficult to answer because “I (Davis) wasn’t brought up in a camp, I never had anything to do with the reserve situation until I was about fourteen” . The quest for identity is a strong theme in many of his plays.

After occupying many jobs ranging from engine driver to stockman Davis was imprisoned for breaking curfew in 1930. From this time he began to be politically active and in 1967 became director of the Aboriginal Centre in Perth until 1971. His later appointments include Chairman of the Aboriginal Lands Trust in WA from 1971, Manager of the Aboriginal Publications Foundation 1972-77 as well as the founder of important Aboriginal periodical ‘Identity’ in 1971.

Davis published two volumes of poetry, the first in 1970, and after writing poetry was commissioned by the Western Australian Government to write a play for the sesquicentenary celebrations. This was the birth of his play Kullark, which was the first of many influential plays.

Among the recognition he has received, Davis was rewarded with the British Empire Medal in 1977 and became a member of the Order of Australia in 1985. For his play No Sugar he received the Kate Challis RAKA Award – one of Australia’s most valuable and prestigious national awards for Indigenous creative artists – and in 1986 was co-winner of the Australian Writers’ Guild award for best stage play (No sugar).

By 1991 Davis had written five major full length plays as well as two children’s plays, and had toured and been acclaimed internationally.

Davis died on the 17th of March 2000, aged 83.

* What was the historical, social, cultural and political context at the time in which Davis was writing for theatre?

Jack Davis’ first play was performed in 1979 and his last “Moorli and the Leprechaun” was published in 1994. Davis emerged from the 1970s; a decade hailed as “the most vibrant decade in the whole development of Australian drama” although he wrote mainly during the 1980s. This period saw a growth in new theatres, companies and writers and the vitality of Australian drama was proved reflected in the richness and variety of works and innovative theatre companies.

Due to post World War II immigration and new government policy the society of the 1980s was an increasingly multicultural one. The 1981 census showed that 46.8% of Australians were either born, or had at least one parent born overseas. The rise of these ‘ideals of multiculturalism [which] emerged from a change of attitude to migrants in Australia” are demonstrated by an increase in migrant theatre. For example playwright Nino Randazzo and The Doppio Teatro in Adelaide both of which represent the rise in Italo-Australian drama.

These ‘multicultural ideals’ were also seen in the social, cultural and political activities in relation to Aboriginal Australians at the time.

Before the 1967 referendum Aboriginals were not legally considered citizens or included in the national census. They experienced certain restrictions including limited rights of ownership, curfew and (except in Victoria) a ban on alcohol. In 1971 the Aboriginal Legal Service was established and proved an important breakthrough in the legal rights of Aboriginals. 1971 also saw the erection of the ‘Tent Embassy’ opposite parliament house in Canberra, which successfully dramatised the land rights issue for an international audience.

Another important date in ‘Aboriginal history’ is the bicentennial year of 1988. This year “provided a spotlight for Aboriginal grievances” and on the 26th of January 20000 – 40000 Australians marched in protest of the nation’s treatment of Aboriginals.

Politically the ‘land rights’ campaign was well underway, leading to the Mabo decision in 1992 and in May 1991 the Royal commission on Aboriginal Deaths in Custody presented its findings.

The 1980s saw a rapid increase in the development of Aboriginal Theatre helped by the rise in experimental and alternate theatre. The birth of Aboriginal Theatre is considered to be Kevin Gilbert’s play The Cherry Pickers in 1968. In 1977 the Aboriginal Theatre was formed, Canberra held the first National Black Playwright’s Conference in 1987 and the Aboriginal National Theatre, an all aboriginal production company, was established in 1988.

At the same time the aftermath of the Vietnam War brought a new wave of Australian Drama due to the effect of world events on the country. Australian history began to be explored and questioned, the search for the ‘Australian Identity’ continued and there was a rise in political plays. Touring international companies introduced new ideas to Australian theatre, leading to a ‘cross pollination’ effect.

Politically the decade was dominated by Prime Minister Bob Hawke who was elected in 1983. He aimed to solve industrial disputes through concessus and the National Economic Summit, and other economic regulations including the floating of the Australian dollar. In 1987 he spoke the famous words in relation to family allowance payments “no child will live in poverty by 1990″.

*What themes and issues was Jack Davis concerned about in his writing?

Davis’ work was first classified by Euro-Australian critics “within the frames established for indigenous writers as predominately protest in nature” Indeed Davis’ plays contain themes and issues highly relevant to Aboriginal Australians but do not mean to ‘protest’ but to bridge the gap between white and indigenous cultures through eduction and via giving the aboriginal people ‘a voice’.

The themes and issues Davis explores include historical events, contemporary issues such as discrimination, alcoholism, unemployment, and the search for the lost aboriginal identity due to the loss of community, land and The Dreaming. Although Davis explores the brutal discrimination and destruction of the Aboriginal culture he is no means resentful or attacking of the modern audience and often softens his harsh statements with sympathy and humour.

One of the major issues explored is the controversial history of Europeans and Aboriginals. Davis’ plays are based on actual events and people and are often realist plays, for example No Sugar and A.O. Neville “[Davis] tells stories about the Noongar experience of the history of indigenous and European contact and conflict in the distant and the immediate past, life under ‘protection’ legislation, life on the missions and life in the modern urban context.”

Davis’ plays often combine the past and the present to give insight into contemporary problems, as he believes that “the past exists in the present as we draw from the past” to help determine our future.

Davis therefore deals with contemporary issues such as the mistreatment of Aboriginals, deaths in custody, multiculturalism, repercussions of the stolen generation and land rights: “Do you believe in land rights too?” Thus Davis’ plays tend to have strong political implications.

“Aboriginal reality” is also a major theme in Davis work, the “co-existence of a material and spiritual reality represented symbolically often by dance and magic” and the cross cultural hybridisation of Aboriginal and ‘White’ culture.

Spiritualty is seen in the visual representation of the Rainbow Serpent in Kullark which signifies the connection of Aboriginal culture to the land and also is also in the use of songs and corroborees in Davis’ plays.

Cultural hybridity is demonstrated in the major theme of The Dreamers, being that modern Aboriginals are trapped ‘in limbo’ between the past and present. They juggle an impossible desire to return to the past, and struggle to survive in white-dominated urbanised Australia. This is expressed in the words of Worru in The Dreamers

“We stumble along in a half white mind…

There is a desert ahead and a desert behind…”

The theme of leaving is seen in all plays, either as the physical journey into separation or the spiritual journey into death.

Cultural hybridisation is also dramatized in Davis’ exploration of Christianity and the impact it has had on the lives of many Aboriginals. Davis is slightly critical “having a gentle dig at Christianity” as “[Christians] pressure every one they can”

Spatial dislocation is used to present the issue of white policing and domination over Aboriginal affairs. An example is the Melbourne performances of No Sugar, where the audience walked among the actors and the performance space was designed so that whites were elevated on either side of the main stage which was filled with orange earth. Although the whites are seen as higher than the Aboriginal characters, “The whites are reduced by this brilliant visual coup to fringe dwellers whose powers nevertheless intrude on the traditional occupants of the land”

*How did his theatrical presentation of these themes and issues reflect/challenge/develop the Australian society in which he was living?

Jack Davis is often hailed as one of the most influential Australian playwrights and Aboriginal spokesperson in history. As an activist for reconciliation his effect on the Australian community has been enormous. Jack Davis has made such an impact in Australian society because of the way his work reflects, challenges and aims to develop his society.

The realistic nature of Davis’ work and it’s deliberate use of political, social and historical statements are a strongly reflect his society. As Davis said himself “if you’re Aboriginal then you’re a politician. If you’re black then you’re political” thus Davis’ works were a deliberate reflection on the contextual political climate. Through use of juxtaposition Davis highlights the great inequalities of his society. He felt the need for these deliberate reflections on political and social happenings because the Aboriginal community “need(s) the publicity” . Thus he became a

spokesperson for the Aboriginal community and his plays are a vehicle for raising the ‘Black consciousness’ of the Australian society.

His works also reflect society’s feel for need of reconciliation and the current policy of multiculturalism. The first shows of Kullark were an unexpected sell-out and No Sugar was received with immediately apparent enthusiasm. This climate opened the market to other Aboriginal writers by creating awareness among theatre managers. His plays also allowed non-indigenous people who had no previous contact with Aboriginals an insight and sense of familiarity with the culture

By challenging social paradigms Davis “reclaimed power within the frameworks of cultural hierarchies and racially based premises by strengthening the pride and resources available to and controlled by Indigenous people.” In other words, by challenging white preconceptions, Davis made Aboriginals stronger from the inside.

He challenged the idea that we should forget about Aboriginal history because it was “so long ago”. He believes “we cannot be…” unless the past “it is a part of the living”

Davis “invades and conquers” the space of the majority view and refuses to follow

typical theatre conventions as he breaks free of the traditional forms. His unconventional stage settings and the use of cross-hybridisation is an example.

He also challenges critics who seek to limit him to either a white or black audience. His ability to appeal to both suggests that “Davis has succeeded in tapping into the vein that threads across generations, language barriers and racial lines.”

Davis work has had an incredible impact on the development of Australian society into one that accepts difference and multiculturalism. Davis work gives “a unique contribution to the reworking of Australian history from a perspective other than that of white colonisation- the perspective which has, up to now, shaped Australians’ understanding of themselves and their nation ” . His work has triumphed over the overwhelming silence of Australian history by giving a voice to Aboriginals.

His work has helped bring indigenous drama to the forefront and has paved the way for other aboriginal artists. His work has forced a reassessment of Australian drama and history through use of cross hybridisation of Aboriginal storytelling and western dramatic forms. He has also assisted the government to realize the value of Indigenous arts as part of Australian culture and this has led to an increase in funding. Aboriginal storytelling was brought to the attention of the world due to its prominent role in the Sydney 2000 Olympic Opening Ceremony.

Jack Davis’ work has been an inspiration both Aboriginal and non-indigenous

Australians and he has made a major contribution to intercultural relations within the Australian community both as an activist and artist.

This process essay is titled “How to Make the Perfect Apple Martini”. I wrote it for my English Compositions 1 class. It is about 540 words and got an 85.

How to make the perfect apple martini:

The first step in making an apple martini is to be prepared. Make sure you have all the necessary ingredients at hand. For this specific drink you will need: Grey Goose vodka (I said it would be perfect, not cheap!), Motts apple juice, green apple Pucker, a thinly sliced green apple wedge, and ice. Once you have the ingredients ready you will then need to make sure you have the appropriate tools. The tools needed are: a mixing glass, a bar ice scoop, a shot glass, a stirring rod, a strainer, and the martini glass (it wouldn’t be a real martini without one). When making the martini one must consider many things… mainly taste, color, and alcohol content. You don’t want it to be too strong, or watered down.

Now it’s time to get to work. The first step is to simply measure out one level bar scoop full of ice and plunk it down into the mixing glass. Secondly fill the shot glass to the rim with vodka, and dump it over the ice. (Make sure to dump the shot, you wouldn’t want all the vodka dribbling down the side of the shot glass.) Follow the same procedure for the shot of Pucker, and again with the shot of apple juice. There should be equal parts of all three liquids inside the mixing glass now. You are now done with the shot glass, and bottles. It is a good idea to get these out of the way so you have more room for mixing the drink.

Now take the stirring rod and place it inside the mixing glass. Put your hand over the mouth of the glass, and stir it no more than ten times. (If you stir it any more it will be watered down.) When you are done mixing it the drink should be a light green in color. (Just about the color of a granny smith apple.) If it is too dark of a green color: you’ve added too much Pucker. If it is too light: you’ve added too much vodka. Once you get the hang of it the color will be consistent just about every time.

You’re almost done, now its time to strain this perfect drink. Just place the strainer over the mouth of the mixing glass (make sure the spring is on the inside). Hold the strainer down with one hand, and the mixing glass with the other. Pour the drink into the martini glass making sure to not to dribble down the side of the mixing glass. The liquid should go almost up to the top of the glass, leaving about a centimeter left.

The final step in completing this work of perfection is to add the sliced apple wedge for a garnish. Simply cut a slit in the middle of the apple so it can rest on the rim of the martini glass easily. Slide the garnish on, and you’re finished.

This is one of the easiest and fastest drinks to make. It may take a few tries to get it down, but you should have no trouble mixing this to perfection. Believe me it will be well worth it in the end.

Managing in a Cross-cultural Environment

In the business world today, many companies are moving more toward a global stage have to deal with cultural differences and other daily changing factors. As multinational corporations become “more transnational, their strategies must address the cultural similarities and differences in their varied markets” (Hodgetts, 2005, p. 128). In this paper, each contributor will identify two separate companies that have faced challenges in the areas of cross-cultural management. The paper will also review specific issues faced by the course scenario company, Riordan Manufacturing in comparison with the contributors selected companies, how each selected companies responded to the specific issue and outcomes of the company’s selected response.

Key Course Concepts

Diversity and Multiculturalism

Both Disney and L’Oreal have a very high-level of knowledge base concerning multiculturalism and diversity. They are operating under the Phase IV in the Evolution Cycle according to Nancy Alder. This phase is mostly characterized by when an organization demonstrates a high-level of understanding for the cultural dynamics when planning their strategy, developing and locating production facilities, culturally designing marketing techniques and products, and acquiring the ability to manage cross-cultural interaction throughout the organization.

It is shown the both these companies have achieved success when they have taken the risk to ensure they operate under a multicultural approach. A contingency approach takes into account that there are different HRM practices in different cultures and for some different HRM practices within the same culture (Alder, 1991). As stated earlier, L’Oréal Cosmetics have developed products for an entire marketing area through a global process and scientific research.

Riordan can build from the templates created and developed by both of these organizations. One key note is how the HR Group developed a complete multicultural procedure that allows the organization to train, understand, and fulfill the global market base. Additionally, through the developed programs and diversity training methods these organizations have risen to the top of potential employee selection base.

Cultural Differences in Selected Countries and Regions

There are risks involved when maintaining operations overseas such as the foreign currency and economy. Wal-Mart must be cautious when selecting a country for their company. The organization must be mindful of the potential risks such as economy fluctuations, and unsecure foreign investments. Completing research on foreign business practices is vital because unacceptable practices in America may be acceptable in other countries and Wal-Mart must be current on this knowledge. It is important for Wal-Mart to attempt an accurate forecast on the future outlook on global economies and then pursue decisions and investments consequently.

Assess the readiness of global organizations to develop cross-cultural initiatives

It is important for Motorola to identify the need for cross-cultural training when engaging in international business. Motorola did not seem to provide adequate culture training and awareness. When two cultures join into one company, management is responsible for forming a united organizational culture. Conflict will arise if management does not provide cross-cultural training, awareness, and understanding.

Motorola must strengthen their cross-cultural training program by providing language training, forming strategy groups, and accept suggestions from both cultures. By building a multicultural team Motorola will have greater flexibility when making decisions, and form new ideas and perspectives.

International Management

Some companies operate in one country their entire existence and do not have to work amongst different cultures and countries which require international management. When Riordan opened operations in the country of China, the company faced the issue of having to meld many different cultures and at the same time ensure that the company maintained consistency in different countries. This can be difficult to do as with international management, companies are exposed to many different factors that must be handled according to the countries way of doing things but also along the company’s policies and procedures. Both the Toyota Motor Company and ING Group have had to adjust their policies and procedures to adhere to international management.

Company Synopsis

The Walt Disney Company

The best aspect to a customer when it comes to having interactions with a business is how well that business knows its clients and his or her needs. What company better lives up to that demand than the Walt Disney World Company (Disney), which has gone global, having theme parks in Florida, California, Japan, Hong Kong, and Paris. According to some experts that deal with diversity and diversity on a global scale say; that global businesses combine people from different cultures and life experiences and effectively employs them together still giving the picture of one big “happy family” operating the same at each establishment.

The “Disney Experience” gives everyone attending the park the feeling of Disney being a vacation destination, Disney has used its resources to reach markets all over the globe with the latest being in Hong Kong. The best thing Disney does at each theme park is give their multicultural guests the ability to see themselves in the cast members, which relays the views that the company understands and respects its customers.

In-house, Disney sets the bar high to foster the best work environment this is shown through the employees the organization attracts. Currently, Disney attracts only the top applicants, representing equally the normally unbalanced cultural and gender specific categories in business. Disney sure proves its multicultural stance by the large hiring of minorities and females in key positions and going further to understand today’s employees they also offer opportunities for flexibility in the workplace as part of Disney’s Employment-related Diversity Initiatives.

The long term operations plan for Disney to have excellence in diversity that involves all employees. The President of Cast Members, Judson Green, for Disney Inc. has made having diversity in the forefront of Disney’s business organizations. He is committed by demonstrating his support by approving the following annual programs and cast celebrations: Black History Month, Asian-pacific American Heritage Month, Hispanic Heritage Month, Native American Heritage Month. These celebrations document the high levels of commitment, understanding, and acceptance of a diverse multicultural environment. Disney also has developed mandatory training for employees on diversity and diversity concepts (The Disney Company, 2010).

Disney has definitely set the bar for other organizations to follow when it comes to accepting, employing, training, and celebrating a diverse workforce and work environment. Disney moved up in ranking because of its increasingly inclusive workplace.

L’Oréal Cosmetics

As far as cosmetics go one of the most familiar names in makeup is L’Oréal, to maintain this popularity it must serve a wide range of clients, the company has made diversity a principle foundation tool of operation. The organization has a very well-known and copied Human Resources Group (HR), a good example that they have established in-house is the company employs a very multicultural range of people, by doing this the organization’s level of skills and talent reaches all high ranges of production and in-turn dispels any type of questions of discrimination. Starting at the core of the organization and working outwards, L’Oreal’s products represents, complements through its products that are produced to highlight all forms of beauty. L’Oreal has developed one of the best templates through its development procedures and product base, their research laboratory in Shang-Hi is a good example, this facility creates the entire product color base for Asian skin characteristics (L’Oréal, 2010).

Some of the organizational beliefs the company operates under take into account a non-discriminatory position for every aspect of the organization, marketing efforts, and products. L’Oreal has developed a Code of Ethics the organization expects their employees to work by; it also lists the company’s ethical business practices and is distributed globally. The organizations code of ethics book was developed by using employees from 22 different countries, these employees were a part of an in-house team used to develop international operations and procedures, the employees represented Asia, Europe, North America, and Latin America. Through high degree of attention to a multicultural base, L’Oreal exemplifies another organization that reaches out too, accepts, and incorporates a diverse market, and client base. L’Oreal using the HR Group has produced what and who their organization is made up of currently (2010); there are 112 different nationalities with the leadership portion of the company represented by 54% women.

These efforts by L’Oreal have been recognized through the award of several recognitions, in 2004 the company received The Diversity Best Practices Global Leadership Award, and in 2006 the received The World Diversity Leadership Council’s Diversity Innovation Award (L’Oréal, 2010).

Wal-Mart

Wal-Mart has become the world’s largest retailer and still has much to learn about international trade. The company is in search for a country that will construct and promote new stores that will expand the market share. China is being considered because of the immense size and prospective profits. However, Wal-Mart’s strategy of “everyday low prices” is has been unsuccessful because the smaller retail stores are aggressively competitive with price-cutting. Wal-Mart must complete better research on different countries culture and economic status to be successful in the growth of international trade.

Wal-Mart had a decline in profits in Germany’s 85 stores, and the outcome was to sell all the stores. Shareholders were not pleased with this decision and management is trying to prove that the loss in shares will not affect the shareholders negatively. Other possible countries that may have to sell stores if profits decline are South Korea (16 stores) and Argentina (11stores). When dealing with a decrease in international stores, shareholder’s show concern toward Wal-Marts international strategy effectiveness. Wal-Mart’s mistake lies within their focus, which is investment; however ideally the focus should be on international growth. The focus on profits should be set aside and instead be on the stabilization of the stores in other countries. The international stores need to be stabilized and organized showing the ability to handle the strategy, economy, policies, and procedures. Wal-Mart must not with haste when setting up international stores but rather complete thorough research and facts about the country’s economy, culture, rules, and regulations.

Wal-Mart should benchmark Riordan Manufacturing and integrate cultural sensitivity within the organization, forming a store with different cultures with need cultural awareness and training. When employee’s needs are met this will create a feeling of satisfaction, involvement and appreciation in the company’s strategy. People will come with high hopes and for better job opportunities; however if Wal-Mart does not complete adequate research and chooses an area that may not be successful than employees may feel he or she were setup for failure.

Motorola

“Motorola Inc. is a global leader in providing integrated communications and embedded electronic solutions” (Celestica, 2009, para. 4). The company is outsourcing work to other countries to consolidate manufacturing, and improve their financial performance and supply chain. Celestica Inc. has accepted offer from Motorola Inc. Celestica is headquartered in Dublin, Ireland and “provides a broad range of services including design, prototyping, assembly, testing, product assurance, supply chain management, worldwide distribution and after-sales service” (Celestica, 2009, para. 8). With this new business relationship Motorola will gain respect by taking time to research and understand the culture, policies, and regulations.

Motorola must create a team that has multicultural background and is culturally aware and sensitive to be successful. The advantage to a multicultural background is the individual would be more sensitive to the cultural differences than others. With this sensitivity, trust can be formed much easier between workers. Thus with that trust builds communication effectiveness, conflict management, and productivity. An individual with a multicultural background will be able to relate to the different ethnic groups and share knowledge and experiences. With this new connection will bring new perspectives, ideas, and collaborations to the organization and teams.

The main goal is to develop a “strategic relationship with a leader in the market and integrate communications and embed the electronic solutions that diversifies Celestica’s communication’s strength and internet infrastructure customer-base, which includes over 38 companies in the areas of optical, data networking, wireless and high-speed access” (Celestica, 2009, para. 4). Creating this business relationship with Celestica, Motorola will be able to globalize their product. Motorola must be involved with their employees, staying respectful and providing training about the different cultures will be essential to any business success.

As Riordan Manufacturing did, Motorola will be combining different cultures together with this new partnership. Motorola should take interest in researching other companies that have made a similar transition and benchmark the negative and positive findings.

Pepsi Corporation

PepsiCo, headquartered in Purchase, New York, USA, is a world leader in convenient snacks, foods and beverages with revenues of more than $60 billion and more than 285,000 employees. This includes 18 different product lines that each generates more than $1 billion in annual retail sales. Their employees are united by a unique commitment to sustainable growth, called Performance with Purpose. Their main businesses are Frito-Lay, Quaker, Pepsi-Cola, Tropicana and Gatorade.

At the “Better City, Better Life” World Expo in Shanghai, China, Indra K Nooyi, CEO of Pepsico said “I’m also here to talk about further investments in China. In fact, I am pleased to use this opportunity to announce that PepsiCo will be investing a further $2.5 billion in China over the next three years. This comes on top of the $1 billion we announced two years ago. This investment will be allocated to a variety of projects, including 14 new beverage plants, five new food plants and farms, significant cooler investments and a significant scaling up of our China based research and development facilities” (Three on the Bund – China Speech, para. 2).

When they began to expand their China operation in 2008, the first thing Pepsi did was to engage with the Chinese government and NGOs to understand the social and developmental challenges the country faced. With their guidance, Pepsi was able to target resources and operations in a way, which maximized their impact. They also worked with the government’s strategy and supported its goals regarding water sustainability and employment. It was through those efforts Pepsi knew to target their employment in the North and West of the country where local economies needed the most help. It was also their information, which prompted Pepsi to invest in water cellars for dry villages.

Understand that companies willing to invest in China, with China’s goals in mind, can be extremely successful over the long term. Through a judicious balance of thinking through short-term investments with long-term goals in mind, Pepsi is realizing the success they envisioned.

Siemens Corporation

Siemens is a multinational corporation and world leader of mobility infrastructure solutions. They are already successfully established in America and Germany but like most multinational organizations Siemens realized to meet the challenges of global megatrend and to benefit from the opportunities they offer, they would need to stay ahead by implementing systems to address possible issues. Like Riordan, being able to attract and retain talent globally and having systems in place to build effective multicultural teams needed to be a priority to realize success.

To drive this initiative, the function of Chief Diversity Officer (CDO) was established in November 2008. The primary responsibility of the CDO is global diversity management to obtain sustainable success through diversity. One of his or her main objectives is to ensure that Siemens’ management is filled with the best possible talent. The goal is to ensure processes that foster diversity, are embedded throughout the company by 2011. A key component of this effort has been the establishment of a central management structure to address this challenge and leverage the opportunities it presents to our businesses. They introduced systematic diversity processes in personnel development and for filling management positions. These steps enabled them to match the diversity of their customers and businesses while opening up better chances for their employees to develop their talents and expertise all around the globe. “In the U.S., Siemens set up a nationwide organizational structure called the Diversity Advisory Board, headed by the Senior Director, Diversity. This Board links all local diversity activities – horizontally, across all operating companies; as well as vertically, from the local Diversity Councils up to the Sector and Country CEOs. This provides a means for all U.S. Siemens companies to share and leverage a single strategy driven by the top business leadership. It also allows our U.S. CEOs to effectively champion and promote effective and increasingly competitive diversity practices.

