English Essays

Moniza Alvi and Grace Nichols’ Feelings of Living in England

Moniza Alvi and Grace Nichols’ Feelings of Living in EnglandMoniza Alvi and Grace Nichols convey their thoughts and feelings about
living in England and having roots in another culture through their
poetry. Moniza Alvi was born in England and her father was from
Pakistan. Grace Nichols was born in Guyana. I can understand coming
from another culture and living in a different country like England
can be complex and difficult but at the same time new and exciting.
Firstly, Moniza Alvi and Grace Nichols are influenced by different
cultures. Naturally, they can offer to our culture, as Britain is a
multicultural country.
One of the characteristics of Caribbean literature is the strong sense
of place, which can clearly be read in the ‘Island Man’. The quote ”
the sound of the blue surf ” makes it more appealing to the senses and
uses pathetic fallacy. This makes it more interesting as the pathetic
fallacy gives you the feeling of the Caribbean climate. The cultural
identity of Moniza Alvi’s poems is her heritage and traditions. For
instance, in ‘Presents from my Aunts in Pakistan’ she creates images
of the Salwar Kameez using words like “peacock-blue”, “glistening like
an orange split open”. Here she has used metaphor and simile to
emphasis the beauty of the presents and makes it appealing to the
I found reading ‘The Fat Black Woman goes Shopping’ a bit difficult
because it is written in colloquial style. The constant use of “de”
would sound much better if it is read with a Caribbean accent. The
voice of the narrator in ‘Invitation’ sounds confident because using
oxymoron the writer has used the narrator’s weight to describe her
beauty. Moniza Alvi also uses words from her second language like
“chador”, which makes the poem more cultural and different from Grace
Nicholas poems or any other poems. In ’I would like to be a dot in a
Painting by Miro’ I think the narrator here sounds confused whether
she wants to be the same as everyone else or different. But in the end
she decides being different is better as it is more interesting.
‘Throwing out my Father’s Dictionary’ has a narrative tone and the
enjambment helps it. This is effective as the sad mood is set because
the poem has a hidden story behind. This is that her father had to
accept English as his second language and had to learn to live with
this for the rest of his life. I think the dictionary is used as a
metaphor for his second language.
The poem ‘Invitation’ has an irregular form as it is split in two
sections. ‘Epilogue’ is a quatrain. The persona of this poem is about
someone from Caribbean moves to live in England. But I think the
deeper meaning of this poem is ‘The Middle Passage’. Not many of Grace
Nichols’ poems use punctuation so most of the poems are enjambment. I
think he has written these poems like this because he wants us to
concentrate on the content of the poems. Comparatively, Moniza Alvi’s
poems have a more regular form. For example, in ‘Fish’ each stanza has
two lines. I think this is written in this way as this poem is sensual
and can transcend other cultures as well. Although, not all her poems
are written in regular form for example, “Presents from my Aunts in
Pakistan” she has written in an irregular form because I think this is
a personal poem to her.
Imagery from ‘Invitation’ really stood out to me because it is very
sensual for example, ” my breasts are huge exciting amnions of
watermelons”. This is central to what the poem is trying to say that
is, even if someone is fat you should treat him or her with respect
and not make fun of his or her size. In ‘Hurricane Hits England’ the
poet has used rhetorical questions to conjure and atmosphere of
melancholy and makes us think about the hurricane. “Embossed slippers,
gold and black points curling”, “an apple-green sari” are just some of
the words used to describe the presents from ’Presents from me Aunts
in Pakistan’. She also uses oxymoron in this poem, “the cruelty and
the transformation” to show that she has mixed feelings. This adds to
my understanding that the Pakistani culture is very colourful. In ’
Throwing out my Father’s Dictionary’ personification is used, “words
grow shoots in the bin”. This suggests that new words are growing
maybe into a different language or culture.
The two poets have some similarities in their style of writing. They
use the metaphorical of cultural identity through sensitive
descriptions using the five senses. Their poems are written in first
person so we know what the narrator feels like thus, making the reader
more involved. The persona of both the poets reminds the reader the
poems are related to their culture in some way making it different
from other poems. The use of emotive language and voice helps to set
the mood of the poems. Imagery is a very strong technique used by
Moniza Alvi and Grace Nichols to create strong images of their culture
in the readers mind.
After researching that Grace Nichols wrote a book about ’Fat Black
Woman’ I obviously think he likes writing about ‘Fat Black Woman’
because I think he is trying to prove his point. I think he is trying
to teach society that you shouldn’t judge others by their looks. He
emphasis this through using his emotive language and makes the reader
feel empathy towards the ‘Fat Black Woman’. On the other hand, I think
Moniza Alvi considers herself more English than Pakistani because in
‘Throwing out my Father’s Dictionary’ she says “I daren’t inscribe my
name” to show her respect for her father and it implies that isn’t her
culture. In the end, both poets’ messages are quite similar which is
that culture and traditions are part of who you are and you should be
proud of it.
I really enjoyed reading the poems. Grace Nichols really made me
understand the Caribbean environment from ’Island Man and ’Hurricane
hits England’. She has also made her point clear about not judging
others by their looks, which I agree with, because I think its what
inside that counts. I can relate more to Moniza Alvi’s poems because I
come from India. The Pakistani culture and the Indian culture are
quite similar. The saris, the Salwar Kameez, the henna are just some
of the things that can be related to both, the Indian and the
Pakistani culture. The poem that I most enjoyed was ’I Would like to
be a Painting by Miro’ because I really liked the idea of using the
painting to reflect her message of being different. It is surreal and
creates a positive effect on the reader’s mind.

English Coursework Essay for Wide Reading

English Coursework Essay for Wide ReadingWe read a number of short stories that can be described as ghost
stories. All the stories include things that you would expect to find
in the ghost genre, for example, they have supernatural bits in them
and the writers use language to create atmosphere and build up
tension. The writers use words to get the readers interested and give
them clues about what might happen. Both The Red Room and Farthing
House include places, objects, descriptions and characters that you
would expect to find in ghost stories. The Red Room was written in the
1896 and Farthing House was written in 1992.Before beginning to read the stories, it is interesting to look at
their titles. The Red Room is an interesting title and makes us wonder
about the room. Red is makes us think of danger and blood and evil.
The title Farthing House, suggests that this story is set in a large
old, manor house. The idea of a haunted house was in lots of the
stories we read.The Red Room is set in a large old house called Lorraine castle. The
house I has a castle theme. This makes it more spooky.The house in Farthing House is a house that’s also very old. In the
hallway are many antiques. Like the Red Room, Farthing House is a
building that has a pastThe atmosphere is eerie in the Red Room ‘The long, draughty,
subterranean passage was chilly and dusty’ it is a cold, dark,
unhomely place‘The echoes ran up and down the spiral staircase, and a shadow came
sweeping up after me.’ It is spooky.Although all of these stories are ghost stories, each story is a
different ghost story. . characters find themselves in haunted rooms
but they act differently.

Women’s Role in the Influence of Pip in Great Expectations

Women’s Role in the Influence of Pip in Great Expectations
Throughout the novel “Great Expectations”, we meet several interesting
characters, each with their own unique way of affecting the life of
the character in which the story is circulated around. This very
character, known as Pip, has the displeasure of having to deal with
three of such characters from a very young and vulnerable age. The
fact that these three characters are all female, and incredibly cruel
individuals at that, certainly would not help a growing male child in
having a very good image of women as he gets older. It is, in fact, a
wonder why Pip does not grow up to despise every woman he meets.
One of the three women that Pip is influenced by is that of Mrs Joe
Gargery, a woman who makes her blacksmith husband seem tiny in
comparison to her temper. She is a woman who has had a series of
unfortunate events, the worst being taking her little brother under
her own care after the death of their parents. This being the case,
Mrs Joe seems convinced that Pip should worship her, because he is -
after all – a burden – “Who brought you up……And why did I do it, I
should like to know?” She often says that Pip should not be
“Pompeyed”, meaning he should given no privileges. This gives the
reader the impression that Mrs Joe does not allow her little brother
to be a child, even though he is. However, the reader is in a way
inclined to feel for her because she did not have to take Pip in, but
did, albeit reluctantly.
The thought of being brought up “by hand” – as Mrs Joe so often puts
it – also makes Pip think that she bullied her husband into marrying
her by hand. This suggests that Pip is slightly intimidated by her and
seems to fear her to some extent. Pip is even further intimidated by
“tickler” – the object used on Pip when he Mrs Joe feels she needs to
take the upper hand. Whereas, nowadays, this would be seen as child
abuse, the audience of the time would have had no objections to this
situation. Children in those times were only expected to be “seen and
not heard” and if it came into a child’s head that they should break
this minute expectation, they would be severely punished. Mrs Joe
Gargery seems to be unhealthily dedicated to this rule and is indeed
seen as a good motherly role model by the surrounding peoples in the
When Mrs Joe is compared to her blacksmith husband, we are able to see
a very obvious difference in husband and wife roles at the time. Mr
Joe Gargery being a timid man makes the reader realise just how
aggressive the woman can be, because in those time men usually had the
upper hand, the authority and power over women. Mrs Joe, however,
believes that she should have the authority and also believes that she
should have better than Mr Joe Gargery – “It’s bad enough being a
blacksmith’s wife.” This makes the reader wonder why she decided to
marry the blacksmith in the first place. This, however, can be
explained by Victorian attitudes at the time of the book. People in
those times used to look upon middle aged unmarried women as “hussies”
and thought it “improper” to not have a man to take care of you.
Attitudes such as these always made unmarried women quite unpopular,
especially towards those women who were married and saw single women
as a threat to their husbands.
However, there are times when we see a completely different side to
Mrs Joe Gargery. When her uncle comes over on Christmas day, she
resorts to showing a personality unlike her own. She is polite and
snobbish – “Oh, un-cle Pum-ble-chook! This is kind!” This is, of
course, a side that she has never shown to neither Pip nor her husband
and they are both well aware of this. This, to Pip, might show that
people can be two faced and untrustworthy when meeting them for the
first time. After all, he has the advantage of seeing both of the
possible sides demonstrated first hand by his sister. She is a person
that obviously cares what other people think of her and often tries
quite hard to impress. A perfect example of this is when she, Pip and
Mr Joe go off to town to visit uncle Pumblechook. Instead of wearing
simple clothes, Mrs Joe takes a very large beaver bonnet, a spare
shawl and an umbrella (even though it was not raining). This shows,
again, that Mrs Joe likes to be seen important and fancies herself as
a Lady.
We could tell that Pip’s thoughts of his sister are not all that
positive. In fact he describes her almost as a horrid creature – “My
sister, Mrs Joe Gargery, with black hair and eyes, had such a
prevailing redness of skin.” This makes the readers also see her as
just that – a snobbish creature. In fact, it is actually quite a
relief for the reader and for Pip when she is murdered under the hands
of Orlick. This would especially have pleased the audience at the time
the book was written, because they had very firm attitudes to crime
and punishment. They would have thought that she got what she
deserved. However, as the novel progresses, we see a side to Pip very
much like his sisters. When Pip receives that mysterious sum of money,
we undoubtedly see how Mrs Joe Gargery’s attitudes are then reflected
onto Pip’s character. This also gives the reader an indication of how
messed up Pip’s child hood was, because he seems to feel that he needs
to be a snob to fit in. He became what he hated.
The second woman to have a major influence on Pip is Miss Havisham,
who is probably one of the most intriguing characters in the whole of
English Literature. She is a woman who was jilted on her wedding day
and has, unsurprisingly, become mentally disturbed ever since. She is,
in fact, so disturbed that she has made herself to live in misery by
never taking off her wedding dress, living in the dining room where
the wedding food is still present and contemplating her unhappy social
status until she dies. The only reason why Miss Havisham has not been
put into a mental institute is because of the fact that she is an
incredibly rich woman.
What’s more, Miss Havisham has brought up a little girl who she has
completely brain washed – almost trained – to break men’s hearts, just
like Miss Havisham’s was once broken. This is a very selfish act of
hers – destroying a young girl just so she could get some
satisfaction. The fact that Miss Havisham invites Pip to her house to
meet her adopted daughter so that she can put Estella to the test is
even more selfish – “Well? You can break his heart.” However, over the
time that Pip visits and his love for Estella grows ever stronger,
Miss Havisham starts growing fond of the boy who treats her with such
politeness and respect. So fond that she regrets what she has done to
Estella as she realises that Pip is in love with her. However, her
regret is only shown near the end of the novel when Pip confronts her
of what she has done to him and Estella. We see a new “womanly
compassion” from her towards Pip that was not present before – “My
dear! Believe this: when she first came to me, I meant to save her
from misery like my own…. I stole her heart away and put ice in its
place!” This shows a great deal of repentance. The one thing that made
Miss Havisham realise what she had done was the recognition that the
once caring boy stood up to her. She indeed grieves for what she did –
“O! What have I done?”
Miss Havisham’s outmost regret is coincided with her horrible death,
where she is burnt alive after Pip leaves the room. This death would
have appealed greatly to the Victorian audience because it gives a
feeling that Miss Havisham died like a witch being burnt at the stake.
While you do feel incredibly sorry for her, you also now that – like
Mrs Joe – Miss Havisham deserved no better.
Miss Havisham has a major impact on Pip’s life. She is, after all, the
one who managed to deny him the one thing that he longed for and
desired with all his heart. She succeeded in ruining his life which he
was unsurprisingly ungrateful for, especially as he was always so kind
to her. Miss Havisham is the one who tempted Pip and encouraged him to
fall in love with Estella and then made sure that he was denied such
Estella, although incredibly cold, which she does not mind admitting –
“You most know that I have no heart” – manages to completely
manipulate Pip under her charm and elegance. She is probably the first
female in Pip’s life that actually pays any attention to him, which is
probably why Pip falls for her so. However he fails to realise what it
is Estella is out to do and instead considers her as being “human
Estella considers herself to be of high importance and does not
dislike attention. She is also a complete snob for considering just
this. She sees Pip as a “common labouring boy” and nothing more. What
she has no knowledge of, however, is of her family roots, which are
none to be proud of – her father was a convict and her mother was no
better. In fact, she could be considered as the daughter of the lowest
of the low, which is incredibly ironic when she practically regards
Pip as just that.
However, the reader does not help feeling sympathy for Estella. It is,
after all, not her fault the way she was brought up. She was given to
Miss Havisham at a very young age and through no fault of her own was
taught to not use her heart and to not love. Some might call it a form
of abuse, because the way that she was taught to socialise is so
unnatural and cruel. Even Miss Havisham realises this and regrets
every last bit of it. It is very easy to manipulate a vulnerable child
and to shape her into what you want her to become. Estella is an
example of just how easy this is. She was Miss Havisham’s weapon of
revenge against the male community, but she – in turn – just succeeded
in ruining another innocent person’s life.
In the end, however, all seems to be resolved – although readers do
not get the ending that they expect. Estella – unmarried – shows a
hint of the emotion that readers seek throughout the novel. She seems
to actually care for Pip – “I have often thought of you” – and has a
saddened look to her eye. She is also friendlier, but her elegance and
charm are still there. After Miss Havisham died, she seemed to also
realise what had been done to her and decided to change it. Her and
Pip, however, do not end up together. Instead she wishes them to be
friends and they become friends “apart”. This shows a new sensitivity
that we never before saw from Estella and the feeling that a person
can change is left in the air.

Analyse the symbolism of colour in The Great Gatsby.

Analyse the symbolism of colour in The Great Gatsby.White features most strongly in the novel and becomes a way for people
to hide behind false facades. In “The Great Gatsby” white symbolises
royalty innocence and purity and can also be seen to represent the way
the wealthy falsely themselves. On the surface, the white symbolises
their innocence and purity, like when Nick first meets Jordan and
Daisy in “flowing white dresses.” Daisy’s name is also that of a
flower with white petals, but a yellow centre. This yellow is not as
pure as the clean white petals and this shows her true colour, and
that of the upper class. Like a fragile, she is very fragile, but
inside she is slightly evil, particularly when she kills her husband
Toms lover Myrtle. Everyone of the ‘old money’ characters live in
white houses, wear white clothes, and yet lack the morals and
innocence this colour represents.Green symbolises new money and aspirations. Of all the characters,
Gatsby himself fits best into this category; Gatsby lives in a green
house surrounded by a green lawn.This colour light becomes his hopes in the novel. Barely visible from
his west egg dock is the green light that marks out Daisy’s on East
Egg. He reaches towards this in the darkness as the guiding light to
his dream. Daisy also forms a key part of Gatsby’s American Dream so
the colour green is also associated with this idealism. This reaching
for the light also shows how Gatsby wishes to repeat the past. In
chapter nine Nick describes the Green light to how America must have
looked to early settlers.Yellow symbolises a desire for wealth and it also represents the old
money of East Egg. Much like Daisy Buchanan the old money are false
and misguided. Gatsby though is also bad beneath his character,
showing that this also applies to the noveau riche people, as they to
are yellow inside. His gained his fortune through the drugs trade and
crime, meaning there is nothing innocent about his fortune. This goes
against the American Dream, as according to this money should be a
reward for honesty and success.The valley of ashes is associated with a grey and gloomy colour. This
thin strip of land between west Egg and New York City is a long strip
of desolate land created by the dumping of industrial ashes,
representing the moral and social decay that results from uninhibited
pursuits of wealth. The grey here also shows the plight of the poor.In conclusion, colour is used throughout the “Great Gatsby” to help
convey Fitzgerald’s views and show the 1920’s American society. It
exposes the morality of the characters, and the effects wealth has on

Does Punk Belong in the Composition Classroom?

Pedagogy of the ________: Does Punk Belong in the Composition Classroom?In 1977, Richard Hell sang, “I belong to the Blank Generation / and I can take it or leave it each time / I belong to the ________ Generation / but I can take it or leave it each time.” What did that blank consist of then? What does it consist of now? Can the chorus of a punk song lead students to (Paulo Freire’s concept of) an “epistemological curiosity” [see endnote 1]? As a future teacher in the composition classroom and as a fan of punk rock music, the idea of fusing the two seemed like a great idea to me. Punk rock indeed encourages epistemological curiosity—it compels its listening audience to critically assess and exercise their “capacity for learning.”
The concept of punk pedagogy is introduced with little fanfare in an article by Geoffrey Sirc entitled “Never Mind the Tagmemics, Where’s the Sex Pistols?” (February, 1997). In that article, Geoffrey Sirc explores the various reasons why theCCCignored punk rock in the composition classroom during punk’s formative years, 1977-1980. Sirc (briefly) introduces the notion of a punk pedagogy, which he defines as being “DIY” [see endnote 2] (Sirc, par. 13). Sirc writes, “Punk forms a permanent theater of tension—the dominant culture vs. the dormant one; the mainstream and the underground” (Sirc, par. 23). Despite his awareness of punk’s resistant nature, Sirc does not seem particularly invested in the notion of a punk pedagogy. Invoking Greil Marcus to the point of extremity, Sirc portrays punk as a theatre of negation rather than of tension, writing, “[Punk] was music you listened to in order to take further action, records to play en route to the ultimate rejection of records, in favor of making one’s own music. [TheCCC] never taught that, we never taught writing as a way of hating writing” (Sirc, par. 15).
In a response to Sirc’s article (entitled “Pedagogy of the Pissed: Punk Pedagogy in the First-Year Writing Classroom” [see endnote 3]), Seth Kahn-Egan expands and redefines what he envisions as punk pedagogy. Kahn-Egan does not conceivably foresee the punk classroom teaching as the hating of writing. Instead, he advocates “a classroom where students learn the passion, commitment, and energy that are available from and in writing; where they learn to be critical of themselves, their cultures, and their government—that is, of institutions in general” (Kahn-Egan, par. 5). Kahn-Egan sees the “punk-driven course . . . demanding that student writers use their writing to take a stand, to fix a problem, to break what they want broken and put it back together again the way they want it put” (Kahn-Egan, par. 9, ellipses added).
In a riposte (“Never Mind the Sex Pistols, Where’s 2Pac?”) to Kahn-Egan’s “inevitable” punk pedagogy (Sirc’s riposte, par. 1), Sirc takes minor exceptions to it. He says that playing old punk rock songs to students borders on nostalgia and sentimentality—that it would make him feel “like Allan Bloom playing his students Mozart records” (Sirc’s riposte, par. 1). Instead, Sirc would feel more comfortable teaching “a cultural studies course on Punk Rock” (Sirc’s riposte, par. 1). But it is Kahn-Egan who flirts more with the possibilities of a punk pedagogy by pointing out how such a pedagogical practice “[advocates] subverting dominant ideologies” (Kahn-Egan, par. 7). Kahn-Egan lays out five “principles of ‘punk’” (which will be unpacked later in this essay) that suggest bringing punk ethics and attitudes into the composition classroom.
Since this new brand of pedagogy has been put into a minimal amount of practice [see endnote 4], it might appear to be too early problematize it. Punk, in practice, outside the classroom, has continually been a subculture that has indeed subverted dominant ideologies since its emergence in the mid-1970’s [see endnote 5]. But its history has been marred by behavior that, at times, mirrored the dominant ideologies it was supposedly aping.
Lester Bangs, a critic and transcriber of the punk scene of the 1970’s, describes to a large extent the bevy of racist attitudes in the late-1970’s New York scene in an article entitled “The White Noise Supremacists.” Lauraine Leblanc, in her study Pretty in Punk: Girls’ Gender Resistance in a Boys Subculture describes how the 1980’s West Coast punk scene kept women on the fringes of a subculture that was already on the fringe of culture. Leblanc writes, “While some of these bands rhetorically espoused egalitarianism, self-respect, and social change, in reality, they edged women out of the scene” (51). Of a mid-1990’s punk show featuring the “queercore” group Pansy Division and the “riot grrrl” group Bikini Kill, Cynthia Fuchs (in her essay “If I Had a Dick”) implies that punk was again returning to its inclusive roots and was once again promoting a critical and collective community. She writes, “It wasn’t as if there was a politically committed collective formed this night, or that the young (or older) phobes were reformed or enlightened. But the overwhelming effect of the spectacle on stage, the similarity of motion and emotion represented by the pit, was that change was possible, if not inevitable” (111).
Using the cultural studies approach suggested by Sirc combined with Kahn-Egan’s spunky punk rock commitment in the classroom, this paper will explore the complex relationship between punk rock and dominant ideologies from a cultural studies perspective, considering whether the acknowledgment of these complexities will enrich punk pedagogy and the composition classroom. Is it possible for a punk pedagogy “to go beyond rebellious attitudes to a more radically critical and revolutionary position”? (Freire, 74).* *
Kahn-Egan and Sirc do not seem willing to merge punk pedagogy and cultural studies. As the subsequent selected historical survey of punk rock in this paper will reveal, both of these (temporarily) mutually exclusive categories can inform each other. The ethic promoted by Kahn-Egan would arguably promote a more committed, enthusiastic and transformational cultural studies classroom. Likewise, cultural studies could provide the punk classroom with the necessary historical, musical, political and materialist contexts and modes of critique out of which punk was created and has subsequently been responding to.
What exactly is this punk pedagogy that Seth Kahn-Egan envisions? He outlines his five principles of punk as follows:(2) A sense of anger and passion that finally drives a writer to say what’s really on his or her mind;(3) A sense of destructiveness that calls for attacking institutions which as institutions are oppressive, or even dislikable;(4) A willingness to endure or even pursue pain to make oneself heard or noticed;(5) A pursuit of the “pleasure principle,” a reveling in some kind of Nietzschean chasm. (Kahn-Egan, par. 4)Kahn-Egan’s punk principles seem very commendable at first glance. His framework promotes a classroom that would produce from its students passionately and politically committed texts. Students are encouraged to write in standard or more experimental means if that reveals itself the only way to “make oneself heard.” Also, his invocation of the “pleasure principle” directs students towards a postmodern sense of irony that is based on passionate intensity rather than cynicism.
Although Kahn-Egan’s five principles highlight the primary constituents of punk rock, they border on pure expressivism. His invocation of “the Do-It-Yourself (DIY) ethic” could be misinterpreted as being a call for individualism—he does not make it clear that one of punk’s primary obsessions is with the individual as the initial site of change, and that these changes tend to critique dominant ideological and institutional frameworks. Also, Kahn-Egan’s five principles of punk do not propose a punk mode of reading or of critique [see endnote 6], which should be an obligation for any student of punk pedagogy [see endnote 7]. Even though the composition classroom should be committed to composition necessarily, Kahn-Egan does not propose a punk way of reading the “institutions which as institutions are oppressive, or even dislikable” that would encourage the production of punk texts in the classroom. Perhaps the most glaring flaw with these principles is in the idealistic and optimistic gloss in which they are portrayed. Kahn-Egan’s ahistorical guide does not acknowledge that artists and fans of the punk subculture have, at times, applied these five principles (particularly “anger,” “pleasure” and “pain”) to create sexist and racist atmospheres that seemingly defeated the purpose of punk. From this point of the essay forward, Kahn-Egan’s five punk principles will be examined alongside models of its appropriation throughout the history of punk rock.* *
From its inception, punk music has challenged dominant ideologies. Patti Smith’s anxiety towards her own Catholic upbringing allowed her to sing, “Jesus died for somebody’s sins but not mine” and later to rap “we worship the flaw, the belly, the belly, the mole on the belly of an exquisite whore, he spared the child and spoiled the rod. i have not sold myself to god” (8, 85). Smith’s own openness about the oppressive nature of the church reveals the individual roots of punk spreading outward to the forest of institutional critique (principles two and three).
Lead singer of the Sex Pistols, Johnny Rotten, was venomously critical of the English monarchy that perpetually presented “no future” for the working classes while continuing to allow members of the British leisure/upper-class to spend “a cheap holiday in other people’s misery.” On their single “God Save the Queen,” the Sex Pistols and Rotten illustrated a viewpoint claiming that the English monarchy had kept the lower classes stagnant and accepting of their lot in life. Rotten sings,God save the queen
the fascist regime
that made you a moron
potential H-bomb
God save the queen
she ain’t no human being
there is no future
and england’s dreamingWhen the song was initially released in 1977, it became a rally cry for lower class youths that felt that same oppression. Those who towed the monarchical party line, however, did not take so kindly to the Sex Pistols’ song. Johnny Rotten and Paul Cook (the drummer of the band) were both violently assaulted for their heretical views towards the beloved queen. Rotten and Cook could thereby be said to have willingly endured the pain of their commitment (principle four).
It should be noted that punk, since its inception, has been a predominantly (white) male dominated subculture. In the mid- to late-1970’s, though, there were many women in the scene. Punk rock was more important to women than ‘cock rock [see endnote 8] ’ because “women and sex were not the main focus of song lyrics, [which allowed] punk music to avoid gender stereotyping in large measure” (Leblanc, 44). Neil Nehring writes, “Punk, given its do-it-yourself amateurism that rejects musical virtuosity and especially its antiromance stance, allowed ‘female voices to be heard that are not often allowed expression on record, stage or radio—shrill, assertive, impure’ voices of ‘strident insistency’” (Nehring, 213-4). While the New York scene had relatively few women (the most prominent being Patti Smith, Deborah Harry from Blondie, Tina Weymouth from the Talking Heads and Lydia Lunch from Teenage Jesus and the Jerks), women figured very importantly in the UK punk movement. Vivienne Westwood (wife of Malcolm McLaren, manager of the Sex Pistols) helped design many of the clothes that would become part of the punk sumptuary and Sue Catwoman, a punk rock fan, was also an important influence on punk self-representation. Chrissie Hynde (of the Pretenders), Siouxsie Sioux (of Siouxsie and the Banshees) and Poly Styrene (of X-Ray Spex) all fronted punk bands, while the Slits and the Raincoats were all-women groups. Leblanc writes, “Early punk offered female members a wide variety of stylistic options, allowing them to create their own mode of sexualized, desexualized, or antisexual self-presentation” (46).