A recent benchmark study by the Diversity Inc. Magazine that ranks Siemens in the top quartile of the 317 companies in the Diversity Inc database provides evidence that this organizational structure and our investments are working” (Siemen, 2010).

Toyota Motor

The company known as Toyota Motor is currently one of the world’s largest automobile makers by sales and production. First founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937, the company came to America in 1957 during the time “Elvis was king of rock n’ roll, big cars with tailfins were “in” and postage stamps were just 3 cents” (Toyota, 2010). In the course scenario, Riordan’s expansion to the Hangzhou Province of China created some cultural issues, one of them being the need to create a culturally sensitive work environment where Chinese, Koreans, Pakistanis, Indians, and Americans could work together respectfully and efficiently. With Toyota’s continued expansion across the globe and considered “one of the largest multinational corporations that is specialized on the manufacturing of cars” (essay-911, 2010) they have also faced this similar cultural issue.

Riordan was in the position to grow and needed to identify cultural differences geographically and from a multicultural perspective. Toyota is “committed to making sure employees at all levels of our organization represent the many faces of America today” (Toyota, 2010).

The corporation adopted a company principle in 2001, which is known as the “Toyota Way.” After much examining of cultures and the automobile industry Toyota “has become a global symbol of passionate commitment to continual improvement and efficiency” (Getabstract, 2010). The company recognized the need to take the best from all cultures to operate like a Toyota vehicle “not necessarily fancy, but extraordinarily capable of getting you from point “A” to point “B” (Getabstract, 2010).

Both Riordan and Toyota need to be focused on a globalization imperative or “a belief that one worldwide approach to doing business is the key to both efficiency and effectiveness” (Hodgetts, 2005, p. 129). Toyota has made many of these commitments, especially in the areas of cultural diversity where Toyota has earned recognition “by Diversity Inc. and Black Enterprise as a leader in diversity” (Toyota, 2010). Every culture can contribute positively to global companies, the key issue for global companies it to continue to translate to success with multicultural companies on a global stage; to this point Toyota successfully has done this.

ING Group

ING Group or “Internationale Nederlanden Groep” as it is also know is a financial institution of Dutch origin founded in 1991 and offers banking, insurance, and asset management services. In the class scenario, Riordan Manufacturing faced the decision to look at opportunities for the company to expand the facility to provide additional components internationally because they prospered. ING Group has been in a similar position in that they have expanded globally based on prosperity as well. The companies “first large acquisition took place in 1995, when ING took over Barings Bank” (ING, 2010). Subsequent acquisitions such as the Belgian Bank Brussels Lambert and “the Equitable of Iowa, ReliaStar, Aetna Financial Services and merchant bank Furman Selz” in the United States (ING, 2010) also produced major growth. The current financial crisis, which began in 2008 has hindered ING and the company “spent much of the last year getting back on track” (ING, 2010).

ING not only focuses internally on how to get better but also externally. The have chosen to carefully “monitor global issues, understand sensitivities and receive feedback on the way we operate, we engage with our stakeholders in an open and honest dialogue and adapt our policies when necessary” (ING, 2010). Although the company does focus outside the company, international management or “the process of applying management concepts and techniques in a multinational environment and adapting management practices to different economical, political, and cultural environments” (Hodgetts, 2005, p. 6) this is an important key to success. The company has set the commitment that “we act with integrity, we are open and clear, we respect each other and we are socially and environmentally responsible” (ING, 2010), which ultimately has helped them to create a culturally sensitive workforce. ING has been actively pursuing the balance of “bringing together men and women of all ages, from a wide range of backgrounds and nationalities” (ING, 2010). This was reported in what is referred to as their Corporate Responsibility Report. As seen in the 2009 report, ING “has been measuring, tracking and monitoring its performance in the ethical, social and environmental field since 1995, which helps us to continuously improve our track record” (ING, 2010). These steps along with others when fully instituted will help the company further be successful in the global environment.

Analysis that Synthesizes Key Findings

Cultural Differences in Selected Countries and Regions

Organizational culture can be defined as, “in its most basic form, the shared values and beliefs that enable members to understand their roles and the norms of the organization” (Hodgetts, Luthans, & Doh, 2005, p. 154). Wal-Mart needs to be more prepared and aware of countries they pick to implement new stores. The company’s mistake is that they did not thoroughly research the country’s economy and cultural differences before opening the new stores, thus employees suffered, and felt deceived. Wal-Mart will learn from these mistakes and create economically ready stores to sell their products and services while being more selective when choosing countries.

Assess the readiness of global organizations to develop cross-cultural initiatives

Motorola needed help to forward their brand name in developing countries, thus the company formed strategic relationships with other countries. This company shows good direction and character in marketing its brand, by working with countries that are economically ready for their services and products. Wal-Mart and Motorola share similar experiences even though their work is in different areas. “There often are substantial differences between the organizational cultures of different subsidiaries, and of course, this can cause coordination problems” (Hodgetts, Luthans & Doh, 2005, p. 175). Each company need to recognize the advantages and disadvantages when outsourcing in foreign countries, being culturally prepared is the key to being successful. Motorola and Wal-Mart must take the time to learn and teach its employees cultural differences.

International Management

Companies today that expand their operations to different countries have to make good use of international management or “the process of applying management concepts and techniques in a multicultural environment and adapting management practices to different economic, political, and cultural environments (Hodgetts, 2005, p. 128). Both Toyota Motor and ING Group have adopted techniques to help them have success in the area of international management. Between trying to construct a culture that is inclusive to all different groups in each nation that they are located to ensuring that policies, procedures, and decisions made are clearly communicated these two companies have taken large steps to be successful in this area.

Conclusion

Many companies in the business world today encounter multicultural and diversity issues and the ability to invoke successful international management. They also require the ability to assess the readiness of global organizations to develop cross-cultural initiatives, to be successful and remain competitive in the respective fields. In this paper, each contributor identified two separate companies that have faced challenges in different areas. The paper also reviewed specific issues faced by the course scenario company, Riordan Manufacturing in comparison with the contributors selected companies, how each selected companies responded to the specific issue and outcomes of the company’s selected response. Each company confronting the challenges of cross cultural management must always remember to investigate other cultures, prepare for change, and commit to dealing with differences in the business world.

Essay on Educational Reform Going into our twenty-first century, we

Essay on Educational Reform Going into our twenty-first century, we are finding more and more students graduating from high school not prepared to do college-level work or achieve sufficiently in entry-level jobs. The public business community is beginning to doubt whether or not public schools are capable of producing individuals who can become productive members of society. They ask the school systems how it is so many students can graduate with so few skills. One explanation is “social promotion”–that is, school systems’ practice of promoting a student to the next grade level regardless of their academic ability.

Although social promotion may seem new to us today, it has a long history. Social promotion has been a function of educational institutions for decades. Promotion of an individual no matter what his academic success has long been a standard procedure. Schools cannot appear they are failing to educate their students so they do what ever it takes to promote the student to the next grade. The do this even if there is strong evidence against them. For example, “In Chicago alone more than 40,000 students failed standardized tests…..yet only a small fraction of students were marked for being held back” (American Federation of Teachers, 2001).

What Standards Do Districts Use To Make Decisions on Promotion or Retention? Some policies refer to the need for students to meet state standards. But a recent AFT analysis of state standards revealed that only 17 of the 50 states and the District of Columbia have standards in all four core disciplines–English, mathematics, social studies, and science–that are well grounded in content and clear and specific enough to be used as a common guide (AFT, 1997). When Austin and McCann (1992) surveyed 144 districts to determine grading practices, standards and procedures, they learned that: Grading policies and procedures vary across districts; Policies fail to specify the criteria for determining grades and how those criteria should be applied; Few of the districts, schools, and departments provide direction specific enough to ensure consistency in grading practices; and None of the districts provides staff development to help teachers assign grades that would be consistent within schools and across the district.

Most school districts have standards they try to follow to discourage social promotion. However, there is no consistency to these policies. If school districts had a standardized set of policies that was consistent throughout all districts perhaps there would be fewer students being promoted.

According to the American Federation of Teachers (2001) Ninety-five percent of public schools had some sort of guidelines or standards they went by. For students who were found to be struggling with their studies these provided at least one intervention option, for example: 56% of schools used extra homework as one of their standards used to help struggling students. Others used an after school-coaching program, while others used various other approaches. .

Eliminating Social Promotion According to the American Federation of Teachers (2001) if we want to eliminate social promotion, we have to do the following: Institute policies to prevent early school failure. We need to get serious about providing excellent pre-school and all-day kindergarten programs to at-risk students. We need to reduce class size in the early grades and make sure that at-risk students have excellent reading instruction in the early grades. No child should leave third grade unable to read, and districts must have the supports in place to assure that this does not happen.

Adopt rigorous grade-by-grade standards and develop assessments and curriculum to support them. With such standards teachers will be better able to identify students in trouble, and they can seek “just in time” interventions, rather than let problems fester.

Provide timely intervention to children who are falling behind–one-on-one tutoring, “double dosing,” parent counseling, extended-day and the like.

Place well-trained teachers in every classroom by developing policies to attract and retain the best teachers in schools with high-risk student populations.

Make it a top priority to provide all teachers with opportunities to learn how to teach students to read.

Learn from schools and districts that have successfully implemented research-based reforms.

Social promotion is particularly dangerous, not only because the problems of failing students are overlooked, but also because it relays a message to every student that effort and accomplishment hardly matter. If achievement is irrelevant to student progress, then teachers’ ability to require that all students meet high standards is badly worn. The bottom line: to end social promotion districts must propose policies and programs to put a stop to the failure of students, and to get involved when it occurs. They must examine the effectiveness of the policies and practices they introduce and build a better mousetrap if the first one did not work. These examinations should be made either in program implementation or in policy–where current efforts are ineffective.

Why Students Fail In my research, I have found that (it seems like) a very small percentage of students fail because they do not have the innate capacity to acquire the complex knowledge and skills required for succeeding in school. The remaining students did not have the skills they should have received and learned in high school. The educational system was designed to function for the whole society but many times it does not function for the individual student. As the Cheshire Cat (from the story Alice in Wonderland )said: “If you don’t know where you’re going, any road will take you there.” According to the American Federation of Teachers (2001) the vast majority of students are unsuccessful in school for other, more complicated reasons.

Some students don’t prosper in school because they are immature or otherwise unready for school.

Some don’t learn because we feed them with an empty spoon; they are not provided a rich curriculum and/or instructional practices that support high achievement.

Others don’t acquire the necessary knowledge and skills because of excessive absenteeism.

Some students achieve at minimal levels because they make little effort to acquire knowledge–either because they do not view academic achievement as crucial or instrumental to their goals, there are no consequences to failure, or other things, such as money or physical prowess are more highly esteemed.

Some students don’t learn because they have no incentive (positive or negative) to engage them in the educative process.

And still others fail because of a combination of the reasons identified above.

Surprisingly little attention has been paid to the issue of social class differences in American education. Perhaps this is because Americans tend to think of their society as classless or that all are members of the middle class. Despite some current thinking that suggests the continuing importance of class as a defining variable in American society, class and issues of access to education based on class considerations are little analyzed A functionalistic approach: The school system is an institution. It is a well thought out government organization that teaches our future presidents to be well-educated individuals. Or is it? Functionalism would argue that social promotion practices served a fundamental purpose. The student is put in school and progressed through the grades to eventual graduation. The school receives money for doing its job and the student receives their degree. Isn’t that functional? Nikolas Luhman would say this system is functional for whom? He would say the way the school system is set up now it simply allows the school to appear they are doing their job. It is not teaching the student what they need to know – it is not functional for the student (Riedmann, 2001).

Merton’s theory can explain social promotion in this way: The education institution does not need to be functional for everyone in the group it may instead be functional for some of the people and dysfunctional for others (Wallace, Wolf 1999). The current educational system is very functional for the institution itself because it keeps that institution going. By keeping education going it creates jobs for teachers, puts students into college, creates needed low income labor, and creates the need for other services to be funded, services like remedial courses at Junior College level and learning Disabilities Departments. But the education system as it stands is very dysfunctional for some people, especially the Socially Promoted individual.

Conclusion We have learned from experience that neither teaching nor learning is automatic, predictable, or effortless. We have also learned that social promotion and retention–the most common reactions to student failure–are insufficient to the need. Even so, there is reason for optimism. We are aware things don’t have to be this way. Around the country–in some of the poorest, toughest neighborhoods–there are schools that are effective, and very effective. Many of these schools have achieved success by implementing replicable programs, specially designed to raise the accomplishment levels of struggling students.

Unless the needs of America’s diverse social classes are addressed, this community of socially promoted individuals will be locked out from participation on the basis of ignorance and the world will not be enriched by their diverse contributions.

Emerson’s Essay On Heroism

The first and most important implicit question in this statement is by what standards Emerson is judging a hero—and whether it even matters, as he seems to be saying that a hero is a hero despite anything else. This assertion is false, however, because there is inevitably, not only in the actions of heroes but also in those of antiheroes, an element of situation and circumstance that either augments or diminishes their capacity for good.

In 1984 by George Orwell, protagonist Winston Smith is, from what the reader can tell, the only individual (with the exception of his compatriot Julia) in his Big Brother society who sees anything wrong with the tactics employed by the government and, subsequently, who attempts to do anything to protest. This alone could constitute a reasonable definition of a hero: in an evil culture, he is the only one fighting for good, but he continues nonetheless. For the majority of the novel, Winston is certainly a hero as he fights the system; at the end, however, he is defeated, brainwashed and convinced that he “loves Big Brother.” Is he any less of a hero because a hopelessly corrupt and evil institution managed to break his spirit? The answer may not necessarily be yes, but the point is that it is a point of debate, and casts enough doubt upon the validity of the original statement to warrant further examination.

The idea of a hero can encompass so many characteristics, and to avoid playing the semantics game one must assign only a few, perhaps the possession of morality or of great leadership. History is full of persons, however, which could have been heroes under different circumstances but simply drew the short end of the stick or inadvertently used their talents for malevolence. It is an old axiom that no villain thinks of himself as a villain, and this is proved by the actions of Hitler and Mussolini, Axis leaders during World War II. Both were skilled politicians, leaders, and propagandists, and in these respects were no different than Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, the Allied directors who are customarily acknowledged as heroes by the general public. Conversely, everyone knows people who are intrinsically good but are not recognized as heroes, simply because they have yet to encounter a situation to bring out their morality and goodness.

The vague abstractions of the term “hero’” and the fact that Emerson does not include a definition with his claim, makes its disproving an easy task; perhaps if he had been more explicit it would be not only more difficult to contradict him but also more simple to identify who is a hero in our society and who is not.

Hamlet Essay a Great Work of Shakespeare

Shakespearean literature is often seen as one of the most difficult texts to decipher and extract true and definite meaning from. One particularly ambiguous tale is the renowned tragedy of Hamlet. In short, Hamlet showcases a prince, of the same name, on a quest to avenge the perceived “murder” of his father. However, the exact matter which is of great perplexity is a partial insanity adopted by Hamlet throughout the play and is frankly witnessed by all, save but a few characters of the play. To this some believe it is a simple matter of masking Hamlet’s true intentions through a show of insanity, whilst others argue that this madness is authentic and Hamlet is therefore unable to prevent the display of his insanity. However, prior to exploring the notion of his sanity versus insanity, it is imperative to be aware of the meaning of insanity and what it may signify for Hamlet. As defined by the Oxford Dictionary, the term insane refers to one who is irrational, senseless, mentally deranged, immoderate, very foolish either temporarily or permanently. Thus, Hamlet, can surely apply to any or perhaps all of the definitions, but as there is no constriction in terms of time, it is very possible for Hamlet to endure lucid moments and rational thoughts despite being insane. Interestingly, the genius of Shakespeare is once again revealed, as there simply does not exist any correct interpretation and furthermore both arguments regarding his sanity or insanity must therefore deemed valid. Essentially the divergent views emerge from each reader’s personal take of the tale and the genuine responses to Hamlets melancholy state and circumstance. It is therefore apparent that factors such as age, gender and marital experiences will be directly correlated to the reader’s response to the tragedy of Hamlet, and in particular Hamlet’s state of mind. This applies wholly to my response of situations in comparison to my aunt’s, who is not only much older but also married. Essentially, three pivotal events of the play namely, the ghost scene with Hamlet’s confrontation, the closet scene and finally the grave digger’s scene all showcase Hamlet with a questionable sense of judgment.

****Why my aunt is differentThe famed ghost scene shows Hamlet initially acquainting himself with the ghost at the castle alongside two night watchmen and Horatio. However the actual dialogue between the ghost and Hamlet occurs in the secrecy of a misty and mysterious forest. Skeptics of the ghost such as my aunt state that, “While the existence of this ghost may be plausible, it is a great deal more absurd and unlikely.” However, in response to this many including myself argue that the actual sighting of the ghost was confirmed by not only Hamlet but also two night guards and the praiseworthy Horatio. Interestingly, my aunt argues, that although many may have apparently seen the ghost, Hamlet was the sole individual able to converse with it and therefore his account alone is not only questionable but may be utterly false. Additionally, Hamlet who tends to be a high strung individual simply never approved of the marriage of his uncle and mother, yet was unable to vocalize a rationale to justify its illegality. Thus, the ghost who offers the sole reason and only valid proof to end the adverse marriage is seen as an excuse. Furthermore, my aunt would say, which sane person firstly converse with a ghost and secondly base most of their actions on its mere advice? Hamlet’s blind desire for vengeance is clear as he says, “I’ll wipe away all trivial fond records, all saws of books, all forms, all pressures past, That youth and observation copied there; And thy commandment all alone shall live.”(1.5.104-107) Although, my aunt is convinced that the ghost is a figment of Hamlet’s imagination, or rather obsession, Hamlet voiced reason and rational thought when considering the ghost, “The spirit that I have seen May be the devil: and the devil hath power to assume a pleasing shape; yea, and perhaps out of my weakness and my melancholy, As he is very potent with such spirits, Abuses me to damn me.” (2.2.609-615) Thus, it is apparent that Hamlet questions the integrity of the ghost which shows rationality but more importantly a level-headed sanity. Thus, it is upon the reader to decide what they may make of the event, perhaps the closet scene may shed light on the issue.

The closet scene in general showcases an angry and hostile Hamlet who not only accidentally murders an innocent individual but is moderately incestuous. This scene despite being famous for the murder of Polonius, is also a great example of the exemplification of the oedipal complex. The complex is a theory telling of an individual with reserved desires for a parent of the opposite sex. This scene is in particular offers evidence of this complex and from my aunt’s perspective furthers the notion of Hamlet’s insanity. A prime example of Hamlet’s incestuous desires is his recommendation and response to his mother’s request to help him. He retorts, “Not this, by no means, that I bid you do: Let the bloat king tempt you again to bed.”(3.4.183-184). This odd and possessive instruction represents Hamlet’s instability as rather asking his mother to help garner evidence against the murderous Claudius, he requests that she not sleep with him. This in itself, according to my aunt and likeminded critics cements the existence of the oedipal complex, which indirectly supports the notion of his insanity. However, from a different perspective, one could consider that Gertrude sleeping with Claudius would be a testament to her faith in him and if she was to be faithful to her former husband, herself and perhaps even her son it would not be unreasonable to demand that she would not sleep with him. Additionally, Hamlet is very upset at the actions of his mother and while it is legal for her to get married to Claudius, it is highly immoral. Thus, where my aunt would argue Hamlet expresses a compulsive jealousy and partial insanity, I personally believe that his reaction while perhaps excessive is reasonable given the odd and unfortunate circumstance.

The grave digger’s scene although being quite humorous, as only Shakespeare may afford, was also quite serious and possibly melodramatic. Essentially, this scene exposes a highly sentimental aspect of Hamlet in which he expresses his initial fear of death and slowly embraces it upon speaking to the skull of Yorick, a great jester, now reduced to earth and bones. Hamlet is shown to be nostalgic of his childhood and longs for the abundant affection he received as a child. Nevertheless, he understands that death is inevitable and eventually all will perish, “To what base uses we may return, Horatio! Why may not imagination trace the noble dust of Alexander, till he find it stopping a bung-hole?” (5.1.199-201)This coherent thought while unwarranted shows both a softer and more philosophical sides to the young Hamlet and allow the reader to witness a sense of maturity and purpose in his words. Yet, contrary to this when confronted by the King, the Queen and Laertes, Hamlet acts foolishly to express his extreme passion for Ophelia. “Swounds, show me what thou’lt do. Woo’t weep? Woo’t fight? Woo’t fast? Woo’t tear thyself? 255 Woo’t drink up eisel, eat a crocodile? I’ll do ‘t.”(5.1.279-282). To this both Claudius and Gertrude aptly respond, “This is mere madness.” (5.1.290). His obsession to prove his intentions and his love are not only immature but quite inappropriate. This shows, that his mind is unstable as he switches moods from a playful tone, to a serious one and finally back to imprudence and “madness.” As an aside, my aunt also commented that it is interesting to note that Ophelia who committed suicide becoming insane from the grief of her father’s death, can be directly compared to Hamlet, whose father was also murdered and similarly Hamlet became full of misery and hatred. Thus, it would not be unreasonable to infer that Shakespeare made the lovers endure the same tragic fate to indicate that they possess similar if not the same states of mind; they both became insane.

In conclusion, it is apparent that arguments exist on both sides and there can be no correct interpretation. Furthermore, numerous reasonable deductions can be made to support his sanity. The first and most essential is Hamlet’s uncanny ability to manipulate emotions within others. For instance the mock murder of the play suggested by Hamlet was a mark of sheer brilliance and no insane individual could have crafted such a rational plot. Secondly, the atmosphere and context of ghost was appropriate for its time and therefore would not contest his sanity. Finally, Hamlet’s indecision and prolonging of his vengeance demonstrates a great level of self-control. Yet, my aunt believes that despite all this his show of insanity and madness was far too believable to be a mere act. Secondly, nearly all the characters of the play confirm his madness, including his very own mother. Finally,There are surely times in which there is no doubt that Hamlet is acting or applying his assumed antic disposition. This is the case with Hamlet’s response to Polonius’s identification in which he calls him a “fishmonger,”(2.2.189). Nevertheless, it is uncertain that Hamlet is indisputably sane, in fact his antics may only appear as such, and in truth be the realistic portrayal of his madness. A simple, yet accurate example would be of an individual protesting his sanity after being admitted to an asylum. Thus, in the end the beauty of Shakespeare holds true and neither or I nor my aunt could surely deny that.

This an essay about the pros and cons of NAFTA and its effects on the U.S., Canada, and Mexico.

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a very significant part of international trading in North America. NAFTA was built upon a prior 1989 trade agreement between the U.S. and Canada that was responsible for tariff reductions between the nations. There were concerns of U.S. jobs being lost in the transfer of factories to foreign nations, where U.S. companies could take advantage of cheap labor and the lack of workers’ rights. Also, environmental groups became concerned that enforcing pollution laws would be difficult in foreign countries with loose environment laws.

It was specifically designed to improve trading conditions between the North American countries. The treaty was put into effect January 1, 1994 and eliminated tariffs on many internationals goods. It would phase out other tariffs over a two decade period (Mayer 15). The agreement called for immediate removal of one half of U.S. exports to Mexico.

Along with NAFTA, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) was formed to prevent environmental destruction and to enforce the laws by which businesses are held. The Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) was also established under this agreement to address regional environmental concerns and help prevent potential trade and environmental conflicts. It also promotes an effective enforcement of environmental laws (Mayer 33). In addition to the NAFTA treaty, supplemental agreements were signed to address the issues of international labor rights

NAFTA was created to amplify and promote commerce among North American countries. Elimination of tariffs would increase exports and create a greater, more stable and much more efficient North American economy. NAFTA linked a market of 365 million consumers in three countries, establishing the second largest free-trade zone in the world (Mayer 34). The main goal of NAFTA is to develop beneficial financial standards for all of North America though the regulation and improvement of environmental laws, investment opportunities, intellectual property rights (copyrights, software, patents), labor rights and working conditions, and overall economies of Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. (North American Free Trade Agreement).