While the UK punk scene remained flexible, the New York scene was rigid in comparison. Misogynistic lyrics and lifestyles were promoted came quite regularly from groups such as the Heartbreakers, the Dead Boys, and even the Ramones (their songs primarily had women as the lyrical focal point [see endnote 9]). Even though the New York movement might have been preoccupied with the musical concerns of punk rock, many musicians in the scene were excited by the lyrical and presentational possibilities that punk opened up for them. One such musician was Richard Hell, who summed up his philosophy of punk in the following words:
One thing I wanted to bring back to rock n’ roll was the knowledge that you invent yourself. That’s why I changed my name, why I did all the clothing style things, haircut, everything. So naturally, if you invent yourself, you love yourself. The idea of inventing yourself is creating the most ideal image that you could imagine. So that’s totally positive. (Bangs, 265)Hell’s DIY sense of inventiveness foreshadows Kahn-Egan’s idealistic vision of the punk classroom (while managing to incorporate all five of his punk principles), which would allow students to “deconstruct the realities they’ve brought with them” and focus “on constructing new realities of their own design” (Kath-Egan, par. 4). Both ideas mirror Freire’s own pedadogical sentiment when he writes, “There could be no creativity without the curiosity that moves us and sets us patiently impatient before a world that we did not make, to add to it something of our own making” (38).As a member of the “Blank Generation,” Hell saw himself, and other punks as the “completely rejected” (Bangs, 266). Hell then makes a problematic leap though, equating punks with minorities. Hell says:
[The punks] have been completely rejected. It’s like Ralph Ellison’s book Invisible Man—punks are niggers. If I go on the street, I can’t get a cab, I can’t get nothin’ but abuse in restaurants, in New York City or anywhere else in the country. The treatment that you would classify as being prejudicial to minority races is precisely the same accorded to people who go around dressed like me. It’s a very rare day that I don’t get some kinda shit walking down my own block where I’ve lived for two years. (Bangs, 266).
Even though Hell is not completely guilty of racism here, he is guilty of using an essentializing term (“niggers”) that reinforces and exploits African Americans’ place among the “completely rejected.”
Hell was not the only New York punk rocker to make that same association. In 1978, the Patti Smith Group released the controversial song “Rock n’ Roll Nigger.” In that song, Smith sings, “Jimi Hendrix was a nigger / Jesus Christ and grandma too / Jackson Pollack was a nigger” [see endnote 10] (89). Smith writes that her “‘Rock n Roll Nigger’ stance” was about “[the] redefining of an archaic slang term as a badge for those contributing on the fringe of society” (76). Smith, in a sense, also equated the “nigger” with the rejected, and in turn, the artist. Both Hell and Smith were empathizing with the plight of African Americans, but only Smith was interested in deconstructing, recontextualizing and redefining the term “nigger.” In essence, Hell and Smith were both making the claim that the punk as artist suffers (like marginalized people) insistently (unlike marginalized people) as the individual site of institutional critique (principles three and four).
Patti Smith, as well as the UK punks, both used racist terminology and symbolism [see endnote 11] not so much as a means of intentionally reinforcing such beliefs, instead using them to appear threatening to members of the dominant unquestioning society. Writing about subcultures, Dick Hebdige defines similar misappropriations of cultural signifiers as bricolage. Hebdige writes that bricoleurs “appropriated another range of commodities by placing them in a symbolic ensemble which served to erase or subvert their original straight meanings” (104). Not only were punk rockers turning safety pins into pieces of jewelry, they were redefining rock and roll and turning the “straight” world on its side. Greil Marcus describes punk rock much like Terry Eagleton describes postmodernism [see endnote 12]: “Punk immediately discredited the music that preceded it; punk denied the legitimacy of anyone who’d ever had a hit, or played as if he knew how to play. Destroying one tradition, punk revealed a new one” (39). So, it is understandable why Smith’s evocation of the punk and the artist as “nigger” was “not favorably embraced” (76). But it appears that one of the reasons her view was frowned upon in the New York scene might have due to racism.
In his article, “The White Noise Supremacists,” Lester Bangs writes, “Richard [Hell] got flak from certain quarters about Ivan Julian, a black rhythm guitarist from Washington, D.C. [see endnote 13]” (273). After throwing a party for the staff of Punk magazine, Bangs “put on soul records so everybody could dance.” The reaction: “I began to hear this: ‘What’re you playing all that nigger disco shit for, Lester?’” (277). Bangs describes writing the article as follows:
When I was first asked to write this article [for the Village Voice], I said sure, because the racism (not to mention the sexism, which is even more pervasive and a whole other piece) on the American New Wave scene had been something that I’d been bothered by for a long time. When I told the guys in my own band that I was doing this, they just laughed. “Well, I guess the money’s good,” said one. “What makes you think the racism in punk has anything special about it that separates it from the rest of the society?” asked another. (272)
Bangs even points out how his editor claims that “one of the most important things about New Wave is how much of it is almost purely white music . . . a massive departure . . . from the almost universally blues-derived rock of the past” (278, ellipses added). The racism in the scene was often not so subtle. James Chance of the Contortions, in an interview, “[dismissed] the magical qualities of black music as ‘just a bunch of nigger bullshit’” (279). Andy Shernoff of the Dictators won “Punk [magazine’s] Drunk as a Skunk contest by describing ‘Camp Runamuck’ as ‘where Puerto Ricans are kept until they learn to be human’” (279). Bangs, at one point in the article, admits to and regrets racist comments he made even in his own writings [see endnote 14]. Bangs was able to see through the racism within his movement, and the racism within himself, and tried to make his movement (as well as himself) overcome it. This element in Bangs’ writing is similar to the feminist bell hooks’ view of Paulo Freire’s writing, which she found completely enriching despite the “phallocentric paradigm of liberation” presented in his earlier texts [see endnote 15] (hooks, 49). Does Bangs’ (self-critique) present punk, in Freirian terms, as “[thinking] critically about practice” and making “possible the improvement of tomorrow’s practice”? (Freire, 44). Or, does Bangs’ writing on punk just expose and dismiss it as another angry white men’s club?
Kahn-Egan’s second principle of punk states that the student should have “A sense of anger and passion that finally drives a writer to say what’s really on his or her mind.” What if racist viewpoints are on the angry student’s mind? Although Kahn-Egan does write that in the punk pedagogy classroom, “[Students’] readings and their writings for most of the course will focus on finding the point where passionate advocacy ends and lunatic ranting begins” (Kahn-Egan, par. 14), he does not distinguish between ruminative and reactionary anger. Ruminative anger should mirror the phase between (what bell hooks refers to as) paradigm shifts. hooks writes:
I have not forgotten the day a student came to class and told me: “We take your class. We learn to look at the world from a critical standpoint, one that considers race, sex, and class. And we can’t enjoy life anymore.” Looking out over the class, across race, sexual preference, and ethnicity, I saw students nodding their heads. And I saw for the first time that there can be, and usually is, some degree of pain in giving up old ways of thinking and learning new approaches. I respect that pain. And I include recognition of it now when I teach, that is to say, I teach about shifting paradigms and talk about the discomfort it can cause. (42-3)
The inability to “enjoy life anymore,” as her student so frankly put it, would put anger to a constructive use. This brand of anger, as illustrated by groups such as the Sex Pistols, Bikini Kill and Nirvana (the latter two will be discussed later in this essay), encourages a way of reading, writing and social transformation that “provides alternatives to the problems identified” (Kahn-Egan, par. 6). On the other hand, the immediately responsive reactionary brand of anger exercised by some of the New York punks proved to be reproductive (of dominant ideologies) rather than productive. This brand of anger might well be a (white) masculine construction that, as seen in the West Coast punk scene of the 1980’s, edged women out of the scene.* *
The West Coast punk scene, initiated by the appearance of the first single by the Germs in 1977 (“Forming”/“Sex Boy”), initially featured many prominent women in the scene. The Avengers (fronted by Penelope Houston), the Germs (featuring Lorna Doom on bass), X (with lead singer Exene Cervenka) and all-girl groups such as the Runaways, the Go-Go’s and the Bangs (later, the Bangles) played an integral part of the early West Coast punk scene (Leblanc, 49-50). What Leblanc describes as “harder, more masculine bands” soon took over the exclusively, “all of which produced a faster, harder-edged sound accented by angry political lyrics” (50-1). For instance, in Black Flag’s 1981 song “Police Story,” Henry Rollins sings about the groups’ (and other punks’) run-ins with the police: “This fuckin’ city is run by pigs / They take the rights away from all the kids / Understand, we’re fighting a war we can’t win / They hate us, we hate them, we can’t win.” Unlike many of their 1970’s predecessors, West Coast bands were on independent record labels—many of which were self-run (Black Flag’s Greg Ginn ranSSTRecords and Bad Religion’s Brett Gurewitz ran Epitaph records, for instance). Bands such as Black Flag, Fear, the Circle Jerks, Suicidal Tendencies,DOA, Agent Orange, Bad Religion, Social Distortion, Red Cross (later known as Redd Kross),TSOL, DI and the Dead Kennedys tended to espouse “egalitarianism, self-respect, and social change” (51)—(principles one through four).
By this time, though, as hardcore punk became more overtly political and antiauthoritarian, the music adopted a faster tempo, physicality, velocity and ferocity. Leblanc describes the hardcore punk scene as “[mostly] male, and coming from lower- or working-class backgrounds, [viewing] their participation in the subculture as permanent, exhibiting disdain for mainstream society” in fashion and in lifestyle (55). The punks shaved their heads, wore tattoos and piercings, were often unemployed, lived in poverty, abused drugs, and maintained an undying commitment to this ideology [see endnote 16] (Leblanc, 55)—(principle five).
Jennifer Miro, ex-lead singer of the Nuns, says of the male-dominated punk scene:
“Later, it became this macho, hardcore, thrasher, punk scene and that was not what it was about at first. There were a lot of women in the beginning. It was women doing things. Then it became this whole macho anti-women thing. Then women didn’t go to see Punk bands anymore because they were afraid of getting killed. I didn’t even go because it was so violent and so macho that it was repulsive. Women just got squeezed out.” (Leblanc, 51, quoted in Stark 1992:93)
Early West Coast girl punk bands (such as the Go-Go’s and the Bangles) eventually migrated to the poppier terrain of the New Wave. As was illustrated, the 1980’s West Coast punk movement employed all five principles called for by Kahn-Egan. Yet the anger produced by this scene was mostly reactionary in nature. The aesthetic of the West Coast sound, although largely political lyrically, musically attracted a more aggressively physical and masculine audience base that seemed to reinforce the authoritarian systems they were trying to subvert. The aesthetic of punk, here, undermined its ideological underpinnings. At this extreme, what would be the consequences of these practices under the rubric of the composition course? Would such a course produce a more “masculine” aesthetic? Would women be edged out of the punk pedagogy classroom as well? Students and teachers in a class under the rubric of punk pedagogy would have to be aware of the way “the text means” as well as “how it means” (Brooks, 161, emphasis added). Students and teachers would be asked to consider whether “ideology and the aesthetic constitute each other’s negation, each other’s misreading” (Harpham, 138), and how competing formalist and content-based tendencies complicate the notion of punk—and consequently, the authoritarian and antiauthoritarian goals of the composition classroom within the university system.* *
As punk became an international “diaspora” (in the words of Leblanc), every new scene continued to push women to the side during the 1980’s (Leblanc, 55). However, in the early 1990’s, a new type of punk rock emerged, known as “riot grrrl.” Kathleen Hanna, ex-lead singer of Bikini Kill, describes its origins as being resistant to the male-dominated punk scene of the 1980’s:
Back around 1990, in Olympia [Washington], Bikini Kill started at the same time as Bratmobile. There were a lot of debates about topics like pornography and censorship. Around that time, the girls from Bratmobile came to my apartment and asked me about being a sex-trade worker [Hanna, at one point, worked as a stripper]. Basically, girls started talking to each other, and we put out our first fanzine; Molly Neuman and Allison Wolfe started Bratmobile; Corin Tucker, who’s now in Sleater-Kinney, did a short video for one of her classes about different women in bands. It was based on a really sexist record cover: Blood, Guts and Pussy by the Dwarves [a photo of a naked woman smeared with blood]. She got their reactions, talking about sexism in the scene. Corin later ended up being in Heavens to Betsy, another band which has had a lot to do with everything. (96-7)
The emergence of the riot grrrl scene reclaimed for women the space within punk that they originally inhabited. Initially, it took very calculated efforts to get the movement started. Hanna states, “To be a feminist band playing traditionally stupid punk rock venues, you need to have a lot of supporters involved” (98). In a sense, it could be claimed that punk was shifting paradigms.
Perhaps the most influential band to arise from the early-1990’s punk scene was (the all-male band) Nirvana, whose lead singer Kurt Cobain claimed “the future of rock belongs to women” (Nehring, 233). After Tobi Vail, drummer of Bikini Kill, introduced “feminism and other social and political causes” to Cobain (Azerrad, 142), he debatably became rocks most outspoken male supporter of feminism since John Lennon. Cobain was critical of punk’s (as well as the rock and roll industry’s) sexist and homophobic tendencies. Hanna, who ran “a woman’s cooperative/gallery/event space,” had Nirvana play “a couple of benefits to help keep our gallery going” (82). After the release of Nevermind, their second album, in 1991, Nirvana used their fame to promote various female-fronted bands. For a 1992 show in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Nirvana chose the all-female band Calamity Jane as their opening act. The predominantly male crowd responded harshly, “chanting ‘Puta madre!’ [see endnote 17] at the band and throwing lighters, beer cans, dirt clods, coins and whatever else they could find onto the stage” (Azerrad, 290). In response to “the largest display of sexism” Cobain had ever seen, he “was determined to sabotage [his own] show” (Azerrad, 290). Their set consisted of 15-minute improvised feedback jams, teasing them with the beginning of their most popular song, “Smells Like Teen Spirit” [see endnote 18], which they never played through to even the verse, and the “definitive version” of their feedback drenched earsplitting song “Endless, Nameless” (Azerrad, 290). Angry at the persistent misogyny of their own audience, Nirvana and Cobain’s willingness to sabotage their own show exposed their sense of postmodern irony (principles two through five).
Nehring writes, “The hiatus between the trailblazers of the 1970s and the emergence of female punk bands in 1991 accords with the submergence of punk, in popular attention, in the decade before Nirvana” (214). In other words, punk was returning to the gender inclusiveness it allowed in its earliest incarnations of the New York, UK and West Coast scenes. Greil Marcus, on the reemergence of women punk rock groups, wrote that they were creating “the most vital and the most open music . . . heard in years” (Marcus, qtd. in Nehring, 215).
The 1990’s saw the emergence of numerous punk affiliated (be it riot grrrl or grunge [see endnote 19]) groups fronted by women. Bikini Kill, Hole, Sleater-Kinney, Bratmobile, Babes in Toyland, L7, the Red Aunts, the Groovie Ghoulies, the Donnas, Heavens to Betsy, Veruca Salt and Huggy Bear appeared on the scene, just to name a few. “Queercore” groups also emerged, such as Pansy Division, Tribe 8, Team Dresch, Sleater-Kinney, among others. One of the major differences between the testosterone-fueled punk scene of the 1980’s and the 1990’s scene was a postmodern attention to self-reflexivity and a return to subtle humor in their performances. Even though “the rejection of dominant cultural forms [remained] a central theme for queercore and riot grrrl acts,” 1990’s punk seemed to illustrate that revolution was about “making and having options” (Fuchs, 105, 111). Writing about a show featuring Pansy Division and Bikini Kill, Cynthia Fuchs writes, “[The show] pressed its audience to make choices about their identifications, which were immediate and temporary, but choices with consequences nevertheless” (113). One writer described Bikini Kill as maintaining a “florid pen-pal rhetoric . . . an essential emotional and intellectual process primarily because it’s so much fun: Revolution as everyday play; girls getting off on rock gestures and nonsense without ever considering boy consent” (Charles Aaron, qtd. in Nehring, 212).
Bikini Kill was at the center of a punk network that espoused feminist and queer perspectives. Bikini Kill wanted “revolution, girl-style, now!” signing songs that demanded its female (and male) audiences to resist traditional patriarchal roles and points of view. In their song “Don’t Need You,” Hanna sings, “Don’t need you to tell us we’re good / Don’t need you to tell us we suck / Don’t need your protection / Don’t need your dick to fuck.”
Bikini Kill did not work solely through music, though. Through fanzines (photocopiedDIYminiature magazines), Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, Team Dresch and other groups produced texts that called for the articulation of punk rock and feminism. Through the fanzine format, Hanna was able to get groups of women musicians and writers together, and from these all-women meetings, “bands started [and other] fanzines began” (99). When one mainstream press interviewer asked Hanna about the Riot Grrrl movement, Hanna exaggerated about its size, naming “six or eight cities where Riot Grrrl chapters were. It was a lie, none of them existed at the time” (99), adding that “a year later, there were actual Riot Grrrl chapters in almost all the places I’d mentioned!” (100). TheDIYriot grrrl movement, through music and literature, evoked a sense of passion towards women’s issues, attacked oppressive patriarchal ideologies, worked together despite financial adversity and sexism, and enjoyed what they were doing (principles one through five). These reasonable terms set forth by both the riot grrrls and Kahn-Egan’s proposed punk pedagogy provide the same motivational aspect to the classroom that Friere invokes. Friere writes, “I have a right to be angry, to show it and to use it as a motivational foundation for my struggle” (71).* *
The possibility of a widespread punk pedagogy detached from a cultural studies context, as I have recommended, seems unlikely. It has implications that are too anarchic and too threatening to students, teachers, and campus administration. Despite Kahn-Egan’s rejection of the “anarchistic” classroom, what if a punk professor taught Johnny Rotten’s maxim “Don’t know what I want but I know how to get it” to students? Would students be inclined to write shopping list-simplistic papers filled with not-well-thought-out demands? Perhaps the opposite situation might arise. Students might be inclined to hand in formulaic writing that was catered directly to the teachers’ positionality (perhaps instigating a retrogressive move towards what Freire has termed “the banking system”). At its most extreme, a solitary punk pedagogy might be comparatively radical with the écriture féminine pedagogy envisioned by Lynn Worsham as casting “such suspicion on the whole enterprise of composition studies as an accomplice of phallocentrism that composition would be transformed beyond recognition” (93-4).
Responding to Sirc’s essay, Richard Hansberger solicits a Platonic reading of this brand of pedagogy. He writes, “Such social movements aren’t meant to be taught but to teach; how then do we create a pedagogy that allows for that?” (Hansberger, par. 5). Consequently, Hansberger agrees with Sirc that “there’s no point for nostalgia; I don’t want to play old LP’s when my students don’t even know what they are anymore” (Hansberger, par. 5). I disagree with Hansberger and Sirc. Throughout this paper, I have continually returned to the historicity (which should not be confused with a nostalgia) of the punk movement, because it has contained moments that seemed antithetical to its whole program. This course would have to be aware of the setbacks continually experienced by punk, and it should be thought of in Freirian terms as something that is not yet complete, “unfinished,” a teaching space that is “constantly read, interpreted, written, and rewritten” (89).
Kahn-Egan’s vision is commendable, albeit romanticized—blind to the sexist and racist past (and present [see endnote 20]) of punk. In order for punk to produce knowledge as a teaching style, I advocate merging this punk pedagogy with the aims cultural studies classroom. This approach would include songs, films, histories and scholarly criticism of the punk movement alongside Kahn-Egan’s punk ethic that encourages students to produce their ownDIY“punk texts” open to “songs, articles, letters” and even webpages and videos. I advocate this approach because I do not think that punk’s racist and sexist tendencies should not be ignored. As I suggested earlier, the emergence of the riot grrrls signaled a paradigm shift in punk music from staunch sexism towards feminism. This ruminative anger within the punk movement is a great example of how the student in the punk classroom should come away from such a course—encouraged towards “passionate advocacy” and not “lunatic ranting.” As illustrated throughout my paper, an ahistorical version of punk makes identifying the differences between the two nearly impossible (because a racist or sexist brand of punk rock can easily apply all five punk principles). Of course, much work still needs to be done to address racial diversity in punk, which is still a predominantly white subculture. How would this be addressed in the punk class? Robert Andrew Nowlan issues the following warning: “As long as racism divides the working class against itself and effectively conquers its resistance to capital, this enables the exploitation and alienation of the productive activity of both White and Black working-class men and women to continue—and to continue largely unchallenged and virtually unrecognized” (251). Racism in punk rock, as well as in society, should indeed be challenged. This challenge (challenging being one of the fundamental aims of punk) could begin in the punk classroom! This historically aware version of punk pedagogy could teach as well as reinvent the composition classroom.
I find it ironic that Kahn-Egan’s idealistic and well-meaning proposal for punk pedagogy seems, beyond references to the Dead Kennedy’s and the Sex Pistols, curiously ahistorical. The title of his response to Geoffrey Sirc makes reference to Paulo Freire. In Freire’s final book, Pedagogy of Freedom, he writes, “We can only consider ourselves to be the subjects of our decisions, our searching, our capacity to choose—that is, as historical subjects, as people capable of transforming our world—if we are grounded ethically” (25). The cultural studies-influenced punk classroom would form a world-transforming environment encouraging students to make passionate, searching, inventive and deliberate choices that would permit them to create the world in the ________.ENDNOTES1. In Pedagogy of Freedom, Freire writes, “The more critically one exercises one’s capacity for learning, the greater is one’s capacity for constructing and developing what I call ‘epistemological curiosity,’ without which it is not possible to obtain a complete grasp of the object of our knowledge” (32).2. “Do-it-yourself.”3. Kahn-Egan is also indebted to Freire. The title of his response makes reference to Freire’s influential text Pedagogy of the Oppressed.4. Kahn-Egan describes his course as follows:My course for next spring, “Writing about Punk Rock,” asks students to write and read extensively, looking at their own rebelliousness (the first paper assignment asks for them to describe and think about a situation in which they behaved subversively) and the rebelliousness of others (we will spend much of our class time examining punk music and lyrics, as well as reading about major figures in various punk subgenres). Their readings and their writings for most of the course will focus on finding the point where passionate advocacy ends and lunatic ranting begins. Their final essay will ask them to construct a subversive text, to call for action on an issue or against an institution that concerns them. The format of their original punk texts will be open-they can write songs, articles, letters, whatever. They will be able to work individually or in groups. They will need to decide how best to say what they want said, to do-it-themselves. The course will challenge students to take action. (Kahn-Egan, par. 12)5. A precise date for the origin of punk rock cannot be realistically established. 1976 is most likely the year most commonly cited as the year punk “broke.” Although Patti Smith’s first album Horses was released in 1975 (also, that same year, the Sex Pistols performed their first show), 1976 saw the release of the first Ramones album (Ramones) and the first Sex Pistols single (“Anarchy in the U.K.”/“I Wanna Be Me”). Before 1976, numerous musical innovators inhabited the space known as pre-punk. The Velvet Underground (1965-1972), The MC5 (1967-1972), The Stooges (1968-1974), The New York Dolls (1972-1975) and The Modern Lovers (1972-1973) are all bands that influenced the sound of punk rock.
6. Elsewhere in Kahn-Egan’s article, he does state that “Punk interrogates and deconstructs texts/symbols/cultures much like academic discourses do” (Kahn-Egan, par.
5).7. The fifth of these five principles comes closest to encouraging a particularly critical punk mode of reading, owing more to committed irony than to postmodern/punk skepticism.8. A sound epitomized by bands such as the Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Aerosmith, Motley Crue, and others.9. Even though the Ramones tended to be “nice guys,” they did slip up from time to time! In their song “Loudmouth,” Joey Ramone sings, “You’re a loudmouth baby / You better shut up / I’m gonna beat you up / ‘Cause you’re a loudmouth babe.”10. Taken from a notebook of hers and reproduced in her book of collected lyrics, Smith writes about the “’Rock n Roll Nigger’ stance” as follows:everything is shit. the word ART must be redefined. this is the age where everybody creates. rise up nigger take up your true place. rise up nigger the word too must be redefined. this is your arms and this your hook. Do not [sic] the black boys get shook. high asses asses get down. NIGGER no invented for the color it was made for the plague. for the royalty who have read justed their sores. the artist. the mutant. the rock and roll mulatto. arise new babe born sans eye-brow and tonsil. outside logic beyond mathematics [sic] self torture and poli-tricks. the new science advances unknown geometry. arise with new eyes new health new niggers. this is your call your calling your psalm. rise up niggers and reign with your instruments soliders of new fortune. uncalcuable caste of we new niggers. (87)11. Many UK punks displayed Nazi swastikas on their clothing (the most famous instance occurs when Sex Pistols bass player Sid Vicious is prominently shown in the 1979 mockumentary The Great Rock n’ Roll Swindle wearing a red T-shirt with a swastika). Greil Marcus writes:The punk swastika was a convoluted symbol: a nascent subcultural celebration of the purest racism; a demand for the replacement of business as usual with excitement. It meant . . . “My dad’s a square, I hate him, I hate you too, I’ll smash your face in,” or diversion of that impulse into public business: I hate them too, let’s smash their faces in. It was a touch of the old épater la bourgeoisie. It meant, history books to the contrary, that fascism had won the Second World War: that contemporary Britain was a welfare-state parody of fascism, where people had no freedom to make their own lives—where, worse, no one had the desire.” (117-8)12. Eagleton describes postmodernism as being “entirely devoid of the kind of historical memory which might make such a disfiguring self-conscious” (386).13. Ivan Julian was the rhythm guitarist for Richard Hell’s group the Voidoids.14. This piece of writing by Lester Bangs reveals the tongue-in-cheek racist and homophobic tendencies of his writing:[In an article on David Bowie’s “soul phase,” Bangs wrote]: “Now, as we all know, white hippies and beatniks before them would never have existed had there not been a whole generational subculture with a gnawing yearning to be nothing less than the downest baddest niggers . . . Everybody has been walking around for the last year or so acting like faggots ruled the world, when in actuality it’s the niggers who control and direct everything just as it always has been and properly should be.” (276)15. bell hooks writes about the complicated moment for her, as a feminist, of reading an author who has “sexist language in his work” (48), yet continues to influence her particular brand of pedagogy:There has never been a moment when reading Freire that I have not remained aware of not only the sexism of the language but the way he (like other progressive Third World political leaders, intellectuals, critical thinkers such as Fanon, Memmi, etc.) constructs a phallocentric paradigm of liberation—wherein freedom and the experience of patriarchal manhood are always linked as though they are one and the same. For me this is always a source of anguish for it represents a blind spot in the vision of men who have profound insight. And yet, I never wish to see a critique of this blind spot overshadow anyone’s (and feminists’ in particular) capacity to learn from the insights. (49)16. It should be noted that Kahn-Egan does not promote this radical, angry, and rebellious antiauthoritarian stance for the punk pedagogy classroom. He writes, “I’m not advocating a full-blown, anarchistic, self-mutilating classroom where students scarify themselves” (Kahn-Egan, par. 4).17. Spanish slang, meaning “motherfucker.”18. This landmark song has its roots in the riot grrrl movement. Michael Azerrad describes the origin of the song as follows:One night, Kurt [Cobain] and Kathleen Hanna from Bikini Kill had gone out drinking and then went on a graffiti spree, spray painting Olympia [Washington] with “revolutionary and feminist slogans (including the ever-popular “GOD IS GAY” [and old Cobain favorite from his graffiti days as a teenager in his hometown of Aberdeen, Washington]). When they got back to Kurt’s apartment, then continued talking about teen revolution and writing graffiti on Kurt’s walls. Hanna wrote the words “Kurt smells like Teen Spirit.” “I took that as a compliment,” says Kurt. “I thought that was a reaction to the conversation we were having but it really meant that I smelled like the deodorant. I didn’t know that they deodorant spray existed until months after the single came out.” (211-2)19. Grunge could be described as a sound combining the early heavy-metal of Black Sabbath and Led Zeppelin with pop-influenced punk rock. Some of the most important bands considered to embody the grunge sound include Nirvana, the Melvins, Soundgarden, Pearl Jam, Babes in Toyland, Mudhoney, Green River, L7, and Hole, among others.
20. Since most guitar-based punk and rock bands are male dominated, sexism is inevitable. Also, skinheadWORKS CITEDAzerrad, Michael. Come As You Are: The Story of Nirvana. New York: Doubleday, 1993.Bangs, Lester. Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung. New York: Vantage, 1988.Bikini Kill. The C.D. Version of the First Two Records. Billy Boredom, Kathleen Hanna, Tobi Vail, Kathi Wilcox. Prod. Ian Mackaye, et al. Kill Rock Stars, 1994.Black Flag. Damaged. Dez Cadena, Chuck Dukowski, Greg Ginn, Robo, Henry Rollins. Prod. Black Flag. SST, 1981.Brooks, Peter. “Aesthetics and Ideology—What Happened to Poetics?” Aesthetics & Ideology. Ed. George Levine. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1994.Eagleton, Terry. “Capitalism, modernism and postmodernism.” Modern Criticism and Theory: A Reader. Ed. David Lodge. London and New York: Longman, 1988.Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of Freedom: Ethics, Democracy, and Civic Courage. Trans. Patrick Clarke. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.Fuchs, Cynthia. “If I Had a Dick: Queers, Punks, and Alternative Acts.” Mapping the Beat: Popular Music and Contemporary Theory. Ed. Thomas Swiss, John Sloop, and Andrew Herman. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1998.Hanna, Kathleen with Andrea Juno. “Kathleen Hanna.” Angry Women in Rock. [Ed. Andrea Juno]. New York: Juno, 1996.Hansberger, Richard. “Writing as Slamming.” Online posting. 30 Apr. 2000 <http:// www.ncte.org/ccc/7/sub/49_sirc.html>.Harpham, Geoffrey Galt. “Aesthetics and the Fundamentals of Modernity.” Aesthetics & Ideology. Ed. George Levine. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1994.Hebdige, Dick. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. New York: Routledge, 1979.Hell, Richard and the Voidoids. Blank Generation. Marc Bell, Richard Hell, Ivan Julian, Robert Quine. Prod. Richard Gottehrer and Richard Hell. Sire/Warner Bros., 1990.hooks, bell. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge, 1994.Kahn-Egan, Seth. “Pedagogy of the Pissed: Punk Pedagogy in the First-Year Writing Classroom.” Online posting. 14 Mar. 2000 <http://sites.unc.edu/~taylor/ccc_old/7/sub>.Leblanc, Lauraine. Pretty in Punk: Girls’ Gender Resistance in a Boys’ Subculture. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1999.Marcus, Greil. Lipstick Traces: A Secret History of the 20th Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.Nehring, Neil. “The Riot Grrrls and ‘Carnival’.” Reading Rock and Roll: Authenticity, Appropriation, Aesthetics. Ed. Kevin J.H. Dettmar and William Richey. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.Nowlan, Robert Andrew. “Teaching Against Racism in the Radical College Composition Classroom: A Reply to a Student.” Left Margins: Cultural Studies and Composition Pedagogy. Ed. Karen Fitts and Alan W. France. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.Ramones. Ramones. Dee Dee Ramone. Joey Ramone. Johnny Ramone. Tommy Ramone. Prod. Craig Leon. Sire, 1976.Sex Pistols. Never Mind the Bollocks, Here’s the Sex Pistols. Paul Cook, Steve Jones, Glen Matlock, Johnny Rotten, Sid Vicious. Prod. Chris Thomas and Bill Price. Warner Bros., 1977.Sirc, Douglas. “Never Mind the Tagmemics: Where’s the Sex Pistols?” Journal article. 1997. 14 Mar. 2000 <http://wwwpub.utdallas.edu/~atrue/PRETEXT/PT1.1/PT1Sirc.html>.. “Never Mind the Sex Pistols, Where’s 2Pac?” Online posting. 14 Mar. 2000 <http://sites.unc.edu/~taylor/ccc_old/7/sub/>.Smith, Patti. Patti Smith Complete: Lyrics, Notes and Reflections. New York: Anchor, 1999.Worsham, Lynn. “Writing against Writing: The Predicament of Ecriture Féminine in Composition Studies.” Contending With Words: Composition and Rhetoric in a Postmodern Age. Ed. Patricia Harkin and John Schilb. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1991.

Does Shakespeare matter?

In today’s world the quality of the art form called writing is said to be somewhat diminishing, it is important for English literature to keep some studies of classic literature, such as Shakespeare. I think well rounded education must have a strong foundation in both modern and classical literature, for the foundation in classical literature, an in-depth study of Shakespeare’s works would be more than sufficient. Not only was Shakespeare so skilled in his writing that he has become a significant point in the history of literature, but a majority of his works were written on such basic human themes that they will last for all time and must not be forgotten.William Shakespeare has become landmark in English literature. One must be familiar with the early days of English literature in order to comprehend the foundation of much of more modern literature’s basis. Shakespeare’s modern influence is still seen clearly in many ways. The success of Shakespeare’s works helped to set the example for the development of modern dramas and plays. He is also acknowledged for being one of the first writers to use any modern prose in his writings.By using just the right combination of words, or by coming up with just the right image, Shakespeare wrote many passages and entire plays that were so powerful, moving, tragic, comedic, and romantic that many are still being memorized and performed today, almost four centuries later. But the greatness of Shakespeare’s ability lies not so much in the basic themes of his works but in the creativity he used to write these stories of love, power, greed, discrimination, hatred, and tragedy.Therefore there can be no doubt that knowledge of the works of Shakespeare is needed for any education of English literature to be considered complete and well rounded. The outstanding literary skills that Shakespeare used in order to create his precise representations of human truth have not been rivalled or replicated since his death. To simply skip through such an important part of literary history would be like taking parts out of a fully functional machine, the machine would no longer function, much like literature could not function without Shakespeare.

A Vendetta

A VendettaIn the short story ‘A Vendetta’ the title is a glimpse into the plot
of the story, telling us that that there is a vendetta involved but
doesn’t reveal the nature of the vendetta and its aims. There are 3
main characters in the story, they are, Widow Saverini, Frisky the
dog, and Nicolas Ravolati.The story is about, an assassin Nicolas Ravolati kills Widow
Saverini’s son Antoine during a quarrel and over the dead body of her
son Widow Saverini swears vengance. She is unable to sleep until she
has an idea. She trains her dog Frisky to attack a dummy, by starving
her of food and hiding sausage inside the dummy’s torso. The widow
takes the dog to Nicolas’ Sardinian hideout and at the widows’ word
the dog kills Nicolas Ravolati.The moral of the story is that revenge can become destructive and
obsessive if we allow it to do so. Maupassant expresses this moral
when, In the story he talks about the Widow Saverini being unable to
sleep or make peace until she can complete this vendetta of when she
sleeps soundly.During this story Guy de Maupassant uses several different literary
techniques to help express his views and to help explain and tell the
story.He uses personification when describing the wind and sea on the coast
of Bonifacio. He uses the sentence “The wind harasses the sea
remorselessly.” The words ‘harasses’ and ‘remorselessly’ are both
human characteristics it is as if Guy de Maupassant is saying the wind
has no conscience.Maupassant uses detailed description of the town ‘Bonifacio’, where
the story is set, to get across the brutality and evil to come later
on in the story.He also uses symbolism and imagery like “A gash in the cliffs,” This
represents the gashes in the body of Antoine after the first
assassination, as does the simile used at the start of the story,”
Patches of whitish foam round the black tips of the countless reefs,
look like torn sheets drifting on the surface of the water.” This to
me is the most important simile in the whole story because it sets the
mood and the scene of the horrific events to come, to continue the
scenery being set as an inhospitable place Maupassant uses the word
‘Ramparts’ to describe the surroundings of Bonifacio which suggests
the town is a castle and its surroundings being the walls, imprisoning
the towns inhabitants.Maupassant also uses Irony to great effect in this story. He uses this
literary technique when he talks about Widow Saverini. Her behaviour
in the story is strangely ironic, for example the widow is a strong
catholic but yet on the dead body of her son she swears she will kill
the assassin responsible for her sons death, this is ironic because
Catholics are taught to forgive yet she still seeks vengance. Another
example of this ironic behaviour is when the widow seeks absolution
from her sins; yet again her behaviour is ironic because she is about
to ask God for forgiveness yet she cant forgive Nicolas Ravolati.In the story Maupassant uses Semantic Prosody. Much of the language in
the story is associated with evil and death especially during the
description of Bonifacio for example he uses words like Gash, Barren,
Pierce, Desolate, Treacherous and Coarse.