NAFTA has been able to accomplish wonderful deeds for economies of Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. Trade between these countries has increased greatly and all have experienced a spectacular growth. It makes sense that North American countries would thrive as a free trading continent, both economically and politically. “A world of free trade is far more likely to be prosperous (and peaceful) than a world of tariffs and borders” (Hufbauer 31). NAFTA has created great economic increases with its participating countries and also brought the nations closer together.

NAFTA has played a huge helping hand with the Mexican economy. Because of NAFTA and excellent trading relations with the U.S., Mexico’s Gross Domestic Product has risen 5.5 percent per year for the last five years. When Mexico experienced the peso crisis, it rebounded quickly, from an $18.5 billion deficit in 1994 to a $7.1 billion surplus in 1995. The unemployment rate is down in Mexico as well as in the U.S. Mexico’s urban unemployment rate is less than four percent, after having risen from six percent in 1992 to 8.5 percent in 1995. Manufacturing, construction, transportation, and communications through NAFTA connections have been leading Mexico through its tremendous success. Mexico’s exports however, are the greatest factor in this booming period. In fact, it is estimated that the year 2001′s real exports will be more than three times as large as when the NAFTA was signed (Orme 53). When Mexico is successful, jobs are created, and the economy is stable, there is much less of a desire for Mexicans to come illegally to the U.S. There are many opportunities in Mexico since NAFTA has influenced the market and that certainly cuts down illegal immigration. Mexico’s prosperity should be a concern of all Americans. It makes for better investments and opportunities within Mexico for its people.

Due to NAFTA the U.S. has seen rises in exports and production. The U.S. exports for 1996 were at $190 billion. U.S. exports to Mexico and Canada were greater in comparison to any other part of the world. An estimated 18 million new jobs were created during the first five years after NAFTA was activated and the total trade in North America increased from $293 billion to $420 billion in NAFTA’s first three years. NAFTA’s lowered tariffs also resulted in a 37 percent increase of U.S. exports to Mexico (Orme 62). It is apparent that NAFTA has been very successful in building the economy of North American countries. GDP and employment are both accelerating and the relations between countries are as good as ever. NAFTA has continued to open the U.S.-Mexico border to increase commerce, creating very efficient international trading. As a result of NAFTA, Canada, Mexico, and the United States are all more powerful growing nations.

NAFTA is still widely opposed. Since its beginnings, NAFTA has had difficulties gaining full support from everyone; even in 1993, when it passed only by a narrow margin. The Global Exchange argues that working families suffer as a result of NAFTA. Nearly 400,000 U.S. jobs have been lost, and the workers’ new jobs on average only pay 77 percent of the earlier wages. One million more Mexicans dropped from the middle class into poverty. Also, the environment suffers as a result of NAFTA. The increased pollution and disposal of chemical wastes has increased the rates of Hepatitis and birth defects along the U.S.-Mexico border. NAFTA has not been enforcing environmental laws as necessary (Orme 63).

Several Mexican trucks inside U.S. borders have spilled hazardous materials and have posed great danger. The issue with NAFTA is the safety standards that other nations’ trucks hold. The toxins create serious threats to society’s water supplies. Because 75 percent of U.S. trade with Mexico is delivered by trucks, it is very important that they can be trusted to be more than a rolling time bomb (Orme 68). Even if trucks from Mexico and Canada are able to freely enter the U.S. for commerce, there still must be some safety precautions. Driving faulty trucks back and forth across the border should not be a part of the free trade; it should be dealt with.

NAFTA has been both successful and unsuccessful. It has indeed succeeded in accelerating international trade in North America and turning tremendous output from each of the three nations. Commerce has exceeded all past years, and has continued to increase since NAFTA was signed and drafted. Since NAFTA’s commencement, the U.S. wanted to get to full-scale trading with Mexico. Indeed it has succeeded in doing so also. The United States and Mexico are very close and share $100 billion in trading each year. NAFTA has played an incredible role in bringing North America together. The major argument for NAFTA was that it was the best thing the U.S. could do to raise Mexico’s change at becoming a well-developed democratic and prosperous country (Orme 71). The U.S. had a strong interest in helping Mexican progress and could increase trade through tariff reductions. Mexico is the second largest consumer of U.S. goods and services; therefore there is a very strong U.S. economic interest in Mexico. If the motivation for NAFTA is purely financial, then it has been very successful.

I believe NAFTA has been a success for the economies of Canada, Mexico and the U.S. The truth can be told by sheer statistics. Still, I do not believe that NAFTA is careful enough, and should consider what the agreement has done for the working middle class families. Also, the environment is a huge concern. If NAFTA does not inspect the trucks allowed passing between countries, or cannot enforce anti-pollution laws, then perhaps it is not the best idea.

NAFTA should be sure not to allow businesses to lay off American workers to hire cheap Mexican labor. Working populace keeps countries alive and prosperous. It is unethical business practice and NAFTA could serve a vital role in the economic development without taking extreme advantage of laws. I think NAFTA is a great idea and the rise in the GDP shows that it has been successful. Still, the money gained from free trade does not outweigh the environment, safety, and workers’ rights.

Essay on Globalisation

Introduction

Globalisation is defined by the IMF (The International Monetary Fund) as the increasing integration of economies around the world, predominantly through trade and financial flows. The term sometimes also refers to the movement of people (labour) and knowledge (technology) across international borders. The term globalisation has come into common usage since the 1980s, reflecting technological advances that have made it easier and faster to complete international transactions. (World Bank Policy Research Report Overview, 2002)

Understanding globalisation

Globalisation can be understood as having economic, political and cultural dimensions where companies are selling products the same way throughout the world, treating it as a single market. It is the process of business structuring in a worldwide market; creating growth and profit opportunities in production and distribution. Globalisation can also be seen as the process of rapid economic integration between countries, and increasing international trade and foreign investment has further driven it. (World Bank Policy Research Report Overview, 2002)

Globalisation refers to the many ways in which society is being drawn together by the international flow of goods/services, capital and information. (World Bank, 2002) The global economy assumes a kind of uniformity of demand and insight about products that operates separately of local cultural, political and traditional values and beliefs. It involves the impact that human interactions, among social and economic life, have on the natural environment and it refers to the worldwide consciousness about the human and natural world as a whole.

Thus, since globalisation became such a big factor of international business and industry, it ushered in a new era of political, economic and social debate in the history of humankind. Humanity had to grapple with the dichotomy of globalisation, in time recognizing both the benefits and the drawbacks associated with globalisation. Hence over time as society became more conscious and educated about the world economy, etc. and the level of awareness about globalisation was raised questions around the consequences of globalisation were soon being posed. The question; is globalisation good or bad? was increasingly being asked.

This essay will therefore discuss the value of globalisation to the world. It will focus on very pertinent issues that have been debated in the area of globalisation. These include aspects involving the drawbacks and benefits of globalisation.

The Drawbacks of Globalisation

A key drawback of globalisation is that first-world countries misuse and abuse poorer and struggling third world countries. First-world super power companies and corporations see people in third world countries as cheap and inexpensive labour that can easily be controlled and manipulated. This misuse of people is easily allowed because people (labour) in struggling countries do not have the choice to use or cannot afford legal protection when companies endorse dangerous working conditions. It is also allowed for the reason that labourers in third world countries are poor and desperate for money and will work for much less than people who are skilled and educated.

National job losses in the multinationals country of origin are another significant drawback. The majority of union employment depends on the manufacturing and industrialized division of the economy. This sector has been most negatively affected by globalisation as international companies and corporations increasingly take advantage of unskilled cheap labour abroad, especially in low waged countries. (World Bank, 2002)

Environmental organisations are against one of the drawbacks of globalisation because they believe that it sanctions and promotes policies which enable multinationals to escape trade-barriers on business practices. These organisations accuse corporations and companies of dominating the politics of third world governments. They believe that globalisation economic super powers easily and knowingly exploit the environments of struggling third world countries. Poorer countries are easily convinced to ignore laws about air pollution and environmental harvesting when it benefits the economies and their nations financial system.

Another unfortunate drawback of globalisation is the fact that small non-international businesses have no way of competing with multinational companies and corporations. Small businesses do not have the resources, funds or capital to compete. There would be no way a little corner shop would be able to contend with a multinational corporation.

Poor nations and their advocates’ argument against globalisation is that free trade is a benefit for wealthier nations at their expense. This is because tariff barriers are necessary for economic development. They also argue that the World Bank’s lending policies force poor countries to adopt economic policies which benefit only their wealthier trading partners. This is obviously a negative aspect associated with globalisation. (LeGraina, 2002)

As can be seen from the above, there are negative consequences associated with globalisation policies. While the principle in and of itself seems fair and benign, the ramifications of globalisation on vulnerable countries and people are significant and sometimes severe.

While this essay, thus far, has discussed the adverse aspects associated with globalisation, there are benefits that go along with globalisation. These will now be focussed on.

The Benefits of Globalisation

For less developed third-world countries, globalisation offers access and contact to foreign capital, global export markets, and advanced technology while breaking the domination of inefficient and protected domestic producers. Faster growth, in turn, promotes poverty reduction, and higher labour and environmental standards (Free Trade Org., yr unknown).

While globalisation may confront government representatives with more difficult choices, the result for their citizens is greater individual freedom and choice. In this sense, globalisation acts as a check on governmental power that makes it more difficult for governments to abuse the freedom and property of their citizens.

Most people in poor struggling countries know that huge multinationals bring in investment, jobs and products they can use. They know that these companies give away millions of dollars a year by paying taxes, employing people and setting up scholarship programs. Many corporations set up campaigns such as anti-AIDS materials or cancer research as marketing strategy but that actually does help others in the end. (LeGrainb, 2002)

To uncover further benefits one can pose the question; is globalisation really that bad? It is certainly considered a negative consequence when multinationals misuse and exploit labourers in third world countries by making them work long hours and underpaying them. However, according to (reference), these conditions are slowly being improved. Devils advocates’ argue that a job with bad working conditions is much better than not working at all and thus not having an income. The fact is that people in struggling countries usually do not have the skills or education which opens the way to find good jobs and therefore settle for what they can find, no matter the working conditions. In many cases the alternative is to exist below the poverty line, or as subsistence farmers. Thus, in this way, it can be argued that the job that comes with globalisation has more positive consequences than the alternative. However, it can be further counter-argued that just because the consequences of globalisation are in some cases ‘better’ (but still not perfect) than the existing conditions, it should not necessarily be judged as a ‘good’ outcome. That is, globalisation as a new politico-economic ideology should be judged according to high benchmarks and standards, so that the current poor state of the world economy and the mistakes which brought us here, especially in developing economies, are not repeated (or at least minimised).

Furthermore, according to a study done by John Charles (1998), it is seen that as the global economy grows the pollution of world environments keep falling. Some of the statistics he uses to back up his statement are persuasive: Between 1970 and 1997, the U.S. population increased 31 percent, vehicle miles travelled increased 127 percent, and gross domestic product (GDP) increased 114 percent – yet total air pollution actually decreased by about 31 percent. In the North American manufacturing sector, the pounds of material used dropped from 2,750 pounds of packaging per gross production unit in 1989 to approximately 2,100 pounds in 1993-94.

Charles’ (1998) reason for the decrease in environmental pollution over the years is the fact that market competition imposes a never-ending drive for efficiency and innovation. Since pollution results from the waste of a resource input, rising industrial efficiency results in lowered pollution. This argument however does not excuse the fact that multinational misuse struggling countries by not taking greater care to control the damage and pollution to their environments.

Globalisation has the potential to do immense good. Freer trade makes companies and countries richer. Foreign opposition keeps multinationals competitive, new technologies are designed and spread faster and countries specialise in what they do best and sell to others (international trade). “Freer markets of foreign investment and technology” can help improve other countries to. (LeGraina, 2002) If poor countries get richer the global economy could rise as richer countries gain new markets for their products.

Globalisation and South Africa

The optimistic liberal scenario is that economic growth will spread across the world and that technological transfer would facilitate the spreading of the gains of globalisation to all parts of the world. Meanwhile, advanced countries invest heavily in poor nations, whose poverty declines. “And growing middle classes clamour for more democracy” (Samuleson, 2002).

Unfortunately the world economy works differently in reality. These benefits do occur but have not reached the entire globe, especially poorer third world countries. South Africa is one of them.

In 1994 South Africa was sharply divided and it was experiencing a high unemployment rate among socio-economic groups. But South Africa was determined to do the right thing economically by committing itself to becoming a global citizen and to play by free trade rules. South Africa has since privatised its big companies, such as Telkom and SAA, so as to attract foreign capital. It also eased exchange controls and the Rand became more competitive.

According to Sibuyi (2001), South Africa did everything it needed to do (and did it correctly) to become a ‘global player’ but it did not benefit from globalisation. There was no record of better economic growth, no increased levels of employment, no rise in incomes and no foreign capital and investment came flowing. (Subuyi, 2001)

There have been some benefits: Industries are a lot more efficient and technology continues to play a transforming role on the South African economy. However, the drawbacks far outweigh these benefits. Employment and income levels have declined, industries, such as the textile industry, have been completely wiped out and the Rand has continued to fall. South Africa had failed to fully benefit from globalisation.

Conclusion

Thus, as can be ascertained from the above discussion, there are benefits as well as drawbacks associated with globalisation. The advances made for humanity through globalisation have been significant to poor countries and struggling economies. However, the drawbacks associated with globalisation in the shape of the misuse of struggling third world countries for cheap labour, and the damage to the environment etc. are also significant. This inconsistency that globalisation has brought the world makes it very challenging to decisively say that globalisation has been and entirely adverse or entirely favourable thing.

I recognise the benefits that society has derived from it. Poorer countries have benefited from it in many ways, and they have benefited better from it than if globalisation had not existed. It is for this reason that I recognise the value that globalisation has brought the world and thus would have to agree that globalisation is a useful thing. This however is not an endorsement of some of the drawbacks previously discussed.

Perhaps the true effects of globalisation on humanity can only be judged sometime in the future. That is, perhaps the negatives and positives associated with globalisation will ‘work themselves out’ over time and a true judgement of the globalisation ideology can be made.

What Makes A Good Essay

What makes an essay good? There are many elements that go into a well written comprehensible paper. A quality essay contains elements such as description and detail, thesis statement, exemplification, irony, and knowledge of your audience. A good essay is one that grabs the imagination of the reader. Anyone can write a quality essay following simple guidelines and steps.

I think that description and detail are one of the most important elements in writing an essay. If you have good description and supporting details you will develop and present a word picture for your reader. This makes for a far more interesting story. In “Thirty Eight Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call The Police”, the author Martin Gansberg got the story across in a descriptive way. He told the story three times with all different details leading up to the same ending. He wrote it so that the stabbing was clear and you could picture Catherine Genovese laying there at her apartment doorway, “At the second door, 82-62 Austin Street, he saw her slumped on the floor at the foot of the stairs.

(Pg. 99)” If you don’t have a good thesis your paper will not have structure. A thesis is always more than a title; it is an announcement of your intent or statement of fact. Although a descriptive title orients your readers, it is seldom detailed enough to reveal your essay’s purpose or direction. The essay “On Fire” has a well-written thesis that covers the whole essay. “You learn that you are only human flesh, not Superman, and that you can burn like a candle. (Pg. 243)” Another writing tool to make an essay good would be to have exemplification. Exemplification uses a single extended example or series of shorter examples to support the thesis. If you support your points with specific examples it makes it easier for the reader to follow. In “Just Walk On By” by Bent Staples, the author starts by describing a situation when he first started realizing people were affair of him. “To her, the youngish black man- abroad six feet two inches with a beard and billowing hair, both hands shoved in his pockets of a bulky military jacket- seemed menacingly close. After a few more quick glimpses, she picked up her pace and was soon running in earnest. (Pg.197)” Having irony in your paper makes it move interesting. Irony can be language that points to a discrepancy between two different levels of meanings. In “English I A Crazy Language”, the author Richard Lederer shows irony in the fact that he is making fun of the English language but he devoted his whole life to it. An example of this would be, “Why is it that a women can man a station but a man can’t women one, that a man can father a movement but a women can’t mother one, and that a king rules a kingdom but a queen doesn’t rule a queendom. (Pg. 193)” Knowing your audience is an additional important quality in essay writing. If you know your audience you can direct your language towards that group of people. Writers who are sensitive to their audience will carefully choose examples and illustrations that their reader will understand and respond to. In a “Peaceful Women Explains Why She Carries a Gun” the author directs her story towards women. She explain that most women might have to work hard to convince themselves of their abilities. Also handgun ownership need not turn into gunslingers but it can be part of believing in, and relying on ourselves for protection. “A pistol is not the only way to avoid being raped or murdered in today’s world, but, intelligently wielded, it can shift the balance of power and provide a measure of safety. (Pg. 301)” A good essay can capture your audience bring them into you’re world captivating and educating readers. Any writer can create quality essay by simply following steps and guidelines using your own creative ideas will read a good essay.

To what extent are individuals responsible for experiencing poverty in the United Kingdom nowadays?

Over the past 30 years, society has become more and more unequal; the gap between the rich and poor has been increasing greatly (Piachaud, 1998:234). Poverty occurs when a small reduction in resources is accompanied by a disproportionate increase in deprivation. It changes over the time due to changing living standards, e.g. technology like a television is now seen as a need and if a household lacks one then it is a sign of poverty [Townsend, 1997 (in Piachaud,1998)]. It is socially constructed. It is linked to unemployment, unmarried women and consequently this brings crime problems.

One third of deaths, some eighteen million people a year or fifty thousand per day are due to poverty related causes: in total two hundred and seventy million people, most of them women and children, have died as a result of poverty since 1990 (World Health Organization, 1999). Wilkinson (1992) indicates that those living in poverty suffer lower life expectancy. Studies have shown that every year nearly eleven million children living in poverty die before their fifth birthday. Furthermore, those living in poverty often suffer from hunger (World Health Report, 1999).

Poverty is when income is insufficient to obtain the minimum necessaries for the maintenance of merely physical efficiency. It was first described by Seebohm Rowntree, who wanted to demolish the view that poverty was due to “fecklessness and not to low wages” (Mack and Lansley, 1985, Piachaud, 1993). A study in poverty would be relevant because this issue is considered to be a global problem and a huge amount of people argue that poor people are responsible for their own poverty (Giddens, 2005). The purpose of this present study is therefore to ascertain the importance of poverty as a global problem nowadays.

This essay will be discussing whether individuals are responsible or not for experiencing poverty in the United Kingdom. This essay will look at some important aspects in British society which are said to be the cause of this issue.

As commented before, poverty is also linked to education; individuals are responsible for experiencing poverty in the United Kingdom, depending on how they spend their time, income (e.g. smoking and drinking, which affect health). Money spent on tobacco, alcohol, gambling or drugs. “People smoke because they are poor, not they are poor because they smoke” (Piachaud, 1998).

A person’s health is influenced by the conditions in which she or he lives. Social and economic conditions — such as poverty, social exclusion, unemployment, and poor housing — strongly influence health(World Health Organization, 2006).

Therefore, the state must take responsibility for promoting goods because poor health services, poor schools, poor physical environment, unsafe social environment are inextricably linked to poverty. All welfare capitalist countries have social security systems, designed to distribute resources between individuals, families or households. In most there is a mixture of state provision (such as Child Benefit or unemployment Benefit) (Alcock, 1996:20). However, Giddens (2005) argues that three quarters of the people living on any government help, could be able to get a job if they wanted to do so.

Spicker (1993:42) insists that the idea that poverty is relative is rooted in the view that poverty can be identified by comparison with the conditions that other people are living in, wither with members of the same society or with others in other societies. For instance, poor people in Nigeria might be able to live a decent life if they had at least what a poor person in the United Kingdom has as in terms of income. According to Wilkinson (1992:166), relative poverty is the proportion of the population that live on less than fifty percent of the national average disposable income. According to UNICEF (2008), Some 1.1 billion people were – and still are – forced to live on less than one dollar a day and thirty per cent of these are children.

Poverty in the United Kingdom is also related to social issues such as, gender inequality. Women are more likely than men to be poor. More are in part time work than men; moreover they have little social protection or pension rights (Piachaud, 1993). Furthermore, unemployed, pensioners, single parent families, large families might live in a poverty trap, which is when a family loses more in terms of extra taxes paid and reduced benefits received than it gains from a pay. In addition, there are around three quarter of a million single parents in Britain who do not receive widow’s benefits. Some of these are in full-time work, but because they are typically women, and women’s earnings are somewhat lower than those of men [A huge number will find themselves in the poverty trap (Hemming, 1984:84)].

Britain is, and always has been a multiracial and multicultural society, as flows of immigrants have altered the composition of the indigent population. In the early nineteenth and early twentieth centuries people came to Britain from Ireland and Jewish emigrants arrived in particular from Eastern Europe (Spicker, 1993). The Irish, Jews, Poles, Pakistanis and others have all been victims of negative attitudes and hostile reactions. Apart from that it is said that people are more likely to be poor when they come from different ethnic backgrounds. People are not responsible for being discriminated, and paid lower incomes than those who are not foreigners.

There are stark differences in poverty rates according to ethnic group. Risks of poverty are highest for Bangladeshis, Pakistanis and Black Africans, but are also above average for Caribbean, Indian and Chinese people. Muslims face much higher poverty risks than other religious groups(Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2007).

Recent studies have shown that poverty in the UK still remains. The income poverty rate varies substantially between ethnic groups: Bangladeshis (65%), Pakistanis (55%) and black Africans (45%) have the highest rates while black Caribbeans (30%), Indians (25%), white Other (25%) and white British (20%) have the lowest rates.

(Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2007).

Additionally, over the last decade, the number of unemployed adults aged 25 and over has almost halved, from 1.6 million in 1996 to 0.9 million in 2006, with particularly large falls in long-term unemployment (The Poverty Site, 2007). Low pay and minimum wage distribution seemed as one of the major causes of poverty (Hemming, 1984). This is the primary objective of the social security system, so that everyone can achieve a more equal distribution of income (Hemming, 1994:6).

Individuals, families and groups in the population can be said to be in poverty when they lack the resources to obtain the types of diet, participate, participate in the activities and have the living conditions and amenities which are autonomy…in the societies to which they belong (Townsend, 1979:31).

However, Jackson (1972) in Hemming (1984) suggests that a distinction should be made between the risk of poverty which occurs because of unforeseen circumstances such as unemployment, sickness and the absence of one parent. Parental socio-economic background, education and earnings are inextricably linked to poverty. Someone who is poor as a child is more likely to be poor at some subsequent stage of their life cycle (Hemming, 1984:61).This view, in other words, indicates that individuals are not really responsible for their own poverty when it comes to these sorts of situations.

The Government has committed to end child poverty by 2020 (Child Poverty Action Group, 2007). It is obvious that low income and disadvantage in childhood impacts on children’s life chances throughout their lives. Moreover, the United Kingdom government is trying to improve the opportunities and life chances of children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Erasing poverty through education opportunities could seem to be a good option, as Hill (1993:14) indicates that in the post-war period (1945), in Britain, the education system offered free primary education for all, but secondary education opportunities were limited with scholarships available for only a minority of able lower middle-class and working class children. In contrast, nowadays, education has become free for every British citizen.

With regards to the relief of this problem, Spicker (1993:70) and McConnell (2006) argue that poverty does not have to be seen in terms of the distribution of cash benefits: it might equally be seen in terms of the distribution of goods or services, and it is possible for those being at the bottom to rise and erase their own poverty. “In terms of starvation, poverty has declined but pockets of it remain in a much more affluent society” (Spicker, 1993).

Also, UNICEF (2008) believes that providing more aid to poorer countries helps children out of poverty. “…We are therefore urging governments to fulfill their commitment to give 0.7% of their gross national income to international aid …”Various studies have highlighted observable long term changes in the structure of the labour market in Britain which tends to increase the polarisation captured by the underclass idea. Notably an increase in the salience of educational qualifications as a determinant of employment prospects, and a decline in the opportunities available for those without skills or qualifications(Green, 1996 in Hills 1996).

In contrast with today’s society, some recent studies indicate that at least a quarter of 19-year-olds lack minimum levels of qualification (The Poverty Site, 2007).

To conclude, poverty is constructed as a social problem in particular places and times in particular ways. This essay has briefly looked at some of the causes of poverty and inequality in the United Kingdom. It is not a question of scale or numbers which determines whether poverty is a personal or public issue. Some may argue that people living in poverty are responsible for it and this is why the state should be involved in to find a solution for the problem. It is possible for the United Kingdom to be the kind of nation where the brightest and the best can reach for the very top but those who start at the bottom can rise too

discursive essay on the legalisation of cannabis; different peoples views and arguments for and against it.

An issue that creates heated debate almost anywhere you go is the legalisation of cannabis. There are two different opinions: one, that cannabis should not become legal because it leads on to the use of harder drugs and causes more petty crime. The second view is that if it became legal then fewer people would have to sneak around to get cannabis and therefore not get caught up in the underworld of drugs, and that would stop the lead on to harder drugs. Also cannabis can be used for medical purposes such as a painkiller, and to relieve the symptoms of diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

I don’t believe that the use of drugs necessarily leads on to the use of harder drugs. The argument that the use of cannabis leads on to the use of harder drugs is called the Gateway Theory, which is now seldom used by the British Government. Yet some people continually state this as if it were a fact, whist still others, even some who advocate the full legalisation of cannabis, continue to insist that it is the social setting in which cannabis is taken that leads onto hard drug use. Such arguments are often based on the idea that if one is in an environment where people are smoking tobacco for example then, if they were smoking it before, they will restart or if they had not done it before then they will start. The truth is that it is not because they are in that environment, but it is because they may be encouraged to start or restart by other people. There is nothing within cannabis itself that automatically leads the user to use harder drugs. In fact cannabis is less addictive than caffeine. And also users say that unlike cocaine or heroin, cannabis does not give you a high thereby removing the need to take an increased dosage to try and get the same high as the first time.

On the other hand some people believe that the use of cannabis will lead on to the use of harder drugs. A prime example of the Gateway Theory is a newspaper article from the Daily Mail. A Professor Rey, conducted a study, and it concluded that thirty nine percent of children who admitted using cannabis had also used harder drugs such as Heroin, Cocaine, Ecstasy and amphetamines.

Another reason people give for the legalisation of cannabis is that it has medical purposes. It can be used as a painkiller or to relieve the symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Even our own Queen Victoria used cannabis to relive the discomfort of menstrual cramps.

Furthermore, some people agree that if cannabis were legal then it would take up less police time and public money, because police would spend less time arresting people for minor offences, and therefore could spend more time on all of Britain’s bigger problems. For example, in 1995 there were 93631 drug arrests and 76, 694 were to do with cannabis . So if the police didn’t have to arrest people for cannabis offences then it would save a lot of police time. It would also save a great deal of public money as well because we would not have to put them through a trial or keep them in prison.

Another argument is that even though some people may think that cannabis has some medical properties, this has not yet been proven. The House of Lords even say that beside cannabis being intoxicating it can pose a risk to people with heart problems, it can exacerbate pre-existing mental illness, smoking cannabis is as bad for the lungs as smoking tobacco, and may cause cancer and also that regular heavy use can lead to psychological dependence, and in some cases to physical dependence, involving withdrawal symptoms.

Furthermore people believe that legalisation will cause greater harm through increased use “because of increased availability and tacit acceptance of these drugs by society” . Other effects of legalisation may include increased crime and violence resulting from the pharmacological effects of illicit drugs.

In conclusion I accept that there are good reasons for cannabis to stay an illegal drug, but I still think that cannabis should become a legal drug, as there are many good reasons for it to become legal. I think that even if you were to keep it illegal it will not discourage people from using the drug, and people will keep using it for recreational use for many years to come.

Essay about the charactor Madeline from the Fall of the House of Usher, by Edgar Allen Poe.

The Gothic short stories of Edgar Allan Poe are characterized by an unexpected, usually twisted, occurrence at the end. In the middle of The Fall of the House of Usher, for example, the narrator helps a school friend, Roderick Usher, entomb his twin sister Madeleine in a vault in the family home. At the end, however, not only does the supposedly dead Madeleine come back to life, her reappearance seems to bring about both the death of her brother and the literal collapse of the family home. What exactly the narrator sees in the form of Madeleine, however, is not clear. He may see a hallucination, a ghost, or a real person.

The narrator may of shared a join hallucination with Usher. The fact that both were going insane and shared a strong bond of friendship makes this possible. The narrator spent a long time trying to cheer up Usher, and his insanity might of affected him. “We painted and read together; or I listened, as if in a dream, to the wild improvisations of his speaking guitar.” Having such close contact with a mad man could of thrown the narrator over the edge. It isn’t likely that the house suddenly just collapsed at the end of the story, perhaps it was all just in the man’s head. “…my brain reeled as I saw the might walls rushing asunder.” A reeling brain could of been the cause of the apparent collapse of the House of Usher.

It is more possible that the narrator saw a ghost or some form of reincarnation of Madeleine’s spirit. After all, Madeleine was locked in the vault for at least seven days without food or water. It is hard to believe that she survived such a long period of time and even if she was still alive at that point, it is hard to believe she could manage to open the door by herself in such a weakened state. Because both of them heard the noises and then saw Madeleine at the same time, it is highly unlikely her appearance was a hallucination. More proof can be found in the quote following: “Suddenly there shot along the path a wild light, and I turned to see whence a gleam so unusual could of issued…” This light seems to have a supernatural origin as described by the narrator. Although less than a sentence later the light is revealed as coming from the moon, it still does not seem to have an entirely physical origin. “The radiance was that of the full… moon, which now shone vividly through that once barely discernible fissure, of which I have before spoken as extending from the roof of the building… I saw the mighty walls rushing asunder… and the deep and dank tarn at my feet closed sullenly and silently over the fragments of the ‘House of Usher.’ The entire house collapsing could of been caused by something supernatural.

However, it is more likely that the narrator did not see a hallucination or a ghost, but instead Madeline herself. The fact that she had epilepsy makes it possible that she could of appeared a corpse. Perhaps her pulse slowed down or stopped for a short while, enough for the doctor to declare her dead. She had “…frequent although transient affections of a partially cataleptical character…” Before her appearance, both Roderick and the narrator hear the noises of her approach. It is not very likely a ghost or hallucination could of caused these sounds. That’s beside the proof that she was physically there. She opened the door: “…but then without those doors there did stand the lofty and enshrouded figure of the lady Madeline of Usher.” She fell on Usher, knocking him down: “…fell heavily inward upon the person of her brother, and in her violent and now final death agonies, bore him to the floor…” A ghost or hallucination just doesn’t fully explain the events that happened, Madeleine must of been a real person.

The importance of moral values

What is the importance of moral values or life long lessons to a young adolescent? The majority of our youth in America know very little about this question. The behavior of children in this society proves that my question is hardly even a subject of importance. Today, the violence and crimes in this nation mostly occur when a troubled teen or a fragile child cannot handle the pressure and stress of reality. The influential factor of violence spreads so easily; a child finds this influence simply by turning the television set on. In fact, any news channel disappointly shows the actions of teenagers committing the violent act of murder without any remorse. All of this animosity and chaos within children begin with not knowing the difference between right and wrong. The positive influence of reiligion, education, and peers greatly effect a child’s manner and behavior pattern. Traditional values and important lessons from these sources certainly help a child to understand the distinction between the right and wrong choices in life. An important value for children to be aware of is the benefit of religion. The church teaches children to accept the existence of a being higher than man. By accepting a higher power, the children should follow the rules and guidelines of this higher being. In the church, scriptures and books warn the followers about the consequences of their actions. The Christians believe that God determines our fate to heaven or hell. The Holy Bible, also the book of Christians, tells many descriptive tales about lessons and values that draw a line between evil and righteousness. God presents a path with different choices; one choice could lead toward deciet while the other to joy. “Deceit is in the heart of them that imagine evil:but to the counsellors of peace is joy.”(Proverbs 12:20) By understanding the responsibility of choice making, the youth of America learn to think about the consequences or aftermath of their decision. Religion serves as a foundation for knowing the difference between right and wrong. The involvement of religion better prepares our children for certain difficulties in life. The value of eduaction is an important tool that induces the growth of our young Americans to a more sophisticated level. Eduaction builds knowledge and integrity into the minds of our children. A child develops paritcular advantages over someone else with less educational experience. For example, a college graduate might have a higher income that a high school graduate. School also guides children away from trouble; with essays and math problems, a child has no time for trouble. Parents must emphasize the importance of education to thier children. Education strengthens the capabilities of our youth. So I ask again, “What is the imortance ot moral values or life long lessons to young adolescent?” A child becomes a better individual when he experiences the goodness of church,education, and friendship; that is the relevancy of values and lessons. In time, our youth will grow into adults and understand that the sourec of success and achievement originate from church, school, and family. In order for our nation to minimize crime, the children of this generation must reevalute their choices and responsibilities in life. Our youth also needs the assistance of parents and teachers for guidance through the tough reality of today’s decision making. The support of our parents and teachers will greatly benefit the youth of our nation. The values and lessons that come from religion, education, and friends shape our America into a better place to live.

Environmental Impact Essay (global warming and the like)

The Environment The impact of people on their environment can be devastating. This is where the respective role of governments can make decisions that shape environmental policy and responsibilities. These governments can be broken up into four different levels: local, state, federal and international. Air quality and biodiversity are two current issues that can be related to the role of governments. Global warming is also another implication that has a devastating effect on the environment. Current examples include the rise in sea levels, polar meltdowns, the melting of ice sheets and glaciers and human deaths due to disease from the effects of global warming. Firstly the environment can be defined as the natural features of our surroundings such as plant and animal life and their habitats, water, soils and the atmosphere. A local government named Rockdale Municipal Council has implemented certain actions to deal with the quality in that region. They have recognized that the main source of poor air quality originates from air pollution sources such as motor vehicles, industrial premises and aircraft emissions. The solutions to these problems include improvements to Ryde and Botany Bay cycle way, integration of land use and transport planning strategies, production of “Air Quality – the Facts” booklet for community, investigation of complaints regarding odors and dust, tree planting and preparation of a Local Air Quality Management Plan in 1999. Air quality is a major issue in most states within Australia that affects our greenhouse, to tackle the implications state governments have created policies and responsibilities. For instance Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) is a program that enables mainly state governments to take action on greenhouse. CCP provides these state governments with a strategic framework to diminish greenhouse gas emissions by helping them identify and recognize the emissions of their council and community, set a reduction goal and develop and utilize an action plan to reach that goal. State actions include: capturing the methane from landfill sites and public and non-car transport into urban planning. On a federal or national basis Australia has employed policies to increase the air quality. For example the Commonwealth Government will guarantee that Australia carries its fair-share of the burden in worldwide efforts to combat global air pollution through policy development and implementation. They have also supported the National Greenhouse Strategy (NGS) which began in late 1996. The government will also support the development of a national strategy to observe and manage “air toxics”. The air toxics strategy will monitor, establish the levels of community exposure to, and manage emissions of selected air toxics. The federal government will even consider the inclusion of air toxics in a future National Environmental Protection Measure. Further measures include the leading of the development of national ambient air quality standards through the National Environmental Protection Council and the assistance of the establishment of a National Pollutant Inventory which will require large companies to publicly report their emission of 90 pollutants. Local government Rockdale Municipal Council has introduced responsibilities and policies to reduce the loss of biodiversity. This local government has learned that the cause involves the introduction of species, pollution of land and water, weed invasion and urban encroachment. Their solutions to these problems comprise of the planting of over 3500 plants and shrubs in Bardwell Valley and Scotts Reserve, bush regeneration and planting in Scarborough Reserve, involvement in Cooks River Foreshores Working Party and preparation of a flora and fauna study in 2000. Policies towards the community include controlling noxious weeds on your property, planting native trees indigenous to the area and applying to the council prior to removing any trees. The Labor Tasmanian Government has created a new Environment Policy on biodiversity that hopes to preserve native plants and animals. The policies commit the government to encourage community involvement in biological diversity programs, proclaim the Tasman National Park, establish a State Biodiversity Committee with community representation to arrange a Tasmanian Biodiversity Strategy, support the development of a State Policy on the protection of remnant native vegetation, examine the possibility of incorporating the Biodiversity Strategy into legislation and seeking the co-operation of local government and the community in including and enforcing biological diversity guidelines in development criteria. The federal government has enabled several policies to deal with conservation of Australia’s biodiversity. The government will support the National Reserve System program to expand Australia’s National Parks, support off-reserve biodiversity conservation including the planting of trees and the protection of vegetation through the Bushcare program and work with the States to reduce unsustainable land clearing, develop an “alert list” of introduced plants and animals that pose a risk to our environment. The government will also maintain a ban on the export of live fauna; support research into Australia’s floral and fauna assemblages as well as biodiversity conservation methods and ratify the Desertification Convention. An international conference held in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997 discussed issues on how best to reduce global warming. Kyoto Protocol negotiations have reached a legally binding agreement limiting the amount of gas emissions all industrialized countries. The protocol also included provisions for emission trading between industrialized countries. The overall nominal effect of the Kyoto protocol is for a reduction of 5.2% of emissions by 2010. However the agreement has many flaws and could lead to emission rising above 1990 levels. The protocol specifies that Japan must reduce emissions by 6%, USA by 7% and the European Union by 8%. The chairman of the conference negotiators, Raul Estrada said that further discussions were needed to find a way of implementing a system of trading in emissions. Trading allows countries that produce high levels of greenhouse gases, such as the USA, to buy the right to retain or even increase emissions.

Global warming refers to an expected rise in global average temperature due to the continued emission of greenhouse gases produced by industry and agriculture; which trap heat in the atmosphere. Higher temperatures are expected to be accompanied by changing patterns of precipitation frequency and intensity, changes in soil moisture and a rise of the global sea level. To assess current examples relating to global warming, an examination is first needed on these examples. Sea levels could rise six feet and up in future centuries. The entire Amazon rainforest will be lost if the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases by more than 50%. But no matter whatever action the world takes to stop global warming, sea levels are set to rise and wipe out several island nations. The worst news is that whatever governments do to cut emissions, sea levels will rise by at least 2 metres over the next few hundred years, devastating Tuvalu and Kiribati in the Pacific and the Maldives in the Indian Ocean. Low-lying farmland and cities occupied by hundreds of millions of people will also be engulfed. Robert Nicholls of Middlesex University in London stated that “thermal expansion of the ocean will continue for many hundreds of years after CO2 is stabilized, due to the gradual penetration of heat deeper and deeper into the ocean. All around the world ice sheets and glaciers are melting at a rate quite remarkably since record keeping began. A worldwide institute, based in Washington DC says that glaciers and other features are particularly sensitive to temperature shifts, and that “scientists suspect the enhanced melting is among the first observable signs of human induced global warming. Some of the effects of global warming are as follows: arctic ocean sea ice shrunk by 6% since 1978, with a 14% loss of thicker year round ice, Greenland ice sheet has thinned by more than a metre a year on its southern and eastern edges since 1993 and 22% of glacial ice volume on the Tien Shan mountains has disappeared in the last 40 years. Worldwatch declared that the Earth’s ice cover reflects much of the sun’s heat back into space and the loss of much of it would affect the global, raise sea levels, and threaten water supplies. They also stated that the land and water left revealed by the retaining ice would themselves retain heat, creating a feedback loop that would speed up the warming process. The institute pronounced that the world’s glaciers, taken as a whole, are now shrinking faster than they are growing. Worldwatch also warns of the outcomes of retaining ice on wildlife. In northern Canada reports of hunger and weight loss among polar bears have been associated with ice cover changes. And in Antarctica, sea loss, rising air temperatures and increased condensation are altering the habitats and the feeding and breeding patterns of seals and penguins. Cornell University ecologists believe that global warming may account for millions of human deaths from disease. David Pimentel a professor of ecology at Cornell stated and assumes that “Most of the increase in disease is due to numerous environmental factors, including infectious microbes, pollution by chemicals and biological wastes and shortages of food and nutrients. Global warming will only make matters worse.” Global warming will produce a favorable climate for disease producing organisms and plant pests. Global climate change will result in a net loss of obtainable food, for example the decline in rainfall (due to global warming) causes crop and plant production to die out. Infectious disease and environmental factors are to blame for more than 75% of all deaths in the world. Environmental disease may comprise of organic and chemical pollutants, including smoke from tabacco and wood sources. More than three billion people are malnourished. Malnutrition increases vulnerability to pollution-related illnesses and diseases such as diarrhea. Therefore Pimental concluded, “we’re seeing the first signs that global climate change can influence the incidences of human disease”. And that “this change combined with population growth and environmental degradation, will probably intensify world malnutrition and increases in other diseases as well.” Melting is taking on vast and unprecedented level in the Arctic sea ice, the Antarctic and in dozens of mountain and sub-polar glaciers, and the rate has accelerated immensely in the past decade. The Earth’s ice cover could have intense changes on the global climate and rising sea levels could start regional flooding. Melting of mountain glaciers could also endanger urban water supplies and the habitats of plant and animal species in fragile environments. Within the next 35 years, the Himalayan glacial area is expected to shrink by one-fifth, to just 100, 000 kilometres. A prediction forecasts that the remaining glaciers could disappear in 30 years. The melting has been especially noticeable in the past three decades, and scientists believe that it is the result of human behavior and the build up of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. All current examples of global warming are significant due to the effects that it has on the environment and people. For people, it can cause infectious diseases and pollution-related illnesses that in turn, affect our standard of living. Some examples can be more significant than others. For example diseases amongst people is more so important than the rise in sea levels and melting of glaciers since peoples existence are endangered.

How to Format Your Hard Drive I had the assignment in my English 101 class to write a process essay or an instructional essay. This is an instructional essay.

Are you tired of freezing? Fed up with waiting until the cows come home for your computer to complete a task? Devastated when the computer locks up so tight that you have to turn off the power to your house so it will shut down? Well, if you are like most computer owners, you understand how frustrating and expensive a computer can be. Taking your computer to the repair shop and paying high technician fees can be a thing of the past. Follow my directions and you will not ever have to worry about keeping your computer running again.

Before you begin, you need to have a computer and a basic understanding of how it operates. You will need a few 3.5-inch floppy disks, a startup disk, and an operating system disk. The startup disk is a disk that was made especially for your computer. It tells the computer what hardware it has and which type of operating system is going to be installed. The operating system disk is, for most personal home computers, Microsoft Windows. Today the Windows versions would most likely be Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 S.E., Windows ME, Windows 2000, or Windows X.P. If you have the floppy disks, the startup disk and the operating system disk then you are ready for the next step.

Now, you need to decide which (if any) information you do not want erased. This information will be saved on a 3.5-inch floppy. To save on a 3.5-inch floppy you need to insert the disk into the skinny hole on your tower making sure to keep the shiny side down. The drive that you inserted the disk into is called the A-drive. After your disk is inserted into the A-drive open the file you wish to save. Click on the word file and a drop

down menu appears. On the drop down menu you will see a list of options. Click on save as. Another window will open and ask you where you would like to save the file and what you would like to name it. Type the name of the file and click on A-drive 3.5 floppy. Do this with everything that you do not want to lose. When you have finished saving, take a deep breath.

Now you are ready to format your hard drive. The next two steps scare most people. Do not worry; if you have saved all the information correctly; this should be no problem.

To format your hard drive, start by clicking on the start button. Next, click on shutdown. Finally, click on start in D.O.S. mode. The computer will shut down and restart. It will restart in D.O.S. mode, which means that all you will see on your screen is a c-prompt. A c-prompt is the letter c followed by a colon, a backslash, the word Windows, and an arrow pointing to the right. It should look like this: c:\Windows >. The curser should be blinking to the right of the arrow. Type in cd followed by two periods. The command looks like this: C:\Windows> cd.. Cd tells your computer that you want to change the directory. Now, your c-prompt should look like this: c:\ . Let’s format!

At your c:\ or c-prompt type format c:. The computer will warn that you are about to erase all of your files. Hit the enter button. This tells the computer that yes, you know what you are doing and that you want to do it. During the formatting process, your computer will show the percentage that is finished. When it is 100%, the computer will ask what you would like to name your c-drive and what volume of information is left on the hard drive. If you want to name your c-drive type in the name. If it is left blank, the default name will be drive c. Hit enter. You have done it! The hard drive is formatted! However, the job is not finished. Now you need to reinstall the operating system.

This is the last step. Put your computers startup disk into drive a. Shut off the power to the computer and wait about 10 seconds. Turn your computer back on. This step is called rebooting. The computer will automatically read the disk of information from the a-drive. When the computer is finished reading the information, it will give you an a-prompt. The a-prompt is just like the c-prompt except it reads the information on the a-drive. At the a-prompt, type in d:\ . This command takes you to the d-drive. The d-drive should be your cd-rom. Insert your operating system disk into the d-drive. At the d-prompt type setup.exe. The command line should look like this: D:\ > setup.exe. You are now installing your operating system. Answer all the questions that your operating system asks. This process can take anywhere from 20 to 60 minutes depending on the speed of your cd-rom and your processor speed. When your system reboots, you are finished!

That is all there is to it. You have actually done more than formatted your hard drive. You have reloaded your operating system, learned how to save information to a floppy disk, and learned a couple of very important D.O.S. commands. Most importantly, you saved yourself at least $100.00 and the hassle of packing up, loading, unloading, and hauling your computer to the repair shop. Not to mention the time all of that takes.

Environmental pollution concerns come to forefront in this essay which tells of the importance of the environment.

Environmental pollution concerns come to forefront

Reports that the state finds El Dorado Irrigation District’s drinking water system primitive, outdated and an avenue for hazardous pollutants sent El Dorado County residents scrambling for more information Wednesday.

The message that pregnant, elderly and sick residents should boil their water or buy it bottled was buried in fine print in the 28,000 notices mailed in September to EID customers. Dozens of residents called EID offices Wednesday after The Bee obtained a copy of a state report showing photographs of manure piles, animal carcasses, mats of algae and other contaminants in and near EID’s open reservoirs.

“That article made me a firm believer that I’m not crazy,” said Sue Reimer, who was seven months pregnant in 1996 when she was diagnosed with giardia, a water-borne virus that causes intestinal problems. The El Dorado engineer said she was drinking only EID water — and lots of it, at her doctor’s suggestion.

There’s no confirmed connection between EID’s water and illness in El Dorado County, county officials say.

The problem at EID, state health officials say, is that after the district filters water drawn from the American River, it stores the water in small reservoirs open to the elements.

Most other water districts use closed steel or concrete tanks. Only a few other California water districts currently store treated water in open reservoirs, including those in McCloud, Santa Barbara, Montecito, Carpinteria and Los Angeles. None of those has as many as the 11 used in EID.

The El Dorado reservoir water consistently meets state health standards on bacteria, EID officials say, because the district constantly bubbles chlorine from nearby tanks into the reservoirs and sends the water on to homes. But they admit their open reservoirs expose the water to contamination by disease-causing agents for which there are no health standards or required testing in small water districts: giardia, viruses and cryptosporidium.

“We are more vulnerable because they are not covered,” said Marjie Lopez Read, EID water quality superintendent, “even though the treatment is complete at the water plants.”

William Hetland, EID general manager, said the district hasn’t ignored the problem of covered reservoirs. Several years ago, he said, it began buying rubberized membrane covers for the reservoirs. Seven had already been installed when, in July, the California Department of Health Services ordered the district to either build steel tanks or put concrete lids on all of its reservoirs. The rubber covers, the state decided after a 1997 investigation, allow too much contamination of treated water by animals, vegetation and rain.

“We’ve been addressing this problem,” said Hetland. “Maybe not as fast as they’d like, but we have been addressing the problem.”

Until 1990, he said, the district didn’t even filter its water. It simply pumped American River water to the reservoirs and treated it with chlorine.

The state put EID on a four-year schedule to cover its reservoirs, a job that EID board member Raymond Larsen estimated would cost $30 million to $40 million and force the district, with an annual water supply budget of $10 million, to raise rates 50 percent.

The state also ordered the district to advise customers that if they’re elderly, pregnant, ill, HIV-positive, undergoing cancer therapy or otherwise suffering from a compromised immune system, they should either use bottled water or boil their water.

A flier titled “EID News from the Water Front” was mailed to all customers and sent home with school children, Hetland said.

But several residents said they either didn’t notice it or didn’t realize its significance. The warning about boiling water appeared on the third page.

“I never saw this notice,” said resident Reimer. “I always look.”

To back up its enforcement order, the Department of Health Services prepared a vividly photographed report that didn’t circulate much beyond the EID board of directors. It shows bird droppings, dead frogs and birds, beer bottles, the footprints of human swimmers, runoff from horse and cattle pastures and animal skeletons in the reservoirs.

“If an infected cow, while grazing, defecates into the drinking water stored in this reservoir,” states the caption to one photo in the report, “the water becomes contaminated with literally millions of Cryptosporidium organisms.”

Water quality experts say chlorine does not kill cryptosporidium, an intestinal parasite that was responsible for an outbreak that infected 400,000 people in 1993 in Milwaukee. Chlorine generally kills viruses but does not completely kill giardia.

El Dorado County health officials say that so far this year they documented six cases of giardia and two of cryptosporidium, some of them from Lake Tahoe, which is not in the EID service area. Those numbers are no higher than documented in previous years, they said, and investigations usually show that victims have been swimming in rivers or drinking from streams while backpacking.