Of Mice and Men – Language of hands

Of Mice and Men – Language of handsIn chapter 1, Steinbeck describes George’s hands as ‘small and
strong.’ This means that George is a small person yet the author
describes his hand as a strong hand which much means it’s muscular and
so he has power. They also show authority to Lennie. This is proven at
the beginning of the play when Lennie refuses to hand over the dead
mouse, George ‘Snaps his fingers’ and Lennie instantly hands over the
mouse to George. This is the way that George seems to have control
over Lennie. It also shows mental strength because Lennie is described
as a bear at the beginning of the story and Lennie as small so Lennie
could easily over power George if he wanted to, but George has the
mental strength about him to discipline Lennie.When George tells the story of his dream he stabs the can of beans
which is a violent action and it is an action which you would normally
associate a stabbing action with killing someone. This action tells us
about what he is feeling when he tells the dream. It’s as if he is
telling the dream and he knows that it will never become a reality but
yet he still talks about it and imagines living the dream.The second time he talks about the dream, Candy, a worker on the
ranch, over hears George telling about it and offers to pay enough
money so that they can buy the farm house which George describes so
vividly in his dreams. How ever, when George heard Candy say that he’d
pay, ’Georges’s hands stopped working the cards.’ I think this is
because he is surprised that his dream could become reality but then
again his actions and the way he says shows that he knows that it is
never going to happen.The third time he talks about the dream is when he shoots Lennie.
George’s hands in this chapter vary from time to time. This is when
he’s holding the gun. ‘His hands shook,’ this shows that he was
nervous and also afraid of shooting Lennie which is not surprising
really as they were very good friends and had been friends for quite a
long time. ‘The hand shook violently but his face set and steadied, he
pulled the trigger.’ This quote tells us that he didn’t want to do it
but the author says that his face was set and steadied meaning that
George had to do it.After he shot Lennie I think that he was angry, upset and sad because
Lennie was his friend and they did everything together but I think
George was also relieved now that he didn’t have to what people would
think of him all the time or whether he would do anything wrong and
generally having to look after him all the time.The book also vividly describes the other main character, Lennie.Throughout the book he is often compared to animals mainly a bear.
Lennies’ hands are like ‘paws’ which describes that his hands were
big, strong and slow like a bear.This is a total contrast to Georges’ hands which are also strong but
they’re they are small and fast like snappy and quick. Lennies’ strong
hands are used when Curley starts fighting with him and Lennie fights
back but because he doesn’t know his own strength he loses his temper
and crushed Curley’s hand with one hand. This shows the immense
strength that Lennie has in just his hands.Lennie’s hands also act as if he is not controlling them but someone
else is.’Lennie’s closed hand slowly obeyed’The word obeyed suggests that he is following someone else’s
instructions and acts like a toy being controlled by some one else.

The Middle Ages From 1066 To 1485

English Society in the Early Middle Ages, 1066-1307
Book by Doris Mary Stenton; Penguin Books, 1952. 304 pgs
The Middle Ages – 1066 -1485
The Middle Ages encompass one of the most turbulent periods in English History. Starting with the Battle of Hastings and the Norman Conquest – when William the Conqueror effectively took all of the lands from the Saxon English and gave them to French nobles. The English Middle Ages then saw the building of the great English castles, including the Tower of London, which helped the Normans to retain their hold on England. The start of the Crusades and the knights of the Middle Ages, including the founding of the Knights Templar. The Domesday Book and the Magna Carta. The Kings and Queens of the Middle Ages including Richard the Lionheart and great Plantagenet Kings from Henry II (1154-1189) to Edward III (1327-1377). The Hundred Years War between England and France. The Medieval Kings and Queens of the Royal Houses of Lancaster and York and the Wars of the Roses. The Middle Ages Feudal System and the terrible Black Death which really did plague the period of the Middle Ages.The Middle Ages 1066-1485. I think if ha it because gave rise to a new form of literature, the romance. The Code of Chivalry dictated that a Knight should be brave and fearless in battle but would also exhibit cultured Knightly qualities showing themselves to be devout, loyal, courteous and generous. Weapon

What is Miller’s American dream and to what extent is Death Of A

What is Miller’s American dream and to what extent is Death Of A
Salesman’s portrayal of the American dream relevant to today?‘[The USA] established upon those principles of freedom, equality,
justice, and humanity for which American patriots sacrificed their
lives and fortunes. I therefore believe it is my duty to my country to
love it; to support its constitution; to obey its laws; to respect its
flag, and to defend it against all enemies.’Due partly the immortalised war of independence, to the abolition of
slavery and to the lack of long-term history America seems to hold the
history it has and the ideals quoted above from ‘The American’s Creed’
in great esteem. There is a belief that any man from any walk of life
can make his fortune in America. In Death Of A Salesman Ben is perhaps
the personification of this ideal:BEN-’Screw on your fists and you can fight for a fortune up there…WILLY- I remember you walking away down some open road.BEN- when I was seventeen I walked into the jungle, and when I walked
out I was twenty-one. And by God I was rich.’This is what Willy knows as the American dream. ‘America is full of
beautiful towns and fine, upstanding people’ His father was a flute
salesman and his brother, Ben, mined diamonds. Willy believes that
because they can do it he can too. However, it seems that he is doomed
to fail. From the very beginning of the play there is an edginess,
almost a desperation for success- ‘My god, if business don’t pick up
don’t know what I’m gonna do!’The monetary side of the American dream in 1940 was essentially a
cycle: one must have a job. With their job they earn the respect and
wealth to climb higher up the economic ladder. As they climb higher up
this ladder they are obliged to spend more and more money to claim
your place on the next rung of the ladder. There were several
mechanisms in place to help ordinary Americans achieve the dream:
Mass-production made luxury goods available for the masses, the best
example being the Model-T Ford which sold over 100 million models.
Edward Hoover summed this consumer culture in the 1920s when he
promised ‘two cars in every drive and two chickens in every pot’. This
is what America strived for in the 1940s- wealth and ‘comfort’.However, the American dream was not just about money- respect played
an important role too. Willy (about biff)- They’ll be calling him
another Red Grange. Twenty-five thousand a year [!]’. Money and
respect are inextricably linked.Arthur Millers seems to be deeply critical of the American Dream.
Indeed, the term itself is open to argument. It seems to Russell that
the Dream is ultimately about happiness and Money, and how they must
somehow spawn from each other. Indeed, Willy makes many references to
how one must be ‘well liked’ to succeed in business and that a happy
personality is the key to monetary success. Along with this happiness
(that is never well defined) and pursuit of wealth through ‘Rugged
Individualism’. Willy believes in the American man just as strongly.
His most happy memory is that of Biff being a Football player and
leading his team out to cries of ‘Loman, loman’ whilst Willy and his
business partners look on. Here again, ‘American success’ and business
are tied together as one.However, Willy’s overriding failure and Biff’s disillusionment from
the Dream show that Miller is a sceptic and knows that the whole Dream
may be a myth in most cases, much like the myth that the streets of
London are ‘paved with gold’. The death of the salesman, the salesman
being a figurehead of the American Dream, hints at the death of the
dream itself. Even Happy, a character that keeps on clinging to the
American Dream till the end, has his doubts: ‘Sometimes I want to just
rip my clothes off in the middle of the store… everyone is so false
that I’m constantly lowering my ideals’.So how is this relevant to the American dream of today? Does it still
exist? Perhaps the best way to evaluate this would be to look at a
modern stage interperation of the American Dream- Glengarry Glenross.
Many similarities can be drawn between the two plays, notably the
sense of manic hope and doomed optimism that are the aura around both
Willy Loman and Shelley Lavigne as they struggle to accept reality and
stop living in the glories of the past. Both plays are centred around
the American Dream and it is telling that in both plays the fortunes
of the leading characters spiral downwards- (Willy)- ‘The woods are
burning!’- as the plays go on. Both Russell and the author of
Glengarry Glenross want to show that selling yourself to the American
Dream for material happiness cannot last forever. In this sense the
portrayal of the dream in Death Of A Salesman is still relevent.Is Willy’s never-say-die attitude still prevelant in today’s America?
I would say that it is to an even greater extent: It seems it takes a
certain type of person to be able to deal with and take pleasure from
the risk of a salesman. However, it has been proven that man needs
security in his life and sophisticated pensions and savings schemes
show this. Because everything is so much more unsure in today’s
business world the risks are higher and larger. Russell shows the
implications of failure when WIlly is rejected by Happy at the
restaurant: Linda- He was so humiliated he nearly limped when he came
in’.This almost physical pain is terrible and the risk that must be
taken both today and in Willy’s 1950s.Perhaps the best place to look for Russell’s view of the American
Dream in Death Of a Salesman is in Howard Wagner. Willy used to be a
massive asset to Howard but now he is merely a liability. Howard is
the image of indifference, ruthlessness, nonchelance and power that is
the flaw of the American Dream. It is simple- Howard, like the
American Dream, only embraces Willy when he is serving them. When he
can no longer serve them the is tossed aside ‘in the ash-can like the
rest of them’ (Biff). Indeed, Biff is the one who seems to see the
American Dream for what it is when he says to his father- ‘Will you
take that phony dream and burn it before something happens’. However,
as we see, he never does burn it and something DOES happen. In this
sense Russell maybe commenting that the Dream leads to complete
destruction.Finally, let us look at example American society today to see if this
complete destruction is still evident. Media is increasingly
controlling people’s thoughts and instincts purely for profit (it
seems a handful of corporations control our day to day consumerism)
whilst the middle and lower classes still strive for a larger house
and proverbial ‘Hastings Refrigerater’. There is still the manic cycle
or work, spend, die that Biff took so much time trying to break out
of. Meanwhile, Death of a Salesman continues to be produces and strike
a chord across the world (it was played in China to show the futility
of American attitudes).There are several quotes that would sum up the American Dream and it’s
relevance but believe the post pertinent one comes from Ben, the
intangible role-model of the American Dream- ‘The jungle is dark but
full of diamonds, Willy’. The American Dream has diamonds, but they
are reserved for the few who can negotiate the jungle of failure and
depression that is everywhere both today and in Willy Loman’s era.

Themes in The Crucible

Themes in The CrucibleThe whole nature of Proctor makes him an exciting and complex
character; as a result this makes him entertaining to the audience and
his complexity keeps the audience enthralled throughout the play. His
personality is not boring or simple. He has a quick temper and is
often angry, it seems he can’t control his feelings. “[turning on her,
rifle in hand] I will curse her hotter than the oldest cinder in
hell.” This has the effect of exciting the audience and adds interest
(not to mention tension with this particular line) but this line can
have the effect of making Proctor look like a bad person.
Alternatively it could suggest that Proctor is human and has his
faults, the audience would sympathise with this.Inside Proctor lacks self confidence, he was shamed when he had an
affair with Abigail. Proctor shows this when he says, “I may blush for
my sin”, this line give the audience the impression that John realises
that the affair was wrong, that is was a sin and he regrets it. It
also implies that he hasn’t forgiven himself for what he did with
Abigail and he still needs to blush for it . This lack in self
confidence is hinted at throughout the play but it seems like he
doesn’t let these feelings out until Act 3 and instead hides them
under his powerful speaking.The whole theme of Proctor’s affair adds a dramatic twist to the plot.
Affairs are stereotypically exciting and the deceitfulness, lust and
lies that come into play with this particular example make it
especially interesting for the audience. The wrong things done here in
the name of lust have a certain attraction – it is almost
intoxicating.One of the things that makes Proctor such an important character in
the Crucible is the fact that he stands for the truth and fights for
the innocents. His strongest weapon in this fight is his powerful
speaking. His speeches and comments don’t just have an effect on the
other characters in the play but on the audience too. “You are pulling
Heaven down and raising up a whore!” – this is a very strong statement
as Heaven is the symbolises highest good and is a force of God. To
pull it down and so denounce God and place a whore in God’s place is
very dramatic because of the extremes, it’s almost absurd to the Salem
society. Persuasive techniques are even used in his lines, by
presenting his opinions as statements it seems as though they’re facts
and unquestionable; “God is dead” and “they’re pretending” are good
examples of this. This techniques involve the audience as they make
the audience develop opinions about issues in the play and care about
what happens to characters. Proctor’s use of emotion when he speaks is
very dramatic and can, with the right actor be very moving. It would
seem that Arthur Miller is trying to provoke feeling in the audience.John Proctor is also important to the play as he gives it a moral
structure distinguishing different characters as good or evil. John
fights for the innocents and for truth and because these are seen as
good forces and Proctor is fighting for them this makes him a ‘goodie’
or good force. The fact that something which opposes good is evil
means that anyone who opposes Proctor and so goodness is a evil force
(a baddie). This means that Abigail is an evil force or ‘baddie’
because she opposes Proctor and Proctor is a ‘goodie’ even though
Abigail is almost a victim because she could be seen as trying to get
her love back and Proctor may have just lead her along.Another role of John is to add more human motives to the plot of the
play. He fights against the court for his love (Elizabeth). Abigail
tries to use the court to kill Elizabeth so she can be with Proctor.
John fights against his himself about whether or not to tell the court
about Abigail and himself. Elizabeth fights with her sense of duty and
love for John Proctor to tell the truth about John and Abigail. All
this stems directly from John. These ulterior motives add lust, love
and duty to name but a few to the plot making the play more
interesting to the audience.In fact the whole story of the Crucible stems from Proctor. It starts
with Abigail dancing in the woods because she wants Proctor and it
ends with Proctor dying. This is ironic because Abigail ends up
killing John Proctor instead of them being together which was her
goal. The fact that the Crucible play actually ends with Proctors
death indicates to me that he is a very important character as there
is no play with out him.Arthur Miller also tried to add McCarthyism issues to the play. The
Drama which surrounds John and trials which he has to take concerning
the court (not his love life) are similar to the ones which happened
in the 1950s. One of the main points McCarthy set out was to make the
convicted give a public confession and give names of other communist
sympathisers – just like in the Salem witch hunt. And when, in the
1950s, the Rosemburgs didn’t confess they were killed, just like those
who didn’t confess in Salem were killed. Millers compares these two
events to make a point that the truth was killed in the McCarthy
trails just like in Salem because of the hysteria. The character of
John Proctor is Millers main tool in showing this. This could be
another of Johns functions. Maybe the main one in Millers point of
view.The similarity between McCarthyism and the Salem witch hunts adds
drama and excitement for the audience because it relates the story to
modern times. This would shock the audience in the 1950s because they
think, “Wow, this is almost happening now” But this does not have as
much potency in the 21st century as few people, especially in England,
know about McCarthyism and those that do think that it has no
relevance to them.John Proctor is the character which the audience relate to and have
opinions about the most. They see him fight although he stands to
loose everything and admire his courage. They see him battle against
himself to sign a confession or tell the truth about Abigail and
respect his conviction. They see him become almost a martyr or tragic
hero as he dies for his belief in the truth and his pride in his name.
These things add drama, excitement, structure and interest to the plot
of the Crucible. He has a fatal flaw, whether it be his pride,
attraction to Abigail or trust in Elizabeth, but this means the
audience can relate to him. The Crucible is a story of Proctor’s
personal tragedy but it also a story of the Salem witch hunt, and of
McCarthyism. Miller strikes a balance between these things to get the
plot which makes up the Crucible.

Madness and Insanity in Shakespeare’s Hamlet – Hamlet’s Sanity

Hamlet’s Sanity         Hamlet is able to make smart remarks to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, comparing then
to sponges, “When he (Claudius) needs what you have gleaned, it is but squeezing
you and, sponge, you shall be dry again,” (pg 98, 20).  This is random and
unexpected, as many of his actions, but the comparison makes sense; Rosencrantz
and Guildenstern soak up all the kings favors, only to become dry again after
they mop up the King’s mess (spying on Hamlet, and getting Polonius’s body). Later, with Claudius, Hamlet tells how lowly a king can be by saying, “A man
(beggar) may fish with the worm that hath eat of a king, and eat of the fish
that hath fed of that worm,” (pg 99, 29).  This also makes sense, and is not
quite as random; when Hamlet confronts Claudius, and the king asks where Polonius
is, Hamlet immediatly begins the comparison by telling Claudius that Polonuis
is at supper (the worms are eating him for supper, and so on).  This proves
that Hamlet had some kind of planning for this  degrading comment, and that his  thoughts are not scattered and he is able to stay focused.
There is a question of what being insane really is.  Since it is agreeable that Ophelia
was crazy, it’s possible to use her as a guide to make this argument valid. Hamlet and Ophelia both shared the trait of having calculated thoughts, Ophelia’s
singing and Hamlet’s verbal attacks.  They also shared calmness before their
deaths.  But was Hamlet spraying rude remarks to everyone before he died, as
Ophelia had sung floating down the river?  No, in-fact Hamlet was the opposite
of what he was before.  If he were crazy, like Ophelia, he would have remained
hectic and random up until the time of (and after) the duel.  Hamlet, though,
was not—he even reasoned what death for him was, finishing his question of
whether life was worth living for.  Hamlet can truley be seen to be sane, and
not.  The facts that Hamlet was smart and swift thinking, and in such a reversal
of emotions (from after Polonius died) in the end, leads strongly to the opinion
that Hamlet was not insane.

Who do you think is the hero of this novel Gatsby, or Nick Carraway?

Who do you think is the hero of this novel Gatsby, or Nick Carraway?
Give full reasons for your choiceHowever even if this novel is written about Gatsby, we should not
underestimate the role of Nick. It is only through him that we get to
meet Gatsby; he is the one who is making him “great” for us. Even
though he is trying not to be a biased narrator, we like Gatsby when
Nick likes him; we have a slight dislike for him when Nick dislikes
him.Nick is more of a spectator than an actor in the story. He is just an
observer that through him we get to know the other main characters of
the novel. He remains apart from the romance of Daisy and Gatsby even
though he is the one that brought them together. He is distanced from
the other characters so he could be able to write objectively about
them. This fact creates us a complicated point of view, as in the one
hand is not a biased narrator and in the other hand his opinions
influence ours. This makes us to extend our judgment not only in
Gatsby but also in the narrator Nick.Nick is also another great mystery in the book. We know very little
about him and as the puzzle of the history of Gatsby is solved; our
interest in knowing Nick’s story gets even more intense.His narration is rich in detail and it is realistic. Even if he
sometimes gets carried away with the events, “I was enjoying myself
now. I had taken two finger bowls of champagne and the scene had
changed before my eyes into something significant, elemental, and
profound”, this make it seem more realistic in our eyes because
everybody gets carried away sometimes.However even if sometimes we are confused about his personality, we
are sure that we can trust him. Even if Jordanaccuses him of not being
such an “honest, straightforward person”, we believe that after all
Nick is the most sincere person in the novel. This is a comforting
thought and a relief after all the cheating and dishonesty that goes
on in the novel.However the main hero of the novel is not Nick but Gatsby. Through his
story we get to know the inner feelings of a wounded person that would
give everything for having Daisy or every Daisy that would come in his
way. He would give anything for getting what Daisy represented for
him. He thought that he could have Daisy if he could fit in the social
class and he thought that he could do that by making money. He even
“bought that house so that Daisy would be just across the bay”. But
“they were careless people, Tom and Daisy – they smashed up things and
creatures”. Even though he could do anything for her, Daisy little
could she care and that make us feel even angrier for her. This makes
us feel even sorrier in the end when finally “the party is over”. We
feel very sad for a man that sacrificed his life for just an
“unattainable” dream.The reader gets the story step by step and through the narrations of
Nick. Nick is the tool for us to get to know everybody in the story
and connect with the characters. However I want to underline that in
my opinion Gatsby is the hero, Nick just remains the other great
mystery of the book.

My Interest in Law

My Interest in LawMy interest in reading law stems from an early exposure to the subject.  I sometimes accompanied my grandfather to courts and was quick to later on imitate the inquisitive, argumentative, critical as well as negotiating characters of lawyers.   Eventually, I decided I would become one.  My chosen subjects have always reflected this decision and in my years 10 and 11, I won the Best-in-History award, while being highly competitive in English Language and Literature, Government and Religious Studies.  At my A-Level stage, I thoroughly enjoy the research, analysis and writing that goes on in my chosen subjects of English Literature, Economics & Business Studies, Politics and Theology, most especially the latter two. Securing a work experience placement with Withers Solicitors, London enabled me to interact with solicitors and gain an insight to various aspects of the legal profession such as will drafting and family law.  This increased my anxiety to study law.  During my last spring holiday (April 2001), I got a job working as a receptionist in Chalk Hill Heath Centre, Wembley, London.  Apart from the dignity of labour I gained from doing the work, the experience of working with a wide variety of patients including the obdurate has improved my communication skills. My participation in the Model United Nations (MUN) conferences run by some schools in Europe and the USA has improved my debating skills, public speaking and helped me to cultivate the habit of researching as well as negotiating.  These qualities are essential in the study and practise of law.  In the Belfast 2001 MUN conference my delegation received the ‘Commended Delegation’ award due to our hardwork and team effort.  With my reputation as a morally upright student, I was appointed to the highly responsible post of Anglican Chapel Prefect of my school from May 1999 to June 2000 and my task included mobilising students to attend worship on Sundays, as well as assisting other school prefects to run the school. My good communication skills helped to elect me to the office of the Secretary-General of the Photography Club from September 1999 to June 2000, during which I was responsible for minuting meetings and organising club activities. I co-organised a successful Afro-Caribbean Night at my school last May by which we raised seven hundred pounds for Hope and Homes Charity Organisation.  At present I am a House Prefect.  These various positions of responsibility have sharpened my leadership and organisation skills, as well as helped me develop team spirit – a necessity in life.  Nevertheless, I enjoy working independently. In my leisure time I occupy myself by playing sports, reading, watching films, listening to music or meeting with friends as they help to relax my mind. My favourite sports are table tennis and swimming and my favourite author is George Orwell.  My wide travelling has enabled me to appreciate the diversity in the world. I look forward to the prospect of studying law at your university because I am sure that I can make a success of the course.  With all due modesty, I know that I am one of the law students you are looking for because of my analytical and negotiating skills, work experience, team as well as individualistic spirit, intelligence, ability to focus and cope with pressure andgood sense of humour.

Intimations of Immortality

Intimations of ImmortalityStanza #1:There was a time when all of nature seemed dreamlike to me. That time is gone.Stanza #2:I still see nature in all her splendor, but I feel that I do not appreciate it as much as I used to.Stanza #3:While I was listening to the birds sing and watching the lambs play, I was suddenly struck with grief. However, that feeling has gone, and I am now enjoying it all again.Stanza #4:It would be wrong of me to be sad with so much beauty surrounding me, yet I do feel that something is missing. Where has the glory gone?Stanza #5:As children, we remember the heavenly brilliance of nature. The challenges of growing up cause us to forget that brilliance.Stanza #6:Everything that happens to us as we mature causes us to forget the heaven that we were born into.Stanza #7:This six-year-old child is playing by himself, imitating life as a “wedding or a festival,” a “mourning or a funeral;” before long he will realize that real-life is not really as he imagines. Life could, however, be an imitation of sorts.Stanza #8:Why child, when you have all of life’s answers before you, do you insist on playing and ignoring life’s strives? Do you not realize that soon you will be old and forget the true pleasures of life?Stanza #9:By remembering my childhood and the joys that it held, I can rekindle the blissful feelings that I once had for life. Through my memories of childhood, I can experience the true joy of life.Stanza #10:I call on all of nature to rejoice in the splendor before us. While I can only recall some of nature’s secrets, I find solace in the fact that I will gain wisdom as I grow older.Stanza #11:Because of all that I have experienced, I can appreciate nature’s beauty.Bibliography:Norton Anthology of English Literature

How Literature Mirrors the Era

How Literature Mirrors the EraThe Anglo-Saxon era was focused on blood, war, tragedy, heroism, and evilness. William the Conquerer was making his invasions around the world; this set the world to attention, making war and violence a common spectacle.Beowulf is one of the oldest known literary records of the beginnings of the English language. Beowulf is about a warrior who engages in a quest to help King Rothgar defeat a monster named Grendel. Throughout the whole story Beowulf is on a mission to destroy Grendel, and Grendel is out to murder and destroy life. In the end Beowulf is a hero and all rejoice. This reflects the Anglo-Saxon era in that there is a war between Grendel and Beowulf which end in death, also Grendel is a monster who is man eating which has to do with the violence and blood during this time.Macbeth, by William Shakespeare is a conflicting story between Macbeth and Macbeth’s conscience. Macbeth is thirsty for power and greed and he will do anything to get what he wants, including killing the king. Macbeth’s conscience thoughout the play is trying to cope with the horrendous deeds he has done. The play ends with a war between Macbeth and Macduff. Macbeth is a mirror of the Anglo-Saxon era because of all the murders in the play, Macbeth murders people when they get in his way of earning what he thinks he deserves, such as the King and Banquo. The war at the end of the play shows how if someone in the Anglo-Saxon time period won a battle they were looked upon a god-like and very heroic.Michael Crichton’s Eaters of the Dead, is about Viking adventures and invasions. The Vikings were almost barbaric in their ways, they set out to destroy towns and crush life. They killed anyone who gave them any trouble and they were always engaged in war. This story reflects Anglo-Saxon times in that there was always war, and many invasions during that time. Everyone at that time was very violent especially the men, Eaters of the Dead is a very good example of what the Anlgo-Saxon times might have been like.The Middle Ages was a time when people focused their life on the church, and the revival of their spirit. It was also a time when the church had very corrupt ways.
Geoffery Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, pokes fun of the corrupt churches. In the prologue of the Canterbury Tales Chaucer describes each character in his story. When it comes to the church associated characters Chaucer takes great care to show exactly what was wrong with each of them, the Prioress was described as plump, the Monk as a monastery outsider, the Summoner as a crook, and so on. The tales take place while the characters are out on a pilgrimage, which is a religious hike. The Canterbury Tales, represents the Middle ages because it’s main focus is the church and all of the characters are church going or church associated people.Paradise Lost, by John Milton, is an explanation of why man was banished from Paradise (Eden). Throughout the book there are explanations of why god did what he did and what happened in both heaven and hell. Paradise Lost is just like a laymen’s terms version of the Old Testament that is why it reflects the Middle Ages.During the Renaissance, the focus was on art, happiness, love, prosperity and anti-Semitism.The Merchant of Venice, by William Shakespeare, shows the time of the Renaissance very well. First of all there is a wealthy man who likes to flaunt and show off all his money, there is a Jew who nobody likes and is very prejudice towards, also there are love stories between three different couples throughout the play. All of these represent what the Renaissance is all about.That is why the literature during the Anglo-Saxon, Middle Ages, and The Renaissance all mirror their eras.

Victorian Schoolmistress

Victorian SchoolmistressAppearance of Schoolhouse
The focus on the appearance of the schoolhouse was mainly limited to the private schoolhouses, which wanted to attract the best students. Schoolmistresses decorated the school so that they looked relatively well-off, and conducted the school to give the appearance of a family/domestic setting. Unlike the public schoolhouses, the private schoolhouses aimed to attract a small number of the best students, whereas the public schools wished to attract enough students so as to collect an adequate amount of money for their salaries and other extraneous fees (Pederson 142).Salaries
Generally, the pay was rather poor, barely ever being more than £300 per annum. From this, lodging fees, repairs, taxes, and payment to assistants was removed, causing the profit for personal expenses to be well below £100. Their salaries were garnered from the payments of their students. At the best boarding schools, £70 for boarders and £20 for day students was average. Conversely, in the poorer boarding schools, £3 to £10 was the average (Pederson 141).Public vs. Private School Lessons
The public schools looked towards the public sphere for inspiration and trained students to be productive in the world and focused on their academics. On the other hand, the private schools tended to celebrate a life of leisure in the private setting. However, in public and private schools, music, French, arithmetic, writing and reading were the core subjects. Greater emphasis was put on domestic subjects and lessons were only taught to the point of being satisfactory in a social setting (Pederson 138, 144).The Typical Day in a Girls’ Boarding School7:00 – Wake Up
8:00 – Breakfast is Ready, Usually Including Meat
9:00 or 9:30 – Day’s Studies Begin
Noon – Girls Take a Walk After Having a Slice of Bread and Butter
Dinner Follows the Walk
3:00 – Studies Continue Until 5:00 or 5:30
After 7:00 – The Times and Other Topics are Discussed
(Schoolmistress)Works CitedJackson, Lee. “Elementary Teaching.” Dictionary of Victorian London. 2001. 12 Mar. 2005. <http://www.victorianlondon.org/>.Pederson, Joyce. “Schoolmistresses and Headmistresses: Elites and Education and Nineteenth-Century England.” The Journal of British Studies 15 (1975): 135-162. JSTOR. 11 Mar. 2005. <http://www.jstor.org>.“School house.” Willen Through the Ages. 12 Mar. 2005. <http://clutch.open.ac.uk/schools/willen99/home.html>.Schoolmistress. “Girls at School.” The London Times 20 Sep. 1876, national ed.: 12. Key Resources for English Literature. 11 Mar. 2005. <http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/cm/english/>.

Reread the exchange between Charlotte and Elizabeth about marriage.