But Reimer said she hadn’t been backpacking in five years when she got giardia. It made her “sicker than a dog,” too sick to even care for her 2-year-old for two weeks.

“I lost 10 pounds and I got to the point where I was having contractions,” she said. “I called EID and said the only water I drank is your water. How did I get giardia? They said we treat all our water. … They told me I was crazy.”

Other EID customers say they’re regular drinkers of bottled water.

“We haven’t drunk any of that water for four or five years,” said Wave Baxter of Diamond Springs, whose groceries at a Placerville Lucky store included a large bottle of water. “The last time I set a glass on the container and turned around to look the bottom was full of sand.”

But board member Larsen, who lives in Camino, said he drinks the water with no qualms.

“I know the pictures are rather graphic but if you go out to most of these reservoirs it looks nothing like the pictures,” said Larsen. “We have fences around these things. We can’t keep ducks out, of course, but there are precautions taken so that if e coli (bacteria) does get into the system, the chlorine is added as it leaves the reservoir to solve that potential threat.”

EID’s water system, centered around Sly Park Reservoir, was built in the 1950s by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for drinking water and agricultural use.

Effective Discipline in the 21st Century

While writing this essay on Effective Discipline in the 21st Century, all the articles, sources, and teachers I talked to all said that the most effective disciplinarian is an assertive teacher. In the following paragraphs I will discuss what discipline is, how teachers can deal with discipline and different techniques on discipline.

Discipline is more than keeping a group of children or young people quiet while being talked to. Preserving good behavior is certainly one aspect to discipline, for learning it in an atmosphere of confusion is difficult. Children have to learn to conform to the rules of behavior needed in a classroom. However, discipline should be described as ongoing, proactive set of behaviors used to create a cooperative environment, which minimizes the likelihood of negative, disruptive behavior. Teachers have the right to ask for a quiet class, keep the students in their seats, and have the right to discipline them if they do not cooperate.

In order for a teacher to have his or her needs met, they can influence the behavior of the children. Until the past decade, students and parents looked at the teacher as the main person in the classroom. The teacher, simply because of their role status, had respect and authority. Today, a teacher has to earn the respect of both the students and their parents. A teacher’s basic techniques of influence, or discipline, is no longer as effective as getting the desired results. The teacher cannot rely on the strong support of the parents anymore. Many parents are openly questioning, the education that their children are receiving, and do not feel they want to support the needs of their child’s teachers.

Teachers cannot get their needs met in a classroom unless they have an effective method of discipline in which they thoroughly understand and comfortable utilize.

Planning is essential to teaching well. Lesson planning is second nature to teachers.

Lesson plans are part of a professional routine, and are done almost automatically when the need arises. However, planning for discipline is an entirely different story. The majority of teachers has learned or has been exposed to the steps involved in planning discipline programs, especially those to be used specifically with disruptive students. Because of teachers’ frustrations, all we often hear is their complaining about how difficult the students really are.

Such complaining may help to relieve the strain of dealing with difficult students, but it in no way helps to solve the problem. Discipline planning will structure and guide classroom management efforts the same as lesson planning for academic efforts. Discipline plans are important and helpful to all teachers. Discipline planning is the systematic applications of the assertive principles the teacher exhibits. It involves focusing your attention on any existing or potential discipline problems you may have. These discipline problems may involve an individual student, or a group of students, or an entire class. Having good discipline enables the teacher to deal assertively with their students. He or she will know how to maximize their potential influence to get their needs met.

The assertive teacher recognizes the fact that he or she has wants and needs and has the right to get them met in the classroom. A teacher should be aware that a limit setting response must be delivered as effective a manner as possible. Eye contact is very important when trying to get a point made. Whenever necessary, the teacher plans how to back up their limit setting statement with appropriate consequences. This is done in order to maximize the influence that his or her response can have on the behavior of the child. (Bluestein)

Whenever required, teachers should be prepared to back up their words with consequences in order to motivate the behavior of more difficult children. He or she is aware some children need more support than others and is prepared to give that child as much as they can. The children learn to trust and respect an assertive teacher. The children clearly know the parameters of acceptable and unacceptable behavior. This gives them an opportunity to choose how they want to behave while knowing fully what the consequences will be for their behaviors. This does not mean that every child will like an assertive teacher, and does not mean that every child will behave. Some children may still decide not behave for any reason. All that an assertive teacher can do by his or her behavior is try to establish an atmosphere where he or she maximizes the potential for a positive teacher – child relationship. (AFT)

The major area where being an assertive teacher helps a child is when the student has special needs or problems. This when a teacher needs to step things up a notch and become more assertive. Some teachers may lose track of their assertive potential, but they have to teach the child how to behave in the appropriate manner. (Bluestein) One problem area where a child needs assertive discipline is when he or she is confronted with peer pressure. This is when the student’s fellow peers force him or her to do something. Confronting the child and telling him what he or she is doing can solve this problem. This problem can also be solved by giving out a punishment like, writing on the chalkboard or may be standing in the corner with his or her back turned to the rest of the class. (AFT) If all else fails, the teacher may want to call the child’s home and plan a conference with the student’s parents.

Though most teachers feel threatened and overwhelmed by parents, especially if they are pushy or manipulative, they need to take a stand and thoroughly explain the situation going on with their child. (Bennett, interview) The teacher has to be assertive with the parents and the child. The teacher should not down grade the problems they are having with their child. Instead they should tell the parents the way things are. The teacher should let the parents know that they need their cooperation to discipline the child at home for his tantrum. If the teacher does not tell the parents what they truly feel then the child’s tantrum will be even worse the next time.

The corner stone of assertive discipline is the potential positive influence teachers can have on the behavior of their students. When teachers accept the consequences of their potential influence they accept the consequences of their potential influence they accept the responsibility to choose, or not to choose, to utilize this potential for the best interest of both themselves and the students. Assertive teachers recognize the responsibilities they have for the children. They know they cannot assert themselves and get their needs and the children needs met. They know they can have the impact on their classrooms if they choose to do so.

In conclusion, Relationship building-the key to minimizing discipline problems-is a process. Encourage parent, community and staff support through a range of measures, beginning with their involvement in the creation of the code. Clear, concise language with specific examples of all behaviors that will result in disciplinary action and the specific punishments that will be administered for infractions of the rules. Consequences for even minor misbehaviors and increased punishments required for repeat offenses. Children learn best from what actually happens, not from what is said to them. Teaching children good behaviors is more than telling them what to do. Children will test limits. They will whine and argue to find out how you react. If these negative behaviors are rewarded (the children get what they want), they will use the negative behaviors again. By being an assertive teacher, you can prevent children from going outside the limits and promote good behavior and education to their limits.

In the Army now. essay on current events on the iraq war and the draft

With the recent war in Iraq there has been of the United States government bringing back the military draft. This has caused many people to worry, even myself about the situation in Iraq. The war seems to be getting out of hand for the government to deal with if they are planning to bring back the draft. Then there is the fact that the United States has been losing more and more troops everyday, which could possibly lead to the draft being reinstated.

The United State military draft was discontinued in 1973, after the end of the Vietnam War, moving on to an all-volunteer force which we have today. The first draft was used by the Confederacy on 16 April 1862. Government officials plagued with manpower shortages regarded drafting as the only means of sustaining an effective army and hoped it would spur voluntary enlistments. (Conscription) Although that issue again arises with the depletion of the nation’s reserves with the recent activities in the Middle East. “There is no question that the force is stretched too thin,” said David Segal, director of the Center for Research on Military Organization at the University of Maryland. “We have stopped treating the reserves as a force in reserve. Our volunteer army is closer to being broken today than ever before in its 30-year history.”(Military Draft). Due to these circumstances the volunteer rate has declined in the years of the war. Last year the Army fell 7 percent below its recruitment goal. And in some states, the retention rate has fallen far below the desired 85 percent to 71 percent. Army officials attribute the strong re-enlistment rates to unprecedented cash bonuses and a renewed sense of purpose in fighting terrorism.

Some of the record bonuses are tax-free if soldiers re-enlist while in Afghanistan and Iraq. The average bonus is $10,000, said Col. Debra Head, who monitors Army retention at the Pentagon. From Oct. 1 through June, the Army had re-enlisted 53,120 soldiers, 6% ahead of its goal of about 50,000 for that period. At that pace, the Army would finish the year 3,850 troops ahead of its target of 64,162. (Moniz)Once you agree to join the army you are dedicated to serve your country for at least three years through the contact. At least 8,000 members of the all-volunteer U.S. military have deserted since the Iraq war began, Pentagon records show, although the overall desertion rate has plunged since the Sept. 11 attacks in 2001. Since fall 2003, 4,387 Army soldiers, 3,454 Navy sailors and 82 Air Force personnel have deserted. The Marine Corps does not track the number of desertions each year but listed 1,455 Marines in desertion status last September, the end of fiscal 2005, says Capt. Jay Delarosa, a Marine Corps spokesman. ( Nichols)Just leaving from high school I wanted to attend college although if I joined out the Army out of high I would miss my education opportunity. I would be deployed over seas, placed in danger and feel a slim chance of returning home and still pursuing the life I had dreamed before I left. Although with the recent news of the draft it seems even though I didn’t choice the military route I will still be forced in by the draft.

Once the draft is instated male and female personnel ranging from ages 18 to 44 will be registered to a military branch and committed to at least three years of service. Even though some areas of the military prohibit the enlisting of female volunteers, such as the Navy Seals and Army Rangers the two most combative army divisions. Senior Republican Senator Chuck Hagel, of Nebraska, was the one who first stated that a mandatory military draft had to be considered in the face against the war against terrorism. He added that the “middle class” and the “lower middle class” should not be forced to bear the burden of “fighting and dying if, in fact, this is a generational probably 25-year war.”(Military Draft)The one thing about the draft that would be good will be that there will be fresh troops to battle the forces in Iraq. These troops would replace the older troops who have been deployed and would like to return home. Also with the draft the term limits overseas should decrease since there are more troops in which could be supplied. For the youth’s who are living at home with there parents between the ages of 19 and 25 could do the country good instead of living at home doing nothing. I feel that the draft has its benefits and its weaknesses that would hurt this country. The most important thing the draft will bring is fresh, plentiful troops that would help the war against terrorism.

Though the draft could possibly bring more troops and allow the troops now deployed to return home it is still horrible idea. With the draft civil unrest will come since the United States is built around democracy, letting the public volunteer on their free will to join. Since there are Americans who feel the troops shouldn’t be in this war they would refuse to be drafted. American is considered a bully to many other nations because of the way will have trying to police the world. The war is for the protection of our country but there has been many other times in which our army has been deployed for the wrong reason.

In the past draft there has been draft card burnings’ and boycotts against the war. I believe that if the draft was brought back these things will happen again. This is such a serious issue I believe that people will leave the country so they would not be forced to be drafted. I believe that the rich and famous citizens will refuse to be drafted and even pay others to go in their place. By sending our entire nation’s youth over to Iraq, it would affect everything in the nation. Such as in our sports, professional sport players’ are among the most athletic people in the nation. Our national hero’s would be deployed and enlisted in the Army going against what they believe in even though they are not immune to the draft. Why would a person fight and die for his/her if they don’t fully believe they should be fighting. I believe I person wouldn’t fight to the best of their ability if they don’t have the right mindset on why they are overseas. That person would have to find self determination since war is not the easiest thing mentally or physically. In the Vietnam War famous people such as Elvis Presley and Willie Mays were enlisted in the draft. Then there are the college students’ who will have to leave all there progress behind with school to be enlisted in the Army not knowing if they will ever come back and complete their degrees.

Even though many people feel that the draft is near, in reality the draft is indeed still far away. The United States government issued a statement that the US Military is meeting most of the recruiting goals even due to the war in Iraq. The decline was only due to those citizens’ afraid to join due to the situation in Iraq, but there has been many patriotic Americans who have joined to contribute to the War on Terror. The draft seems only necessary if the US Military is drawn into a third front besides Iraq and Afghanistan. North Korea will be the only situation that could be a reason that the draft will be reinstated, since there are harmful situation growing in that nation.

If the United States does indeed bring back the military draft then our youth will be in trouble. It will greatly affect our country and would cause more harm than good. With the battles overseas we are stretching our Army thin, when the nation should concentrated on other issues plaguing out nation such as the economy and poverty. The war against terror is an important issue to be dealt with but the more important question is will the draft destroy the future and dram of the nation’s youth who would be placed in danger?Works Cited“Will there be a military draft in the United States?” Military Draft. 5 Oct 2004. 29 Dec 2006< http://militaryspot.com/military-draft.htm>Nichols, Bill. “8,000 desert during Iraq war.” USA Today 7 Mar. 2006: C3Moniz, Dave. “Soldiers re-enlist beyond U.S. goal.” USA Today 17 July. 2006: D2

Hamlet Essay

Many hundreds of years ago, William Shakespeare wrote what he thought to be a great fictional tragedy. He was right in one aspect, Hamlet did become on of his most successful plays ever written, it wasn’t however as fictional as he might have believed. Many of the topics and ideas in this play reappear in our lives today.

Hamlet likes to express his intense hatred towards his mother’s new husband who is also his uncle. He makes it very clear that he thinks she made a horrible decision. This scenario reoccurs many times in today’s society. Now that divorce is so prominent, the rate of second marriages has also increased. There are many times that the children involved don’t like their new mother or father. Many times the parents take into consideration the thoughts of their children but in some cases, like that of Hamlet, the children aren’t even thought of. This caused a lot of anger towards the situation. He felt that his mother was betraying his father by marrying his uncle. He was so upset about losing his father that he would have probably hated anyone his mother had married.

One would think something that bothered Hamlet this much would eventually drive him mad but did it really? Hamlet was thought to have gone insane by Claudius and his fellow former schoolmates but was he actually as mad as he was perceived to be? It seems he had many reasons to be insane such as the death of his father, his mother marrying his uncle, the death of Ophelia, the fact that he had seen the ghost of his father and his constant need for revenge. His insanity was just a cover to hide what was really the problem, that he was burdened with extreme depression. Throughout the play Hamlet is constantly talking about death and suicide. It seems he is always hoping he could just “˜melt into the floor’ and disappear. However, this suicidal behavior and depressive state of mind quickly changed to one of revenge and anger shortly into the play. He turned all his problems around and found what was wrong with everyone else. By blaming other people he could turn his depression into revenge. Isn’t this exactly what we all love to do? People today are notorious for blaming each other.

After seeing his father’s ghost he plotted his revenge because he felt it was what his father had wanted, he being insane was just an excuse. Yet even after he planned to kill Claudius he waited a long time before attempting to kill him. If he wanted revenge so badly then what took him so long? This shows that he was definitely not as insane as he was made out to be. An insane person would have tried to act out their revenge plot as soon as possible.

Pleading insanity. That is something we have all heard about before. If you are found to be insane you can’t be held accountable for your actions right? Well maybe Hamlet was in his own way pleading insanity; that he was not in fact crazy but needed an excuse for his actions. We wonder what would have happened if at the end of the play if Hamlet was the one still alive. Without other people around to blame and with no one to care whether or not he is insane, how might he have acted? To be or not to be insane, that is the question.

Comparative Essay on the Beginnings of The Picture of Dorian Gray and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

The two books I have chosen for my open study are: The Picture of Dorian Gray and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. The first one, written in 1890 by Oscar Wilde, is the story of a young, aristocratic dandy who, influenced by a friend, becomes a hedonistic, selfish man who ends in tragedy. The second, written in 1886 by Robert Louis Stevenson, is the story of a scientist, Dr. Jekyll, who, under the effect of a potion, mutates into a terrifying monster every night, killing whoever doesn’t please him.

Choosing the books was not a difficult task for me: ‘The Picture of Dorian Gray’ is a book I read last year, and took great pleasure in reading, but I felt as if I didn’t get some of the messages and ideas of the novel. This is why I thought that choosing it for my essay could help me understand it better. I then thought of choosing the second book based on the features of the first: I wanted a book written in the same style, of the same genre, in the same period of time and with a similar plot. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde fitted perfectly.

These two books link and differ in various ways. As I have said, they are particularly similar in style of writing and period setting, as they were both written and are set towards the end of the 19th century, but then differ a great deal in social aspect and characters. Dorian Gray is an aristocratic young gentleman, with love and friends whilst Henry Jekyll is a reserved, middle-class scientist. The genres can be considered similar and different at the same time. The two books are actually both of the horror and mystery genre but the story of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is much more classical and mainstream than the original and controversial Picture of Dorian Gray, creating an opposite ‘clash’ between the two books.

For my open study essay, I will analyse in depth the beginnings and endings of these two books.

The Picture of Dorian Gray starts with a classical description of the setting. The first short paragraph is a description of the aromas that can be sensed in the studio of Basil Hallward: “The studio was filled with the rich odour of roses…” (p.3 – The Picture of Dorian Gray) this section runs smooth and gracefully, illustrating “the heavy scent of the lilac, or the more delicate perfume of the pink-flowering thorn” (Loc. Cit.) as if these fragrances were circling in motion, overlapping each other, one after the other.

Then a new paragraph starts with the introduction of a character that clashes with this parade of essences. The character is Lord Henry Wotton, a friend of Basil Hallward. He is lying on a sofa of Persian saddle-bags, smoking cigarettes. In contrary to the first paragraph, the portrayal is now centred around what the Lord can see from where he is sitting: “From the corner of the divan […] Lord Henry Wotton could just catch the gleam of the honey-sweet and honey-coloured blossoms of laburnum, whose tremulous branches seemed hardly able to bear the burden of beauty” (Loc. Cit.). Wilde has been very thoughtful using the word honey in repetition, and selecting the laburnum, which bends downwards in a careless manner. With his choice of words, he is truly giving the reader a sense of the slow-motioned afternoon stickiness that the Lord is experiencing by relaxing and smoking on the sofa. Further more, the laburnum is a poisonous tree of the pea family. Certainly, Dorian Gray turns out to be poisonous to many characters and, like the laburnum, has difficulty bearing ‘the burden of beauty’. This symbol seems to foreshadow many plot developments.

Then, the shadows of birds in flight flitter across the silk curtains, creating strange patterns. This effect reminds the Lord of Japanese painters, so the narrative, together with Henry Wotton’s mind, jumps to the other side of the world: “…the long tussore-silk curtains [produced] […] a kind of momentary Japanese effect, and made him think of those pallid jade-faced painters of Tokyo who […] seek to convey the sense of swiftness and motion” (p.3). Here, the word ‘jade-faced’, was written to have a double meaning. The Jade is a precious green stone, but the verb ‘ to be jaded’ means to be worn out and lacking enthusiasm. In this context, either options could be correct. In addition, the birds’ shadows moving on the curtains, seems to reflect the book’s main object which is the distorted painting. Again, this is another symbol that prefigures the book’s events.

As if Wotton was getting bored of thinking about Japanese painters, his attention goes back to the garden, and the depiction follows it, now describing the sounds that the Lord is able to hear: “The sullen murmur of the bees shouldering their way through the long unmown grass, or circling with monotonous insistence round the dusty gilt horns of the struggling woodbine, seemed to make the stillness more oppressive” (Loc. Cit.). This phrase seems to stress the monotony and impatience that Henry is experiencing on the sofa. Words like ‘sullen’, ‘monotonous insistence’ and ‘oppressive stillness’ give the reader a feeling that the day is endless and that it is dragging itself on, making Wotton long for something to happen. Moreover, it is as if the delineation of the noises, is getting always further away from the character listening, by following the bees’ trail. At first, just outside the studio, on the grass, then around the flowers of the pollen-full honeysuckles to then disappear somewhere else. As if the sound of the bees has suddenly vanished, the Lord’s mind switches directly to what he could not hear previously: “The dim roar of London was like the bourdon note of a distant organ” (Loc. Cit.) This short phrase is very effective and completely detached from all the previous descriptions. As if there is nothing else to see, nothing else to smell, and nothing else to hear, Lord Henry Wotton can now listen to the distant background sounds of London, which he could not hear previously due to the surrounding distractions.

Concisely, this is a vivid description which includes details on three of the five human senses: first the smell, then the sight, to end with the sound. Even though it does not talk about the senses of touch and taste, these elements can be found in between the lines. For example when Wilde uses words such as honey repeatedly, which gives us an idea of sweetness and smoothness in the air that can be tasted. Or even by just referring to something, such as Lord Henry’s fuming tobacco which, in contrast to the honey, has a much more strong and bitter taste. “…smoking, as was his custom, innumerable cigarettes” (Loc. Cit.). Also the element of touch can be found, even if more vaguely: when the author is describing the material of Lord Henry’s sofa, we can imagine how it feels like to sit on it and feel it: “…the divan of Persian saddle-bags on which he was lying…” (p.3). We can imagine a slightly rough, hand-made saddle bag with actual Persian colours such as ‘Persian red’ and ‘Persian indigo’.

The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, starts with a description too, but rather than a setting, Stevenson creates a thorough depiction in which he sketches the character of Mr. Gabriel John Utterson, a wealthy London lawyer, and main point of reference for the external narrator, who uses the lawyer as the story’s steering wheel. It is an extremely detailed description, concentrated more on the character’s personality rather than the physical aspect. He is a very reserved individual and perhaps even boring man: “Mr. Utterson the lawyer was […] never lightened by a smile; cold, scanty and embarrassed in discourse” (p.29 – The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and other stories). Hence, he is an uninteresting character, “lean, long, dusty, dreary” (Loc. Cit.) in personality.

The whole passage gives us the general image of a rigorous man, struggling to maintain a certain respectability to the point of becoming ridiculous. Nevertheless, it is as if the lawyer is hiding under a mask, and under the mask there is a lovable man who has a tendency to “help rather than reprove” (Loc. Cit.) In effect, probably the main theme of the whole passage is Utterson’s ‘lovability’. This sociability and friendliness make the lawyer the central element of the story, so that all the other characters confide in him and turn to him for help, permitting him to access each person’s point of view throughout the course of the events.

Secondly, the passage talks about Utterson’s eager interest in people with dark secrets and those who have experienced humiliation: “But he had an approved tolerance for others; sometimes wondering, almost with envy, at the high pressure of spirits involved in their misdeeds.” (Loc. Cit.) Without a doubt, the lawyer wonders with jealousy at the inspirations behind people’s misdeeds or transgressions. Even if entirely unsuited to a dully respectable man, this curiosity tempts him to involve himself in the unfolding mystery.

In brief, this description is an extraordinarily interesting account of Mr. Utterson, but at the same time a much more plain, and simple description of the lawyer’s behavioural traits than the intricate and vivid depiction of the setting in the opening paragraph of The Picture of Dorian Gray. In actual fact it is simply talking about how tedious the lawyer was, but at the same time loved by everyone. However, one can easily spot a few elements which might help us deduce the lawyer’s physical aspect. We must note, for example, that the man is most probably of a certain age, from the quote: “…he had not crossed the doors for twenty years…” (Loc. Cit.), referring to the doors of a theatre. We can also figure out elements of his life that have not been specified in the passage, such as the fact that he has a brother: “I let my brother go to the devil in his own way.”These two beginnings have numerous similarities to be summarized and pointed out. The extracts, like the whole novels, are both set in London towards the end of the 19th century, but the settings are definitely unalike. The Picture of Dorian Gray is set in an aristocratic community of dandies with inherited money and no job, whilst Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is based around a community of hard-working middle-class characters. In actual fact, these two stories, however implausible they may be, have happened in the same time and place.

Other than this, neither of the two novels in question open with the main character. These are Dorian Gray in Wilde’s work and Henry Jekyll in Stevenson’s. Both books open with the same kind of character, as both Lord Wotton and Mr. Utterson are the individuals who watch the events from above and are followed by the author through the narrative. This technique is very effective for the kind of genre used, as in both books the main characters are not introduced until some chapters into the books, causing the reader to develop an increasing interest and suspense.

Another relevant similarity is the fact that in both openings, many things have to be deduced from the text: in Wilde’s novel, the senses of touch and taste can be presumed from the remaining three whilst in Robert Louis Stevenson’s work one can speculate elements of the lawyer’s private life and physical aspect from a clear and vivid portrayal of the character’s personality.

The differences, instead, are not many. One is the obvious difference in the type of description but it is to be noticed that there are also the different narrative techniques that the authors use: The Picture of Dorian Gray is smooth and slow-paced, going on fluently with some elements of poetry such as alliteration: “rich odour of roses” (p.3), “perfume of the pink-flowering thorn” (ibid.). In Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde instead, the narrative is fast-paced, frenetic and angry, making the reader interpret the passage swiftly. Stevenson creates this effect by using many monosyllabic, harsh words “lean, long, dusty, dreary” (p.29), long sentences but a huge amounts of punctuation, making the phrases look chaotic and in no particular order: “He was austere with himself; drank gin when he was alone, to mortify a taste for vintages; and though he enjoyed the theatre, had not crossed the doors of one for twenty years”(ibid.).