Reread the exchange between Charlotte and Elizabeth about marriage.
How does this section of the novel provide a foundation for the
novel’s central messages regarding marriage?Charlotte’s view is that she will marry Collins because she needs to
hold her situation financially and socially, and not because of any
mutual feeling of love between them. She thinks that it is neither
necessary nor beneficial to know some one well or to particularly like
some one before you marry them. ‘Happiness in marriage is entirely a
matter of chance’ says Charlotte. She then also says ‘I should think
she has a good a chance of happiness as if she were to be studying his
character for a twelvemonth’. By saying this, she is implying that it
doesn’t matter how well you know someone before you marry him or her,
as it will make no difference to whether or not it is a happy
marriage. Charlotte even goes a step further and states that people
‘always continue to grow sufficiently unlike afterwards to have their
share of vexation’ meaning that it might be worse to know someone well
before marriage. This interpretation is affirmed when Charlotte says
‘It is better to know as little as possible of the defects of the
person you are going to spend the rest of your life with’.The view that Charlotte puts forward in Chapter six was a common
opinion held in the late 18th and early 19th century. Many women who
were part of the middle classes were often not sent to school and so
didn’t usually learn a skill that they could use to make a living.
Consequently, as they were women and so were often not left much, if
any, inheritance when their parents died, women found that they must
marry in order to have money and to keep their place in society.
Charlotte takes advantage of her situation to marry purely for money
and not for love, this is what many women did and what society
encouraged.Elizabeth’s views are a contrast to Charlotte’s. Elizabeth believes
that to have happiness in marriage there must be love. When Charlotte
says ‘happiness in marriage is entirely a matter of chance’ Elizabeth
responds and says of Charlotte’s idea ‘you know it is not sound’.
Elizabeth’s views on marriage are very much her own and are not
influenced by society or those around her, not even her own mother can
persuade her to marry against her morals. This is shown by her
refusal of Collins even though her marriage to him would give her
financial security, a good house for the rest of her life and would of
satisfied her mother.Both Elizabeth’s and Charlotte’s view on marriage are the foundation
of their marriages and of other marriages in the novel. Jane and Mr.
Bingley’s marriage is an ‘ideal’ marriage as is said in chapter 55,
there marriage is ‘rationally founded’ based on ‘excellent
understanding’ and ‘general similarity of feeling’. Elizabeth
approved of this marriage because she thought that they married for
the right reasons. Lydia and Mr. Wickham get married because they
have to, to save Lydia’s family’s pride. The marriage between Lydia
and Wickham was mercenary, Darcy paid Wickham to marry Lydia to stop
here disgracing herself and her family. In the novel, it is easy to
see which marriages are the happiest, Elizabeth and Darcy, and Jane
and Bingly. Whereas others Mr. Collins and Charlotte are not so much
as unhappy but more discontented as the couple don’t appear to get on
or have any mutual feelings.The moral and philosophical values behind Elizabeth and Charlotte’s
views are, like their beliefs, totally in contrast. Elizabeth’s
morals are that you should not marry some one for financial gain
whereas Charlotte sees money as a just reason to marry someone.
Elizabeth also believes that you should only marry someone with whom
you are truly in love and it would be against her morals to marry some
one for any other reason.In the novel, Jane Austen manages to draw in the reader and make the
reader start to question their own morals about marriage and those of
the characters in the book. The novel focuses on social pressures,
self-preservation and emotional feelings. Charlotte and Elizabeth
arrive at different opinions. Neither is right or wrong but the
discussion illustrates the centrality of marriage to Jane Austen’s

To Sir with Love: discourses, positions and relationships

Research PaperIdentify and discuss professional issues in education evident in a film or a piece of young people’s literature in which a teacher plays a fairly cental role.The film To Sir, with Love (hereafter ‘the film’), centres around three interlinked individualist assumptions: that social and economic advancement is sure if one tries hard enough (meritocracy), that race and class are no barrier to social and economic advancement (‘equal playing-field’), and that innate talent rather than learnt skill, plays the most crucial role in a person’s success (giftedness). These will be referred to in turn below.
In contrast to this individualist stance, E.R.Braithwaite describes early in his book To Sir, With Love (hereafter ‘the book’) how his race had mitigated against his acquiring an engineering position for several years, despite excellent qualifications. He reacts to these difficulties by presenting his students with many examples of the interdependency of humanity: the brotherhood of Man.
In the film, Mark Thackeray too, continues to apply for engineering positions while teaching at North Quay Secondary.. Only at the end of the film is he finally offered the lowly post of ‘Third Assistant Engineer’ by a firm outside of London, despite his ‘astounding qualifications’, but paradoxically it seems this event is meant to emphasise the recurrent theme of the cinematic retelling of this story: that ‘Anything’ is possible with enough persistence and effort.
Commercial film- making is driven by economic interests, which aim to reinforce certain dominant worldviews to ensure box office success. Perhaps for this reason, this film emphasises the popular ‘myth of meritocracy’ (Mills, 2004) at the expense of taking up the more problematic framing of issues offered in Braithwaites own account.
The character of the film school’s Head, Mr Florian, for example, is cast in almost direct opposition to that of the actual Alexander Florian, Head of Greenslade Secondary School, who was in fact determinedly democratic. For reasons of dramatic effect however, the film casts Mr Florian (of North Quay Secondary) as a well meaning but confused man, lacking the courage of his conviction. During his initial interview with Thackeray, he points out that
Most of our children are rejects from other schools. We have to help them as best we can. We have to teach them what we can and as much as we can.He does not seem to have any particular philosophy about how this might be achieved as he continues:
     From the moment you accept this appointment, you’ll be entirely on your own.
     […] Success or failure will depend entirely on you.It seems that this Head extends the idea of meritocracy to teachers’ success in the classroom.
While Greenslades Head also uses these latter words, the context in which he uses them makes his philosophical position unmistakably clear: rather than calling his students ‘rejects’, he explains that “the majority of our children could be generally classified as difficult’, and that this difficulty seems based on the “many pressures and tensions” which they face daily and “which tend to inhibit their spiritual, moral and physical growth”(p.30). His comment that ‘success or failure depend entirely on you’ needs to be interpreted in the light of his advice that “by understanding those pressures we will help them”. In other words, success in the classroom according to this Head will depend upon how involved the teacher is prepared to become with his students.
Several of the other members of staff are also portrayed in simplistic terms by the film: Art teacher Vivienne Clintridge gives Thackeray some early advice, stating that because there is no corporal punishment at the school “they (the students) have us at a great disadvantage”. She comments that while the staff ‘basically’ agree with ‘the Old Man’; he is ‘safe in his office’.
Don’t take any nonsense form these little tykes. […] If you don’t solve them, they’ll break you and damned quickly.Another male teacher, Weston, comments later that: “What they (the students) need is a bloody good hiding.” By contrast, the book describes how teacher Mrs Dale-Evans achieves “near perfection without recourse to beatings” in her classes, (p.26) as well as the “immediate hush” in assembly as the Head rises to speak”(p.27), and the attentive manner in which the assembly listened to selected music played for them. This seems to attest to quite a respectful and orderly atmosphere in the school on the whole.As in other films of this genre (Gale & Densmore, 2000), social and economic advancement are presented as a matter of choice, determination and hard work, and not as determined by ‘structural arrangements in society …designed to ensure that groups of individuals have differential access to social and material goods on the basis of their social and physical differences” (Gale & Densmore, 2000). This is despite Thackerays lack of success in securing a ‘proper job’. In fact the film downplays the actual reasons for Thackerays long-term unemployment, which are analysed critically in Braithwaites book as being the result of racism. Having ‘grown up British in every way’, Braithwaite had believed in ‘the ideal of the British Way of Life ‘ (p.40/41). The treatment he received at a number of interviews for promising positions, initially offered in ‘flowering letters’, prompted him to re-assess his liberal view of British society:
I am a Negro, and what had happened to me at that interview constituted, to my mind, a betrayal of faith. I had believed in freedom, in the freedom to live in the kind of dwelling I wanted, provided I was able and willing to pay the price; and in the freedom to work at the kind of profession for which I was qualified, without reference to my racial or religious origins. All the big talk of Democracy and Human Rights seemed as spurious as the glib guarantees with which some manufactures underwrite their products in the confident hope that they will never be challenged. (p.43)Braithwaite, as a well- educated middle-class Black man who not only has a university education but also has been an officer in the RAF, has to come to terms with the failure of ‘meritocracy’ in his life. The persona of Thackeray, on the other hand, is designed to give credibility to the idea. Thackeray, cast as ‘poor boy makes good’, reveals in conversation with his students that he used to be ‘very very poor’ but that ‘there was something in [him] wanting an education’. He describes his previous menial jobs commenting that becoming ‘posh’ (as one student puts it) “wasn’t easy.” Caricaturing his native accent, Thackeray continues
When I was your age, I used a patois, a kind of simple English (provides example). The point is: if you’re prepared to work hard you can do almost anything. You can get any job you want. You can even change your speech if you want to.This binary contrast (poor, uneducated boy from marginalised social group vs. ‘posh’ school teacher) is a repeated theme of the film and articulated throughout by Thackerays students in examples such as: “I don’t understand you sir, I mean you’re a toff…and you ain’t” or “Blimey…well, you’re like us but you’re not.”The films emphasises ‘giftedness’ not only by glossing over Braithwaite’s struggles as a Black man in a racist environment, it also presents the challenges at North Quay as greater and the current teaching staff as less able than was actually the case. In comparison to long-time and trained staff, Thackeray is presented as more innovative (as compared to the Head, who comments at one stage: “The ‘adult approach’ has failed it seems.”), fairer (compared to Weston who relies on coercive behaviour management), more resilient (as compared to Hackman, Thackerays predecessor), more courageous (as compared to Gillian Blanchet who confesses to being scared of the pupils), and finally more successful than his colleagues. This is not due to his extensive experience or superior training and skill, but simply to his ‘talent’.Having ‘put all his energies’ into getting an education, Thackeray begins teaching at North Quay Secondary. He finds his senior class rude, defiant and disinterested. Despite his best attempts to communicate with the class, the students leave him in no doubt that they want none of what he can offer.Thackerays Pedagogy
According to Education Queensland’s Professional Standards for Teachers, teaching and learning should be ‘student centred’ (Introduction, 2002). While Thackerays pedagogy seems to become student centred at a surface level, his actions both initially and later are actually aimed at solving the problems he is experiencing with his class, rather than those his students are experiencing. The very first lesson, in which Thackeray attempts to assess his students proficiency in reading and arithmetic with widely varying results, ends in a bout of sarcasm (“It is encouraging that you have a sense of humour: it seems you know so little and are so easily amused that I can look forward to a very happy time.”) and a resigned instruction to “now copy down the following tables”. This is clearly anything but a ‘flexible and innovative learning experience’ as required by EQ (para.1). The instruction is however followed willingly by the students, who show a preference to being left alone, rather than intellectually challenged.
In his second lesson, Thackeray attempts to link arithmetic with what he presumes is ‘real life’ for these students: “Now most of you girls help your mothers with the shopping…” This obvious exclusion of the male members of the class (and one of numerous instances of sexist scripting) did not have an engaging effect on the girls either. While the subject matter may connect to the ‘world beyond the school’ EQ para.4), the strategy is far from ‘inclusive’ (EQ para.5.2). As a result perhaps, he is interrupted with a variety of purposeful attempts to disrupt, mainly from the male members of the class: from slamming doors to unsteady desks and the accompanying commentary. Again, the ‘lesson’ ends in: ‘Do exercises 4,5, and 6. – very quietly’, and again the students comply. Over the following days, as Thackeray persists with these methods, the pupils raise the stakes as their misbehaviour increases to include sawing a leg off his desk, water bombing him on arrival and deliberately swearing in response to questions. The script seems designed to paint an initial picture of Thackeray as a ‘traditional chalk- and talk teacher’, failing with challenging but intelligent students.
     As the film script is painting the students as ‘out of control’, ‘devils’ (script) and ‘punks’ (video sleeve), the teachers as surviving, but ineffectual, and the Head (Florian) as well-meaning but slightly directionless and ‘safe in his office’, the scene is set for the hero-teacher (Thackeray) to discover the ‘magic bullet’: It is Day six for Thackeray, and it begins with a water bomb dropped from a high window into the courtyard, destined for, but narrowly missing him on arrival. On his way to the classroom he encounters Mr Florian who asks a none- too- inquisitive “How goes it?” and moves quickly on. As Thackeray opens his door, he is greeted with an overwhelming stench resulting from a used sanitary napkin, which one of the students has tried to incinerate on the hearth.
For the first time in the film, the quiet acoustic allusions to Lulu’s hit song ‘To Sir, with Love’ change to dramatic orchestral music punctuated by insistent percussion. Taking one look at the offending object, Thackeray tears around and shouts at the congregated boys: “Out!” He lends further emphasis to his instruction by physically and quickly moving towards Denham who is brash enough to ask “What’s the matter Mr Thackeray?”. This is the first of a number of instances in the film in which Thackeray uses physical movement, voice and proximity to ‘control’ his students. Further examples include slamming a desk lid so that it only narrowly and by good fortune misses the hands of Denham, adopting a black stick-like object as a daily prop, continually slapping it into his hands, as well as repeatedly physically taking sunglasses off a particular student’s face. The above behaviour does not ‘create a safe and supportive learning environment’ (EQ para.9). In fact it is an important reason why Thackerays ‘answer’, (i.e. treating his students like adults), does not work for him the way it did for Braithwaite, whose commitment to mutual respect was more than cosmetic and extended to ‘implementing classroom management strategies which enable [d] students to take responsibility for their [own] behaviour.’ (EQ para.9.3) The BTRs document further points out the importance of the need for teacher-student relationships to have an ethical character (Board of TeacherRegistration, 2002), which implies the lack of coercive control.
In the first of the above instances, Denham correctly interprets Thackerays closing- in as a threat and the boys leave the classroom in a hurry. Now the teacher lets go of a tirade of abuse directed at the girls of the class, most of which has very little to do with the incident at hand:
I am sick of your foul language, your crude behaviour and sluttish manner (drum roll). There are certain things a decent woman keeps private. Only a filthy slut would have done this. And those who stood around and allowed it are just as bad. I don’t care who’s responsible, you are all to blame.
When I return I expect the room to be aired and this filthy object to have been removed. If you must play these filthy games, do them in your homes and not in my classroom. (glares – music swells – exits with a door slam).Thackeray retreats to the staffroom again leaving his class unsupervised, and (to quieter music) confides in colleague Gillian Blanchet that he has lost his temper: “Those kids are devils incarnate, I’ve tried everything…(drum roll and silence) – Thackeray suddenly realises he has been thinking of his students as ‘kids’. He repeats the word several times, each time accompanied by another drum roll. The film’s script, (more than a little influenced by 1960’s social revolution themes), has arrived at its simplistic conclusion it seems: ‘The problem with schools these days is that they treat young adults like kids. Afford them the respect they are due and everything else will work out eventually.’ As the music changes again to a relaxed backbeat, and Miss Blanchet looks at him in puzzled confusion, Thackeray moves back into his classroom. He has found the answer. According to the video sleeve, he ‘meets the challenge by treating the students as young adults who will soon enter a world where they must stand or fall on their own’. In fact, his aim is to ‘normalize’ (Gale & Densmore, 2000)them by setting and requiring certain ‘adult’ standards, the legitimacy of which is not questioned in the film, despite its superficial overtures to ‘social revolution’.
     Back in his classroom Thackerays first action is to collect a, presumably representative, stack of textbooks from his desk and drop them demonstratively into the waste paper basket. The background music stops as the books hit with a thud. He announces to the students that: “Those are out. Those are useless to you. You are not children. You will be treated as adults from now on.” Thackeray is perhaps trying to align the ‘class cultural habits’ of his students to the ‘demands of the education system’, which is, according to Bourdieu and Passeron (1979:22, cited in Mills, 2004) the root of scholastic success. In doing so, I feel that he is sending a number of unhelpful messages to the class. Firstly, he seems to assume that adults do not need books, that learning is just ‘for kids’. This attitude is unlikely to inspire a ‘commitment to lifelong learning’, a commitment to which is seen as a desirable outcome for students in EQ’s Standards Document (Introduction). Secondly, while seemingly emancipating his students from a prescribed curriculum, it is still the teacher here who decides what is appropriate and what is not.
When the students ask what “we will talk about”, Thackeray lists “Love, life, survival, death, sex, rebellion’, giving a clear direction to the discussion, and then adding:’ – anything you want.” Anything a student wants, it seems as long as it is not found in a book. Given the fact that at least one student in his class (Pamela Dare) was seen earlier in the film to enjoy both poetry and prose reading, I believe that far from emancipating the students, Thackerays approach to curriculum is stereotyping them.
Earlier in the film, Thackeray had remarked to his colleagues that he ‘felt sorry’ for his class as “most of them can barely read”. There is nothing in his pedagogy that suggests he is aware of the importance of literacy for a person who is interested in a number of the above topics, particularly (economic) survival and (social) rebellion. Both the BTR (standard 2) and EQ (para 2) recognise the important place literacies-strategies should occupy in a teachers pedagogy.Centring around a simplistic notion of ‘survival’, the curriculum now includes ‘make-up lessons’ for the girls (to be provided by Miss Blanchet), presumably because, according to Thackeray, “the competition for men on the outside is rough”, and “salad preparation”, despite the fact that a relevant form of Domestic Science is already available at the school. While these inclusions may have been attempts to “construct relevant learning experiences that connect with the world beyond the school”, as required by Education Queensland’s Professional Standards for Teachers, they do in fact not ‘build on students prior knowledge, so much as replicate them. It is ridiculous to assume that students growing up in the colourful multi-cultural, multi-ethnic bustle that is London’s East End would not have ample opportunity to learn about ‘make-up’ and ‘cooking’ through real-life example.
     By contrast, the above watershed incident formed E.R. Braithwaite’s resolve to “take firm action to set [his] class in order”, even at the “risk of contravening the Head’s views” (p.72). For Braithwaite, this is the place where he first really commits to his job, where his attitude changes from “this will not be a labour of love” (p.32) to his owning the classroom as his. He also appeals to his students as young adults, but links this with the statement that as such “certain higher standards are expected of us.” (p.72) To elicit the kind of courtesy he would like to see in his classroom, Braithwaite challenges his students by setting a strong example and providing intellectual challenge (as recommended in EQ para.3/ BTR standard 3):I…applied myself enthusiastically to each subject, blending informality with a correctness of expression, which I hoped would in turn help them to improve their own speech. I never spoke down to them; if they did not quite understand every word I used, the meaning was sufficiently clear in context and I encouraged them to ask for an explanation any time they felt unsure. (p.76)He seemed to realise that literacy for his senior class needed to be not only “knowing about language’ but also ‘knowing through language’.(Lankshear, 1997)
Braithwaite encourages their self-esteem (EQ para.8) by focusing on what they can do (“I believe you have it in you to be a fine class, the best this school has ever known!” p.76), rather than on what they are lacking as Thackeray does on the film. Attempting to motivate the girls to improve their deportment, he insults them: “ No man likes a slut for long and only the worst type will marry one.” while the boys do not fare much better: “I’ve seen garbage collectors who are cleaner.”
Braithwaite’s approach to curriculum and pedagogy is more balanced. He does not prescribe, nor does he simply let the students chose what they want to do. As Carmen Mills has observed (2004),
…often, students and community members are not in possession of the cultural capital of the dominant and therefore do not know the kind of knowledges that are needed to succeed in broader society.Having had extensive experience as a member of a marginalised gorup in ‘broader society’, Braithwaite uses the narrative of his life to engage students’ interest and open possibilities of thought for them. These learning experiences ‘connect to the world beyond school’ (EQ para.4), in a significant and important way, rather than on the superficial and rather primary level of ‘going shopping’. Moira Joseph testifies to this cross-curricular and carefully integrated approach during the half-yearly Students’ Council report, saying that their lessons had all had a particular bias towards the brotherhood of Mankind, and that they had been learning through each subject how all mankind was interdependent in spite of geographical location and differences in colour, race and creeds. Braithwaite was thus able to integrate ideas and concepts
across curriculum areas.
Rather than do away with books and narrowing the curriculum, he extends it, using the interest an old skeleton receives as an opportunity to introduce ‘physiology’ for example. Textbooks continued to be part of Braithwaite’s pedagogy, but they were now subjected to critical readings:
Our lessons were very informal, each one a kind of discussion in which I gave them a lead and encouraged them to express their views against the general background of textbook information (p.99)In discussion, he both encouraged his students to support their arguments with ‘quotations from these school textbooks’, as well as to question and perhaps ‘disagree with what they had read’ (p.101), in doing so he fulfils the BTRs standard 3.4: ‘promoting higher-order thinking and critical enquiry’.
Far from ignoring the cultural capital of the dominant, perhaps bourgeois England beyond the East End, he opened cognitive and literal doors for his students, taking them not only to the Victoria and Albert Museum (an event also depicted in the film), but also to Saddlers Wells to see the ballet, the theatre to see Hamlet and Wembley stadium to see the Harlem Globetrotters. The outings were organised and financed by the students themselves, having worked out the cost and ways to spread the collection of monies to disadvantage no one (a good example perhaps of an ‘inclusive and participatory learning experience”, EQs paragraph 5). Braithwaite writes that:
On the way back, they [the students] would give full rein to their critical intelligence, and often presented new and interesting points of view on old and familiar things. They were quick to appreciate and recognise the various art forms as part of their national heritage, equally available to themselves as to all others. (p.125)Dismissing this cultural capital and teaching only that which is considered ‘appropriate’ to non-dominant groups has been described as a form of domination (Mills, 2004). While a student like Denham may not need more than a basic ability to read in the course of his job as a ‘barrow man’, he will nevertheless be much better prepared to fulfil the “duty to change the world” which film teacher Thackeray lays on his students, if he becomes as literate as possible.
Cultural critic Richard Hoggart once wrote in a Guardian Education article (2nd December 1997)
The founding principal of critical literacy…must be to develop understanding of the nature of democracy itself, of the duties it lays on us and the rights we may the claim; the two are inseparable. (cited in Meighan, 1999)
The shallow and blatant sentimentality of Thackerays exhortation to his students is clearly apparent when it is help up against a standard such as this. Far from ‘making social justice issues central’ and helping students ‘learn about the histories of the oppressed’ (Gale & Densmore, 2000), Thackeray cites ‘The Beatles’ as a good role model for social activism: “They started a huge social revolution: The dress and hairstyles they introduced are now accepted all over the world!”
     Thackeray betrays his own lack of trust in his teaching methods (or the screen writers lack of ability to appreciate that good teaching should produce students who have acquired the ‘skills and knowledge that enable them to participate in community and social decision making’ as well as the motivation to use them) by offering Denham a ‘job’ as a boxing instructor at North Quay. He bases this offer on natural talent (for boxing – not for teaching, in this instance) rather than on his faith that Denham has learnt enough in class, to engage with and hold his own in the society to which he belongs. “You have talent.”, he notes after defeating Denham in a boxing challenge during Physical Education with a punch to the solar plexus.
Denham, who is not sure he is ready to give up on his dream of having his own business, hesitates, and Thackeray leaves him with “ Good luck with your…barrow…Denham.”, his voice dripping with derision.
The discourse of ‘innate talent’ is also played out with regard to Thackerays teaching ability. He is presented as an extraordinary teacher, yet has no previous experience or formal training as a teacher. The position, in which Thackeray is placed, particularly towards the end of the film, is almost Messianic. He has no reason to stay after his class graduates. A new engineering job, far away from East London, is beckoning: he has even been sent the fare to go. During the scenes of the graduation celebration however, his colleagues appeal to him to stay. Even Weston, who had originally objected to Thackerays introduction of ‘suburban formalities’ into his classroom, now appears in much improved dress, appearing to have been won over to ‘Sir’s standards’. “You’ve done wonders”, he exclaims. “I wish I had your gift.” Miss Clintridge (who is the ‘Deputy Head’ in the film school), also exhorts:” If you must leave Mark….go to another school. You can’t waste a marvellous talent on rotten electronics.”
In summary, the film school is dominated by discourses of meritocracy, innate talent, and individualism (as opposed to interdependency). The teachers’ habitus is depicted as a shining example of individualist philosophy: by his own hard work and determination, he gained an education, a changed accent, and a position as teacher. Having an innate talent for teaching, he is presented as having ‘solved them’ (to use Vivienne Clintridges’ term), and blazed a trail, which others (such as Weston in the final scenes) will be able to follow.Professional Standards for Graduates
     Thackerays pedagogy does not compare well to the Standards for Graduates published by the BTR. Given that times were ‘new’ in the 1960’s in different but similar ways in which they are ‘new’ presently, Thackeray makes only superficial allusions to ‘social revolution’, while his pedagogy and curriculum choices betray his belief that his students will need to reactively ‘survive’, rather than learn how to proactively change their world. His emphasis on individualism precludes any in-depth treatment of issues of citizenship or diversity of cultures.
An example of the effect of individualism here is the way his class responds to the death of the White mother of a student of mixed race. When earlier this student expressed to Thackeray, his anger towards his father for having married his mother and this having caused her to be discriminated against, the scene is left unresolved. When the mother dies, no one in the class wants to attend the funeral for fear of ‘what people might say’. Thackeray himself feels he needs to take flowers and when he arrives at the house, he finds his class, assembled to the last person, is already there.
What had changed the students’ minds? The film leads us to believe that they did it ‘for Sir’, rather than because they understood more about the injustice of racism than they did previously.
     Thackeray, as an untrained and inexperienced teacher, does not possess any deep understanding of teaching and learning and as such does not pass the BTRs first standard. While Thackeray displays a fairly high level of proficiency of oral language (and we assume written language and numeracy), he does not display an understanding of theories of language pedagogy, thus not passing standard 2.
The learning opportunities created in Thackerays classroom only superficially engage all learners. Denham for one is only engaged after he is ‘beaten up’ in the gym. Thackerays script is often sexist and non-inclusive as well as prescriptive and dumbed-down in an attempt to be ‘relevant’ (as for example ‘basic salad preparation’). He does not exhibit the skills to create supportive and intellectually challenging environments to engage all learners (standard 3). The film provides a range of examples where Thackeray relationships are not ‘characterised by ethical professional practice’, while Pamela Dare’s crush in her teacher (to which he does react responsibly and ethically), acts almost like a smoke screen. Unethical behaviour includes including striking Denham, insulting students and using his physical characteristics to coerce compliance.Professional Standards for Teachers
To reach the above standards, teachers should employ student centred approaches to teaching and assessment. Thackerays approach is mostly self-centred. There is little if any evidence of students directed, or collaborative learning in his classroom, as indeed there can not be if the teacher is to be exalted as the story’s ‘hero’.
While there is some evidence of informal assessment of literacy and numeracy skills, no planning based on official policy, accumulated data or feedback is in evidence. If thought had been given to students with special learning needs, perhaps an accident, which was sustained by student Buckley when vaulting during Physical Education, might have been prevented. While it is the subject teachers responsibility to make this adjustment, it also would have impinged on Thackerays pastoral care duty to be cognoscent of the need and assure himself it was provided for (paras.1 & 7)
     As discussed above, Thackeray failed to contribute significantly to the language, literacy and numeracy development of his students (para. 2). His choice of curriculum, shallow approach to discussion and failure to critically analyse significant issues means that he was unable to construct intellectually challenging learning experiences for his students (para. 3), and that the students learning was not as relevant and valuable in terms of adding cultural capital as it could have bee if it had connected more significantly with the world beyond the school (para.4).
Thackerays language was often non-inclusive and sometimes sexist. Rather than celebrate difference, using the multi-culturalism of his classroom as a stimulus for critical discussion about social justice issues, he de-emphasised the issue, citing personal effort as being of supreme importance for advancement. In this way learning experiences were not inclusive and participatory (para. 5).
     Thackerays pastoral care was hampered by his belief that he knew exactly what his students needed. Measuring every incident by his perception of what life would be like for them ‘on the outside’, he is only able to give conflicting advice: The teacher who lets himself get carried away to the point of punching his student (as during the boxing match), tells student Potter (who almost attacked another teacher with a piece of wood):” …in a few weeks you are going to be out there. Are you going to use a weapon every time somebody makes you angry? You are supposed to be learning self-discipline here!” and then follows this reprimand a few days later with: “I believe one should fight for what one believes, provided one is absolutely sure one is absolutely right.” The notion of ‘absolutely right’ here also clashes with
Thackerays appeal to a ‘situational right’ when he answers Denhams challenges:“You was wrong about Potts” – “From his point of view, at his age, I was.” – “The girls was right about the gossip ‘n all.” – “Yes, from their point of view.”If there are a number of points of view (versions of ‘right’), which is the point Denham is supposed to learn here, how can there be an ‘absolutely right’ cause to hit someone? Thackeray does not effectively ‘support the social development and participation of young people’ (para.8).
‘Creating a safe and supportive learning environment ‘ (para.9), is however one standard which Thackeray achieves to some degree. He also seems to be prepared to establish relationships with the wider community (para.10), although not to the degree that Braithwaite did in the book.
Head Alex Florian is described in the book as ‘consider[ing] himself merely one of a team…; he was spokesman and official representative of the team, but sought no personal aggrandisement because of that.” (p.13), with an example like that ‘contributing to professional teams’ (para.11) and ‘committing to professional practice’ perhaps by participation in school governance, should have been easily achievable goals. They were at Greenslade it seems, but were given no consideration in the film school North Quay. The absence of the themes of collaborative and reflective practice, being hallmarks of professional behaviour, may lie in the films conception of teaching as based on talent rather than skill, and its intention to
glorify a popular conception of what it means to be ‘a good teacher’:
…one who can control the classroom, balancing affection with respect while ‘getting a lot of work out of students’ – is a self-made person, a unique individual with a style all his or her own rather than a professional who has assimilated a technical culture built up and codified by those who have gone before.(Huberman, Thompson, & Weiland, 1997)In my opinion Mark Thackeray could learn a lot from E.R. Braithwaite, the teacher whose account provided the inspiration for the film. While Braithwaites story is still that of an untrained teacher encountering challenging East London students, its themes are personal and communal growth rather than individual conquest.
While Gale and Densmore feel that an academic educational approach is often aligned with ‘didactic pedagogies’ (2000):78), this is not illustrated here. Thackeray, who certainly used the more ‘didactic’ pedagogies and is often seen ‘lecturing’, is also the one watering down the curriculum to the point of declaring that ‘textbooks are of no use to’ his students. If an academic emphasis in the curriculum is integrated with teaching on citizenship and social justice, this type of curriculum does not have to be
aimed solely at the individuals personal benefit (op.cit.:82), but might open doors of understanding and access to academic discourse to people who would otherwise be powerless to participate in these (Graff, 2000).
Rather than viewing school as a preparation for ‘outside’, Thackeray could have allowed the possibility that some of his students might like to further their education, now or at a later date. If Titch’s desire to attend night school while working as a bell boy in a London Hotel is to bear fruit for him, he would have benefited more from the intellectually challenging curriculum provided by Braithwaite.
Rather than more or less deciding by himself what his students needed to learn, Thackeray could have worked harder at giving each of them a voice. He seemed to expect that his whole class was destined for the same future (namely ‘survival out there’), rather than allow for their individual aspirations. As has been noted by (Lingard, Hayes, Mills, & Christie, 2003): in schools servicing disadvantaged communities, “low expectations and aspirations for student achievements are often endemic features of school cultures.”In a situation such as that of North Quay Secondary, I feel that not to make dominant knowledges easily available to these students from a minority social group constitutes their sacrifice on the altar of ideology:One of the historic problems of many progressive curriculum ideas (and one reason why they have often lacked support in non-privileged communities) is that they appear to de-emphasize the kind of official knowledge and skills that young people need to negotiate their way past the gatekeepers of socio-economic access. (Delpit, 1988)As Beane& Apple (1999) have pointed out: “our task is to reconstruct dominant knowledge and employ it to help, not hinder, those who are least privileged in this society.(p.19)” Teachers can make a difference to socially disadvantaged students by
making explicit the rules and workings of the dominant culture by examples, illustrations and narratives, in the way Braithwaite did, as well as by facilitating the acquisition of ‘school knowledge’ (Delpit, 1997). According to Bernstein (1990) the use of such pedagogies ‘weakens the relationship between social class and academic achievement’Thackeray’s vocational view of education, emphasising ‘habits of regularity, self-discipline, obedience’ (Williams 1961:162, cited in Gale & Densmore, 2000) and outward conformity to socially acceptable standards, rather than the acquisition of ‘school knowledge’. Viewing schooling simply as preparation for work creates one major problem however: “the connection between education, work and earnings are neither as direct nor as certain as assumed”(Gale & Densmore, 2000). While this argument has been used to discredit a purely academic curriculum, in a future that will increasingly feature contract work, and portfolio careers, Andy Hargreaves sees the danger of
work environments and social structures that are elitist and divisive with autonomy, discretion and more meaningful work being reserved for small … elites while the remaining workforce is relegated to work that is low-grade, part-time, temporary, unpensioned and assigned in erratic ways. (Hargreaves, 1994)The elites here will be people who have what has often been called ‘an education’, or put another way, enough knowledge of the interrelationships of issues, knowledges and social patterns operational in our global society and enough practice in how to think about, inter-relate and draw conclusions from and about these knowledges and issues. Part of this ‘education’, this ability to discern and understand the relevance of patterns, will have to be a historical perspective, a philosophical perspective and a cultural perspective. This necessitates the critical study of history, literature, sociology, economics, and philosophies.
The BTR Standards document recognises an ‘emphasis on human and social capital ‘ as a feature of New Times, and charges teachers with “providing a foundation for life in these new, complex…environments.’ (p.3). As such, teachers should be aware of the trend that
The needs of business and industry are suddenly the pre-eminent goals of our education system. Education in morality and ethics is reduced to a litany of behaviour traits. (Beane & Apple, 1999)and strive to counteract this by balancing the trend towards vocational education with aspects of an academic curriculum. To quote Gale and Densmore again:narrow thinking about what [our] economy requires or myopic job preparation has the tendency to stifle creative personal growth and socio-economic change.” (2000:84).Thackerays curriculum and pedagogy, should have given students the opportunity to think beyond themselves and their own situation. He could have made use of his experiences as a member of a marginalized group in using them as discussion and investigation starters, leading his students to draw larger scale conclusions about the inter-dependency of human beings, to “challenge the familiar and embrace the foreign, that is, to develop respect for ‘the other’(Gale & Densmore, 2000).
This type of education is not about ‘skills and competencies’ or ‘economic survival’
so much as it is about a critical understanding of the world we live in, and the ability to use that understanding to affect this world in a meaningful way. Socially just education is one that opens doors into the halls of power. Socially just education does not try to prepare or ‘shape’ students for the world as much as it aims to equip students to shape the world for themselves.ReferencesBeane, J. A., & Apple, M. W. (1999). The case for democratic schools. In M. W. Apple & J. A. Beane (Eds.), Democratic schools: Lessons from the chalk face. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Bernstein, B. (1990). The structuring of pedagogic discourse. London: Routledge.
Braithwaite, E. R. (1959). To Sir, WITH LOVE. London: The Bodley Head.
Clavell, J. (1966). To Sir, with Love (J. Clavell, Director). In J. Clavell (Producer). London: Columbia Pictures International.
Delpit, L. (1988). The silenced dialogue: Power and pedagogy in educating other people’s children. Harvard Educational Review, 58, 280-298.
Delpit, L. (1997). The silenced dialogue: Power and pedagogy in educating other people’s Children. In A. Halsey & H. Lauder & P. Brown & A. S. Wells (Eds.), Education: Culture, Economy and Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gale, T., & Densmore, K. (2000). Just Schooling: explorations in the cultural politics of teaching. Buckingham & Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Graff, G. (2000). Clueless in academe: How schooling obscures the life of the mind. New York: New York University Press.
Hargreaves, A. (1994). Chapter 4: Postmodern paradoxes: The context of change, Changing teachers, changing times: Teachers’ work and culture in the postmodern age. (pp. 47-92). London: Cassell.
Huberman, M., Thompson, C. L., & Weiland, S. (1997). Paradigmatic Accounts of Teaching Careers. In M. Huberman & C. L. Thompson & S. Weiland (Eds.), International Handbook of Teachers and Teaching (pp. 64-77). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Lankshear, C. (1997). Changing Literacies (Vol. Open University Press). Buckingham.
Lingard, B., Hayes, D., Mills, M., & Christie, P. (2003). Leading learning: Making hope practical in schools. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Meighan, R. (1999). The writing ‘s on the wall. Natural Parent, Sept/Oct.
Mills, C. (2004). Teachers as Agents of Transformation: Socially Just Curricula for Studetns with Cultural Capital in the ’wrong’ Currency. submitted to ‘Teachers and Teaching’.
Queensland, E. (2002). Professional Standards for Teachers.
Registration, B. o. T. (2002). Professional Standards for Graduates.