Something else that I would like to point out is the theme of duality in human nature, recurring in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde more than anything, but present in The Picture of Dorian Gray too. In different ways, the doctor and the young man, both develop a second personality through the book. The first, to become a fierce monster each night and change back to normality in day-time and the other to actually alter his personality permanently to the opposite that he was before.

Both characters manage to be freed from their exhausting and persecuting second personality in the same way: death. Even so, these deaths are completely different from each other: Henry Jekyll dies of intentional suicide, when coming to know of his ‘dark side’ and Dorian Gray dies in the attempt to destroy his deformed portrait, killing himself unintentionally. This shows us the huge difference between the two characters in question.

In conclusion, I would say that The Picture of Dorian Gray and The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, at first impression, were two completely different novels, that had nothing to do with each other: one was the story of a young man who gets caught by temptation and indulgence, and the other the story of a ferocious beast that kills people in the night-time. After having worked on my open study, though, this vision changed, and now I can see the young man just as I had seen the monster and what was the monster is now nothing but an innocent full of guilt.

I dare say this has not been an easy task for me. The books and subject of the essay I have chosen have brought me massive problems throughout my work and research. The biggest ones have been the excessive amount of material for The Picture of Dorian Gray and the minimal for Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the superfluous length of the essay which obliged me to cut down a whole part of it and change the title. Nonetheless, as I had expected, this essay has indeed helped me in a better understanding of the whole books, and not only the passages I selected. Additionally, if previously I couldn’t get a clear image of the similarities and differences in my head, now I can clearly detect them and understand them in a completely different way.

Essay about Reconciliation with the past in “the Lord of the Rings” trilogy by J.R. Tolkien

Reconciliation with the past is a major theme throughout Tolkien’s trilogy, and the gap between the powerful, undying beings of the past and the mortal men of the present and future is starkly evident when the characteristics of the ancient domains are held up against the kingdoms of men. In the first book of The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien creates a rhythmic fluctuation between pleasure and disquietude, which gives the novel an almost serial quality as the characters go back and forth from imminent danger to homely safety. As the story progresses beyond the breaking of the Fellowship in the next two novels, however, the distinction between peril and safety becomes increasingly blurred. The havens of western Middle Earth described in The Fellowship of the Ring are maintained by ancient, well-established beings like Tom Bombadil, Elrond and Galadriel whose power is strong within their own respective lands, but these figures of the past are only remnants of a dying age. Bombadil is at the extremity of natural history while Elrond and Galadriel represent the original adversaries of the Enemy, and the preeminence of all three, especially the elves, is destined to fade with the coming of the Fourth Age, the Age of Man.

When the Fellowship is intact, the elder havens that provide respite from their perilous journey are undisputed strongholds which no evil can penetrate, but the bastions farther east that the broken Fellowship encounters are much more unstable and guarded by mortal men rather than the ancient, powerful beings. At this point, the story enters fully into the world of men, where elves are viewed with suspicion and the balance between good and evil is in perpetual physical contention. The two great kingdoms of mankind, Gondor and Rohan, are susceptible to the evil powers of Middle Earth as their rulers, Denethor and Theoden, are indirectly influenced by Sauron and Saruman respectively. Compared to the Eden-like Lorien and Rivendell, “the Last Homely House east of the Sea,” (I, 272) the bastions of man seem pitiful, but they are to be the bulwarks of the new age. The relative inactivity of the archaic guardians is indicative of the fact that the past must be left behind so that the men of the future can forge ahead unfettered by atavistic nostalgia.

Tom Bombadil is the self-proclaimed eldest denizen of Middle Earth, “Mark my words my friends: Tom was here before the river and the trees; Tom remembers the first raindrop and the first acorn,” (I, 168) and his power is demonstrated by his ability to compel Old Man Willow to release the hobbits and the fact that he is unaffected by the Ring. At the Council of Elrond, Gandalf explains that Tom’s unique place in history does not give him power over the Ring, it is just that, “the Ring has no power over him,” (I, 318). Since Tom existed before the forging of the Ring, and even before Sauron himself, he is essentially a remnant of a long forgotten past. Even Elrond must jog his memory to recall the many names of the cheery creature who never took part in the wars against the Enemy. Bombadil provides an element to the story that goes back farther than the Elder Days, and he is, therefore, not an active participant in the War of the Ring, as he only helps the four hobbits while they are within the borders of his land. After Tom leaves the hobbits, they find themselves pursued by the Nine Riders, and protection from this danger comes at Rivendell, which is protected by the aged half-elven Elrond.

Elrond, who is one of the select few beings to have faced Sauron directly, is ancient by any mortal measure, but he is not primeval like Bombadil. Having already taken part in a physical assault on Mordor in the Second Age, Elrond’s place in the War of the Ring is as an advisor, not a fighter. His years on Middle Earth have given him a Ring of Power and the ability to maintain a bastion against evil in the shadow of the Misty Mountains, but his power beyond his domain goes only in the form of advice. Despite his extensive wisdom and prowess, when asked if he or any of the other Elf-lords have the strength to withstand Sauron, Elrond’s response is, “I have not the strength…neither have they,” (I, 319). These powerful Elf-lords, who had defeated Sauron and his master in the past, are no longer able to contend with him directly, because the age of their power is passing and the future is in the hands of men and the little men as Elrond states, “This is the hour of the Shire-folk, when they arise from their quiet fields to shake the towers and counsels of the great,” (I, 324). Galadriel, whose haven and power is even more lustrous than Elrond’s, is still in essentially the same position as the half-elven.

Tolkien’s descriptions of Galadriel’s Lorien on which “no shadow lay” (I, 413) make it a veritable Eden, “a timeless land that did not fade or change or fall into forgetfulness,” (I, 415). Frodo’s observations are not wholly accurate, however, as he himself recognizes the fact that this land is from the distant past, “it seemed to him that he had stepped over a bridge of time into a corner of the Elder Days, and was now walking in a world that was no more,” (I, 413). With her ring and ancient knowledge of the Eldar, Galadriel is able to preserve the unstained glory of the forest, but the Ring-bearer’s ominous perception hints at the fact that the blissful stasis of Lorien is doomed to fade with the destruction of the One Ring. Even though her power is comparable to Sauron’s, Galadriel herself knows that Frodo’s quest signifies the end of her forest kingdom, and she accepts this fate with dignity, “I will diminish, and go into the West, and remain Galadriel,” (I, 432). After this last and greatest haven, the Fellowship breaks and the survivors go their separate routes into the precarious kingdoms of men.

A noble kingdom over 500 years old, Rohan has endured for a long time in the eyes of men, while to elves like Legolas it has been “but a little while,” (II, 132). Although Wormtongue impedes the muster of the Riders of Rohan, once Theoden’s army is fully mobilized, it is a force to be reckoned with and probably outclasses any other army of men besides that of Gondor. From the vantage of the ancient elves, a culture and kingdom were established only a short while ago that gained ascendancy almost immediately. The slow progression of elvish time is already giving way to the short lives and generations of mankind. With a powerful army, Theoden is able to hold Helm’s Deep against Saruman’s larger army, but the mortal man is unable to bar evil from his kingdom like Bombadil and the Elf-lords. Men, who are destined to rule Middle Earth with the passing of the elves, cannot isolate themselves like the ancient beings and must directly face the elements of their environment be they good or evil. While Rohan is young in elvish time, the men of Gondor can trace their lineage back to the Numenoreans at the beginning of the Second Age, which precedes the initial forging of the Rings of Power.

When Pippin first sees the inner circles of Minas Tirith, he is overawed by its splendor, but the impressionable hobbit does not realize that the city is depopulated and “in truth falling year by year into decay,” (III, 25). The men of Gondor, under the shadow of Sauron’s growing power, desperately cling to their noble past and heritage that is now in the ancient past. Faramir expresses his own patriotism with nostalgia for the past, “I would see the White Tree in flower again in the courts of the kings, and the Silver Crown return…The city of the men of Numenor…I would have loved her for her memory, her ancientry, her beauty,” (II, 331).Unfortunately, the truth of the matter is that Gondor will never be what it once was, because the past is irrecoverable, and as Gandalf says, “Whatever betides, you have come to the end of the Gondor that you have known,” (III, 24). Since the memory of Numenor reaches almost as far back as the Elder Days, it is doomed to fade with the passing of the other ancient elements and beings of Middle Earth. The Numenoreans were the last men to form an alliance with the elves, and this close relationship ties the fate of the men of Westernesse in with this archaic race.

Although Aragorn plants a new sapling from the White Tree and brings glory to Gondor with his kingship and victory over Sauron, it is a glory of the present triumph over evil, not a longing for the grandeur of the past. The reign of King Elessar stretches across Middle Earth with an overarching influence that had not existed in the past. Soldiers of Gondor and Rohan protect previously dangerous roads, and the two kingdoms themselves form an alliance that was impossible in the suspicious environment of the past. As a further sign of the changing times, Galadriel, Celeborn and Elrond leave their dominions for the first time in an Age in order to greet the new king.

Aragorn is able to expand and change the nature of his kingdom, because he looks toward the future, while Bombadil, Galadriel and Elrond were simply holding on to the remains of what were once vast and powerful domains. Slowly fading and shrinking, the Old Forest, Rivendell and Lorien must give way in the end to the new, expanding kingdom of men. Even though Aragorn’s kingship is ensured by his ancient heredity, the wise king does not rely on the past for legitimacy as he almost immediately begins to administer his kingdom justly, which gives him prestige through merit. As wise, benevolent beings, the Elf-lords know that their time has passed and depart from the Grey Havens into the West with quiet dignity. Remembrance of the past is important to all of the cultures and races of Middle Earth, but an excess of nostalgia like that of Gondor before Aragorn is detrimental to the progress of the present and future. Heritage contributes to the richness of life, but one must not live in the past or else the present will be lost. Tolkien ends his epic with the future generation sitting on Sam’s lap, and little Elanor Gamgee is a view of hope towards an unknown future built on the foundation of the past.

Essay on TOURISM in kenya

”By developing its tourist industry, Kenya has the potential for reducing poverty and protecting the environment.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Can tourism reduce poverty in Kenya or will it cause further problems? There is a lot of poverty in certain parts of Kenya as many people (only 31%) have safe drinking water and little food. Their conditions of living are very poor; they have short medical facilities and the patient ratio of 10,000 people per doctor. Kenya is situated in East Africa, in the south of Ethiopia and north of Tanzania. Here the dry climate and poor soils make farming difficult. Kenya is a constant struggle for survival.

Kenya relies on tourism as its greatest source of foreign exchange earnings. In 1994 Kenya attracted over 800,000 visitors annually, yielding revenue of more than US$421 million. Earnings from tourism dipped in 1993 and 1995 because of growing violence and unrest. Tourists primarily visit Kenya’s national parks and game reserves to see and photograph the wildlife; many also enjoy the beaches along the Indian Ocean coastline.

The growth of eco-tourism resulted from two major factors. First of all, tourists have become more interested in a learning experience in natural environments and have grown dissatisfied with traditional, crowded tourist centres and resorts. Secondly, ecotourism has been assisted by improved infrastructure, an increased number of tour companies, widespread publicity, and recognition by many governments.

There are many reasons to why eco-tourism is a good idea, as there are disadvantages to this idea. It is thought that by increasing the tourism the poor will benefit, but this may not be so.

There would be more job opportunities for local people because there would be hotels and resorts to open where people could work. Tourism often creates a demand for local farmers, who can then sell more crops. It creates a market for local crafts and provides jobs in the national parks and game reserves for guides. Shop owners will benefit from more business.

Safari minibuses often drive too close to animals and disturb them. They also make the dirt tracks wider and cause soil erosion. In some cases wild animals might move outside the reserves and destroy farmer crops.

There would be more areas developing for animals and nature. They are kept protected by the money received by tourism hence keeping away poachers, who try to kill animals, for example elephants for their ivory.

Valuable farmland, trees and plants along the coast will be cut down to make way for new roads and hotels, so destroying the habitats that are homes for wild animals and plants. If there were more hotels it would result in more pollution due to more traffic, which will slowly increase the water pollution level. Large amounts of water are needed for tourists in the hotels, where there is often little to spare.

Even if land on the coast is destroyed it can encourage the building of new roads and better communications, and provides the money to build schools and hospitals.

Coral reefs are exposed at low tide. Some tourists may break off parts as souvenirs, and boat anchors also damage the coral. The tiny animals that form coral reefs are being killed by pollution and disturbance. The sea and branches are polluted by wasted from hotels. Local fishermen are then affected because the fish die.

The Masai people are now seen as a tourist attraction. They are no longer allowed to live in national parks, and are forced of their land. They cannot graze their herds in national park or game reserves. From their point of view I suppose they try to keep their dignity, but are treated with little respect.

The natural environment and local communities tend to be relatively untouched, with little experience of visitors.

Increased interest in natural areas provided the authorities with a powerful incentive to protect the environment, as well as with the income from tourism to pay for conservation projects.

I personally believe from a marketing perspective, eco-tourism is sold as a specialty product, appealing largely to an up market, highly educated, and affluent traveller.

With the help of specialist travel tour organizers and the government, i.e. integrated planning between public and private sectors will offer long term economic benefits from tourism, also preserving and enhancing the natural and cultural qualities of the destination is absolutely critical in tourism as these attractions are often rare, if not unique, as well as extremely fragile.

Expository essay on Speed Reading

My Expository Essay on Speed ReadingMy Expository Essay is on learning to “speed read” and the benefits of speed reading. Speed reading will help throughout life. Speed reading will help get through life’s challenges with homework, reading assignments, work reading and reading for pleasure in a rapidly, more effective way. We often have to read a huge amount for school and work, it is required that we comprehend this information and be able to comment on it, this speed reading provides the ability to do this. Speed reading will help with read through instructions or manuals with an understanding to perform many procedures. This is especially helpful when people can not find enough time in a busy schedule to read for enjoyment, think of how many books can be read using this program. Being able to speed read can give extra time a person would not have as a slow reader. Imagine the things that can be done within a busy lifestyle for the person whom can speed read.

Another benefit that we should not overlook is using speed reading to help teach English to “English as a second language” students. As stated by Melvin Ng (2006) ESL students who can speed read have a far greater chance of comprehending the English language and are more inclined to stick to learning English. This is an additional way to help us conquer the language barriers!This program was introduced by Evelyn Wood as the new way of reading to the world. She learned how to read quickly by watching fast readers. One day while she was fishing or rather feeding bait to the fish via hook she was reading and accidentally discovered that when she held her hand a certain way, she could read quickly. She developed a system that was taught in seminars called “speed reading”. Evelyn and her husband started Evelyn Wood Reading Dynamics. This would change forever the way people looked at reading. Since that time, over one million people have benefited from her program. As stated by Mark Tyrrell (2007) some of our presidents, such as: John Kennedy, Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter learned this method of reading and were so inspired that they insisted that their top staff members take the course and learn it as well. Many of our members of congress, college professors, chief executive officers of major companies, and executives of Fortune 500 companies have also taken and benefited from this new concept in reading.

According to B.S. Warrier (2008, September 15), an average person reads at the rate of 250 words per minute and may have only 50 to 70 per cent comprehension. Reading rate is usually measured as words per minute (wpm). To find the speed take a fairly easy passage without sketches, diagrams, or numerical calculations. The passage may have roughly 700 to 800 words. Select a quiet palace without distractions. Keep a stopwatch, paper, and pen ready. Start the stopwatch and read the passage once, in one go, at the usual pace. Stop the watch when reaching the end of the passage, and note down the time spent for reading. Let us say that it took 4 minutes and 12 seconds to read a passage of 777 words. Time spent by reading = 4 min, 12 sec = 4 + 12 / 60 min = 4.2 minutes is the speed = 777 / 4.2 = 185 words per minute. After having taken the Reading Dynamics course, this same person should be able to read at the rate of up to one thousand words per minute.

Completing a Speed Reading course will not only give the graduate of this course the ability to read at a more rapidly rate, they will have better absorption of the material, a better understanding and get much more out of the material they have read with better retention of it. Excellent reading skills are a “must,” for anyone competing in today’s job market. Reading is not a skill that can be enhanced with use of a computer, calculator or any other means. A person either reads well or does not. Reading Dynamics may be the only way to get an edge up on the competition. The consequences of not being a fast reader with advanced skills of absorption and retention could mean the difference of keeping up with school courses or falling behind. This program could be the difference between getting the job that is being applied for or being passed over for a candidate with better reading and understanding skills. Acquiring the skill of speed reading can greatly improve the chances for getting a job and improve job performance to the point that tasks are handled in a timely manner and the prospects of receiving a raise become much closer than before. If a person possesses a job where much of the information is stored on a computer or filed away in cabinets, there may be a need to scan quickly a chunk of folders, files, and other papers to retrieve vital information. Overall, speed reading in the workplace will help to complete job responsibilities more rapidly. An example of how a worker may benefit is the lawyer who must read many different files to prepare for a case.

Another major benefit to speed reading courses is with reading, comprehension and retention being significantly improved. This will surely make a person more successful in school, regardless of what the level in school or college. An easier time and better grades can be had for the reader with the ability to retain and comprehend everything needing to be read. Martha Brokenbrough (2008) would stand to reason that if reading as quickly as the mind can comprehend–in solid chunks of words—this reader will be less likely to forget key points or get distracted, boosting comprehension. Eric W. Robelen (May 27th, 2008) Stanford University, the study comes as a growing number of school districts and charter schools around the country are experimenting with reading programs in the hope of improving student learning and behavior. The analysis suggests that incentive programs may well be a cost-effective measure. According to B.S. Warrier (2008, September 15), there are many different methods to speed reading to help with certain aspects of reading, like:Elements of efficient readingMethods of good reading such as the 4R method, and SQ3R methodPitfalls in readingReading speedElements of comprehensionBarriers to rapid reading, andMuscle readingThere are also many different methods to speed reading like chunking, skimming and eliminating sub-vocalization, to name a few. These are just a few of the different types and styles of speed reading, there are so many different versions and styles to choose from to best fit different learning styles, so that everyone will benefit from this tool to better themselves.

In conclusion it stands to reason, regardless of the age of the person, whether just learning to read or learning English as a second language, most people read something on a daily basis. There are any number of items a person might need to read, whether it is the local newspaper, job instructions, chapter instruction, school work, research for school or just an interest of yours or even just to read an email it seems that we are always reading something and to be able to do these things at a fast rate and be able to comprehend and retain what we have read can give a person so much extra time to do other things needed in our every day live. We often read items of interest and sometimes books for pleasure as well. For those of us who are always reading. A course in “Speed Reading” can help to improve our reading skills and make us more competitive in today’s world. Therefore, I believe reading well is a must! I believe that everyone could use extra free time throughout daily routines, so what is there to lose why not try one of these programs out and see how much it works.

Poverty in the Developing Economies

The main causes of poverty in developing countries and policy measures to reduce such poverty.

1.0 Introduction

Poverty has been described as the worst enemy of the human race but then, it is still very much existing in the developing economies in chronic and dire measures. According to IFAD (2001) nearly 1 billion people are impoverished and are denied access to basic needs of life. Therefore, there is need for urgent and combined action to fight poverty. In spite of this fact, poverty has continued to threaten the human race in the developing economies by encouraging diseases, malnutrition including health problems. For this reason, it is imperative to understand what the underlying factors that contribute to poverty in the developing economies are. With this in mind, this essay is divided into two sections following the present section. The first one explores and discusses the causes of poverty in the developing economies while the second proposes policy actions and measures that can be adopted by policy makers in the developing economies. The last section concludes this essay based on the highlights and main ideas of the ideas explored in section 2.

2.0 The Underlying Causes of Poverty in Developing Economies

There are prominent scores of empirical research on the causes and consequences of poverty in the developing economies but surprisingly only a small number agree on its main causes. Some past researchers have identified the causes of poverty as those incessant wars and conflicts which characterises many developing economies as in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Others have used the socialistic and political nature of third world countries to justify its root and cause of poverty. Several other researchers have explained the political manoeuvrings of the west as the root causes of poverty in the developing economies in what they describe as “marginalization by the west”. The proponents of this idea suggests that the west have manipulated the south for several decades in terms of policies and other economic delusions which has often being forwarded through the international institutions like the IMF and the World bank. They suggest for example that the past policies of IMF like the (Structural Adjustment programme) have increased the depth of poverty in the developing economies (E.g. See Drazen, at al, 1994; Eichengreen, 1989). By the same token, poverty has been considered by some as an inherited cycle that describes generational level of opportunity denial and privilege. However, given the trend of the modern world, some contemporary researchers have described poverty as one brewed by the advancement of globalisation. Mander and Barker (2002) for example argue that as presently conceived; globalization has been more of a means for prosperous nations to sustain their elitist position of global dominance than a means for the disadvantaged to rise out of dire poverty. On globalisation and its contributions to poverty, Ibrahim (2002) further suggested that globalisation has two dissimilar features which produce two contending candidates `a winner and a loser’. The winners are the nations which are export and production oriented including the possession of cutting edge innovation in services like information technology and urbane infrastructure. Then again, the losers are those who are heavily dependent on the narrow export of raw materials and commodities, with fragile technological and scientific support and deteriorated social structures.

Apart from globalisation, another known modern cause of poverty in the developing economies is endemic corruption because it breeds social decay, lawlessness and elitism. In fact, corruption scares foreign direct investment away and gives power to a few elite who acts above the whims and caprices of the law. This has been the case of many leaders of the developing countries who in the past have been known to build empires and sent money to their foreign accounts at the cost of the citizens and socio-economic development. According to Jeremy Pope, the former director of the corruption watchdog `transparency international’ “What we have is a string of desperately corrupt political leaders – who considers politics as a lucrative way of attaining wealth. In their corrupt practices, these elites often channel exclusive loans and budgetary allocations to their personal use and this robs the ordinary people of their access to basic needs of life, like water, road, food and infrastructural facilities. Sadly, international financial organizations including aid agencies with good intention obliviously add to the power of these corrupt leaders by giving aid to their government and encouraging their insensitive social programs that seeks to fulfil the needs of the people, such as poverty elimination programs and health care facilities whose outcome turnout very bad an substandard ever if they are even given consideration. These same corrupt officials then plead for debt cancellation and forgiveness from the rich countries and financial lenders who contrary to the will of their citizens lent money to the corrupt despots in the first place. In a recent discussion of corruption and its impact on poverty in developing economies, the African centre for economic growth, gave more insight into the concept of corruption and characterized as one of the chief causes of poverty. They then divided it into three broad classes. In the first class which is called petty corruption, gifts and relatively small amounts of money change hands and this happens where one of the parties is themselves a relatively petty official in the system within which the transaction occurs, for example, giving council officials a £50 bribe because ones council tax worth £300 is to be paid. The second class of corruption; called grand corruption typically involves business mean and civil servants, for example, when a contractor who cannot deliver a contract bribes officials £20, 000 for a contract worth £250,000.

The third is described as looting and siphoning which most often involves top officials liek ministers, presidents, governors and other well placed public servants. This is the most shocking type of corruption which is described as large-scale economic delinquency which actually as a link with poverty. According to African centre for economic policy, they suggest that this type of corruption usually involve scams whose figures are so overwhelming that when they are fruitfully accomplished they have macroeconomic implications fairly quickly-they cause banks to collapse, inflation to rise, the exchange rate to fall.

For looting, the rationale is often political and greed and it occurs under the direction or with the consent of significant political figures in a given state. Typically it involves, for example, the printing of currency to fund fabricated projects, using public revenues to award huge contracts to friends who never supply the products or the services. The primary movers in the firms behind these tricks don’t just milk off ten or twenty % with a cut within that for the higher-ups. In these arrangements the cut can be as high as one hundred % and most often. These resources fund election campaigns and pay for private mercenaries in many developing economies.

Climate change is another contemporary cause of poverty because, more recently, its effects have been changing growing patterns and causing immeasurable natural disasters that is threatening the livelihoods of those in the developing economies. The intergovernmental panel of climate change’ submit that, the negative impact of climate change will be felt the most in the developing countries because they are closer to coastal areas and other prone locations of the globe. Besides, the developing economies have less institutional and financial capacity to deal with its immense effects. This effect has been seen in the recent climate problems such as Tsunami in Indonesia which destroyed hundreds of thousands of small scale farms and businesses including the recent earth quake in Haiti whose lost run to billions for a country that is already impoverished.

3.0 Policy Measures

There are several measures which have already been identified by international institutions such as the UN, World Bank, etc to combat poverty. One of them is the UN Millennium development program which seeks to half dire and extreme poverty by 2015. The UNDP (1997) have also identified 3 major ways in which poverty can be eliminated. They describe the policies as thus:

By increasing food consumption or reducing expenditure on food through increased production of staple foods

By stimulating demand for the labour or services of the poor through growth in the economy

By promoting sustainable improvements to the livelihoods of the poor

While some of these strategies have failed, one of the most important policy measures that would be useful in the fight against poverty is the fight against corruption. Because irrespective of the amount or scale of efforts that is adopted to fight poverty, corruption will continue to undermine such efforts and poverty may continue to be on the increase. This can be done by instituting a financial task force to see to international transfers from developing economies while financial institutions should implement more measures to monitor loans and grant which have been given.

Another sensible corruption fighting method is for developing economies to diversify their exports and develop their industrial capacity. When there is a better industrial power, they can export more locally produced goods and earn more foreign exchange. In addition, the developing economies could focus more on developing their comparative advantages with other partners so as to achieve more economic power through trade and investment. However, more importantly, since unstable policies and unrests, wars and conflicts are the factors that mostly draw poverty. It is useful therefore, to embark on policies towards political reform that will ensure stable governance and an encouraging environment that is free of political conflicts, wars and unrest. Indeed, when the political economy is stable, the governments can attract more foreign direct investment which will invariably bring more employment opportunities, technology and financial for the local businesses.

As found in many developing economies whose exports are mainly dominated with single commodities; embarking on diversification will encourage more competition and improve the business climate.

4.0 Conclusions

This essay has explored the various causal factors that underlie poverty in the developing world. It has identified corruption as the chief of these factors together with other problems related to policy and social structure. Given this problems, a suitable policy measure have been appropriately established to address some of the key causes of poverty. It would be worthy of note that most previous policies have been centred on tackling the consequences of poverty and not its causes. For example, since the social and political structures of developing economies is one of the factors that is pushing the wheel of poverty, it would be ideal then to, develop policies that will reform politics and greed which is often found in leaders and not the brain child of poverty like hunger and diseases.

It would also be noted that in the developing economies, agriculture is a potential for eliminating poverty but unfortunately, agriculture has been least developed. Therefore, policies that will bring the agricultural system back to live would be more suitable than importing toms of agricultural produce every year from developed economies.

Injustice in Schools – Discursive Essay

(You will need to change the ending and make a conclusion. I got an A/A- for this essay because it was not finished.)

Is this a phrase that you often hear? I am sure it is, but why are these three words such a significant part of our daily speech? Is it because we are living in a barbaric, unjust society? Or is it because we are living with our own ideas of what and how things should be done and when someone else comes with their philosophy on life behavior we accuse them of bringing a serious injustice against us? Another common phrase used within our society is “There are always two sides to a story.” This essay explores both sources of this statement.

The day has started bad you woke up late and your mother says you have to walk to school because you are making her late for work. Your parents have left and your little brother, whom you have to take to school with you, has just spilled milk down his uniform. When you finally leave the house after washing and drying his uniform, halfway to school it starts to rain and hail.

When you finally get to school you discover that you left you mathematics homework on your desk at home, where you fell asleep last night at 1 o’clock frantically trying to finish it. Now how could this day get any worse? I’ll tell you! As soon as your teacher asks for your homework your head master steps in to observe your class! You get into trouble and get a detention. What’s the first thing that comes to mind? “That’s not fair!”

But whose fault is it really? Is it the student’s fault?

I suppose you could say that because they should have planned their time carefully the day before so that there wasn’t this tired rush in the morning to get to school. It is all a chain of events starting from doing homework late at night. If she didn’t fall asleep late that night in the study then she would have had time to pack his work in her school bag before he went to sleep. She also would have been able to hear her alarm and would have woken up in time to get a ride with his mother to school which means her brother wouldn’t have had the time to spill the milk and she wouldn’t have been caught in the rain. So after that long list of events we can rest the blame on our student, can’t we?

Well of course we can’t, we don’t know what they were going through yesterday. They could have been at tutorials until 5:00pm, and then had to get dinner at 5:30pm. Next they could have had to go to piano practice and they probably wouldn’t get home until 8:00pm when they have to help put the siblings to bed etc. until they finally get a chance to start doing their homework at 8:30pm. Because each subject is supposed to give you 30 minutes each of homework but most teachers go over that so they give you about 45 minutes and there are 4 subjects to complete. Mathematics was probably the last one to complete and they don’t understand it but Dad usually helps with it and has already gone to bed because he has to get up at 5:00am. So poor ‘Sally’ has to fight with it by herself.

This is what you could call a “lose, lose situation.” This seems to occur a lot in a school environment. Another example of this could be something simple that usually escalates to a big problem. This could be talking in class.

From a students point of view it could just be one quick remark that unfortunately cause an outcry of laughter throughout the class, which could irritate the teacher enough for the student to be thrown out of the class, resulting in the student missing out on an important lesson and the teacher wasting valuable lesson time.

These are small issues that unfortunately will not be resolved anytime in the near future because of an immense conflict of opinions. In every school there are underlying issues of neglect and stereotypical behavior. One example of neglect in most schools is of Physical Education. Most schools treat Games or even GCSE P.E lessons as free periods or secondary subjects. Most people still view subjects from a 19th century point of view, being that the core subjects are English, Mathematics and Science. This view is not relevant to today’s subjects because 2 hours of Physical education per week is now on the National Curriculum. But so often we see in schools that this is not taken seriously. In my own school I can say that during GCSE’s if you are taking Triple Science instead of P.E you only get 1 hour of games which is Half of the National Curriculum. Worse still, in the lower years you only get 1 period of games a week plus, depending on the term, an hour of projects. This is closer to the N.C. than the GCSE group but still does not give an adequate introduction to fitness and healthy living.

“It is not fair” that we as students are deprived of a real say in our education because most schools do not provide adequate facilities for students to voice their opinions and be taken seriously. Too often we are given chances to speak but not too often are we taken seriously about what we say. It is an injustice for students not to have any input into the way in which schools social activities or even curriculum are based. Students should be part of the process of running successful schools because they are the ones being affected by the changes or things that need to be changed. This process could be help by Student Government being a requirement for all secondary schools. By doing this there is always a way for students to voice their opinions and to be seriously taken into consideration. By doing this relevant authorities can be advised on methods or suggestion that might not have occurred to them because of ignorance on the subject or because of the age differences their trains of thought are different. Because of the inequality between students and teachers or other authority figures there is not an equal sharing of opinions and action between them.

Unfortunately it would be quite difficult to give students the authority to make important decisions regarding education. You have to remember that they do not have any expertise in running schools or choosing sufficient subjects and relevant topics to discuss in a school environment. Students are in school to learn and be educated by people who have already done this. You cannot have pupils running schools without themselves having an education. Yes, of course there are certain things that have to be changed in schools but this is why students are educated so that they are able to get qualified so that they can be the ones running schools and can then make the changes which can undergo sufficient scrutiny to say whether or not they will be making a good change or not.

Describe and Discuss Psychological research relating to development in Peer Relationships.

When children enter school their contact with other children increases. The proportion of social activities that occurs in interaction with peers (as opposed to other contacts) continues to increase throughout childhood. By age 11, 50% of the individual’s social activity occurs with peers (Hartup, 1983). By adolescence, time spent interacting with peers exceeds time spent interacting with the parent or any other socialization agent (Larson & Richards, 1991).

This essay will begin by defining the word peers, before going on to discuss what is so special about peer relationships and describe the difference between friends and non-friends, and then outline and evaluate the research relating to development in peer relationships.

By definition, peers are individuals who are close in age to one another, closely usually than siblings. Thus, in contrast with their status in most of their other relationships, especially those with adults, children are relatively equal in terms of power when they interact with their peers (Furman & Buhrmester, 1985).

The relationship between adults and children, and children and peers vary mainly because of the equality between children and peers. Piaget (1932/1965) suggested that because of this equality children are more open and spontaneous with their peers and express ideas and beliefs that they don’t share with adults. Children often take adults beliefs and ideas as obedience whereas, children are more open to criticise and question their peers ideas and beliefs and more likely to ask for feedback when it comes to their own (Kruger & Tomasello, 1986). From such conversations children and their peers often construct their own rules and ideas and explanations when it comes to how and why things work.

Before discussing research related to the development in peer relationships, it is important that we understand the difference between friends and non-friends. From around the age of two, children begin to perform complex social interactions including, imitate others behaviour and cooperative problem solving (Howes, 1996; Howes & Matheson, 1992). These more complex skills seem to be more evident in friends rather than non-friends (Werbe & Baudonniere, 1991). Between toddler and pre-school years there is an increase in cooperation and co-ordination these interactions are more evident in friends than acquaintances (Howes & Phillipsen, 1998). Children take part in shared pretend play more often with friends than non-friends. The reason for this may be because friends’ experiences with one another allow then to trust each other and to trust that their peer will interpret and share the meaning of the symbolic actions (Howes, 1996).

There has been a vast amount of research when it comes to the development of peer relationships in this essay I will only touch on this vast topic by outlining and evaluating only but a few. A problem when researching is that very young children can not often verbally indicate who their friends are, so researchers must make inferences by observing children’s behaviour with peers. Researches have focused particularly on issues such as age in which friendships develop and some investigators have argued that even 12-18 month olds seem to prefer some children over others. Much of a child’s early interaction with peers takes place through play and play is the key domain in which children develop their social interaction skills. Howes, (1983) observed 12-18 month old children and noticed that they select some children over others by touching them, smiling at them, and engaging in positive interactions with them more than they do with other peers. In addition when a preferred peer shows some sign of distress, toddlers are three times more likely to respond by offering comfort or by alerting an adult than they are when a non-preferred peer shows signs of distress (Howes & Farver, 1987), by 20 months of age children are initiating more interactions with some children rather than others and contributing to more games with them (Ross & Lollis, 1989). By the age of two as was said earlier children are now developing several skills that allow greater complexity in their social interactions and it is now apparent that children favour some peers over others and we can distinguish between friends and non-friends.

From pre-school and continuing through childhood, children tend to become friends with peers who are similar in age, sex, and race, and who are similar in behaviours such as aggression, sociability, and cooperativeness (Maccoby, 2000; Graham & Cohen, 1997; Poulin et al. 1997). Therefore, similarity probably initially attracts children to each other and serves the purpose of maintaining their friendships. This raises the question of whether friends actually affect one another’s behaviour, or whether children simply seek out peers who think, act and feel as if they do.

The size of very young children’s playgroups increases with age, and dominance hierarchies emerge by preschool age. On the basis of sociometric ratings, children typically have been classified as popular, rejected, neglected, average or controversial (Coie & Dodge, 1988). Children’s status in the larger peer group varies as a function of their social interactions, as well as their physical attractiveness (Langlois et al. 2000). Although children’s status with their peers frequently changes over time, those children who are rejected frequently remain rejected. Children who are neglected or controversial are particularly likely to change their status, even over short periods of time (Asher & Dodge, 1986; Newcomb & Bukowski, 1984).

While children’s relationships develop they remain similar in many ways, as the children grow older, they do change in one important dimension, the dimension of the importance of intimacy. The change is reflected in the way in which children view their own friendship with others and the nature of the interactions between friends. An example of this taken from Youniss, (1980) is that between ages 6 and 8, children define friendship primarily on the basis of actual activities with their peers and tend to define “best” friends as peers with whom they play all the time and share everything. At this age children also tend to view friends in terms of reward of costs (Bigelow, 1977). Friends are said by other children to be rewarding to be with, they are close by, have interesting toys and have similar expectations about play activities, whereas, non-friends tend to be uninteresting or difficult to get along with. Therefore, in the early school years, children’s views of friendship are instrumental and concrete (Rubin et al. 1998). Between early school years and adolescence children begin to define their friendships as a mutual liking, closeness and loyalty (Newcomb & Bagwell, 1995; Furman & Buhrmester, 1992).

From around the age of 9 years old, children seem to become more sensitive to the needs of others and inequalities among people. At this age the definition of a friend is quite different, children define friends in terms of taking care of one another’s physical and emotional needs and sharing feelings.

From around the age of 10 years old loyalty, mutual understanding and self disclosure become important components of children’s conceptions of friendship (Bigelow, 1977). From here onwards having friends is associated with positive developmental outcomes, such as social competence and adjustment. However from time to time having friends may also have negative effects on children if they engage in problematic behaviours such as violence or substance abuse Mounts & Steinberg, 1995; Urberg et al., 1997)

What accounts for the various age-related changes that occur in children’s friendships, particularly with regard to their conception of friendship? Some researches have argued that the changes in children’s thinking about friendships are qualitative, or discontinuous. Selman (1980) suggested that changes in children’s reasoning about friendships are a consequence of age-related qualitative changes in their ability to take others’ perspectives. In the opinion of Piaget and Selman children have limited awareness about what others are thinking or feeling. Therefore, their thinking when it comes to friendships is limited in the degree to which they consider issues beyond their own needs. As children begin to understand others thoughts and feelings they begin to realize that friendships involve consideration of both parties needs so that the relationship is mutually satisfying.

However, Hartup and Stevens (1997) argue that children of all ages consider their friendships “to be marked by reciprocity and mutuality, the giving and taking, and returning in kind or degree”. What differs with age is merely the complexity with which children view friendship and describe its dimensions.

In sum, the message regarding children’s peer relationships is a clear one. Peer relationships are important contributors to the quality of both children’s current lives and their future development.

As was mentioned earlier, very young children can not often verbally indicate who their friends are, so researchers must make inferences by observing children’s behaviour with peers. The methods used in the research mentioned in this essay consisted mainly of observations. It may appear that what the observer is seeing is the ‘real’ behaviour of a child in the given situation; however, this may not be the case as the child may become aware of the observer and behave in a different way to usual. A question that must be asked is are we seeing and recording the ‘real’ behaviour? When the participants reach an age when they can vocalise their thoughts and feeling about their peers an interview may be the choice of method. The interview technique also has its weaknesses. The participants are still of a young age and if the interviewing method is used the participant may lie and therefore the results may not be valid.

On the whole however the observational method appear to be the most effective way of researching peer relationships, in most cases the observer argues that the children were comfortable being observed and were acting naturally, which is why therapists tend to use this method.

This essay shows the importance of education in our society and past societites.

To many people, obtaining an education has always been a very important goal.

High school to college or even a G.E.D. most employers will not hire workers that have

not yet obtained one of these. So many Americans strive to get their education for one

reason or another. Many people wonder what good does knowing dates and the names of

all the presidents of the United States of America does in our lives outside of school. We

wonder how this information applies to the real world and what the reason are that we

were asked to attend this institution.

It has been learned that education is thought of as some kind of reform for the human mind. Some people would say what is the sense in an education when I have already learned everything I need to know on the street. Part of our education is convincing us to think, through the process of grade school (this includes k-12 grades), like “good” citizens should. A good citizen being someone that wakes goes to work maybe has a family, goes home and does it all over again the next day. It is said that within the lesson plans used in school there lies a hidden curriculum. On which students are graded on how well they conform to the learning structure of the school district. John Gatto said in his books that when he taught his classes sometimes useless and unconnected facts he was really teaching seven important lessons that are taught nationally. Gatto described these lessons, as confusion, class position, indifference, emotional dependency, provisional self-esteem, and that one cannot escape conforming to these lessons. Gatto also stated that this was the plan, since the Roman Empire. “Plato reluctantly transmitted in The Republic when Glaucon and Adeimantus extort from Socrates the plan for total state control of human life, a plan necessary to maintain a society where some people take more then there share. “I will show you,” say Socrates, “how to bring about such a feverish city, but you will not like what I am going to say.” And so the blue print for the seven-lesson school plan was sketched.” Of course things are not as harsh as they once were, but the underlying plan still exists while separating the extent of education by social class.

Not all education is equal, we must be taught to remain in the place we were born. While some children are sitting quietly trying to memorize dates for their quiz on Friday there are other classrooms filled with excited discussion questioning history or a math problem, why did or do things work this way. The type of education one receives depends on where one attends school. “Bowles and Gintis for example, have argued that students in different social-class backgrounds are rewarded for classroom behaviors that correspond to personality traits allegedly rewarded in the different occupational strata – the working classes for docility and obedience, the managerial classes for initiative and personal assertiveness.” Some children learn to have and blossom analytical thinking skills while others if so desired are left to find these skills on their own. Otherwise they are taught to follow directions and not really think things through. This is not all true for every neighborhood and every classroom, because there are many different teachers out there with many different styles and methods of teaching. It is believed that teachers in lower class neighborhoods are not given adequate supplies and orders from the superintendent to be creative with their lesson plans. Here is a thought maybe teachers in these positions are paid less and/or maybe are not allowed to transfer to a higher paying position for an allotted time so they end up frustrated and bored because that is what is expected of them. Here is another though the President of the United States of present and past (in my lifetime) have always said they would do something to improve America’s education institution. It is in my opinion that nothing has been done to improve education throughout the whole country. One more thought maybe it is the corporate lobbyists that have something to do with the improvement of America’s education.

The most widely used skill attained from an American education is the skill of argumentation, thought to be a virtue in business. As small children we were taught to gather hard facts, choose sides and depending on the school you went to influenced to back up your point verbally. It was reasoned by Plato that this was the only way to attain true knowledge. Businessmen debate of whose company is better suited to handle an account. There is also within the business racial and class tensions, which create friction between the blue and white-collar workers. The businessmen having gone to elite schools have learned to sort through their emotions to get straight to the point at hand. Whereas the semi-skilled and un-skilled have only been taught to choose sides based on basic information. Which would amount to an opinion, so they fight with each other. This is a perfect structure for business because the uppers hold the power and stay at the top. If the uppers can keep everyone below them concerned with themselves there will be no conscious effort or desire to escalate to the upper levels and people will be inclined to remain in their place.

Education leads us to believe that we are individuals when we are really doing and acting the same as our neighbor to ensure a conformed society. We are told one thing, which we are individuals and actually believe it. I know think it is funny when a good citizen is told and believes that he is an individual because of his hair makeup or clothes, it is such a self-centered notion. When we are taught to be just the opposite and these individuals are doing exactly what they thought they were not and conforming to the rest of society in their place. Maybe that is why after they go out and get their hair done or buy a funky new shirt they still feel like something is missing and start to feel guilty that they have not done enough. But as Danielle Crittenden said guilt is the shortest-lived emotion, because we are told to feel this way. It is in my opinion to validate my education that my child receives the best education the government and myself can give him. These things still make me wonder why do I really need a formal education? Couldn’t I have learned all of this from my parents, if that is what they learned in school or from their parents? Or does everyone have to learn it in the same way with his or her peers to prove a point? I am also wondering exactly who it is out there that helps to make the decision that these lessons will be taught in schools and what they learn depends on what their parents do.

That is why we need an education, to slightly broaden our minds depending on your class and learn to conform to society. I always did well in grade school, but I hated every minute of it and refused to follow the rules. I never knew exactly why I acted this way and now I know. I also have wondered why my parents never told me anything about real life. They were both from pretty low class neighborhoods and know I now it isn’t because they did not want to. But because they were never told and still trying to understand for themselves. From now and on I vow to always try to keep an open mind and absorb as much knowledge as I possibly can in this lifetime. I always find my grandparents a good tool because they have been through it had time to think about it and can put it into words that I can understand. The best education would be to stay in school, always have an open mind and dig for answers to all of your questions

This a cause and effect essay on Global Warming.

Cause and Effect of Global Warming

One of the hottest topics in the United States is the issue of global warming. This issue, once discounted and ridiculed as the wild imaginings of over enthusiastic environmentalists and “tree lovers,” is now being taken seriously by scientists, politicians, business leaders, and the American environmentalist community. Environmental scientists have been trying to warn these groups that our continued use of coal and petroleum products, as well as established business practices such as dumping industrial wastes into the air and waterways, would be the cause of a natural phenomena called the greenhouse effect, or global warming. Now, when the earth’s biosphere is obviously suffering adverse ecological effects from a century of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions, it is apparent to even the most skeptical anti-environmentalists that global warming is real. Effects such as El Nino and uncharacteristic seasonal changes are real occurrences in our lives. Global warming is an ecological issue that has been caused by humans who overload the earth’s natural ability to metabolize carbon, and the effect is that world temperatures and climate conditions are beginning to drastically change. An examination of the cause and effect of global warming show that this is an issue that cannot be ignored if the earth and its people are to survive.

How important is the issue of global warming in today’s society? It is considered by most environmentalists to be the top priority item because if the problem persists, the earth will eventually be uninhabitable and all of the other problems of the human race will be moot. Phenomena such as El Nino are a direct consequence of global warming. Global warming is defined by The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia as a gradual increase of the temperature of earth’s lower atmosphere as a result of human activity. A layer of atmospheric gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone; called greenhouse gases) allows radiation from the sun to reach the earth unimpeded and traps infrared radiation from the earth’s surface. This process, called the greenhouse effect, keeps the earth’s temperature at a level suitable for life. Growth in industry, agriculture, and transportation since the Industrial Revolution, however, has produced gases that have augmented the earth’s thermal blanket. Some researchers believe that continued production of greenhouse gases will lead to global temperature increases, which could melt the polar ice sheets, resulting in a rise in sea level and damage to coastal development and estuaries; dry soils, producing profound changes in agriculture; endanger many species; and spawn more frequent tropical storms such as El Nino.

The current global warming is historically related to American industrialization and the greedy consumption of manufactured goods by consumers. In the 1800s, America experienced a huge industrial revolution that changed the country from an agrarian society into an industrial society. The invention of mass production, interchangeable parts, and especially the steam engine fueled American industry to generate huge amounts of money as it provided goods for a growing consumer market. America Past and Present states,

American industry owed it remarkable growth to several considerations. It fed on an abundance of natural resources: coal, iron, timber, petroleum, and water power … Eager to promote economic growth, government at all levels – federal, state, and local – gave manufacturers money, land, and other resources. Other benefits, too, flowed from the American system of government: stability, commitment to the concept of private property, and initially at least, a reluctance to regulate industrial activity. Unlike their European counterparts, manufacturers faced few legal or social barriers. (America Past and Present 536-537).

Like modern industrialists who are hostile about the industry restrictions on CO2 emissions, the old industrialists wanted the freedom to use natural resources and generate their profits without regulations or having to pay the price for the consequences of their actions. It is interesting to note that The Los Angeles Times reports that modern industrial chiefs are beginning to “squeal like pigs” (Times A27) because their industries are being forced to commit to the reduction of toxic emissions that result from their manufacturing processes and that are adding to the global warming problem.

The government eventually created laws that began to curtail the destruction of the environment. One U.S. Government agency that is attempting to deal with the global warming problem is the Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). The EPA is an independent U.S. agency in the executive branch of the government. It was established in 1970 to reduce and control air and water pollution, noise pollution , and radiation and to ensure safe handling and disposal of toxic substances (Concise Encyclopedia 324). The EPA was formed to deal with the massive problems of pollution and hazardous waste that had been dumped into and onto the environment by companies that had no conscience about how they disposed of their wastes. The EPA has spent billions of dollars cleaning up the mess that one hundred years of industrialization has inflicted on the environment.

An article in the Los Angeles Times dated 10/22/97 and titled “Clinton Backs Broad Plan to Fight Global Warming” states that American President Bill Clinton was in the process of attending global warming talks in Bonn, Germany, to discuss the pressing issues surrounding the concerns of global warming. The European Union is pressing for what Clinton considers to be extremely harsh measures in reducing the emissions of toxic gases. The European Union plan calls for a 15% reduction in emissions by 2010, and Japan has advocated a 5% cut. The Times states, “The Arab oil-producing states, on the other hand, have objected to any such mandatory targets, going so far as to suggest payments to them if the agreements result in lower oil purchases” (Times A27). This says a lot about the Arab states’ commitment to the environment and their global conscience. At any rate, Bill Clinton is rejecting the proposals by the European Union by buckling to pressures from American industry to be more lenient about the emission reductions. The Clinton Administration’s plan would “call for industrial nations to commit to reduce by 2008 their emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide to 1990 levels. Because such emissions are expected to rise significantly – by some 13% in the United States – administration officials have argued that this amounts to a significant reduction, even though it simply stabilizes gases at a recent level” (Times A27). Bill Clinton, who ran for election in 1992 as an environmental advocate, seems to be back peddling on his proclaimed commitment to the environment and world ecology. Environmentalists see his watered-down proposals, as well as his traffic with American industrialists, as an environmental sellout. They feel that global warming is directly related to industrialization and consumption of manufactured goods by consumers (Times A27). We, the people of the earth, will have to wait and see whether the voices of the environmentalists, scientists, ecologists, and concerned human beings will win out over the greedy screams of businessmen and the politicians who they support.