Looking at the opening scenes Of Mice and Men.

Looking at the opening scenes Of Mice and Men.We open in the middle of a field , for miles all you can see is red
poppies, swaying in the gentle breeze, the camera slowly starts to
rotate to show that the field is empty. As it gets back to where it
started from a young pretty girl appears, she has a dreamy expression
on her face as if she is thinking of something, we are left guessing
at what it is. She gently plucks one of the poppies out and tenderly
peels off the petal’s one by one, while she continues to do this she
starts to stroll towards the camera, the camera focuses on Lennie in
the distance.There is an expression of curiosity on his face, his eyes are very
wide and his head is a little tilted to the side. He starts to walk
very slowly towards her; still with the same curious expression upon
his face. The music is slow and calm; suddenly Lennie’s expression
changes it becomes more determined and eager to capture a closer
glimpse, his pace picks up and so does the music, it becomes more
rapid and dramatic. As soon as Lennie reaches the girl, the music
stops, she is humming and gazing up at the sky looking as if she
doesn’t have a care in the world. You can hear her breathing getting g
slow and shallow as Lennie runs his fingers through the soft material
of her dress, it slips through his fingers like water. She withdraws a
deep gasp of air.The scene changes to a farmyard full of young men , whistling and
laughing with each other; suddenly, an ear-piercing scream echoes
around the small farmyard, birds fly from all the near by trees, and
the men stop and look at each other.The scene switches back to the field with Lennie. His hand is covering
her face; tears are trickling down her cheeks. Lennie is pleading with
her to be quiet. ‘Shh, I will get in trouble!’. She bites his hand and
he snatches it away, nursing it close to his body. The farmyard
workers appear and she runs towards them crying, as she reaches them
she collapses onto the ground. Lennie jumps as George shouts from the
other end of the field, ‘RUN, NOW’. Lennie obeys and sprints towards
George, the farmyard workers gain chase. The music picks up speed,
drums beat in the background music. Lennie reaches George and they
both run together with the farmyard workers close on their heels. The
camera focuses in on one of the workers faces, his face shows ferocity
and anger. The camera focuses onto Georges face, he looks very
anxious. The camera slowly moves down towards his feet. Suddenly, they
leap into a river and hide in amongst the reeds. The music comes to a
sudden halt and all you can hear is Lennie’s heavy, irregular

Dell’s Success With Supply Chain Management

Dell Computers has created a unique structure within the IT industry. It pioneered the build-to-order computer methodology at a time when no one thought that the average customer would be willing to wait for the arrival of a computer that they have not even seen. As years have gone by, people are now logging onto the company website, designing their own computers, and anxiously awaiting arrival. However, the recent changing atmosphere in the PC market has seen the model face some difficulties. But there is no direct evidence that Dell is losing out on its market share due its IT structure and direct sales model. The Dell sales model is still effective and this paper will explore the advantages of the model along with the influence of its management structure.Dell’s corporate culture follows the corporate culture of the United States of America. Therefore, English the most prominent language spoken at the different site locations globally (Dell Inc., 2010). The global structure includes the corporate culture and bureaucratic element to maintain a standard structure on administrative procedures. Prime example is Dell’s Indian unit, which also aims to localise itself in the community with an aim to achieve globalisation. Along with maintaining the overall brand image of Dell, minor changes are made in order to appeal to the Indian customer and tap into the hard to penetrate market in India which has seen many local low cost PC distributors.Dell has certain characteristics which it effectively communicates in its business strategy that employees need to adhere to in order to be the premier runners in the market (Dell Inc., 2010). The key characteristic is Customer focus. Ensuring excellent customer service along with providing a great low priced product from the time purchase till post sales is key within Dell’s strategy.Second success characteristic is teamwork. This characteristic takes into consideration Hofstede’s view of collectiveness. Dell believes that every employee is responsible to contribution and inputs. The collective brainstorming and decision helps for more reasoning, resulting in better synergy and strategy formulation.The third characteristic Dell emphasises on is direct relationships. This involves ensuring that customer issues are resolved in a timely manner by avoiding inadequacies, at the same time maintaining open communication channels. Building effective relationships with all members through out the supply chain and also within the organisation plays a key part in Dell’s direct relations strategy.Being a global citizen is the next important characteristic. Ensuring they are adaptive to the regulations, cultures and environment in the regions that they are operating in is a major success factor. In recent times this has also taken into in consideration their corporate social responsibility and their reduction in carbon footprint. Reducing their impact on the environment has been a prime focus.3. Employee Management Structure: The two-box methodThe two-box management structure is employed as Dell’s management structure. Two executives are made in charge of a single division or segment (Kraemer, 2006). Both the managers are responsible for employee management control in their business units and maintaining effective communication between the global sites.The theory X management style is evident in Dell India (Kraemer, 2006). Employees are given little responsibility, unless they hold management level positions. Hard ethical compliances are put in place in the form of reading emails, security logging, viewing of public websites and constant call auditing at call centres to ensure that employees are adhering to fulfilling their job responsibilities.Dell has adopted a horizontal communication structure within its Indian unit by using Hofstede’s low power distance dimension. This has seen improvement in employee retention, acquisition and development with lean hierarchy. This lean hierarchy ability has been a major success factor within Dell as it enables higher efficiency in the work environment.Specific processes are also put in place to control and monitor employee performance (Dell Inc., 2010). Senior advisory groups are brought together for specific micromanagement of employees. The panel of the group comprises of vastly experienced employees who have served for a long period within the organisation. They have conference calls with employees to review on critical issues faced by Dell globally. Secondly, quarterly performance and financial reviews are undertaken to ascertain the employee’s efficiency and effectiveness. Along with employee performance, the reviews also address employee training and progress efforts to improve the employee’s competency. Dell ensures its employees are constantly improving their respective skills in order to move up its corporate ladder. Dell invests a large amount of money in education of employees in order to maintain its competitive advantage within the market.Apart from maintaining control, a key responsibility of the local management is to maintain a strong communication channel between the local departments and respective headquarters (Dell Inc., 2010). Much of this process is monitored by the internal communications department along with the managers. The communications division is dedicated to facilitate effective communication modes between various sites across the world including the outsourced segments. Dell aims to constantly maintain and improve the communication channels by upgrading their technology. Especially with the Internet revolution control is made far more convenient. All segments, in-source and outsourced, are recommended to communicate via emails using a common intranet. In a market where Dell prides itself as a cost efficient player, phone calls are far too expensive and not flexible while working with teams in different time zones.4. Revered Supply Chain ManagementDell’s success is much due its effective supply chain management which has drawn many practitioners and researches alike to study it. The market driven strategy implemented at Dell allows it to thrive is quickly changing market place (Cravens et. al., 2000). The relationship they share with their customers allows it to avoid hold on outdated inventory and allows the agile release of new technology. This creates a great competitive advantage for the organisation. The close relationships with its suppliers as well allow free flow of information through the entire supply chain resulting in delivering higher customer value (Cravens et. al., 2000).Use of several techniques in supply chain management has been credited to the success of Dell’s implementation of forward and reverse supply chain (Kumar & Craig, 2007). Mass customisation is successful due to the postponement and modularity models. Dell can ensure lean inventory levels focusing its efforts on the assembly line by a vendor managed inventory system.The entire supply chain functions with synergy because of the close relationships with the suppliers and logistic agencies Dell has established. This also allows customer information to be shared through integrated information systems improving the turn over time from receiving an order to delivery of the system. Effective demand management has helped Dell to adapt to the rapidly changing demand trends and meeting customers’ requirements.Although the above mentioned techniques are being used by other organisations, Dell is unique because it has been able to successfully integrate all these techniques while others have been focusing either one or two of them. The figure below illustrates the integration of these techniques in Dell:Source: Dell Inc.’s closed loop supply chain for computer assembly plants, 20074.1. PostponementDell does not begin to build a system until the customer has placed an order and the customer’s credit is cleared (Davies, 2005). The postponement strategy is implemented to ensure the economies of scale are maintained in this form of mass customisation allowing them to configure approx 100 million computers (Hoffman, 2005). The key advantage of this technique is it allows the customisation on a common platform and delaying it as long as possible. Using this technique, Dell keeps minimal work in progress (Gunasekaran & Ngai, 2005). The little work, coupled with the completed inventory allows Dell to adopt newer technologies that are out in the market by its suppliers faster than its competitors (Cravens et. al., 2000).4.2. ModularityModularity involves breaking down of complex products into smaller sections that can be managed autonomously (Mikkola & Skjótt-Larsen, 2004). Each of the components that constitute to a complete PC – like the hard drive, memory chips, etc, can be managed separately. This technique goes hand in hand with postponement allowing more flexibility in time delays until the final product is finished. Variations of the different configurations can be made available by assembling a standard base architecture ready to be fitted in with the desired final components (Mikkola & Skjótt-Larsen, 2004). This allows Dell to have separate suppliers, in some cases multiple suppliers, for different components. This also in turn helps its suppliers to concentrate on R&D, and allows Dell to be agile in adopting newer technologies.4.3. Vendor Management InventoryDell focuses on building its relationships with its suppliers so that the suppliers can concentrate on innovation, while Dell manages customers and supply chain (Kapuscinski, 2004). Suppliers are responsible for managing their inventory and delivery. The suppliers are updated with the forecasts to ensure the required components are delivered to the plants on time. The figure below illustrates Dell’s vendor management inventory process:Source: Dell Inc.’s closed loop supply chain for computer assembly plants, 20074.4. Supply Chain PartnershipsDell’s competitive advantage comes through its efficient management of its supply chain. The close relationship with its suppliers, service providers, logistic agencies and customers plays a vital role in the management of the supply chain. With the suppliers, Dell shares its forecasts to ensure that the appropriate components are available on time. This works in two ways – it allows the reduction in shelf time for the components and at the same time makes sure the part is available when required. A large amount of information sharing is required, which can be perceived as a disadvantage to Dell because some its suppliers are also suppliers to its competitors (Kapuscinski, 2004).4.5. Demand ManagementThe demand management technique is a vital characteristic of an efficient build to order system because of its ability to manage uncertainty (Gunasekaran & Ngai, 2005). Dell manages its uncertainty by providing reports to its sales teams on which part can take an extended lead time. Based on the inventory levels, the sales teams can position the sales opportunities accordingly (Davis, 2005). This also can be viewed as a cross selling or up selling opportunity and to break the customers standard buying pattern. Promotions can be run appropriately to ensure any parts that are lagging in the inventory to be moved out quicker. On the contrary, customer demands can be curbed incase there is a spike in the demand and strain on the plant’s capacity to assemble and ship out on time (Dell Inc., 2006).5. Dell’s ChallengesA SWOT analysis has been undertaken and the following has been discussed:The key challenge for Dell was from the combined effects of the commoditisation of desktop PCs and, the increasing use of laptops and other mobile devices as the industry’s growth drivers. This had a direct negative affect on the just-in-time and lean production system coupled with the direct sales model. It was ideal to sell computers and peripherals directly over the web when the customer wanted the optimal mix of configuration flexibility, value or money, and ease of ordering (Zimmerman, 2007). But the huge range of offerings has made these factors much less important.Customers buying preferences are constantly changing and this has also made it difficult for Dell to maintain its competitive advantage. Today, if you’re in the market for a purchase of a low cost standard PC, you could purchase one in the local IT store within an hour. Also, the thin margins these stores work-on has been a challenge for Dell to sustain.Modularity in its supply chain technique could be perceived as a challenge as well. It can be a disadvantage compared to its competitors as Dell cannot invest in cutting edge technology (Harrison, 2004).Competitors are quick to pounce on the improvements made by the suppliers that are common to both Dell and them. They are able to leverage the benefits and reduce costs due their off shore manufacturing plants unlike Dell’s localised plants.6. ConclusionDell’s success with its supply chain management as resulted in many companies trying to imitate the process for mass customisation. But Dell’s ability to integrate the various techniques such as postponement and modularity has made the organisation the pioneers in the supply chain management realm. It has taken Dell over 20 years to get to where it is. The Dell model has allowed every participant in its supply chain to concentrate onWorks CitedCravens, DW, Piercy, NF & Prentice, A 2000, ‘Developing market-driven product strategies’, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 369–388.Davies, C 2005, ‘Inside Dell’s manufacturing facility’, Supply Chain Europe, Vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 34–35.Dell Inc. ‘About Dell’, Viewed: May14, 2010. Link: www.dell.com
Dell, Inc., ‘Form 10-K: Annual Report for the fiscal year ended February 3, 2006’, Texas: Dell, IncDell online communications policy, Viewed: May14, 2010. Link: www.direct2dell.comGunasekaran, A & Ngai, E 2005, ‘Build-to-order supply chain management: a literature review and framework for development’, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 23, pp. 423–451.Harrison, C 2004, ‘Dell Lets Other FirmsWorry about Research and Development’, Knight-Ridder Tribune Business News, May 11, 2004.Hoffman, W 2005, ‘Dell Beats the Clock’, Traffic World, pp.10-12.Kapuscinski, R 2004, ‘Inventory Decisions in Dell’s Supply Chain’, Interfaces, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 191–205.Kumar, S & Craig, S 2007, ‘Dell, Inc.’s closed loop chain for computer assembly plants’, Journal of Information Knowledge Systems Management, Vol. 6, pp. 197-214.Kraemer, K.L. 2006, ‘Dell computer: Organization of a global production network’, Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations.Mikkola, J & Skjøtt-Larsen, T 2004, ‘Supply-chain integration: implications for mass customization, modularization and postponement strategies’, Production Planning & Control, Vol. 15, pp. 352–361.

Free Essays: The Weak Gods of Iliad, Odyssey and Epic of Gilgamesh

The Weak Gods of The Iliad, Odyssey and GilgameshThe Oxford English Dictionary defines god as Ò1. A being conceived as theperfect, omnipotent, omniscient ruler and originator of the universe, theprincipal object of faith and worship in monotheist religions. 2. A being ofsupernatural powers, believed in and worshipped by a people.Ó The firstdefinition reflects Modern AmericaÕs connotation of the word god. The latterrecalls the Ancient Greco-Sumerian ideal of a being greater than man. Whileboth definitions are equally valid in literature, many perceive the word only inthe first view. However, the Iliad, the Odyssey, and the Epic of Gilgameshportray gods with limits and weaknesses. The contemporary Christian god isable to demand things of his followers, readily expecting wholehearted andunquestioning obedience. This was not the case with his ancient counterparts. Rather than exacting demands upon their followers, occasionally the ancientgods were limited to requests. Often they were refused. In the Odyssey, thegoddesses Circe and Calypso both expected lifelong commitments from themighty Odysseus. Both promised great things to the hero, including godhood.Odysseus was able to refuse both goddesses. Human obstinacy beat out thewhims of goddesses. If the Protestant god were to make sexual demands uponhis followers, more than likely, he would not be refused. One could argue,though, that Odysseus did give in to the goddesses by bedding them. Alwaysthough, his focus eventually shifted to returning home and reuniting with hismortal wife. Homer portrayed a man who refused immortal beauty for true love:ÒShe is mortal after all, and you are immortal and ageless. But even so, what Iwant and all my days I pine for is to go back to my house and see my day ofhomecoming. And if some god batters me far out on the wide blue water, I willendure it, keeping a stubborn spirit within me, for I have already sufferedmuch (93-94).Ó Thus, the mortal Odysseus was able to deny the temptationsof the goddesses multiple times. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, another goddessÕwhims are put down. Ishtar, goddess of war and love becomes attracted to themighty but mortal Gilgamesh. But rather than jumping right into the sack withthe goddess, Gilgamesh thought it out and refused. Thus, a second hero alsorefuses a god. Sometimes the gods only wanted honest opinions from thehumans. In the events leading up to the Iliad; Hera, Athena, and Aphrodit allcontend to be the fairest of the goddesses, but out of prudence, no god willendorse them with the distinction. When Zeus refers them to the mortalshepherd, Paris, the three instantly cease to expect an honest opinion. Thequestion loses importance and the goddesses begin a persuasion match inwhich each goddess offers the shepherd great things. In the end, Parischooses AphroditeÕs gift, and Her and Athena become bitter and spitefulbecause of the judgment. If the goddesses were equivalent to the Christiangod, they would already have either the instant wisdom to know who was thefairest. Also, their infinite power would give them each the ability to makethemselves infinitely beautiful. Finally, the modern god would not need to askthe opinion of the human because his omniscience would already give him theopinion. The current Christian god is omnipotent and in turn never feelsthreatened by the ant-like humans below him. In contrast, the ancient godssometimes felt threatened by the strongest mortals. When this would happen,the gods would seek ways to stop the power of the humans. The very premiseof the Epic of Gilgamesh involved a hero who nearly equaled the gods. In thebeginning of the epic, the gods sought to control and/or destroy Gilgamesh bycreating an antihero to defeat him. Later, the equals join, building theinsecurities of the gods. Eventually, they gods afflict Enkidu, compatriot ofGilgamesh with a fatal disease, thereby stopping the power of the dynamicduo. In the Odyssey, Poseidon developed a grievance against Odysseus. Hesent waves to alter the course of the her and many times attempted to dashthe hero against the rocks or drown him. Always, though, Odysseus won out.Although his ship, crew, and ideals were destroyed by the wrath of Poseidon,the man could never be stopped. However, should the Christian god wish todestroy a human, he easily could with a thought. His process would not takenature or antiheroes. Simply, he could think a personÕs entire existence away.                    Perhaps the gods were justified in their fears of strong heroes. The Iliaddepicts a Diomeds who rallied against many Trojans. When Aphroditstepped in his way, he stabbed the goddess, and she fled to Olympus in orderto cry on her motherÕs lap: ÒOh my wound! Diomeds hit me! that(sic) bully!because(sic) I was trying to save my own son Aineias, my darling favourite!This war of the Trojans has become a war of Achaians against gods (64)!Ó Inresponse, her mother, Dion speaks of past things humans have done to theOlympians: ÒMake the best of it my love. Be patient even if it hurts. Many of usOlympians have had to make the best of what men do, and we have broughtmuch trouble upon one another. Ars made the best of it, when Otos andEphialts made him their prisoner Ñ they shut him up in a brazen jar forthirteen months. Indeed that would have been the end of the greedy fighter,…[had not] Herms stole him away, when he was already in great distress fromhis cruel prison (65).Ó The gods were challenged by the power of the mightiesthumans and went to great lengths to stop these people. Part of the strength ofthe god of the Bible comes from his unwavering nature. He has no internalconflict and his opinions are consistent. In contrast, when multiple godscoexist, disagreement will occur. The gods always held different opinionsregarding the treatment of humans, and there was always someone to helpthe humans escape from the godsÕ wrath. In the Iliad, the gods disagreed onwhich side should win the Trojan war. Often, they would descend to earth inorder to aid each faction. Eventually, Zeus, the s trongest god, put a stop tothe intervention. Consequently, the war continued to drag on. In turn, the godsstrived to divert Zeus. Hera developed an elaborate plan to seduce Zeus inorder to make him fall asleep. She enlisted the aid of Sleep and Aphrodit.Zeus fell to slumber, and the gods were able to further influence the war. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the gods contrived to destroy humanity because oftheir inconvenient dispositions. Like in the Bible, a flood was sent to destroythe bulk of humanity. But in the Epic of Gilgamesh, another god was presentto thwart the plan. The biblical god saved a select group of humans out ofgrace. In the pantheist version, the cunning of a protective god saved thesmall group of humans. Going against the will of his comrades, Anu gaveUtnapishtim directions to build a watertight ark and instructions on what tobring. Because of this humanity survived. HomerÕs Odyssey depicted a godattempting to destroy a specific human. Poseidon continually attempted todestroy Odysseus. But on numerous occasions, other gods were present tohelp the hero survive. When Poseidon sent OdysseusÕ ship in the wrongdirection, Aeoleus gave the hero a bag which encaptured everycounterproductive wind. When Odysseus fell into the sea after departing fromCalypsoÕs island, Ino, a sea nymph, gave him an enchanted scarf to aid hisdirectional sense. Athena also made constant provision, saving Odysseusfrom destruction and hopelessness many times. A major weakness of thepantheist structure was the discord among the gods. The pantheon limited thepower of the members within it. Clearly, the Greeks and Sumerians around thetime of Homer had an alternate sense of the divine being. They recognizedthe power of the gods, but they were also aware of their limits. The realized that the gods were not all-powerful. Today that is a given with Christianity.Humans challenged the ancient gods, while the contemporary Christian god isinfinitely great. All in all, the gods of Greco-Sumerian antiquity were powerful,but in comparison to the modern Christian god, they were only a step abovethe ant-like humans. 

How Frank and Rita Change Throughout the Play

How Frank and Rita Change Throughout the PlayRita’s character is the one that changes most. In the first and last
scenes, it is obvious that Rita has changed in rather more than the
clothes she wears and the books she reads.“Y’have to decide whether it’s gonna be another change in dress or a
change in yourself.” (Rita; Act 1.2)Rita at the beginning of the play is a different person when compared
to the end. Her job changes from being a hairdresser to working in a
bistro. She has, or thinks she has, an education. She has changed many
things about her appearance and her home life; she leaves her bigoted
husband Denny and moved into a flat.At the beginning of the play, Rita is resentful of her situation,
partly because she yearns for some sort of formal education, she feels
trapped in her marriage and she just is not the person that she wants
to be. She feels isolated from her family and in particular her
husband. This is quite evident in an evening out drinking with her
husband and parents.“Because we could sing better songs than those.” (Rita; Act 1.7)Rita wants to make a better life for herself and find something more
fulfilling than cutting hair all day. It is this want, this need that
drives Rita to apply for an Open University course in English
Literature.We first encounter Rita struggling to open the door to Frank’s office.
The stage direction says the ‘the door swings open, revealing Rita’.This sort of action is very typical of Rita and her first conversation
with Frank tells us a lot about her and what she is like as a person;“I’m comin’ in aren’t I? It’s that stupid bleedin’ handle on the door.
Yer wanna get fixed” (Rita; Act 1.1).This shows us that Rita is outspoken, direct and very self-confident.
This in turn makes her very different to the other students Frank has
taught at the university, as he sees them as mindless clones. Wheras
Rita loves everything about Frank’s office, from the desk to the
window, Frank does not seem to care, he doesn’t perceive the things
around him in the same way.Rita: “That’s a nice picture it’s very erotic”Frank “Actually, I haven’t looked at it for about ten years…” (Act
1.1)Frank describes her as ‘the first breath of fresh air that’s been in
this room for ages’, which tells us that he sees Rita as refreshing
and invigorating. It also tells us that Frank has the opposite opinion
of both himself and the other students he has taught in the past.This early on in the play, we can see how Frank and Rita can help each
other in the weeks and months that follow. Frank can give to Rita the
educated knowledge she has always craved, as well as a new way of
life. In return, Rita can show Frank how to be more light-hearted and
how he can be happy instead of drinking.In Act 1, Scene 1, Rita would be wearing colourful, loose-fitting
clothes, the sort that could be bought cheaply at charity shops or
flea markets. This would show that she is a lively, spirited,
optimistic person. In contrast, Frank’s office would be dirty and
stuffy, in tones of faded brown, grey and white. This would show a
direct contrast of the characters of Frank and Rita at the beginning
of the play.By the end of the play, it is evident that Rita has changed in both
personality and appearance. In the final scenes, Rita would be wearing
darker coloured clothes, in navy blues or whites. Her hair would be
tidy instead of flying everywhere and she would perhaps be wearing a
university scarf. This would indicate the change in her personality
over the course, as through the course her whole life has changed; the
‘knowledge’ that she has acquired has changed her opinions, her
clothes, her career and at one point, her voice;“Well, will you kindly tell Trish that I am not giving a tutorial to a
Dalek?” (Frank; Act 2.2)From this line it is obvious that Rita’s hairdressing life has been
left behind, as four scenes later Frank learns that Rita has a new job
in a bistro, has changed her name back to Susan, has left her
chauvinistic husband and now lives in a flat with Trish in a
completely different part of town.Rita’s friendship with Trish is also interesting. In Act 2, scene 3
the influence that she has over Rita becomes apparent. In this scene
Frank and Rita are discussing a poem called The Blossom. When
discussed by Rita and Frank, the poem was a simple pice about a rose.
However, when Rita discusses it with Trish, the poem is about
sexuality. It is also in this scene and in scene five that we can see
the influence that Trish has exerted over Rita, whether intentional or
not. It is clear that Rita has put Trish and her way of life on a high
pedestal. Incidentally, this is the same one on which Frank once
stood.Rita fails to understand the importance of her relationship with Frank
until an encounter with Trish that leaves her questioning all her
views and opinions about everything.“Magic, isn’t it? She spends half her life eatin’ wholefoods an’
healthfoods to make her live longer, an’ the other half tryin’ to kill
herself.” (Rita; Act 2.7)The views that Rita has ‘learned’ form Trish all come into question
when Trish tries to end her life. It (the event) is the beginning of a
turning point for Rita to emerge from the shell she had created back
into her old self; complete with enthusiasm for life.The window in Frank’s office bears symbolic importance to both of the
main characters; it represents looking ahead, the future. In many
scenes, Rita is seen to be standing by the window and looking out of
it, often at the students sitting on the lawn. Frank is often seen to
be facing away from it. This shows that Rita yearns to be like and to
join the other students, and is also waiting to see what the future
will bring, while Frank has a preference to the lifestyle he has now:
a dislike of the other students, a preference to the alcohol-based
life to which he has become accustomed, and that he prefers his life
to be stale and colourless.Inevitably, Rita brings the colour and excitement back into Frank’s
life. The relationship they have is clearly symbiotic; Frank teaches
Rita and in return, she shows him how to have fun.Rita: “I’m not gonna try an’ rape y’ in the middle of The Seagull.”Frank: “What a pity. You have made theatre exciting for me again.”
(Act 1.5)In the final scene, Rita enters Frank’s office calmly. This is in
contrast to the first scene, where ‘the door swings open, revealing
Rita’, and she comes in full of energy and exuberance. Frank on the
other hand, is all ready to go to Australia.By now, the relationship between the two characters has changed. In
the final scene, Rita would move around the office in a sombre mood,
but still in a confident manner; this would show that she no longer
needs Frank to do what she wants, whereas she would have asked him
before. I would also show Frank’s envy of ‘Tiger’ and his fellow
students by him avoiding eye contact when mentioning him, perhaps
looking out of the window and onto the lawn. This would also indicate
an animosity between them that has been growing for some time:Rita: “Be serious.”Frank: “For God’s sake, why did you come here?” (Act 2.7)At the end of the play, both characters have come full circle. Frank
is more cynical, and Rita shows signs of her old self when talking
about ‘Tiger’.“He’s a bit of a wanker really.” (Rita; Act 2.7)In the end, Rita has achieved what she has set out to do: she has
learnt about literature, something she has always wanted to do. She
has the sort of lifestyle she has of always dreamed of. She finally
knows the ‘right’ sorts of clothes to wear, wines to drink, books to
read.But more than anything else, Rita has become an independent woman with
choice, something she has wanted more than anything else.At the end of the play, we are left with the scene of Rita cutting
Frank’s hair. At this point of the play, I would have birdsong playing
quietly in the background. This represents two things; firstly, that
birdsong is commonly associated with the spring, in turn associated
with new beginnings. The second is that it means that Frank has at
long last opened his window, a sign that he is ready to accept
whatever the future throws at him, and also that he has allowed a bit
of Rita’s personality to influence him. Frank is letting colour and
light into his life for probably the first time in a long, long while,
as well as the challenge of something different. This symbolism is
important because, after all, nobody knows exactly what the future
will bring.

An Inspirationally Destructive Red Pen

An Inspirationally Destructive Red PenWhen children first start school they begin a new extensive journey, first meeting all new people and then having to learn a broad array of new things. One of those new things is how to read and also write. Teachers start out slow by having students write in big capital letters on funny looking red and green striped paper, next moving on to cursive letters with still that same silly paper. After a short while the students are on their own, writing notes for classes, notes to friends and family, along with research papers and stories for their teachers in school. And that is where my story begins, room 216 on the second floor of Pottsville Area High School.
School had just started; it was the fall of my sophomore year. I was excited about having new teachers and being able to boss around those little freshmen since I had finally lost that ridiculous title of “freshy.” Although one class did turn all that excitement right into knots in my stomach, it was English 10. Ugh I hated English, partially because I could never remember all those rules of writing, which I had just thought of as “dumb.” I figured, “Why would I ever need to know all them? Computers will be able to fix all my mistakes for me!” As I would soon find out, boy was I ever wrong. Surprisingly, class was going good; our teacher Mr. Mieckowski seemed to be a little weird and quite boring at times but all in all not too bad I mean who isn’t boring occasionally? He had a shiny head with very little hair and never wore long sleeves to class. He was also quite tall and skinny, so everyone had his or her own conclusion about Mr. Mieckowski’s personal life. A lot of the time this ended up being the topic of conversation for his students, along with his hatred towards icicle lights, white reindeer, and especially technology; the thing I loved most.
We spent most of the first month in Mr. M.’s class just going over “the infamous page one” as he liked to call it and just reading some great pieces of literature, including Of Mice and Men and Julius Caesar. Then one winter day, we all came into his cool green room and sat down, chatting with our neighbors as usual until the bell rang to signify the start of class. When the bell rang, our teacher began talking about our upcoming assignments; he told us we would be writing 3 essays during the next couple weeks. I cringed when I heard that; I hated writing essays. He then told us we would have 3 days in class to work on each of them, then at the end of the period on the third day they must be handed in. My heart sank! “There goes my straight A’s,” I said to myself. The next day in class he went over the format he would like his assignments done in and some basics on how to write a paper properly. He began by telling us his papers are only one paragraph long. This included at least 5 sentences, which were a topic sentence, 3 details to support the topic sentence, and a clincher statement. He then proceeded to teach us certain things we must do and must not do, such as use a different device in our topic sentence and clincher statement, and how we could not use the word “You” in our papers. There were many more rules, too many to list. I was trying to think of any easy way out of this but it just wasn’t working. Thinking of all those rules and only 3 days to write it made me sick to the stomach, even though the paper was only a single paragraph long.
Then finally that one-day came, and we had to start on our papers. All my friends around me just began to write like it was nothing to them. Me, I couldn’t think of one single topic to write about that we learned while reading Of Mice and Men. I asked my friends all around me for help, none of them were much help. My friend next to me, Griff, his friend, Jason, and even the cute blonde girl who sat behind me, Randall, all had good topics and really couldn’t think of any others for me. I felt like a total idiot. All the freshmen around me were writing like crazy and I just sat there with nothing, so much for making fun of all those freshmen. That was the end of that; I put my head down and went right to sleep with the plan of working on it later that night.Day 2 came around quite fast; I was ready for it though. I had Espanol dos (Spanish 2) before my English class, and as soon as that bell rang I ran up those stairs to the second floor so I could be the first in line to have my paper reviewed by Mr. Mieckowski. He came into the room promptly after the bell had rung. He sat down on his old wooden stool right behind his podium, and I was right there waiting with my paper. I set my paper down, and he looked at the paper then at me and said, “What?” I was speechless, what was I supposed to say? The only thing I could think of was, “What’s wrong with it?” He read over it carefully, and in my mind, just destroyed my paper with that red pen of his. I would have never guessed it would be one of the things that most inspired my ability to write. Then he just looked at me again. I thought to myself, “Is that all?” He then began to explain to me all the things I had done wrong. He made it sound like he had written renowned pieces of literature. The creature in my nightmares had become my savior and mentor. I may not have known it right then and there, but he was showing me the right ways to write, easily. He was going to lead me in the right direction on that bumpy road of writing. After that first session with Mr.Mieckowski, I still didn’t like writing but I now had a different perspective on it. The rest of that whole period I spent revising my paper, adding sentences, changing words, and removing things. I felt like a massive weigh had been lifted off my shoulders. I couldn’t wait for day 3 to come so I could have him review my paper one final time before it would be susceptible to his red pen and actual grading.
Day 3 finally came; once again I anxiously waited for the bell to ring to end 2nd period. The bell sounded. I was off to the race once again, full sprint up the stairs and down the hall. Oh no To my dismay someone had beaten me to my spot. I disappointedly got into the line as the second person. This worried me because I wasn’t sure if I would have enough time to have my paper reviewed, write my final copy and hand it in by the end of the short 43-minute period. Score The student in front of me only had a short question to ask, I was up again. Mr. M. once again read over my paper and went to work with his cruel red pen. He then explained once again what I had done wrong and how to correct it. This time I understood everything even better. I sat down at my wooden desk with its broken seat once more and began to revise my work. Finally I was satisfied; I hurriedly wrote my paper on the nice, clean white, blue lined composition paper, making sure to use the proper format and all. I stapled it together and placed it on his desk when the bell rang. Paper 1 was done, only 2 more to go but I had a day or 2 to rest and prepare myself.
The next day in class everyone sat around talking like every other day, mostly questioning one another if they knew if we would get our papers back. No oneREALLYknew but everyone had his or her own ideas to share. Mr. M. came in right after the bell as always, but he had our papers in his hand. He said he was impressed with the writing we had all done, with a few exceptions. My faced turned pale, I knew for sure I was one of those exceptions. He began to discretely pass our papers back to us. Everyone was getting his or her papers except me. Sure enough I was on the bottom of the pile. I didn’t even want to look at it. While everyone was asking their friends how they had done, I just sat there. Griff then asked me how I did and I replied, “I dunno, you tell me” and handed him my paper. He looked at it and said, “Damn you beat me” I was shocked I looked at it; I had received a 97%. I just felt as though I wanted to jump out of my seat and scream. I would have had a 100 except for a few spelling errors, probably due to how fast I had written the final copy. Disregarding those lost 3 points, I was ecstatic. My paper was a work of art to me I wanted to frame it and hang it on my wall at that point. As time went on that excitement wore off and I realized it just wasn’t a paper I had written, it was a story along with an instructional guide I had written in my mind on how to write a paper. From that point on I knew I could tackle any paper those teachers could throw at me and it was all thanks to Mr. Mieckowski and his inspirationally destructive red pen.

Reading log 2 for Things we knew were true by Ricci Gerald.

Reading log 2 for Things we knew were true by Ricci Gerald.2. A passage in the book that rather good describes the theme in the
novel is when Eddie is young and her mum Louise, her sister Jude
and Eddie herself are waating for the dad Vic to come home but he
never comes. Louise calls to the office where Vic works but she
then finds out that Vic had lost his job two weeks ago. The truth
that Vic has pretended to go to work everyday the last two weeks
because he didn’t dare to tell anyone comes clear to Louise. The
next day the police finds Vic car by the river and it turns out
that he has committed suicide.This passage clearly depicts what people do to save their loves ones
from harm. I don’t mean that it’s this grave in every case; this is
perhaps one of the most terrible things that can happen to a family.The theme hasn’t changed or developed in the book this far; it has
almost been the same from the very beginning.3. The novel has turned into a second phase where Eddies life as a
grown up is pictured. Where I this time stopped reading, Eddie has
just received a phone call from Stella who tells her that their
mum Louise died. Eddie and her two sisters drive to the mum’s
house to clean up and take care of the funeral etcetera. Old
memories are raised and the sisters’ childhood is being brought up
to the surface.I think the novel will end with a big family reunion among the
sisters. The way to get there is long and maybe cruel but I think they
will make it because they all seem to have lots of ghastly memories
from their youth. These memories about bad things will make them
stronger together.

Blindness by Jose Saramago and The Chrysalids by John Wyndham

The two fiction novels – Blindness by Jose Saramago and The Chrysalids
by John Wyndham explores the way humanity excludes and punishes the
differentThe novel Blindness is about a city that is hit with an epidemic of white
blindness and it spares no one. This white blindness infects about 10 people
at first. The government has to quarantine everyone that is infected to
prevent it from spreading. They lock the ones infected and forces them to
survive on their own with rare distributions of food. The plan of the
government was to eventually eliminate everyone that was infected in
quarantine by starving them because they couldn’t find a cure.The whole city ends up being infected with the epidemic of white blindness.
This white blindness could not be prevented or avoided. Similar to Blindness,
The Chrysalids is about a society in the future that does not accept any
type of blasphemy and if a person doesn’t appear to be exactly as God’s image.

Masters Of The Vineese School

The three prominent composers of the classical period were Franz Haydn, Wolfgang Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven. These three composers together are known as the masters of the Viennese School. All three of them studied and composed their music in a time of experimentation. They examined the different uses of the major-minor system and then capitalized on the possibilities. From this came the ideal form, the sonata.
     Franz Joseph Haydn was born in Austria in 1732. At the age of eight he became a choirboy at St. Steven’s Cathedral in Vienna, he stayed there for eight years. At the age of sixteen Haydn got out on his own and made a living teaching and playing with bands in the streets. In 1961 Haydn began to serve the Esterhazys, a wealthy Hungarian family. Haydn’s service to the Hungarian family is a perfect example of the patronage system. He stayed with the family for almost thirty years. After leaving the Esterhazy family in1791 he visited England twice with great success. Franz Joseph Haydn died in Vienna in 1809.
     Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in 1756 in Austria. Mozart was a child prodigy. At the age of 5 he composed his first minuets and at age six he performed before the Empress Maria Therese. In 1763, led by his father Leopold, Mozart went on tour to Paris and London, visiting many courts and also played for the French and English royal families. He composed his first symphony in 1765 and three years later his first opera. Although his career had much promise many became disappointed with his work. Unlike Haydn, Mozart did not agree with the patronage system. After his patron, the Archbishop of Salzburg, dismissed him he became a musical freelancer. Mozart found it hard to find suitable work for a composer with the skills he had, because of his rebellious attitude. He made his living by teaching, publishing music, and playing at patrons houses. In 1781, Mozart met Haydn and they soon became good friends. Haydn was one of the most influential composers of his time and Mozart admired him and was influenced by his music style. Hadyn’t quartets acted as models for Mozart, who also used Haydn’s four-movement plan compared to his earlier quartets, which only contained three movements. In 1784 Mozart and Haydn were joined with two other prominent composers of their time and formed a string quartet. And in the following year Mozart held a party in honor of Haydn and played all six Haydn quartets, composed by Mozart. Unfortunately, at a young age of 35, Mozart died.
     The third master of the Viennese School was Ludwig van Beethoven. Beethoven was born in Germany in 1770. Although Beethoven’s father was a singer for the prince, he had a difficult childhood. Beethoven’s father was an alcoholic and Beethoven was forced to support his mother and younger siblings. At the age of 17, Beethoven visited Vienna and was able to perform for Mozart, who was impressed by the young Beethoven. Beethoven stands apart from Haydn and Mozart in several ways. Whereas Haydn was a perfect example of the patronage system and Mozart the exact opposite, Beethoven falls in the middle. Although he received gifts from noble patronage and gave lessons, he also was able to play at concerts aimed at the middle-class. Beethoven conducted symphonies and concerts and also played his own piano concertos. He was known to be a difficult and irritable man but he strongly believed in the brotherhood of man and the freedom for all regardless of class. What also sets him apart from Haydn and Mozart is the time in which he was a prominent composer. During Haydn and Mozart’s time it was extremely hard to break out of the royal patronage system, which Mozart found out. All three masters of the Viennese School were composers in the Classical period but Beethoven was also the transition between the Classical and Romantic periods. In 1792 Beethoven received composition lessons from Haydn and they became lifelong friends. In 1802 he was starting to loose his hearing, and by 1824 he was almost completely deaf. Ludwig van Beethoven died in 1827, and in his 57 years was able to compose nine symphonies, sixteen quartets, and thirty-two piano sonatas.Norton Sony Classical Essentials of Music,

A Chemist

A ChemistBecoming a chemist takes a lot of hard work and discipline. One very
importan aspect of being a chemist is English, Comunication is of the utter most
importance (Murphy). As well as having good communication skills, you also need
a lot of patience. However, there are many other qualities you will need such as
an excellent learning ability and mathematical skills. You will also need to be
able to preceive concepts or objects. Once you get into college you need to know
what kind of degree to get in order to have a fulfilling and successful career.
For most entry level jobs a BS degree is sufficient. However, for a college
teaching job a Ph.D. is required (Choices).
After obtaining a degree, your next step would be to find a job. According
to Jerry Murphy, if you want an easy way into the chemistry field you need to
know someone already in that occupation. For the most part in Missouri,
employment is increasing. Nevertheless, if you are not restricted to finding a
job in Missouri, in the United States a whole employment is expected to increase
21% (Choices).
After finding a job in the chemistry field that you will enjoy another
quesiton arises, money. On hte average if you begin working at a entry level
job witha bachelors degree your salary will be somewhere around $24,000 a year.
If you start work with a masters degree you can expect about $32,000 and with a
Ph.D. as mcuh as $60,000 (“Chemists”)
Research and development is the subcareer most chemist choose. In this
subfield your primary goal would be to look for and use information about
chemicals (“Chemists”). A chemists also spends a considerable amount of time in
an office where he/she stores information or reports about research he/she has
made. There are two different types of research basic research and applied
research. In basic research a chemists studies the qualities and what makes up
matter. In applied chemistry a chemist uses information obtained from basic
research and puts it to practical use (“Chemists”). Chemistry includes many
other subfields some of these are analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, and
physical chemistry. Analytical chemists ascertain the nature, structure, and
composition of a substance. Organic chemistry involves orgainc substances.
Aphysical chemist, however, studies the attributes of atoms and molecules. Also
they study why and how chemical reactions occur (Choices).
After researching this career thoroughly I have concluded that this
occupation, even though it is not my first choice, would be a good career to
pursue. According to the information I have obtained employment should increse
over the next couple of years allowing for a fairly lucrative life if I obtain a
good degree. I will attempt to pursue this career even though my English skills
are lacking.

Writing in Electrical Engineering

Writing in Electrical Engineering

History of Harmony

Is Krishna an effective teacher?

Krishna is an effective teacher. Discuss with close reference to the book.An effective teacher is a teacher that produces the result that is wanted. In The English Teacher the story is told in the first person so it is difficult to tell if Krishna is an effective teacher. Nowhere on the book does a student or students or even friends and colleagues say that Krishna is an effective English teacher. So we have to discern from the pages of the book as to whether Krishna is an effective teacher.Being consumed by his renewed contact with Nature Krishna is recharged to the point that his whole day is put into chaos. One can even say Krishnan was given an “overdose of Nature and was in a drunken stupor” when he makes his way to class.When Krishna reaches class late he “decides” to waste time on attendance. In the later part of the class, after the attendance taking, his sub-conscious and his conscience gets a hold of him. The book quotes him thinking to himself “These poor boys are now all attention, cowed by your superior force. They are ready to listen and write down whatever you may say.”(pg 13) This proves that the boys’ in Albert Mission College certainly feel that Krishnan is an effective teacher. They await with eager anticipation whenever Krishnan is teaching. If Krishna was not an effective teacher why would they bother to even listen to him, let alone “write down whatever he may say”?On the same page in the book, it is also written “I noticed that some boys were already sitting up alert, ready to note down the pearls dropping form my mouth…” This is evidence that the boys’ in his class respect him and feel that whatever he is saying are like “pearls dropping out from his mouth.”Krishnan later, gripped by his conscience of doing the right thing, is swayed into confessing to his students of his unpreparedness but but he caught himself lecturing. Later on in the page it says that the “sheer poetry of it carried me on”, which is proof that Krishna is a teacher that is a teacher that enjoys what he is teaching, which is poetry. Another quote that proves this is “I passed on the next scene without knowing it. I could not stop.” He was so into the poem that he “nearly broke down”.Later on when he had his composition class, there was a student of his, Ramaswami, who was rather poor in English. In the book, it is written “My comments on the work could not be publicly shown or uttered”. This shows that he is a caring teacher and has respect for his students and instead of publicly embarrassing the student, he calls him aside and quietly discusses his mistakes and even offers him help. This shows that there is an understanding between both teacher and student, thus, he is effective as a teacher.We cannot be side tracked with Krishnan’s “utterances” like the following passages in the Book:“…and I hadn’t prepared even a page of lecture”;
“…I went in five minutes late to class, and I could dawdle over the attendance for a quarter of an hour”; and
“…I did not do it out of love for them or for Shakespeare but only out of love for myself.”As explained above, taken in the context of his recent experience with Nature, Krishnan is too hard on himself, he seems a perfectionist, but his teaching of Lear even without preparing shows his passion for his job and his effectiveness as a teacher, and a caring one also.In my opinion I feel that Krishna is indeed an effective teacher as he loves and is passionate in what he is teaching. He also cares for his students although he might be a bit hard on himself. But this is a mark of a good and effective teacher who will crucify himself even if no one does. For this the students benefit.

The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton

The main characters are Ponyboy Michael Curtis Johnny Cade, Steve Randle, Dallas Winston, Darrel “Darry” Shaynne Curtis, Jr., Keith “Two-Bit” Mathews, and Sodapop Patrick Curtis, a gang of Greasers in Tulsa. Ponyboy whose two older brothers are Darry and Sodapop narrates the story. The three boys are orphaned after a car accident kills their parents and Darry is left to provide for them.
The Greasers, who tend to be less prosperous, obtain their nickname from the grease they use to slick back their hair. The Socs (pronounced soashes, an abbreviation of Socialites) tend to be wealthier. Although “The Outsiders” may seem to refer to the alienated Greasers, both groups are set back by economic, social, or creative limits.
In the beginning, Ponyboy, a Greaser, comes out of a movie house and is beat up by a group of Socs, but is saved by Darry, Sodapop and the gang.
At an open drive-in theater one night, Pony and his best buddy Johnny befriend two Soc girls, Sherri “Cherry” Valance and Marcia. While walking them home, their drunk boyfriends Bob Sheldon and Randy Adderson catch up to them, in their Mustang. The girls decide to return home with their boyfriends to avoid a fight. Ponyboy and Johnny fall asleep in a vacant lot, which results in Ponyboy coming home late. Darry becomes angry with and slaps him. Ponyboy runs out and finds Johnny at the vacant lot. They decide to run to the park to cool off.
While in a park, Bob and his Soc friends drive by, and begin to harass Ponyboy and Johnny. The Socs proceed to chase after the two boys and attempt to drown Ponyboy in a nearby fountain. Johnny takes out his switchblade and stabs Bob, killing him. Randy and the other socs run away in fright. The two boys seek help from Dallas “Dally” Winston, who gives them a loaded gun, money, and directions to an abandoned church in Windrixville to hide out in. Also, Dally tells them that he’ll be down there when he thinks its safe. They take the 3:15 goods.
While hiding out in the church, they disguise their appearance, cutting off their long greasy hair. Ponyboy bleaches his with peroxide. While in hiding, the boys bond even more, and discover they both have a love for the beautiful things in life that are often not obvious. While going through the daily struggles that are overwhelming while living on the wrong side of town. Pony shares the Robert Frost poem “Nothing Gold Can Stay” with Johnny, confessing he never quite understood it.
Dally comes to visit them a week later, and brings Ponyboy and Johnny to the Dairy Queen to get some food. While there, he tells them that Cherry is willing to testify that her boyfriend Bob went looking for a fight and Ponyboy and Johnny fought back in self defense. After hearing this, Johnny tells Dallas that they want to go home and turn themselves in. Dally reacts angrily, feeling they went through all they had just to give up and they drive off. After a little while, Dally tells Johnny that he doesn’t want to see Johnny get hardened in jail like he did. Ponyboy is somewhat shocked because Dallas never spoke of his past in that manner, but refrains from saying anything.
On the way back, they see that the church they had been staying in is on fire, most likely because of the cigarettes they had been smoking there. When they hear children trapped inside, Ponyboy and Johnny both run in to rescue the children. Ponyboy describes this as the first time Johnny did not have his usual scared, beaten-down look. Unfortunately, that does not last for long, because a burning roof beam falls on Johnny right before he was going to get out. He is knocked to the ground, his back broken. When Dally realizes what has happened, he immediately goes inside the church to rescue Johnny.
They are taken back to the hospital in town, Dally with minor injuries and Ponyboy with nothing wrong except for some bruises. However, Johnny is in critical condition. Ponyboy reconciles with his family, finally realizing that Darry does care about him, and the gang prepares for a big “rumble” (fight) with the Socs, which was sparked by the stabbing.
The day of the rumble, Randy, one of the other Socs who was trying to drown him that fateful night, confronts Ponyboy. He says that he doesn’t want to fight in the rumble that nothing good would come of it. He said that he was sick of the fighting, and he had to tell someone. After this, both Randy and Ponyboy have different ideas of each other, and Randy ends up not attending the rumble.
Dally breaks out of the hospital to fight in the rumble. He is determined to fight for Johnny; and the Greasers are victorious. After the rumble, Dally and Ponyboy speed down the road in the car that Dallas borrowed from Buck Merril, his employer. When they get to the hospital, the doctor stops them, saying that Johnny is dying, but Dallas flips out his switchblade. The doctor replies that the switchblade does not frighten him, but the boys could see Johnny because they were his family, or as close a family as Johnny had. When they enter the hospital room, Dallas tells Johnny how they had beat the Socs in the rumble, but Johnny says that “fighting ain’t no good”, so Dally proceeds to tell Johnny that he is proud of him. This is what Johnny has been waiting to hear, his hero saying that he is proud of him. Johnny leans over to Ponyboy and faintly tells him to “stay gold”. Then, Johnny dies. Dally storms out of the room in pain and heartbreak; Johnny was the only thing that Dally had ever loved.
Ponyboy returns home to tell the rest of the gang that Johnny had died. The gang is shocked, despite the fact that they knew that Johnny had been in bad condition. A few minutes later, Dallas calls from a pay phone, saying that he had robbed a convenience store. The gang meets Dallas at the vacant lot, where Dallas is surrounded by police. Dallas then pulls out an unloaded gun and commits suicide by police.
Ponyboy wonders for a split second why he had pulled it out if it was unloaded, but then he understood that Dallas had wanted to be dead; he had lost the only thing in the whole world that mattered to him. After the police kill Dallas, Ponyboy passes out due to shock, exhaustion, sickness, and a concussion from being kicked in the head during the rumble.
Ponyboy wakes up a few days later, unsure of what had happened. As it dawns on him, he begins to slip into denial, telling himself that it was he that killed Bob, not Johnny. Ponyboy is made to stay in bed for a week, and he gets several visitors. One of them is Randy, and Ponyboy gets irritated at him when he tries to say that Johnny had killed the Soc.
A court trial is scheduled to decide if the Curtis brothers will be allowed to stay together or if Soda and Ponyboy will have to be sent to a boys’ home. The judge determines that Darry is a fit guardian, and the boys are allowed to stay together.
Later on, Darry and Ponyboy start fighting again, this time over an English composition that Ponyboy has to write in order not to fail English. (After Ponyboy had been sick, his grades had slipped from his usual A’s and B’s because he was too distracted to concentrate.) Sodapop runs out of the house because he can’t stand the brothers fighting, but Ponyboy (who’s on his school track team) and Darry catch him in a park.
Later on, while flipping through his copy of Gone With the Wind, he finds a letter Johnny wrote to him, explaining “staying gold” in the poem meant to never lose the appreciation for the things you find astounding when you’re young. He tells Ponyboy that’s the way to be, and urges him to tell Dally. Ponyboy knows it is too late to tell Dally, and he thinks of all of the other kids in the world that could be going through the same thing. Thoughts roll through his head of Johnny, Dallas, Bob, and all the others, of kids that would die young, of kids that would stay hoodlums forever, and he felt he needed to do something about it. So he started his English composition, which begins with the first sentence of the book.