After examining the cause and effect of global warming, we can see that the result of a hundred years of dumping carbon and toxic emissions into the air and waterways has caused an ecological problem that may prove to be irreversible. The only way to change the effects of global warming is to change the cause. We need to find alternatives to coal and petroleum products, be willing to sacrifice the conveniences that we take for granted, and be aware that there is little time for discussion about percentages/reductions of toxic emissions. When El Nino comes this winter, it will be a wakeup call to all of us that the time to take action is NOW.

This is a process essay about how to make a necklace

The population of today’s society has made the wearing of beaded necklaces are quite a fashion statement. These necklaces contain small, round, colored plastic beads and other intricate beads made out of different colored fimo. Fimo is a synthetic material similar to modeling clay, and can be used to make thousands on types of beads. These beads can then be made into necklaces. However, to describe the process of making this style of bead, a simple pattern will be used as an example. Specifically, the fimo example described will have a pattern with a small, yellow circular center surrounded by three small, green triangles and three small, red triangles. The following process will allow anyone without artistic ability to create a simple, inexpensive fimo bead that can later be used in stylish necklaces.

?The first step in the process involves taking a trip to a local craft store like, Michels, or a department store such as Wal*Mart, to buy the necessary supplies. For the example fimo bead, red, yellow, and green fimo must be purchased. To make a complete necklace, other colored plastic beads would have to be bought along with a spool of beading thread and a silver clasp. Also, a sharp flat-edged cutting tool (for example, a razor blade) and a thick, large pin will also be necessary tools in the final stages of the bead making process.

?Once the supplies are gathered, the bead making process is ready to begin. The fimo color that will make up the center circle in the bead (which is, yellow) is the color that is first readied. A piece of fimo with the diameter of a quarter and the width of a pencil, is

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pinched off from the larger slab of fimo. It is then rubbed between both hands in a circular motion until it is warm and no longer cracks when folded in half. Then, from that small, piece of fimo, a smaller, nickel-sized piece is pinched and rolled on a flat surface. The fimo is rolled into a cylindrical log (the solid fidure formed by turning a rectangle about one side as an axis) that is approximately three inches long. It is important to ensure that the log is not too thin, meaning it does not easily pull apart. Once the log is rolled to the desired thickness (slightly thinner than that of a pencil) place it aside for later use. The same process if followed for the green and red fimo colors, also, except for those colors three logs must be prepared instead of only one.

?After the three logs each of green and red fimo are formed they must be shaped into a three-dimensional triangular prisms. This is easily accomplished by placing them on a flat surface (on at a time) and pinching the pointer finger and thumb together (to form a small triangle). The pinched fingers are then pressed down gently on the top and sides of the fimo logs so the logs become prisms. Once this is finished, the prisms are ready to be placed around the circular, yellow center. First place the base of the green prisms around the yellow log, leaving equal amounts of space between all three prisms. When doing this make sure to press hard enough so the green prisms are firmly attached to the yellow center. Then position the base of each of the red prisms between the spaces left between the green prisms. By this point the spaces around the yellow center should be evenly filled. The addition of the red and green prisms form the perimeter of the new log that contains the desired bead pattern.

?Next comes one of the final stages in the fimo bead making process. The new log that

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has been formed from placing the red and green triangles around the yellow center, must be rolled using the palm of the hand. This is done until the outside of the log is smooth and only one color. The purpose of this is to lengthen the log and to decrease the size of the beads. The beads can then be cut from the log so that they are approximately one-quarter inch thick. The beads are cut by using a razor blade (or other sharp cutting tool) and positioning it along the top of the log at the desired thickness of bead. Then the log is gently rolled back and forth while slight pressure is applied to the razor blade until it cuts completely through the log. The reason the log is cut in such a manner is to avoid distorting the design that is on the face of the bead. The small piece that is cut from the original log is the fimo bead. The rest of the log is cut in the same way until no more beads can be obtained. Depending on the exact thickness of each bead and the starting length of the log, there should be a net yield of approximately ten to twenty beads.

?Finally rounding out the bead making process, a thick pin must be used to put a hole on each side and throughout the fimo bead. This is done so the bead can later be strung along beading thread with other plastic beads to make a necklace. To make a hole in the bead, place the bead with its two faces positioned between the pointer and thumb. Then you poke the pin through the middle of one of the sides and gently twist the pin as it goes in the bead and eventually comes out the other side. This procedure is completed for the rest of the beads, as well. Lastly, all the beads must be placed on a baking pan and baked until they are hard, approximately ten to fifteen minutes at 250 degrees. The finished products can then be used in many creative ways, in combination with small, round plastic beads to make beautiful, fashionable necklaces.

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?The art of making fimo beads is really a study in the art of creativity and patience. It is a relaxing hobby that allows a person’s creativity to take control. Although many people think that the process requires special talent, that is really only a myth. Anyone who follows the procedure described above or similar procedures in craft books would be able to make the simplest of fimo styles. After the simple styles are mastered, they can easily be combined to form more intricate designs. Once this occurs, a real sense of accomplishment can be felt, and you can proudly say, ” I made that all by myself!”

The polluter pays principle and its implementation in the UK and EC law

1.Introduction

The polluter pays principle can be identified as one of the most significant principles that guide Environmental Law. Although it is complicated and sometimes diverse, it appears to be a main requirement for the regulation of pollution prevention and pollution control. However, many difficulties have risen in its application to both national and international fields, therefore a detailed explanation and identification of the principle is essential to be done.

“If anyone intentionally spoils the water of another…let him not only pay damages, but purify the stream or cistern which contains the water…” (Plato) . This is in a very general way the meaning of the polluter pays principle, more likely the origins of the principle. It applies to any kind of pollution and it has been discussed for many years, or centuries as one may say. But currently it is relevant as a principle of the latest developments of environmental law, mostly related to the European Community Law.

It was the OECD which suggested the policy that the person who was responsible for creating the pollution shall be charged with the cost of the pollution prevention, control and restoration measures, and the UN/ECE one of the first that began to take into account such principle. The OECD defines the polluter pays as a means of “ensuring that the polluter (or resource consumer) should be charged with the cost of whatever pollution prevention and control measures are determined by the public authorities” .

The PPP was gradually adopted in the legislation of the UK, as it was embedded in the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and the Environment Act 1995 . But before that, it has been in the political agenda since 1990, in particular in a White Paper called “This Common Inheritance” . However, the exquisite development occurred when the principle was enshrined into the Maastricht Treaty in 1997, in particular in Articles 174-176 , although it had been around in the Community Law for years.

2.Definitions – Identifying the polluter.

But who is the so called “polluter” that the principle is all about? Before we examine the application of the principle through legislation in detail, it is important to define, what the contexts mean when referring to a polluter and what implications may incur because of the unclear and very broad definition of the PPP.

Looking only in the European Community Law, it is obvious that there are different linguistic versions of the principle. Six languages assert that the “polluter pays”, Greek, Italian, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese and Danish. The French call it the “polluter-payer principle”, the Germans causation principle and the English believe that the “polluter should pay”.

An excellent example of the difficulty of giving a specific meaning to the polluter is air pollution by the gas emissions of cars. Who is to be considered as the polluter? Is it the car manufacturer, the oil distillers, or the vehicle drivers? “Many people and corporations may have some role to play in the production and consumption cycle that leads to some form of pollution” . Therefore the meaning of the polluter may vary not only geographically but also in any given case.

The indicative case that illustrated the flexibility of the word polluter was R v. Secretary of State for the Environment and Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, ex parte Standley , where a distinction between significant polluters and others was accepted. Nevertheless, in cases of intentional pollution it is clear that the polluter is the person who permits or creates pollution.

Obviously there can be many disputes when trying to identify the polluter, though it is clear that there are circumstances where the polluter cannot be identified at all or is extremely hard to be spotted. “In cases such as groundwater or coastal water, contamination, forest decline, soil erosion, desertification, climate change, smog in urban agglomerations and numerous pollutions from past activities” , it is obvious that there are several factors that must be taken into account for such an identification to be made. Particularly, when historic pollution is involved, it is impossible to point the finger at someone and name him polluter.

Even though the polluter can be identified in some cases, there is another obstacle that this environmental law principle has to overcome. The damages that the polluter is supposed to pay for are also not outlined or mentioned sufficiently. The principle states that the polluter has to bear the costs of pollution, without explaining what kind of costs a polluter will have to pay.

There are generally four categories of costs. The capital costs, the operating and maintenance costs, the external costs “associated with the environmental damage caused by the construction and operation of these environmental infrastructures” , and finally, the resource costs “associated with the use of the resource that may impinge on other users” . It is also unknown whether the polluter has to cover the whole amount of these costs or pay only a part of them, with the State adding the rest of it.

Problems may also arise in cases where the definition of pollution is not expressed apprehensively. There is a notorious difficulty to prove pollution which sometimes weakens the PPP. That is why it is important to look at the legal aspects of the principle, determining whether it can reasonably be enforced, so that it can make the real polluter pay for the environmental damage.

3.Legislation – National and International – Case law.

The first and most significant thing that should be mentioned about the PPP and its relationship with legislation is that it “is only a principle, it has no legal force and there is no agreed definition that has anything approaching the precision of a statute” . However as we have seen there are plenty of national and international legal documents that have implemented the polluter pays principle and even accepted it as a policy.

As we have seen the principle had been endorsed by the OECD, but it was not binding that all the Member States will have to adopt it. In 1973 the EEC accepted a programme of action which implemented the principle . The Single European Act 1986 was another context that referred to the PPP: “action by the Community relating to the environment shall be based on the principles that preventive action should be taken, that environmental damage should as a priority be rectified at source and that polluter should pay” .

“The principle has been implemented by a numerous of European states, using a variety of tax measures, charges, and liability provisions of national law” but in other countries of the world the principle is not spread widely as in Europe. The 1992 Rio Declaration tried to give the PPP a more international meaning by encouraging the states to take into account that the polluter should bear the costs of pollution.

Nevertheless, there are states other than in Europe that have accepted in their legislation the PPP. One recent example is that of Thailand , which has now put the PPP into its legal science. The Kyoto Protocol had also provided regulations which impose some taxes on different industries which pollute the environment, mostly by air pollution, implementing the PPP in a way.

A variety of cases in UK and European Community Law has also referred to the PPP, when considering applications for damages as a result of environmental pollution. The starting point of the PPP in the UK common law can be easily traced in the foundations of tort law , in particular, in cases of nuisance. The well-known rule of Rylands v. Fletcher established strict liability for all damages in nuisance. Pollution is obviously a type of nuisance, therefore the rule applies in some way the PPP into pollution law.

Cambridge Water Company v. Eastern Counties Leather can be described as a key case as regards the connection of environmental law and tort law. Specifically, it involved a tortious liability for the pollution of a watercourse, where the assumed polluter was a corporate entity. The application was made on grounds of Directive 80/778 on quality of drinking water but the defendants were not liable as the damage was considered as historical pollution.

Many other cases could be used as examples of the PPP, but it is significant to draw a line between cases discussed in the courts and cases of pollution that never reach publicity. The difference between prosecutions and incidents of pollution in the UK seems extremely big . It appears that the cases concerning waste disposal are dominating the prosecutions with very little other kinds of pollution being around. That can be explained at the basis that it is not very easy to trace a polluter who will pollute the air rather than one disposing waste.

But again the prosecutions in comparison to the incidents are very limited. This might mean that the PPP is not achieving its objective, which is to reduce pollution, as polluters remain unpunished because there is no prosecution against them.

Clearly the PPP is not a legal norm that has an absolute meaning and needs to be interpreted in a specific way. Within its flexibility the PPP managed to enter into the legislation and gain a legal value. However, could that principle, even if it is well established, be applied and used as a legal rule? The impact of that question shall be evaluated in detail.

4.Application of the PPP – Can it really be enforced?

The real intention for applying the principle is to prevent or reduce environmental harm. But it appears that the PPP is more likely an economic measure rather than an environmental one. As we have discussed, it is not always possible to identify the original polluter and even when you do he may not be able to pay. This means that the area that has been polluted, will be orphaned with no party claiming responsibility.

Another difficulty is that the polluter may understand the extra costs that he needs to pay as an additional charge to the production costs of the process, which may result these costs to be consequently added to the overall price of the product, therefore the costs of the pollution will be borne to the consumers, who buy the product. The polluter in that case, will continue polluting the environment taking into account that he has a profit from using this kind of tactic and that he is paying what he is supposed to pay for the protection of the environment.

In fact, there are situations where the polluters had been benefited from the polluter pays principle, rather than prevented from polluting the environment. This applies to “Community environmental aid which is given to Member States under the Structural Funds, LIFE, the Cohesion Fund or other budgetary titles, and frequently help to clean up or repair environmental damage” . Especially the Cohesion Fund Countries are an exception to the PPP as it is recognised by the OECD definition of PPP .

In cases of contaminated land the developer will naturally not be willing to pay for the both the land and the necessary corrections for the clean-up of the contaminated site. The cost of such an operation could be huge and logically not beneficial. Some kind of financial banking for the redevelopment which is useful, may be given. Obviously, it is another example where the polluter does not pay for all the damage he had caused, but some aid is provided.

But in circumstances of waste disposal there is the landfill tax which applies to polluters and implies the PPP. It has two main objectives: The reduction of the amount of solid waste disposed to landfill and the reduction of the organic waste which will result the decrease of methane of the waste in landfill. That could be very useful as long as the amounts paid by the polluters are enough to make them reconsider what they are doing.

Generally, there is no exact application of the principle as the polluter pays principle implies the obligation that the polluter will be liable for all the costs of the pollution, without any assistance by the state. Eventually the costs of pollution will be borne by the public purse via taxes, and so the main goal of the PPP, that is the reduction of pollution, is not possible to be completed.

Because the PPP has been implemented in a very weak sense into law, its enforceability is limited. It can be seen as a tortious liability that has either a corrective effect or an economic efficiency. Either way, the principle’s application when possible is a helpful tool always at the services of environmental law.

On the other hand there is another principle, more likely to be called as a legal norm, which can be described as the natural successor of the PPP: The “environmental liability” . It contains many aspects and has been based upon the application and development of the PPP. In particular the definition of the environmental liability includes reference to the PPP. It is “a means by which those who cause damage to the environment are made to pay for putting it right, consistent with the long established polluter pays principle” . However environmental liability is only a policy accepted in the European Union and does not have a worldwide effect.

5.Conclusion – The true value of the principle.

It had been described as a principle, although it has actually earned by its application some legal value, even very limited, but quite important. The polluter pays principle is around and has a great importance if seen from a certain perspective. It is apparently the basis for every legal context that includes a provision for liability for pollution.

It has affected the laws considering the pollution of water, air and land providing the legislators with the appropriate feedback in order to establish norms that can protect the environment from abuse. Although it is doubtful whether its influence had been spread to customary international law, it has clearly been implemented in states of the EC.

The main problem that appears to be holding back the principle, is the financial relief given to many polluters and the lack of identification of the polluters, which results that the public has to bear the costs of pollution. “Unless polluters are heavily taxed or the penalty in terms of costs is loaded with a deterrent sanction, there is little prospect of the polluter pays principle achieving the goal of preventing environmental harm” .

Finally, we can accept that even though there has been a difficulty in relation to the application of the principle or the identification of the polluter, it is beyond any reasonable doubt that the PPP had played a significantly vital role within environmental law, therefore its true value shall be appreciated. The goal of the PPP may never be achieved, but the relief that the principle has provided to the environmental law could be seen as a success.

APPENDICES

Part I

11.9 Prosecutions1 for pollution incidents, 2001

Numbers

Integrated

WaterpollutionRadioactiveWater

Wastepollution2controlsubstancesabstractionAll

Environment Agency Regions3

North East722403099

North West7334122112

Midlands8549333143

Anglian282302053

Thames562330183

Southern552500282

South West393401175

England4082127119647

Wales8446101132

Northern Ireland..6800…

1 Figures are for the total numbers of defendants (companies and individuals) prosecuted in 2001 by type of prosecution.

2 Northern Ireland water pollution figures are for 1999. Includes two cases which are pending.

3 In England and Wales. The boundaries of the Environment Agency Regions are based on river catchment areas and not county borders. In particular, the figures shown for Wales are for the Environment Agency Region for Wales, the boundary of which does not coincide with the boundary of Wales. See Notes and Definitions.

Source: Environment Agency; Environment and Heritage Service (Northern Ireland)

Part II

Summary of the main cases referred to in the essay.

i)Cambridge Water Company v. Eastern Counties Leather plc [1994] 2 AC 264.

The Cambridge Water Company bought a piece of land which was previously used as a paper mill. The Company began to abstract water from a borehole on the site for public consumption. However, the water was contaminated by a solvent which had leached into the aquifer from a nearby tannery operated by Easter Counties Leather. In 1976, the EC issued Directive 80/778 on quality of drinking water and the water abstracted was found to exceed the limits imposed. Action was brought against Eastern Counties Leather on grounds of nuisance, negligence and the rule of Rylands v. Fletcher. The case went through the High Court and the Court of Appeal, eventually reaching the House of Lords. The HL held that foreseeability in this case is to be determined by reference to the time of the original escape and not the time of the ongoing dispersal. Therefore liability in situations of historical pollution was removed. Eastern Counties Leather were not held to be liable.

“Critics of the judgement say that only very rarely will it impose liability for pollution cases such as this one. However, many commentators feel that the judgement was the only reasonable and practicable step to be taken in the circumstances, because it is unfair to penalise anyone for operations which were considered perfectly normal and effective at the time.”(Wolf, S. & White, A., Principles of Environmental Law, Cavendish Publishing Limited, Second Edition, 1997, p.102)

ii)R v. Secretary of State for the Environment and Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, ex parte H.A. Standley and Others and D.G.D. Metson and Others [1999] Env.L.R. 801, [1999] ECR I-2603.

The UK authorities identified the rivers Waveney, Blackwater and Chelmer as water that had been affected by nitrate pollution and designated the surrounding areas of East Anglia as vulnerable ones in accordance to the Directive 91/676. Farmers from the region challenged the decision on grounds that it had to be established first that the pollution was actually caused by nitrates coming from agricultural sources. They argued that they were not the only source that contributed to the pollution therefore the PPP principle should not apply. The European Court held that the polluter pays principle reflects the proportionality principle, and that it is up to each state to implement a Directive and that difference in the Community principles cannot be used to declare another principle void.

Part III

List of legislative documents that implement the PPP.

This Common Inheritance (Cm 1200), 1990, para 1.25, p.13

The 1992 Rio Declaration, Principle 16

Environmental Protection Act 1990

Environment Act 1995

Treaty of Amsterdam 1997, Articles 174-176

Declaration on Environmental Action Programme, 1973.

EC Council Recommendation on the Application of the polluter pays principle, 1974.

Single European Act 1986, Article 25.

Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness Response and Co-operation Preamble 1990.

Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, Report of the Meeting of the Mediterranean, CSCE/RMP.6, 1990.

UNCED Conference 1992.

OECD Recommendation C(81) 32 (Final)

Kyoto Protocol 1997, The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Changes.

Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage 1992, Article 1.

International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage adopted under the auspices of the IMO in 1969.

Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for the Compensation of Oil Pollution Damage 1971.

Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy 1960

The Brussels Supplementary Convention of 1963.

UN/ECE Convention on the protection and use of tranfrontier rivers and lakes, Article 2.5.

Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the north-east Atlantic 1992, Article 2.2b.

Fourth Community Action Programme on the Environment [1987] O.J. C 328/1.

Part IV

Some useful definitions and quotations.

“Environmental liability”, a form of civil liability, is a means by which those who cause damage to the environment are made to pay for putting it right, consistent with the long-established “polluter pays principle”. House of Lords.Selected Committee on the European Union.

“… the person who for his own purposes brings onto his land and collects and keeps there anything likely to do mischief if it escapes, must keep it at his peril, and, if he does not do so, is prima facie answerable for all the damage which is the natural consequence of its escape…”. Rylands v. Fletcher.

“States should endeavour to promote the internalisation of environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into account the approach that the polluter should, in practice, bear the costs of pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without unduly distorting international trade.” The 1992 Rio Declaration, principle 16.

Polluter pays principle is a way of “ensuring that the polluter (or resource consumer) should be charged with the cost of whatever pollution prevention and control measures are determined by the public authorities, whether preventive measures, restoration or a combination of both…Exception will only be valid if they form part of transitional arrangements whose duration has been laid down in advance and do not lead to significant distortions in international trade and investment.” OECD, Paris, 1975.

“…to make those who cause environmental damage face the costs of control in full, without subsidy.” This Common Inheritance (Cm 1200, para 1.25, p.13).

“The dominant interpretation of the PPP is that it is an economic principle based on utilitarianism, which aims to create a uniform and fair world trading system.” Alder & Wilkinson MacMillan.

It must be taken into account that “…environmental damage should as a priority be rectified at source and that the polluter should pay.” Treaty of Rome, Article 174(2)(ex. Art. 130(r)).

Brief Essay on Rennaisance

The Renaissance was the time period in European history in which Europe went though a

rebirth of ideas from the times of classical antiquity. According to my definition, I believe that a renaissance did occur in Europe. The Renaissance consisted of many ideas from science and from the “Studias Humanitas”. The Studias Humanitas is Latin for the “studias of humanities”. According to the text book A History of the Western World, “The studia humanitatis were the group of scholarly disciplines including grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and moral philosophy, but excluding theology, metaphysics, logic, the natural sciences, law and medicine”. In addition to the Studias Humanitas, the renaissance was filled with growth of logic. The power of logic led to many other advancements in other fields. For example, the discovery of optics led Filippo Brunelleschi to the discovery of perspective. The discovery of tomography led to the discovery of new countries and routes around the World. The discovery of Perspective enabled artists to express there visions extremely accurately, as the book The Agony and the Ecstacy says, “His David would be the incarnation of everything Lorenzo de Medici had been fighting for, that the Plato Academy had believe was the rightful heritage for man”. In addition to all of the discoveries, the scholars wished to share there information with others through Universities, those extremely similar to the Greek Universities. “The medieval university was a “community of scholars” with the authority to confer degrees.” These Universities would teach younger men information in order to further the discoveries of life. In conclusion, I think there was very much a Renaissance in Europe in which the people of that time took ideas from ancient cultures and implement them in their day and time to discover amazing things that would further the progression of life.

Works Cited

“The Greeks had carved bodies from their write marble of such perfect proportion and strength that they could never be surpassed; but the figures had been without mind or spirit. His David would be the incarnation of everything Lorenzo de Medici had been fighting for, that the Plato Academy had believe was the rightful heritage for man: not a sinful little creature living only for in his own kind, with a breain and will and inner power to fashion a world filled with the fruits of man’s creative intellect…”-Stone, The Agony and the Ecstacy, 388

“A History of the Western World- Glough, Harrison, Hicks, and Gay. Discusses the limitations of humanist thought. “In point of fact, the word ‘Humanism’ is an invention of the nineteenth century, Renaissance men spoke only of ‘humanists,’ teachers and scholars of the studia humanitas, the study of the humanities. The studia humanitatis were the group of scholarly disciplines including grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and moral philosophy, but excluding thrology, metaphysics, logic, the natural sciences, law and medicine. By definition then, humanism was limited to those subjects that treat of man and his life on earth.”

Essay on the invasion of Iraq

My essay is on the column written by Mike Wolff on page 10. It says the invasion of Iraq is ‘ ridiculous and dangerous ‘. I could not agree with him more. President Bush doesn’t really have enough hard evidence to start war. I am against staring a war right now. It seems as if Bush is the only one who wants to start a war. The American people don’t. The United Nations doesn’t.

I think that Bush is trying to manipulate the American people so close to the anniversary of 9/11. This would be his second war in one year. I think he is trying to get brownie points. He wants to look like a good guy. This would be his second war in one year. And he still hasn’t finnsed the first one. We still don’t know if Bin Ladden is dead.

Bush didn’t even wait for congress to approve. It has gotten so out of hand that it seems we are not a democracy any more. When we don’t even have say when we should and shouldn’t go into war things are twisted. I thought the country was supposed to be governed by the people. I guess the whole country was wrong.

I don’t think that America is ready for another war. These war that he president wants is a different type of war. The war on terrorism is not a war against a country. It is against a small group. When we went into Afghanistan we had it’s surrounding countries approval. This time nobody is getting involved. And Bush wonders why our allies’ disapprove.

I think Bush needs to find harder evidence to wage war. He also needs a better explanation on why taxpayers will be paying for a war. Don’t get me wrong I’m not totally against a war. A war wouldn’t be so bad if we had a valid reason to fight. I might even give the economy the boost it needs.