Reasons for Napoleon’s Success

Reasons for Napoleon’s Success· One of Napoleon’s great strengths as leader was the devotion of his
men. His soldiers adored him.
· Despite his generally unprepossessing appearance, when he wished to
charm he could quickly win over anyone he met, however initially
hostile they might be. Within a couple of days he had completely
captivated the officers and crew of Bellerophon taking him to St.
Helena in 1815, much alarming the British government.
· One Admiral at that time exclaimed, “If he had an obtained an
interview with His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, in half an hour
they would have been the best friends in England!”
· His contemporaries had no doubt about the charismatic quality of
leadership. His great adversary Wellington said to him that the moral
effect of his presence in the field and worth an additional force of
40,000 men to the French army. This he ascribed to Napoleon’s dual
position as both head of state and commander-in-chief, which gave him
unparalleled control over events, but also to his great personal
popularity with the army.
· One of Napoleon’s own generals explained this popularity by saying
that it “was by familiarities that the Emperor made his soldiers adore
him, but it was a means available to only to a commander whom frequent
victories had made illustrious; any other general would have injured
his reputation by it”.
· By the use of theatrical and emotional language in his bulletins and
Orders of the Day, Napoleon formed a special bond between himself and
the army. He played on the ideas of military glory, of patriotism and
of comradeship, while giving at the same time the impression that he
had a deep paternal concern for his men. To this they responded with
real devotion.
ii) The Changing Nature of War
· The majority of the eighteenth-century wars were fought with more or
less evenly matched, mainly mercenary armies, very similar to each
other in training, equipment, composition and strength. Each was quite
small, containing sometimes as few as 30,000 men, and the wars were
normally undertaken with limited objectives such as the acquisition of
a small province, more often than to be eventually used as a
bargaining counter in maintaining the balance of power in the game of
international diplomacy.
· The cry of la partie en danger had led in 1792 to the formation of a
French national army consisting initially of ‘patriotic volunteers’.
Universal conscription had long been advocated by such different men
as Guibert (the influential and aristocratic pre-Revolutionary
military reformer) and Rousseau (the equally influential
eighteenth-century philosopher). Both thought it the best way to raise
a citizen army which would have wide support, and in 1793 conscription
was actually introduced. A year later there were a million men under
arms (France had the largest population in Europe, 28 million, to draw
recruits from). In practice, the largest majority of conscripts were
from poor peasant families, in theory at least universal conscription
brought together men from all classes of society in defence of la
· Eighteenth-century generals tried to avoid battle, if at all
possible, concentrating instead on sieges, or on manoeuvring in order
to evade the enemy or to gain a tactical advantage (also identified as
‘intensified diplomacy’ by Clausewitz). Violence was controlled by
calm calculation of the risks involved and careful observance of the
conventions of war. The enthusiasm and fervour, the élan and dash of
the Revolutionary armies was something alien to established military
· The men fighting in the new French armies were not their as
mercenaries, nor as men impressed against their will, but as citizens
honourably defending their Revolution against its threatened
destruction by outside forces. Instead of avoiding battle they
actively sought it. Often ill-disciplined and ill-equipped, they
relied on shock tactics and the momentum of the bayonet charge to
bring them success, especially in their early encounters.
· Conscription was introduced in 1793 – it marked the first amalgame,
the merging of remnants of the old army with the new. The veteran
soldiers brought much order into its early chaotic organisation
without destroying its verve, and formed it into a fighting force
which Napoleon used as the basis of his Grand Armee.
iii) The Development of the Grand Armee
· In the period of comparative peace between 1800 and 1804, Napoleon
reorganised the French army which under the Directory had been split
into a number of separate armies. Each of these had been under the
command of a more or less independent general, an arrangement which
made concentrated and intensive action almost impossible.
· Napoleon knew this from his own experience – as commander of the
Army of Italy and then the Army of Egypt he had frequently made his
own decisions and he had acted without reference to anyone.
· His new arrangements were based on the ideas of Guibert, whose
thinking was probably the single most important influence on
Napoleon’s military development. The whole army was divided into corps
of about 25-30,000 men; some of the cavalry was kept separate, as were
the reserve artillery and several elite groups, the most important of
which was the Imperial Guard. The entire army was under the direct and
sole control of Napoleon himself, as the commanding army.
· The organisational aim was to allow unity of command – Napoleon’s -
while providing flexibility in action. Each corps was given a
particular role on a campaign march, but this role could if necessary
be quickly changed; regiments could be transferred from one corps to
another if required, and infantry or cavalry detachments could be sent
out as skirmishers or moved round as protective screens to shield the
movement of the rest of the troops, and leave the enemy confused and
uncertain as to what was happening. In battle as well as on the march,
flexibility was the key. Once the engagement was joined, the idea was
to manoeuvre as would best lure the enemy into taking an unfavourable
position, and then tempt him into committing his whole force,
including his reserve, into an all-out attack.
· Napoleon would at this point order his own reserves to launch a
surprise enveloping attack on the enemy’s rear and/or flank. In the
decisive French charges and relentless pursuit which followed, heavy
casualties would be inflicted on the fleeing enemy.
· These casualties sometimes, as at Marengo, Ulm, Austerlitz and Jena,
numbered three times as many as those suffered by the French. This
strategy was new. Guibert had proposed this strategy years earlier,
but as Napoleon put it, “everything is in the execution”, thus we
cannot belittle his brilliance.
iv) The Development of Winning Tactics
· Military strategists had been disputing from the time before the
Revolution about the way to deploy the infantry (the principal part of
the army), on the march or in battle. Should they be in line or
· The column, a long file of soldiers moving slowly along a single
road, was the traditional marching formation, but was extremely
vulnerable to enemy attack and almost powerless to take offensive
action in emergency.
· The line abreast was the equally traditional battle formation, three
more or less stationery ranks of musketeers ranks of musketeers firing
continuously to order. Well-trained, disciplined troops could be very
effective in this formation against infantry or cavalry, but were
always vulnerable to concentrated artillery fire.
· 1791 – a compromise was reached between the ‘column or line’ schools
of thought, and embodied in a new drill manual. This allowed the
commander to choose whatever combination of line and column seemed
best to him at the time, in what came to be called ‘mixed order’. It
was a development of this ‘mixed order’, which Napoleon most
frequently employed in battle – the infantry in a concentrated but
mobile formation made up of both line and column, moving around the
battlefield as required, firing at will, and following up, in
Revolutionary tradition, with a massed bayonet charge when needed, and
supported by the cavalry.
· Napoleon, on the march, dispersed his forces into self contained
groups advancing simultaneously at a distance perhaps as a mile from
each other along several roads, in effect forming a series of columns
in line abreast.
· This allowed for mutual support and reinforcement in case of attack
and at the same time simplified the requisitioning of supplies from
the countryside through which the army was passing.
· Following Guibert’s precepts once again, Napoleon ensured that the
army should travel light and therefore speedily, covering an average
of 12 to 15 miles a day living ff the land instead of relying on slow
supply wagons or on depots requiring careful advance preparation. The
army on the march was, thus, well spread-out and extremely mobile,
easily able to move into a loose net-like formation and trap enemy
forces manoeuvring in a traditional compact group. They could then be
rounded up, and forced to fight at a disadvantage.
· Campaigning for Napoleon was, until 1807, a successful blend of
mobility, speed and surprise, which brought rich rewards; not until
the enemy the enemy learnt how to counter his strategies did the
situation change.
· Napoleon, like all Revolutionary generals, was committed to the idea
of the offensive and to the importance of forcing the enemy to give
battle, but only when that enemy has been out-manoeuvred. While he was
able to maintain the surprise element, Napoleon managed to win every
· At Ulm 1805 the Austrians, remaining stationery, were surrounded. At
the twin-battles of Jena-Auerstadt in 1806 the Prussians, on the move,
were surrounded and, worse still, found themselves facing the wrong
way as the French attacked and the battle began. The Prussians still
operating in accordance with the teachings of Frederick the Great
(most of their generals had learnt their craft in his campaigns) were
organised in slow and unwieldy line-formation. Restricted in their
movement they were annihilated, losing 45,000 and all their artillery.
· While Napoleon’s army remained a national one – the French nation in
arms-fighting offensive wars and pursuing a policy of mobility and
surprise against the old-fashioned, semi-static armies of the Ancien
Regime, Clausewitz was right – Napoleon could not lose.
· Napoleon was so successful that in his early campaigns that by his
victories he changed the pattern of war. Instead of taking land in the
eighteenth-century manner from states in decline (as Poland had been
partitioned by her neighbours shortly before the Revolution) he took -
and kept – territory belonging to the strong. His victories were so
total that diplomats were unnecessary for the peace negotiations – he
could, and did, dictate his own terms on the vanquished.
· From 1805 onwards he developed the use of war as une bonne faire (a
good thing) financially. Peace treaties imposed on defeated countries
not only provided for the free quartering of Napoleon’s troops on
their territory, but included payment of massive indemnities – Prussia
was forced to find 311 million francs after her defeat at Jena 1806.
War had been satisfactorily self-financing. It would continue to be
so, as long as he kept on winning.
v) Weapons and Training in the Grand Armee
· Armies and their deployment might have changed, but the soldiers’
weapons did not begin to do so until the middle of the nineteenth
century, when industrial technology caught up with military theory.
· All Napoleon’s campaigns were conducted using the weapons of the
Ancien Regime.
· The musket was still the standard infantry weapon – a smooth-bored,
muzzle-loading flintlock firing lead bullets, and fitted with a
bayonet. Its firepower was limited, its rate of fire slow and its
accuracy poor except at close range.
· The artillery was equally inaccurate and slow, with a range of about
half a mile. It took a skilled gun crew to be able to fire a round a
minute, even with the new, lighter cannon introduced into France in
the 1770s. The use of horse artillery giving greater mobility to the
guns, and the new practice of concentrating artillery fire in a
barrage to open up gaps in the enemy front line for infantry or
cavalry to attack, where tactics of which Napoleon made good use,
especially after 1806 as armies grew larger. They were not, however,
his innovations – he had learnt them during his raining as a young
artillery cadet.
· In fact he was surprisingly conservative in his military thinking
and generally unreceptive to fresh ideas on any kind. He ignored new
inventions brought to his attention, such as ’a water wagon driven by
fire’ (submarine), ‘rockets’ (incendiaries), the telegraph (a
mechanical semaphore system), and the percussion charge (a replacement
for the flint-lock). He seems to have known about but to have ignored
also the cheap Prussian innovation of a sharp knife attached to a
musket which could be used by the infantry to open the cartridges
without having to waste time biting them, and so be able to fire more
rapidly. He disbanded as unnecessary the small corps of
(ground-anchored) observation balloons used for reconnaissance; but
reintroduced for wear by the heavy cavalry the helmet and breastplate,
already obsolete in the time of LouisXIV.
· Training, to the modern way of thinking, was of the slightest for
the new recruit, and continued to follow the programme, intended to
combine enthusiasm with discipline, laid down for the Revolution
armies in the early 1790s. A week in the home base, a hardening-off
march of 50 or 60 days to the front, collecting kit, practising drill
and gaining experience by example along the way.
· Most practical training was still provided, especially in a battle
situation, by veteran soldiers in the tradition of the amalgame of
1793. In 1805, for instance, half the total strength of the army had
fought under Napoleon at Marengo (1800), and a quarter had served in
the Revolutionary wars; most of the officers and non-commissioned
officers were experienced campaigners, although a high proportion of
the rank and file were raw conscripts. The army consisted, therefore,
of a mixture of old and young, experience and inexperience, combined
under one command.
· Military historians have disputed the size of Napoleon’s Grand Armee
at length. For the years before 1805 estimates vary from about 300,000
upwards. It is now thought, based on the known average figure of
73,000 men enrolled each year in France, that from 1805-6 Napoleon’s
standing army numbered between 500,000 and 600,000. In addition to
this, he had other troops to call on, the auxiliary levies provided by
the satellite states, which by 1807 represented about a third of the
total strength of his armed forces.
vi) Napoleon’s Strategic Planning
· It used to be stated in campaign histories that Napoleon planned his
campaigns and battles well ahead and in meticulous detail, and that
his victories cam from following his plans minutely; but military
historians are now much less certain that this was so.
· Napoleon once wrote to his brother Joseph that ’ in war nothing is
achieved except through calculation. Everything that is not soundly
planned in its detail yields no result’.
· Recent reassessments of Napoleon’s military career suggest that
while he had always formulated a general plan, whether for a whole
campaign or a particular battle – ’my great talent, the one that
distinguishes me the most, is to see the whole picture distinctly’ -
he was basically an opportunist, prepared to adjust his plans
according to changing circumstances and to take advantage of enemy
errors or weakness.
· Napoleon could improvise brilliantly in the heat of the battle and
frequently did so, abandoning his original plan without hesitation. He
was, however, always unwilling to take others into his confidence.
This habit of keeping his ideas to himself resulted in a weakness of
the command structure, which was to have serious results in later
· In the same way, the old idea that Napoleon forever moved his troops
from one place to another, making in the process lightning marches
across Europe, has been discredited. Such marches, like the famous one
from the Channel coast to the Danube in 1805, were the exception.
· When he needed to, Napoleon could organise the rapid movement of
large numbers of men over wide areas to converge on his chosen target,
but normally his marches were shorter, slower and lesser dramatic.
· Whether Napoleon had ‘a grand strategy’ in a sense of a wide,
overall design for the war as a whole is difficult to say. The only
consistent theme running through the years from 1800-15 is hostility
towards Britain.
· Until 1805, it is suggested, his ‘grand strategy’ may have involved
a naval confrontation with Britain, but if so it, as well as the
proposed invasion plans, had to be abandoned as the result of the
heavy French losses at Trafalgar.
· Napoleon’s relations with his navy were happy or successful; he had
no admiral to compare with Nelson, and no understanding of ships nor
liking for the sea. He therefore concentrated from 105 onwards on
dealing with his enemies on land, while keeping up an attack on
Britain by means of the Continental Blockade.
vii) Napoleon’s Generalship – an Assessment
· Many historians are no longer willing to accept that Napoleon was a
great general. They point out that he was in no way an innovator. He
made no significant contribution to tactics, introduced no new weapons
and was not open to new ideas. His contributions to strategy were not
· The armies he commanded were taken over from the Revolution, the
levee en masse was established before he came to power. He introduced
no new training methods. He underestimated supply problems, and made
other errors of judgement, often because of his amazing, but
acknowledged, ignorance of climatic and geographical conditions.
· This led to avoidable losses in Egypt and in San Dominigue from heat
and fever, from cold, snow, and mud on other occasions, the crossing
of the Oder in 1806 for instance.
· Sometimes out of sheer obstinacy, as at Boulogne in 1805, he refused
advice from those who knew better than to underestimate as he did the
dangers to his ships from tide and weather. His lack of interest in
the provision of maps covering the terrain over which he was to march,
his often inadequate reconnaissance, and his failure to appreciate the
difference between foraging in the prosperous and well-populated west
of Europe and in the bare lands further east caused his men
unnecessary hardship, as did his reduction of the army medical
services to save money (he may have declared that the men’s health was
of paramount importance to him, but the sick and wounded on campaign
were left to die).
· Despite these well-founded criticisms, some historians still believe
that Napoleon was a nevertheless a great general, quoting Wellington
that he was ’a great homme de guerre, possibly the greatest who ever
appeared at the head of a French army’. The point out thee extent of
Napoleon’s conquests achieved in so few years.
· This reputation rests largely on the success of his early campaigns
in Italy and Egypt, and on those of 1806-6, when he was still young
and energetic, full of enthusiasm and, it seemed, invincible. His
methods, if not exactly new in theory, were new in practice and he
used them well. They were a break with eighteenth-century tradition,
and confusing to the opposition.
· Given his hold over his men and the incapacity of his enemies to
match him and his army, his victories multiplied rapidly.
· If his career had finished in 1807, then Napoleon would have been
considered one of the most undisputed great generals. But his career
didn’t finish then, and the failures and defeats of the later years,
the blunders and ill-judged decisions of the later campaigns, in
Spain, in Russia, even at waterloo, must be taken into account when in
consideration of a Napoleon as a leader.
b) Napoleon’s Strength – the Civil Aspect
· When Napoleon became First Consul, he took over the existing
ministry of war, expanded it and made it more efficient. It was
reorganised into two separate ministries, one dealing with the army
itself (conscription, promotions, troop movements and the like) and
one concerned with administration (provisions, supplies and military
transport). The real power, though, lay with the war section of the
Council of State, all decisions of which were made by Napoleon
· In the absolutist state which he created, Napoleon’s resources for
war were unrivalled in Europe. Money, men and materials were his to
demand, the plans his to make. By breaking with Revolutionary
principles and uniting in himself the offices of head of state and
active commander-in-chief of the army, there was no conflict of civil
and military interest, for he alone made the decisions. It was a
situation not enjoyed by any enemy general.
· Military expenditure was enormous. Conquered territories were
exploited to make the army self-sufficient. Troops were quartered on
annexed or occupied lands. Huge indemnities were demanded from
defeated countries as part of the price of peace. As mentioned
earlier, this worked only up to a point – foraging for supplies during
an eastern European winter was a desperate matter.
c) The Enemies’ Weakness – Allied Disunity
Britain, Russia, Austria and later Prussia formed a series of
anti-French alliances with each other, but these were continually
undermined by their mutual suspicions and jealousy. Only Britain
remained opposed to France for the whole period. The other powers were
tempted away from time to time by Napoleon’s offers of territory, for
as well as making use of the opportunity to profit from quarrels among
the allies, Napoleon’s foreign policy was based on ‘divide and rule’.
His normal strategy was to keep at least one of these major powers as
an ally while be dealt with the others.
i) The Second Coalition 1799
· In the spring of 1799 the second coalition of Britain, Russia,
Austria and the Ottoman Empire was at war with France. Theoretically a
strong combination, it was in fact nothing of the sort.
· It was not in fact an overall coalition, but a series of separate
alliances, and even these links were not complete for there was no
alliance between Britain and Austria. Even more important there was no
agreement on a unified military strategy, nor was there a commitment
by the allies not to make a separate peace with France if it suited
their interests to do so.
· Although Austrian and Russian forces pushed the French out of Italy
in the summer of 1799, (this was part of the news which brought
Napoleon hurrying back from Egypt and hastened the coup d’etat of
Brumaire), an Anglo-Russian landing in Holland was unsuccessful and
led to recriminations between the British and Russian commanders over
whose fault it was that they had been defeated.
· Relations between the two countries worsened over the question of
control over French-held Malta, at that time being blockaded by
Britain but promised by her to Russia in due course. At the same time
a rift developed between Austria and the other two powers over
Austrian suspicions of British intentions in Belgium and Russian
ambitions in Italy.
· These differences exposed the much deeper divisions among the allies
on the whole nature of the war against France. Russia was
unsympathetic to the British view that the fight was one to destroy
the Revolution totally, while Austria favoured the eighteenth-century
view of the conflict as a limited one which would end in an exchange
of territory – perhaps Belgium for Sardinia.
· The defeat of the Russian army by the French near Zurich in
September 1799 led to the break-up of the Coalition, from which the
Tsar withdrew in November of that year.
· Over the winter of 1799-1800 Napoleon, now First Consul, tried, with
some success to win Tsar Paul over to his side, while also attempting
to make peace with Austria and Britain. As the two allies could not
agree between themselves what would be an equitable settlement, it
proved to be impossible to reach an agreement.
· As a result, Napoleon decided that if France was to have peace, he
would have to impose it, but to do this he would have to defeat one of
the allies first. Therefore he embarked on a second Italian campaign
aimed against Austria, and forced her to accept humiliating loss of
all her Italian possessions, except Venice, at the Peace of Luneville
(February 1801).
· Meanwhile, Tsar Paul, irritated by Britain’s refusal to give up
Malta and by her high-handed behaviour over the interpretation of some
aspects of maritime law, had formed a League of Armed Neutrality
(Russia, Sweden, Denmark and Prussia) to keep Britain out of the
· Although the assassination of the Tsar in march 801 and Nelson’s
bombardment of Copenhagen the following month brought the League to a
speedy end, the new Tsar, Alexander I, despite his anti-French
sympathies, showed no signs of wishing to form an Anglo-Russian
· Isolated and tired of war, Britain had little choice but to accept
the peace of Amiens in March 1802.
ii) The Third Coalition 1805
· In May 1803, after six months of deteriorating international
relations, Britain declared war on France. However, there is little
that Britain, with a strong navy but a very small army, could do on
her own. In 1804 William Pitt, who had become Prime Minister since the
continuation of hostilities, began the search for allies to join a
Third Coalition.
· He announced his willingness to pay subsidies on an unprecedented
scale to any ally willing to provide the troops needed to fight
Napoleon on the continent, but neither Russia, Austria nor Prussia
came forward.
· Austria and Russia were both anxious to see Napoleon defeated, but
were not prepared to work together, for each still blamed for other
for deserting the Second Coalition in 1799. In addition, Russia was
not prepared to co-operate with Britain because the question of Malta
was still unresolved.
· By the middle of 1805, evidence of Napoleon’s enormous ambitions,
his assumption of the title of Emperor and of King of Italy combined
to persuade Russia and Austria to join Britain in the Third Coalition.
· The coalition was fragile from the beginning because once again
there was no overall treaty uniting the three powers, and because each
of the members again had different wishes for the outcome of the war.
· This time the Tsar dreamed of a crusade for peace in Europe and an
extension of Russian influence in south-east Europe, Austria aimed to
recover her position in Italy and Germany, while Britain still wanted
the comprehensive defeat of France.
· Endeavours to persuade Prussia to join the Coalition had failed -
Napoleon’s tempting offer of Hanover (French since 1803) in return for
neutrality had been to attractive. This use of Hanover had been a
shrewd move by Napoleon, as the territory had previously belonged to
GeorgeIIIand its ‘passing on’ was bound to cause friction between
Britain and Prussia.
· Austria did not remain a member of the coalition for long. In
October her army was defeated at Ulm and she made a separate peace
with France.
· Prussia, resentful of pressure from Napoleon to supply him with
troops and to join the Continental Blockade against Britain,
eventually declared was on France in August 1806. However, her
adherence to the coalition was as short-lived as Austria’s had been.
Her army was totally defeated in October at the twin battles of
Jena-Auerstadt. The most powerful army of the Ancien regime had been
destroyed by Napoleon’s new style warfare.
· Russia, Britain’s other ally, had been involved in a distracting war
with the Ottoman Empire by the end of 1806. Taking advantage of this,
Napoleon launched an attack through Poland, and in the spring in 1807
won a decisive victory over the Russians at Friedland.
· Afterwards he was able to exploit the tsar’s resentment over the
inactivity of Britain and Austria and the poor military showing by
Prussia during 1806. At their private meetings at Tilsit in June 1807
Napoleon entirely captivated Alexander, who formally allied himself
with France.
· Prussia and Austria were left to the mercy of Napoleon. Both emerged
greatly weakened from the peace settlement, losing influence and
territory and being burdened with the payment of heavy war indemnities
to France.
· The Third Coalition was dead. Only Britain, which since 1805 had
played no part in Europe other than that of paymaster, still remained
at war with France. Once again, Napoleon ended had succeeded admirably
in playing on divisions between the allies, and then in picking them
off one by one.
Reasons for Napoleon’s-—————————-
Decline and Fall (1808-15)
a) The Military Situation
b) The Allies United
i) The Fourth Coalition 1813-15
ii) Final Defeat and the end of Napoleonic Europe
In the final campaign against Napoleon, France’s military difficulties
were exposed. What were the reasons?
· The Spanish and Russian ‘disasters’ had sapped morale.
· Armies had become too large for Napoleon either to control
effectively or to ensure that they were properly supplied and fully
· Napoleon’s early campaign had relied on mobility. Given, for
example, that he had 600,000 men at the start of the Russian campaign,
speed and flexibility were lost. His opponents’ armies also tended to
be large. Hence battles became more setpiece artillery clashes,
followed up by frontal assaults. He mass charge was used for battering
through the enemy centre.
· Casualties increased as a result – only 25,000 of the grand Armee
survived Russia. This increased the reliance on raw recruits and
non-French conscripts. They were less reliable.
· Opponents had copied Napoleon’s tactics. They used artillery and
speed, and were careful not to be lured into open battle.
· Napoleon’s generals lacked experience of taking the initiative.
There was no army staff to assist Napoleon, who often refused to share
tactics, ideals or details of the battle.
· Napoleon’s arrogance meant that he had failed to grasp how
dangerously opponents were becoming. This was particularly true of the
Fourth Coalition.
Although the frontiers of 1807 are not those of the Empire at its
greatest extent, that year does mark an important turning point in
Napoleon’s affairs. Napoleon’s three mainland enemies brought to heel,
and with the expectation that Britain would soon succumb to the
Continental Blockade, he was at the peak of his success. In November
1807, Russia declared war on her former ally, Britain. Any further
anti-French coalition was obviously impossible for the time being.
Napoleon would never again be so well placed to dominate Europe. There
were still victories to come and conquests to be made, but only at an
increased cost in men and materials and with great difficulty; and
there were to be disasters and defeats. The general trend from 1808
onwards was no longer upward. Decline did not, however, set in
What effect did the Continental System have on France?
· Continental System – After 1793 British goods were prohibited from
French territories. Napoleon expanded this as a way of weakening
Britain and protecting the Napoleonic Empire, which now became a huge
market for French goods. After that, the economic campaign against
Britain intensified. As First Consul in 1803, Napoleon banned British
goods from north-western Europe. The Berlin Decrees of 1806 had more
bite – the blockade of Britain would now mean that goods coming from
Britain (and colonial) parts would be excluded and seized.
As the Empire expanded, so Napoleon’s hopes of success rose. By 1807,
the Treaty of Tilsit brought Austria, Russia, Denmark, Sweden and
Portugal into the blockade. In December 1807, the Milan Decrees turned
the screw still tighter – if any neutral ship had called at a British
port, its cargo could be confiscated.
· The Continental System caused economic disruption, not only to its
intended victim but also to France. It proved impossible to enforce
and smuggling was commonplace.
· The French navy had been fatally weakened after the battle of
Trafalgar (1805) and, as French troops were required elsewhere, the
ban on British goods was continually being breached.
· While Britain’s economy was able to withstand the strain, there is
no doubt that considerable distress was caused. By 1810, Britain’s
balance of payments was suffering. Exports had declined and Britain
was short of gold to pay for imports.
· In France, the Atlantic trading areas, as well as the shipbuilding
industries, were badly hit. The linen industry of the north and west
was ruined.
· However, other areas benefited. Strasbourg and Marseilles developed
their trade with Germany, Italy and the east. Luxury goods developed
in Paris and Lyons.
· The System and its extension throughout the Empire gave French
industrialists a huge, protected market. Conquered people were forced
to buy French goods at inflated prices. Nevertheless demand did not
increase significantly. Alsace and Belgium did well, but elsewhere the
advantages were insignificant.
· In the final analysis, Napoleon’s attempts to extend the Continental
System proved catastrophic. This was partly the motive behind the
invasions of Spain and Russia – two campaigns which cost France dear.
Furthermore, the resentment which it caused throughout the Empire
contributed to the growth of Nationalism and opposition. Little wonder
that the Empire collapsed so rapidly. The continental System proved to
be a liability.
The Spanish Ulcer
· Should Napoleon ever have become involved in Spain? On the face of
it, there were good reasons for doing so. He wanted to extend the
Continental System and to plug a gap to stop British trade.
· Portugal remained out of Napoleon’s grasp. Not only were its ports
being used by the Royal Navy, but also just under a million pounds
worth of British exports passed through there.
· Perhaps Napoleon saw Spain as another country he could add to his
empire. Spain was in the hands of the weak Charles IV and the Queen’s
favourite Chief Minister, Godoy.
· In 1795, Spain had been forced to make peace with France. It was a
dishonourable settlement to many Spanish. Their country was compelled
to become France’s ally and supplier of men and resources.
· Napoleon insisted on the abdication of Charles IV and, for good
measure, made the Spanish heir, Ferdinand (who had no liking for the
French) renounce his claim to the throne.
· Instead Joseph, Napoleon’s brother, was to be crowned in Madrid. The
signs for Joseph were not encouraging.
· In May 1808, the ordinary people of Madrid started an insurrection
against Joachim Murat, who had been sent there with the French army.
The French suppressed the revolt and carried out horrifying reprisals.
· Joseph found himself in a largely hostile land, as Spain divided for
and against French. There were groups of Spanish people, many of them
from thee educated and middle class, who wanted to reform their
country and to draw on the French example to bring about change.
· However, the overwhelming impression is that Spain was willing to
take arms to liberate itself. The Spanish clergy stirred up opinion
against the French, who were identified with dechristianisation and
attacks on the Catholic Church. Hence the forces of tradition rose in
defence of Ferdinand’s cause.
· Juntas (local resistance committees) were formed and Spanish
partisans armed themselves. At Baylen, in July 1808, a French division
was defeated by Spanish forces. News of the first defeat of Napoleon
shot round Europe.
· Bonaparte called it a ‘horrible catastrophe’ and, in his anger,
ordered two corps of the Grand Armee to Spain. These 100,000 troops
were intended to do the trick. The Spanish junta appealed to England
for assistance. It arrived in the shape of Sir Arthur Wellesley (later
the Duke of Wellington) in August 1808, with 10,000 men. At Vimiero,
the French Army of Portugal was defeated.
· Despite always having numerically smaller forces, the English had
already realised two major advantages. Firstly, their Portuguese bases
meant that they would be supplied constantly by the Royal Navy.
· Secondly, and this was to be repeated later, well-trained English
musketeers standing in lines had blasted the French columns with
devastating effect. When Sir John Moore arrived to take over the
English force, even the presence of Napoleon himself (in November)
could not prevent French plans being wrecked.
· Moore paid particular attention to two important matters. Napoleon
didn’t. Napoleon failed to grasp the geography of Spain and its sheer
size. He didn’t give enough thought to supplies. Living off the land
would prove problematic, given the hostile population and their
‘scorched earth’ policy.
· Moore also played Napoleon at his own game. He manoeuvred to try to
cut Napoleon’s only line of communication back to France. The English
forces never quite achieved the blow they wanted to strike – and were
forced to retreat to Corunna in the west.
· Here they were evacuated by the British Navy, but not before they
had inflicted significant damage on the French forces and drawn them
away from their objectives – to retake Portugal and subdue the south
of Spain.
· In January 1809, Napoleon was forced to leave Spain .He never
retuned. The Austrians were planning an attack on the Danube so he
left Spain to French Marshals who disliked each other and who had
never been used to doing anything apart from obeying Napoleon’s
· Given the job of subduing the Spanish, they seemed incapable of
devising plans of their own to do this. Instead they quarrelled. Spain
became, to the French, an ‘ulcer’ right up to 1814.
· It sucked a quarter of a million French troops of enormous amounts
of gold. French invincibility and pride were dented, and the
Peninsular War became more and more unpopular in France.
· Sir Arthur Wellesley, with only 30,000 men, was well supplied. He
guarded Lisbon behind the huge fortifications known as the Lines of
the Torres Vedras. The Spanish employed ‘hit and run’ guerrilla
tactics – hitting French columns and supply lined before disappearing
back into the landscape.
· The French starved, while the Emperor scoffed at the English and the
Spanish. He never understood how to counter guerrilla warfare, how to
keep his men and supplied or how to give the war some realistic,
unified direction.
· In the end, Joseph was giving overall charge. This was not a wise
move. He had no grasp of military strategy. Wellesley broke out of the
Torres Vedras and, by 1813, he had defeated the French at Vitoria and
entered Madrid.
· Joseph, who had never effectively ruled Spain, turned on his heels.
Wellesley pursued his campaign and invaded France, defeating the
French at Toulouse in 1814.
· This war crippled France. Napoleon’s plans elsewhere were left in
taters. For example, there would be no Middle East campaign. If the
Peninsular campaign was meant to tighten the Continental Blockade, it
had proved an expensive failure. British goods poured through Portugal
and trade increased sixfold.
What French weakness did the Wagram campaign of 1809 expose?
· In 1808, Austria planned to recover lost pride – it wanted to
reclaim its status and assert its old influence over Germany and
Italy. War began in February 1809.
· The narrative is straightforward enough. Napoleon clashed with the
Austrians in Bavaria. Although battered, the Austrians retreated and
regrouped. Napoleon had entered Vienna but he then had to march
against further enemy to the nort hof the Danube.
· Napoleon only narrowly averted disaster. At Essling, he was
outnumbered and forced to retreat onto an island in the Danube. He
lost 20,000 men in a bloody exchange which again sapped French
· By July, with preparations complete, Napoleon met the Austrians
again – this time at Wagram. Napoleon was victorious in the epic,
two-day clash of artillery. Casualties on both sides were enormous.
Napoleon lost at least 32,000 men, while the Austrians retreated with
80,000 survivors.
· Peace was dictated to Austria at Schonbrunn. It was Napoleon’s last
great victory. The signs of French problems were disturbing.
o Napoleon’s troops were poorer quality – he had fewer veterans and
more raw recruits and foreigners (from satellite states) in the army.
At Wagram, some of these had deserted in the face of the enemy
onslaught. Ill-disciplin and terror had run through the ranks.
o Austria had been copying the French. Archduke Charles had more men
at his disposal, they were more mobile and supplies were more than
adequate. Their artillery had performed well but the French had lost
their lead.
o Not for the first time, Napoleon’s arrogance had led him to prepare
inadequately. Hence the defeat at Essling when he was faced with
superior numbers.
o The Spanish campaign and risings in Germany and the Alps also
diverted French troops from their main objectives. Once again,
Napoleon’s infallibility had been challenged. This served only to
encourage the spirit of resistance and to demoralise the French.
Why was the Russian campaign such a disaster?
· In June 1812, the French campaign against Russia began when the
river Niemen crossed. Why did Napoleon order the attack on Russia?
1. Tsar Alexander I was angry with Napoleon’s marriage alliance with
Austria (he married Marie-Louis in 1810). No attempt had been made by
the French to support Russia’s policy of expanding into the eastern
Mediterranean and taking Constantinople. French troops were stationed
in the east on the river Oder and in the Duchy of Oldenburg Russia
felt endangered by the close proximity of French troops. The fact that
the Duke of Oldenburg was married to the Tsar’s sister did not help
either. The Tsar was also concerned that France might want back Polish
land which Russia had taken in 1793 and 1795 when Poland was
2. Napoleon, however, nursed the most serious grievance. Russian trade
had been badly affected by the Continental System. At the end of 1810,
Alexander wrecked Napoleon’s trade embargo. He put tariffs on French
imports and let neutral ships (no doubt carrying British goods) into
Russian ports. Napoleon could no let this go unpunished. Both
Alexander I and Napoleon had an inflated sense ogf their own
importance. In this trial of strength, Napoleon was determined to
strike the first blow.
· Napoleon always claimed that this catastrophic campaign could be
blamed on the weather – freezing temperatures, ice and frostbite. Not
so. The campaign faced other problems that would be most difficult to
· Russia was too large – if Napoleon could not lure them into an open,
pitched battle quickly, then he might have to march hundreds of
kilometres in pursuit.
· If that happened, 600,000 troops would be impossible to supply. Many
men were untrained and badly disciplined. They were varied rabble
drawn fro mall over the Empire. Long supply lines would be prey to
enemy attack.
· The soldiers had only four days’ rations – it was planned that the
whole campaign would last only nine weeks. In the meantime, could
600,000 men ‘live off the land’? Unlikely, particularly sine the
Russians were setting fire to supply dumps as they fell back.
· The French had inadequate maps, poor clothing and few medical
supplies. Before they crossed into Russia, 60,000 men had fallen
because of disease.
· The omens did not look favourable. Once, Napoleon’s Grand Armee ahd
relied on speed and mobility. With no roads and with supply routes
blocked by deserters and corpses, the French lines were quickly
1. Hunger and disease slowed the army, which already had no forage
for supplies.
2. Vilna’s supply dumps were set on fire by the Russians who were
falling back rather than giving battle.
3. The French had suffered huge casualties mainly through starvation
and diseases, as well as through the raids by bands of Cossacks.
4. The Russian armies fell back from Smolensk. Anew commander
Mikhail Kutuzov, was appointed. He was careful, cunning and
5. Borodino – it was here that the open battle took place.
· Napoleon did not have good enough troops to outflank Kutuzov. So he
decided on a head-on attack. The battle lasted 10 hours. Casualties
were huge on ech side: the Russians lost 40,000 and the French
· Napoleon could claim a win because the Russians retreated. Kutuzov
also claimed a victory because he was able to escape with only 700
taken prisoners. He regrouped, south of Moscow, to protect rich
farmlands there.
6. On 14 September, Napoleon entered Moscow. His troops looted the
city while the Russian governor set fire to it. With supplies
being constantly attacked by Cossacks, Napoleon decided to retreat
- it was either that or starve. More than half of hisa rmy was
already dead.
7. On 19 October the retreat from Moscow began. Kutuzov harassed the
Grand Armee the whole way. The French were starving, ill and
moving desperately slowly. They lost 35,000 men in one week alone.
8. The winter was just beginning. As the temperature dropped, the
Russians decided to block Napoleon’s escape at the river Beresina.
Only the superhuman efforts of General Eble and his teams of
engineers saved what was left of the Grand Armee. Pontoon bridges
were built to replace the ones destroyed by the Russians and the
main force got across in time.
9. By December, in freezing temperatures, Napoleon left for Paris.
His departure almost led to the disintegration of the army. He had
been forced to leave because of news of a plot, led by the
royalist Malet, against him. Malet tried to set up a provisional
government before he was dealt with.
10. As the French regained order in retreat, only 25,000 of the
Grande Armee had survived. Poor discipline, poor planning, lack of
supplies and weak command had done the damage long before winter
had arrived.
a) The Military Situation
· There were changes in the armies and methods of warfare of both
Napoleon and his enemies after 1807. In that year, the Grand Armee was
still strong enough to defeat all who stood in its way, Austrians,
Prussians, or Russians.
· It had, however, lost many of its experienced and disciplined troops
and, although new recruits were available to fill the gaps, they went
into battle untrained and often unreliable.
· As a result, Napoleon’s earlier tactics of attack by columns of
infantry were no longer so successful and he began to rely much more
on sustained artillery barrages. As his armies became larger – over
600,000 crossed the Niemen into Russia with him in 1812 – they were
more difficult to manoeuvre and to provision on the march.
· His later campaigns had, therefore, to depend much less on surprise
elements of speed and mobility than before, and his battles to rely
much more on the sheer brute force of artillery duels or the weight of
numbers storming the enemy lines in a massed charge of cavalry or
infantry. His later victories were much costlier in men than the
earlier ones. For example, 30,000 were lost in Wagram in 1809 compared
with the 8,000 lost at Austerlitz in 1805. French loses overall in the
Austrian campaign of 1809 were almost equal to those of the enemy.
· Napoleon’s enemies stopped employing old-fashioned methods with
their armies. And learnt to play his own game. They copied his
tactics, became more flexible, and developed their artillery to match
his. They increased the size of their armies to equal or exceed his.
· The French army had been created as a national army, but by 1807 its
character had changed. It had become extremely cosmopolitan.
Two-thirds of the men were either non-French troops from the annexed
territories or foreign auxiliaries from the satellite states of the
Grand Empire.
· It was at this time that Prussia and Austria, after their disastrous
defeats, began replacing their old foreign mercenary armies with
national ones, designed to have a ’new structure, armament and
equipment in accordance with the new methods of warfare’.
· By adopting new methods and by learning how to pin napoleon down to
a more defensive style of warfare, by denying him the opportunity to
force an early and, he hoped, decisive battle, and in the end by
co-operating among themselves long enough to be able to field a
combined force of superior manpower, the allies learnt how to defeat
· To some extent, Napoleon played into the hands of his enemies by the
‘mistakes’ of the Spanish and Russian ventures, brought about by his
determination to force both countries to implement the Continental
Blockade against Britain.
· In both cases, he grossly miscalculated the sheer size of the
country he was hoping to conquer, and he was ill informed about either
the terrain or the climate he would encounter.
· Accustomed to allowing his armies to ‘live off the land’ in
countries they were campaigning in, he wrongly expected they could
also do so in Spain and Russia. In Spain, guerrilla fighters, and in
Russia scorched earth policies, produced unexpected difficulties for
the French troops.
· The ‘Spanish ulcer’ eventually cost Napoleon about 300,000 men and
3,000 million francs in gold, and brought the first serious defeats
for his armies. In Russia matters were even worse: nearly 500,000 men
dead, missing or taken prisoner, and 200,000 trained horses and 1000
guns lost – all in course of a campaign lasting only six months. This
enormous expenditure of experienced officers and men weakened the
French army, especially the cavalry, for future campaigns, leaving it
over-dependent on new levies of raw recruits.
· Even more important was that the disasters of 1812 and the defeats
in the Peninsular War shattered Napoleon’s reputation for military
· It had always been a weakness in his command structure that he did
not take his senior officers into his confidence when on campaign, nor
allow them any independence of action. He retained all power and all
decision making in his own hands. It was entirely personal leadership.
· In the early campaigns when his army was still quite small this did
not matter a great deal, but as armies became larger – already in 1806
Napoleon was at the head of an army at Jena of about 165,000 men
difficult to achieve.
· Even then Napoleon did not establish a permanent staff to share
command. He continued to tell his marshals what to do, and they
continued to do it. As a result, as in Spain for instance, they were
unavoidably left in charge in Napoleon’s absence from the country, his
senior staff proved quite unable to cope on their own.
· By 1814 Napoleon’s early self-confidence and determination had
degenerated into supreme egoism, obstinacy and unwillingness to face
facts – a fatal combination for a commander about to meet for the
first time a united enemy able to deploy a numerically superior
combined force.
b) The Allies United
i)The Fourth coalition 1813-15
· The Russian debacle encouraged a general diplomatic reshuffle, whish
began in February 1813 with the signing of an anti-French alliance by
Russia and Prussia.
· Tsar Alexander now saw himself as the saviour of Europe. He believed
he had a Christian mission to complete the defeat of Napoleon and to
free Europe from tyranny.
· Under his leadership, the Fourth Coalition, initially composed of
Russia, Prussia and Britain, was formed in 1813. It was still not a
full, united alliance, being based only on separate bilateral treaties
between Britain and Russia and Britain and Prussia.
· In the early summer of 1813 a Russo-Prussian campaign in central
Europe met with some success and in June, Napoleon – with a much
weakened army after his losses in Russia, and forced to fight on two
fronts by the continued conflict in Spain – accepted Austrian
proposals for an armistice and a peace conference.
· Austria’s attitude towards the Fourth Coalition had so far been one
of hesitant suspicion. The Chancellor, Matternich, distrusted
Russo-Prussian ambitions in Germany, and Napoleon’s marriage to
Marie-Louise had left Austria in an awkward position as a nominal ally
of France, but in August 1813 Austria, tired of Napoleon’s
unwillingness to negotiate a peace settlement, declared war on France.
· It was the first occasion on which all the other great powers,
Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria, were at war with Napoleon at the
same time; but there was still no single alliance binding them
· The end of the armistice led to renewed fighting, and in October the
numerical superiority of the combined armies Austria, Prussia and
Russia enabled them to win a decisive but expensive victory at Leipzig
in the three-day ‘Battle of the Nations’.
· With the loss of the battle, Napoleon also lost control over Germany
and was forced to retreat to the Rhine and the defence of the ’natural
frontiers’ of France.
· Napoleon’s only hope was that Austria, Prussia and Russia would
quarrel over the future of Germany and Poland and that the coalition
would collapse as a result. This was Britain’s fear, but it was
averted when intense diplomatic pressure by the British government led
to the imposition of the Treaty of Chaumont on the coalition in March
· This treaty, which converted the coalition into a Quadruple
Alliance, committed each of the four powers no to conclude a separate
peace, but to fight on until Napoleon was defeated.
· They would then remain in alliance for 20 years while political and
territorial plans, outlined in the treaty, were put into effect in a
post-Napoleonic Europe. At long last the allies had come together in a
properly united alliance of powers legally bound to each other in a
common purpose.
ii) Final Defeat and the End of Napoleonic Europe
· The Grand Empire collapsed very quickly after the Battle of the
Nations in 1813. It had always depended on military supremacy. That
lost, the satellite states began to desert Napoleon. Several minor
states actually went over to the allies in return for promises to
respect the sovereignty.
· At the end of March 1814 an allied advance captured Paris, and in
April, Napoleon abdicated unconditionally as Emperor of the French.
· The first Treaty of Paris (May 1814) began the long process of
reaching a peace settlement by reducing France to her 1792 borders.
Almost immediately after the treaty was signed the allies fell out
with one another.
· Matters became so hostile that Britain and Austria, encouraged by
the restored Bourbon government of France, made a secret alliance
against Prussia and Russia.
· The Coalition was only saved by the sudden return of Napoleon from
Elba in March 1815 and the need to restore the wartime co-operation.
This was successfully achieved, enabling Britain and Prussia to join
forces at the battle of Waterloo.
· After Napoleon’s final abdication and exile in June, the second
Treaty of Paris (November 1815) reduced the frontiers of France still
further to those of 1790.
· There remained the problem of the territories of the French Empire
and of the satellite states. Each of the allies had different views on
what should be done and great power unity was constantly threatened by
suspicion and disagreement. However, it was accepted by all the allies
that France needed to be contained within her revised frontiers and
that this could be best done by surrounding her with a ring of buffer
states – not the weak and feeble neighbours who had collapsed in
1792-3, but strong, potentially hostile states would prevent any
future French aggression.
· To the south, Austrian influence was restored in northern Italy in
Lombardy and Venice, and a newly strengthened kingdom of
Sardinia-Piedmont (including nice, Genoa and Savoy) guarded the
Italian frontier with France; to the north, Belgium was united with an
independent Holland behind a fortified frontier with France; while to
the east, Switzerland’s guaranteed independence barred the way, as did
the Rhinelands, now a part of Prussia.
· In this way the frontiers which France had threatened mostly often
during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were blocked off.
· As far s the satellite states were concerned it was generally,
though not completely, conservative settlement. In Italy, Naples was
returned to Bourbon rule and the other states were restored to their
pre-1796 boundaries and mostly to their former ruling families.
· The Papal States were returned to the Pope. In Germany, Napoleon’s
general suppression of a large number of minor German states was
confirmed and 41 (later reduced to 38) sovereign states were brought
together in a new German Confederation, whose borders were not
dissimilar to those of the old Holy Roman Empire.
· Russia acquired most of the Poland and Spain was returned to Bourbon
· The map of Europe again looked much the same as it had done in the
eighteenth century, the Napoleonic Empire had disappeared.

Robert Maynard Pirsig Bibliography

Robert Maynard Pirsig BibliographyWhen he returns, he marries his first wife, Nancy Ann James, an administrator, on May 10, 1954. (2) Working many jobs, including an instructor for English composition at Montana State College and instructor of rhetoric at the University of Illinois, he receives a break and then becomes a technical writer for a variety of technical institutions. Though the time period could not be found (puzzling?), I believe his transition from teacher to writer was when he suffered his “mental breakdown”. During this event he received electric shock treatment, which coincides with Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. He divorced on August, 1978 and remarried to Wendy L. Kimbell on December 28, 1978. His first child, Christopher, from the first marriage dies shortly after on November 17, 1979.(1)He is now living in New Hampshire with his wife and 2 kids, Theodore and Nell. He tries to remain reclusive explaining“The Buddhist monk has a precept against indulging in idle conversation, and I think the basis of that precept is what motivates me.” (Letter from Robert Pirsig to Boduar Skutuik, August 17th, 1997)While residing here he released his newest book, Lila: An Inquiry into moral, released in 1991. He is currently working on an anthropological research piece, relating to metaphysics of quality to modern cultural problems. Mostly he is just enjoying relaxing after a hard life.Bibliography:(1) Robert Maynard Pirsig: Discovering Authors Modules
http://galenet.galenet.com(2) Motorcycle Maintennance: BMWCLUB




Is Anybody Listening?

Is Anybody Listening?Okay, ready or not, here I go on my, what may be considered an overly naïve, reflection of my experience in this course, Feminist and Critical Pedagogies in English Studies. Through my reading and writing in this course I have come to many realizations about myself as a possible teacher and what I want to see start happening in writing classrooms. First and most importantly, I want to see teachers more connected and active in the process of their students writing and learning, as I have outlined in my research paper for this course. I believe if students and teachers connect more whether it is through a ìnurturing attitudeî on the part of the teacher or a more ìempathicî role of a teacher students will be able to understand ìwhereî teachers are coming from and why certain kinds of writing and expression are necessary and vice versa. I also would like to see the act of writing taken to the next level in colleges and universities. I think that teaching writing should not be relegated as non-intellectual and taught only at the freshman level. Programs such as Writing Across the Curriculum, which many colleges use, should be mandated at all public universities with the hope the private ones will catch on. This type of program magnifies the importance of writing for all students no matter what field he or she is entering into. While these goals seem a bit grand for me to accomplish in this lifetime, they are the issues which I am found myself thinking about again and again throughout this semester. I feel very strongly that there is a tremendous value is the ability to write well and communicate ideas in an organized, correct, and functional essay or any other form of writing. Hopefully in achieving some of these goals this end will be accomplished.
Through the class readings on nurturance and my own separate research on the subject I have come to believe strongly that a nurturing attitude in the composition classroom is a must for student learning. I know that many teacher and theorists, alike, believe that being more connected to students and sharing with them a more understanding attitude along with personal experiences, would negate any authority that this teacher would have in the classroom. This is a valid caution because students might very well take advantage of this kind of situation where a teacher leaves him or herself vulnerable. However, I believe that if a teacher is good at being an authority this would not happen. From my own experiences, I see a tremendous amount of authority in the mere presence of a teacher and if he or she makes that authority verbally known at the start I donít see he or she having a problem with trying to be connected to his or her students. Aside from problem arising out of a nurturing attitude I would also like to refer back to Susan C. Jarrettís essay, ìFeminism and Composition,î we read earlier in the semester that really inspired me to write about the value of nurturance as my final paper topic. Jarrett views the ideal composition course as one ìÖin which students argue about the ethical implications of discourse on a wide range of subjects and, in so doing, come to identify their personal interests with others, understand those interests as implicated in a larger communal setting, and advance them in a public voiceî(121). At the beginning of this reflection essay I noted that the ideas I came away from this course with are a bit naïve and here is where this is most apparent. I know such a classroom might not exist yet, but it is my hope that through nurturing and connected teaching that students are able to become empowered and see the importance of who they are personally in relation to their academic setting.
In ìWriting Beyond the Curriculum,î Steve Parks and Eli Goldblatt assert that writing must not be restricted to the writing classroom and brought into other areas of the college curriculum along with secondary schools and the community as a whole. This essay really made me think about the overall and all-encompassing important role of writing. While I felt that Parks and Goldblatt took on a little too much in trying to incorporate writing into everyoneís lives, I was inspired as to the importance of writing as a basic function all people should possess. I think their emphasis on Writing Across the Curriculum is important because it ensures that every person graduating from the college, no matter what their major, has a strong writing foundation that he or she can carry with them for the rest of his or her life. Too often students think that just because they are math or science majors that the ability to write strong prose is not important for them. This idea, however, is not true and more often than not these same people will be expected to write well later on in life. Therefore, I only see benefits for students now and in their future lives if they learn how to write and write well!!
Even though I began my reflection stating that it was naïve and restating it later, I truly believe my goals for the future can be reached. This is my first semester as a graduate student and I am not sure if I am going to be a teacher and/or be able to realize any of these goals. I am certain, however, that whether I implement them or not, teachers and theorists will begin to realize their logical merit. Theorists such as Jarrett, Parks, and Goldblatt have in part started the ìball rollingî and I do not believe it will stop with them. I see great things happening in the composition classroom in the future and I believe nurturing teaching and an emphasis on cross curriculum writing will be a part of it.

Rupert’s Land: The Division Lies Only in Interpretation

Rupert’s Land: The Division Lies Only in InterpretationBefore I get right down to analyse Pannekoek and Spry I must give the general background that the two essay use as their base. The Rupert’s Land of Red River has many ethnic groups. The two that are concentrated on, as Pannekoek I believe accurately puts it, are the English speaking Protestant mixed blood (Half-breeds, respectively) and the French speaking Catholic mixed blood (Metis, respectively) . It must also be know the location of Rupert’s Land to get a proper mental picture of the events. Rupert’s Land, Red River, was in what today would be (fill in later when you find location).The main point that Frits Pannekoek makes in her essay is as follows. Panekoek reasons that there are differences between the Metis and the Half-breeds that led them to form to groups apart from each other, with a bitter relationship between the two . Pannekoek believes that “In fact there was little unity between the two groups during the Riel Resistance” . I must start of my first main point by saying that essential there is much reliability to what Frits Pannekoek is saying. The two groups were divided to an extent in this time, at least in some of the main areas that Pannekoek explores. Pannekoek’s whole essay seems to be based mainly on the division of religion, conflicting to decide polities in the Red River colony, between the Mixed Blood Catholics and the Protestants. I see Pannekoek to be right in saying that this effected the majority of the Native population in Red River.The reader sees that “The first petition [for political change] came in June of 1856 from the Protestant clergy” . “They did not wish for the removal of the Councillors, only that vacancies were filled by election, and that settlement be divided for that purpose into districts” . As the essay is read on it is apparent that this is only the first of many petitions and complaints from both of the groups. Now that the agitation has begun, even to by this small request, a bitter ex- Hudson’s bay Company employee named William Kennedy returned to Red River . Kennedy now became a leader of sorts for the Protestant side along with his relative Alexander Kennedy Isbister and local men Donald Gunn, James Ross, and Rev. John Black. Meetings were starting, they were held in the Half-breed parishes where William Kennedy wanted the people “to elect five members, including himself and Isbister, to serve in the provincial legislature of Canada” . With the arrival of John Palliser, head of the British expedition to the North-West, we see some what of a rest in agitation from the Canadian party(mainly Catholic) side, and a stirring on the Protestant side . When Rev. G.O. Corbett, of the church of England, arrived in 1858 his arousing agitation towards the Catholic Metis and the church of Rome let him to become the predominant leader on the side of the Protestant Half-breeds . Corbett said “that their future lay with a Protestant Crown colony firmly affixed to the British Empire” . We now see that the two groups are more clearly divided with the protestant English speaking Half-breeds on the side with Corbett to make Red River a crown Colony, and the French speaking catholic Metis who hated Corbett and that were against the idea of crown colony as Kennedy was . We then see that Corbett, backed by the Half-breeds circulated a petition for crown colony status . This petition was fittingly counter circulated by a counter petition by Kennedy mainly backed by the Catholic French speaking Metis who wanted no part of Corbett and his crown colony antics. We now see petitions and counter petitions thrown back and forth between the two sides, most of them going ignored. As the tensions between the two groups continue Corbett is jailed on charges of Abortion . The groups are now not only split between pro-crown and anti-crown, but the supporters of Corbett stand behind him. Corbett and his followers said that he was falsely accused by the company of Assiniboia(He saw to be mainly Catholics). Mainly the Catholics stood with the company against Corbett, and the Protestants believed Corbett and stood behind him . In 1865 the Half-breeds succeeded in liberating Red River from the Hudson’s Bay company, with their restrictive trade and the Catholic Roman Church . “With Red River a Crown Colony, they would follow Corbett, a thoroughly Protestant Englishman” .The end to the political struggle in the Red River colony between the Protestant Half-breeds and the Catholic Metis is not of real importance to the point of my essay. However the difference in the religious struggle for political rule that Pannekoek shows us is important. I believe that Pannekoek was wrong in saying that the Native groups of Red River were Divided. Pannekoek would have simply been better off to state that the differences that existed in Red River about Crown Colony rule split apart the Catholic and Protestant mixed bloods of Rupert’s land. After focussing on the essay a few times, it is important to see that he two groups had a serious difference or two, but it is inaccurate to conclude from this essay that they were unanimously divided in all life at Red River.When I move on to the essay that is presented by Irene M. Spry I am tended to think that she hit the broader topic that Faits Pannekoek fell a bit short in showing. Spry shows us that even know Pannekoek was right in showing that the natives of Red River were divided on such issues of polities and government, they were not two worlds separated.
Irene M. Spry first seeks to show us that “far from being mutually hostile, Metis and Mixed-Bloods were ……linked by ‘ties of blood and of long association on hunt and trip’” . Second spry shows us, in a very good point, that there was a variety of language in Red River. “Many Metis and Mixed bloods, at least among the elite, spoke both french and English, as well as one or more of the Indian languages” . Spry also shows us that there were a number of marriages were occurring between the mixed-blood and Metis groups . There was also evidence that was discovered from the Protestant parishes to show a number of these marriages were of French and non- French names . The vast list that Spry provides us in her essay is very concrete factual records obtained through her research (church registers). I can look at the chart in front of me and see some of the cross-Marriages that took place between 1820 and 1860. When you view this evidence it is easy to accurately conclude, as Spry did, that “the Metis and Mixed-Blood communities cannot hae been rigidly isolated from each other” . It is also evident through the writings Spry researched that members of each of the parishes went to each others parties, and also their children attended school together . Spry shows record that a school teacher had recorded having had both French and English speaking children in her school house . Even know her evidence is small, Spry also suggests that the Metis and the Mixed-bloods joined together for the great Red River buffalo hunt . I addition to the Buffalo hunt the two groups seem to have merged together for frighting, even carrying on to the winter via dog sled . “The Hudson’s Bay Company’s account books the names of some of the trip-men who received advances….gives a mingle-mangle of French and non-French names” . What I find particularly interesting is the fact that Spry sheds light on the fact that there are more then just two groups in Rupert’s Land, there are also Scots, Irishmen and others . Evidence of a party in 1832 consisting of French, Scot, Metis and Half-breeds went to the United States to bring back heard of sheep, suggests contact between all the groups . In another example when Henry Youle Hind set off in 1858 for west plains he was accompanied by Scotch, and various half breeds consisting of Cree, Ojibway and french .Sprys last main point is the fact that the Metis and the Half-breeds often worked together for their own betterment in the Red River, not always against each other as was seen in the Pannekoek essay. W.L Morton noted that when a petition was sent c.1846 for the institutions of the Colony to reflect the ethnic composition of the members it was doing so speaking for the English and French Half-breeds . Also another petition in 1851 another petition was sent by the Aborigines Protection Society asking for amendments such as a judge appointed in Red River to speak both French and English . This evidence shows us that even know there tended to be small cleavages between the two groups in Red River there was some lasting unities when it was beneficial to both groups as a whole.
Now that I hae broken down and analysed both of the essays I believe that it is easier to see that both Frits Pannekoek and Irene M. Spry had well written essays. Pannekoek made the point that the two groups in Red rivers had a major difference, and this was shown through the clerical evidence that she researched. Spry I believe showed me that the two groups may have had such underlying problems as Pannekoek notes, however they also seemed to live a life that was intertwined with each other. I believe that both Authors are very persuasive in their respective essay, however when analysed and broken down the reader can see that aspects of both essays can be used to determine that just like any groups of a society the two Native groups of Rupert’s land were at times separated other times they were not. As seen I tend to sway more to Spry’s well researched essay, but Pannekoek’s positive points had to be mentioned to get a broad picture. I proceeded to do this by addressing the respective essay one at a time, then bringing some ideas together. I now believe that the History of the Mixed Blood Catholics and the Protestants in Rupert’s land is now clearer when the two are brought together.

Samuel Barber

Metaphysical Poetry

Metaphysical Poetry“Movement across or through space becomes a process
of colonization of that space.”During the period of Milton’s Paradise Lost as well as myriad of poets
construction of an epoque submerged in metaphysical literature, a
number of significant events both socio-political, entwined with a
systematic religious metamorphism of the sixteenth and seventeenth
century led to a time of unrest and discovery. The creators and
author’s of work of this periods placed their emphasis not specifically
on a level of morality or self understanding but rather a rediscovery
of the body and soul, almost a form of existensionalism or physical
cosmos with a geography. ’All things are subject to the Mind… It
measures in one thought the whole circumference of heaven and by the
same line it takes the geography of the earth. The seas, the air, the
fire all things of either, are within the comprehension of the mind.It has an influence on them all, whence it lakes all that may be
useful, all that may be helpful in government. No limitation is
prescribed to it, no restriction is upon it, but in a free scope it has
a liberty upon all. And in this liberty is the excellence of the mind;
in this power and composition of the mind is perfection of a man… Man
is an absolute master of himself; his own safety, and tranquillity by
God… are made dependent on himself.’1 In this short example of
Puritanism text as it stands, alone contains a number of various
references to the process of colonization, of expanding, perceiving all
geographically and manipulating, making man or perhaps more
specifically the colonisers omniscient and God-like. The crusader
self-reliant and independent with the knowledge that God is his
guardian of safety and tranquillity. In this particular the growing
number of Puritans played a significant role both in the cultivation
and transformation of the Christian religion and foreign territories.The Puritans themselves comprised of those in the Church of England
unhappy with limitations of the Elizabethan Settlement; some were
Presbyterians, and all were to some extent or other Calvinists (though
not all Calvinists were Puritans). They were a people of scrupulous
moral rigour and favoured plain styles of dress, detesting any form of
luxury or decadence. The name Puritan later became a catch-all label
for the disparate groups who led much of the New World colonization and
won the English Civil Wars. New World colonization began as early as
1480 by English seamen performing spectacular feats of exploration
under Elizabeth I. These seamen made various claims of territorial
annexation in America in an effort to outflank their Spanish rivals
however, all foundations of permanent colonies proved abortive until
the early 17th century. Thereafter, there was steady progress in
acquiring territories in the Caribbean and mainland North America.Much settlement in the latter had a religious motive, with colonists
seeking to escape the constraints of the English Established Church.As a result, there was an uneasy relationship between many colonial
administrations and the royal government at home. Further to these
tensions the ‘colonies were split in their allegiances during the civil
wars in Britain, but Charles I derived little useful help from those
who supported his cause. The collapse of James II regime (1688-9)
proved a blow to the efforts of Westminster to encroach on ! self-rule
in North America. The relationship between the centre and the colonies
remained problematic right until the War of American Independence.’2The metaphysical tradition established during the seventeenth century
can find its foundations in the colonization explorations and the
domestic unrest caused by the civil wars. The combination of the two
contextually, both in spirituality, imagery and definitions of time and
space; have the unique effect of creating a devout religious
protagonist’s perceptions of his environment and its history,
encompassed in as often was the case one work of art, as a testimony to
the period and the Church of England. Frequently such works could be
found in the form of poetry, commonly regarded as the most eloquent and
essential part of the English language as a means of communications,
via its plurality, richness of language and syntax. Poets of the era
harnessed the tools of poetry to the spiritual essence of their
communication create an impact of divine, gospel-like proportions,
which were received and regarded as perhaps the most innovative and
highly appreciated works of poetry! to have arisen.One such poet was John Milton whose epic work Paradise Lost (written in
1667) was ultimately the last and great Adamite3 work. John Milton
(1608-74), was an English poet, the son of a composer of some
distinction. The preparation for his life’s work included attendance
at St. Paul’s School, Christ’s College and Cambridge for several
years. His reputation as a poet preceded him as addressed to the
conscience of Europe. As fame through his work augmented so with it
did his political career. ‘The theme of Paradise Lost (completed 1665,
published 1667) had been in Milton’s mind since 1641. It was to be a
sacred drama then; but when in 1658 his official duties were lightened
so as to allow him to write, he chose the epic form. The first three
books reflect the triumph of the godly—so soon to be reversed; the
last books, written in 1663, are tinged with despair. God’s kingdom is
not of this world. Man’s intractable nature frustrates the planning of
the wise. The hetero! dox theology of the poem which is made clear in
his late De Doctrina Christiana did not trouble Protestant readers till
modern critics examined it with hostile intent.‘4 Part of the poem’s
greatness, apart from its length, is a function of the visual immediacy
with which Milton realizes the imagined scenes. Milton has been
criticized for glossing over certain contemporary developments in
scientific and intellectual thought (the astronomical ambiguities in
book VII, for example), eg’…. What if the sun
Be centre to the world , and other stars
By his attractive virtue and their own
Incited, dance about him various rounds?5
Their wander course now high, now low, then still
Progressive, retrograde, or standing still,
In sixth thou seest, and what if seventh to these
The planet earth, so steadfast though she seem,
Insensibly three different motions move?6
Which else to several spheres thou must ascribe,7The poem’s realism is that of a myth, and its credibility dependent on
the outlines of Christian belief, rather than specific historical
details. The entire concern or major theme of Paradise Lost is to
confute predestination and demonstrate the freedom of will. However
Satan is portrayed as an almost romantic, recognizable character with
whom we share every twist and turn his thinking takes throughout his
physical and mental journey. Satan can easily be perceived as the bold
intrepid colonist, not lacking the courage of his convictions, be it at
the expense of being exiled from the vaults of heaven. With the
strength of classical precedents, Milton’s cosmology refracts a
seemingly incomprehensible geography of fantastic proportions,
utilising allusive language to describe the indescribable.Nevertheless this did not deter some illustrators attempting to
recapture the imagery of Militon’s Cosmos.Satan’s fall from grace to a desolate place of fathomless voids, yet
unpopulated, turns Satan’s disgrace into a voyage before a quest with a
mission, not unlike that of the colonisers. In Book I the voyage of
these unchartered and as yet inanimate destinations began when Satan
and his host are:Hurl’d headlong flaming from th’ Ethereal sky
With hideous ruin and combustion down
To bottomless perdition, there to dwell
In Admantine chains and penal Fire.For nine days they fall through Chaos till:Hell at last
Yawning receiv’d them whole, and on them clos’d,
Hell their fit habitation fraught with fire
Unquenchable, the house of woe and pain.They splash down into a burning lake, and, looking around, discover
themselves much changed from their original angelic form, similarly
their surroundings are:A Dungeon horrible, on all sides round
As one great Furnace flam’d, yet from those flames
No light, but rather darkness visible
Serv’d only to discover sights of woe,
Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace
And rest can never dwell, where hope never comes
That comes to all; but torture without end>From which they make their way to land:… yon dreary Plain, forlorn and wild,
The seat of desolation, void of light,
Save what the glimmering of these livid flames
Casts pale and dreadful.Nonetheless, like a colonizer in a one of the worst far flung corners
of the globe, claiming whatever he passes as his own, Satan makes the
best of his circumstances:Farewell happy Fields
Where Joy for ever dwells; Hail horrors, hail
Infernal world, and thou profoundest Hell
receive thy new PossessorMeanwhile the demons begin work creating a splendiforous palace,
Pandemonium, perhaps the most palatial structure in Hell’s history to
match that of heaven. Satan’s acceptance of his situation, is
analogous to a determined settler determined to cultivate his
surroundings as his own before expanding further afield.Later the demons swarm to the council to decide on an acceptable plan
of action. Amidst the demons and second in rank is Envy; he tells of
“another World, the happy seat / Of some new Race cal’d Man,” and
suggests that they subvert it “and drive as we were drive,/ The puny
habitants; or, if not drive/ Seduce them to our Party.” This is
perhaps the most substantive and overbearing allusion to colonisation
of the New World, meant literally in this context. The eager demons
might well be a metaphorical representation of the religious convoys
who were frequently sent ahead with the intent of settling and were
hell bent on converting the original inhabitants of the land into
their own kind, to adopt them into their religion, their community, so
that by manipulating and corrupting them they could seize advantage of
their innocence by blatantly encroaching on their land and property,
with minimal opposition.Another part adventure to discover wide
That dismal World, if any Clime perhaps
Might yield them easier habitationSatan’s heroic-like journey continues through treacherous conditions,
having to pass inhospitable terrain and fauna, before reaching “thrice
threefold” gates of Hell, three of brass, three of iron, and three of
adamantine rock, guarded by Sin and Death. On managing to escape
Milton’s world of Hell he eventually reaches earth where subtly tempts
Eve with the forbidden fruit of knowledge until Eve concedes and eats
leading to their loss of paradise. An analogy could be drawn here
between Satan and the colonisers of the period enduring a tiresome
journey and then tempting the inhabitants (Adam and Eve) with the
prospect of wealth through trade; and on acceptance, thus marking their
own loss and transgression into a state of perpetual inferiority
thereafter in respect of the colonisers. Adam and Eve the original
settlers are beguiled by Satan’s corruptness through their own innocent
naivity. In respect of Paradise Lost and the theme of colonisation we
can the course marked by Satan via his journey (see diagram) is
regarded as his geography, despite having finally accomplished his
course of action.Further on in books V-VII we have elaborate description of the
landscape of Paradise, which is used the manifesto of colonialism
through religious dynamics and instability. The schematics of
geography and the final mappings that became increasingly important, in
so far as territories, progression of colonization and like, even God
himself charters the stars in a calculated GenesisHe took the golden compasses, prepared
In God’s eternal store, to circumscibe
This universe, an all created things:
One foot he centred, and the other turned
Round through the vast profundity obscure,
And said, Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds
This by thy just circumference8Milton himself somewhat of a nationalist puritan poet in response tothe issue of reformation, firm in the belief that the English were
God’s chosen people addressed parliament asking:Why else was this Nation chos’n before any other, that out of her as
out of Sion should be proclam’d and sounded forth the first tidings and
trumpet of Reformation of all Europ. And had it not bin the obstinat
perversnes of our Prelats against the divine and admirable spirit of
the Wicklef, to suppresse him as a scismatic an innovator… the glory
of reforming all our neighbours had bin compleatly ours.9Similarly if not more so the concepts of colonialism, the systematic
functions of identifying, locating and securing are no better
displayed, conveyed or apparent than in writings of the metaphysical
poets.Man is all symmetrie,
Full of proportions, one limbe to another,
And all to all the world besides:
Each part may call the furthest, brother:
For head with for hath private amitie,
And bothe with moons and tides.10In this brief extract taken from George Herberts poem Man we can see
the extent to which this evangelical poem – using maps and geometry to
define the protestant server and his maker. A new method of language
and metaphors had become available and poets did not hasten to
incorporate as many different styles as possible to create an identity,
using the terminology associated to science, in order to define. A
place for everything and everything in its place, reaching the
conclusion that God is omnipresent, after having used language to
process His location. Likewise John Donne an acclaimed poet of his
period, and as Dean of Saint Paul’s Cathedral was a seemingly
inexhaustible source of spirituality with which to ordain his poems.Licence my roving hands, and let them go
Behind, before, above, between, below
Oh my America, my new found lande,
My kingdome, safeliest when with on man man’d
My myne precious stones my Empiree
How blest I am this discovering thee11In this his poem named, Elegie: To His Mistress Going to Bed the
allusions to colonialism are by no means marginalised. Donne paints a
scene of a woman undressing, in which his description has the duality
of de-sexualising, whilst sexualising. The emphasis and attention paid
on material objects such as the garments are for all intents and
purposes dehumanising. The description of clothes are paralleled to
the colonial, metaphysical conceits discovery and of ownership, whilst
mapping. Ostensibly what Donne endeavours to do is colonise the body
of the woman. Although considerable language and detail is spent in
describing the layers of clothing the purpose of which to emphasise the
letting go of material objects. The infinite quest of the spiritualist
could be that longing for the return to innocence, of spirituality and
spiritual embodiment can only be achieved when irrelevant and
extravagant thoughts of materialism and clothes are disregarded. Once
the woman is void of! all external graces and is the way nature
intended, only then does the journey of exploration commence, to
discover the essence of human nature, the spiritual manifestation of
passion merely acting as a catalyst in the celebration of sexuality.The theme of a quest, searching, mapping territory or bodies, geography
of mind, body and soul, unrest and all that is external is apparent in
a large proportion of what was written in the seventeen century,
religious unsettlement serving only to fuel, scepticism or convictions
further. The majority of metaphysical poems have similar themes and
imagery, often set in room, study or office, any private enclosure
reminiscent of a confession booth. Writing poetry in the form of a
confessional is used as a moment of introspection. The new awareness
of questions rising with new religious identities of new churches
necessitated these occasions of profound reverence and occasional
enlightenment, in a journey through their own spirituality. Poetry
was writing for private readership, a confessional in the form of a
diary, debating with themselves and God. The status of body, that of
men and women, the relationship between themselves with one another,
and God were all predominati! ng factors in their writing. Poetry was
written private realms for a private readership with no public address.
A parody may even be draw between Milton circumstances and his vision
of Satan, during on of his profound moments of reflection:Me miserable! which was shall I fly
Infinite wrath, and infinite despair?
Which way I fly is hell; myself am hell;12I may be useful to think of Satan in the light of ‘likening spiritual
to corporal forms’, partly as representative of the public world of
politics and rebellion, and his presentation as an exploration of the
ambitions and failures, the egotism and despair, that public life
offers. In this his role is therefore complemented in the poem by the
private, domestic world of Adam and Eve, in whose interpersonal
relations are enacted the possibilities and problems of freedom and
self-restraint. In metaphysical poetry the body was seen as a secular
vessel, embodied with a spiritual love of the world, attached to a
humanist concept that pre mined to embody God within the
body of man. Colonialism expanse across the America’s induced imagery
through language; exploring, discovery, conquering, divine protection,
geometry, geography, astronomy, navigation and science were the
foundations on which metaphysical poetry evidently propelled itself to
growing popularity at a time of general social, political and religious
unrest. The Sunne Rising also created by Donne was slightly more
satirical, yet maintaining that man was ultimately the ruler of his own
world, and God being embodied in wherever he be therein. The sun is
employed as a metaphysical conceit, with man being able to block it
and the other element with a single wink.Thy beams, so reverend and strong
Why shouldst thou think?
I could eclipse and cloud them with a winke,13With reference of imperial history he no longer needs to explore to
India, for it is already traced and recorded on a map before him. His
self-elevation and lack of humanity are comparable to that of Milton’s
Satan. Around the same period other works of post-colonial art were be
developed, no doubt heavily influenced by contemporary issues. One
such example is Shakespeare’s final work and tragi-comedy The Tempest
(1611), interposed and concerned with the theme of the elevation of one
myth above another, recurrent impact of colonialism, morality and the
loss of innocence. Shakespeare’s unique style of writing is as a
direct result of a plethora of influences, one of which was
’Montaigne’s essay Of Cannibals which discussed the value and the way
of life of societies which had not been affected by civilisation of a
European type. In addition to this essay a pamphlet circulate called
The Discovery of the Bermudas , otherwise called the Isle of Divels,
may have played a crucial role. This pamphlet described the bold
adventures of a religious group of colonist travelling in a convoy of
ships from London to Virginia. However during the voyage, the flagship
was separated from the remainder! of the convoy in a storm. The
maverick ship inadvertently blew towards Bermuda before being tossed
onto some rocks. The colonists lived on the islands until they had
built boats in which to continue their voyage. The story of their
almost miraculous survival aroused considerable interest in England and
echoes of their adventure can be found in The Tempest. With little
regard of the more elaborate themes images the tale is one of a landing
on a island, a veritable paradise, already inhabited by Caliban (often
spelt ‘canibal’ by Elizabethans by transposing the letters ‘n’ and ‘l’)
a wild, deformed uncivilised beast (representative of native settlers),
who is quickly manipulated, overthrown and enslaved by Prospero (King
of Milan). Caliban and his environment are parallelled to those of the
Garden of Eden and Caliban himself is elemental. As the story
progresses and the tyrannical relationship between the two continually
increasing, Caliban’s intellect is worthy of argument against Prospero
for having denied him his birthright. Prospero’s aim of teaching
Caliban was to increase his indisputable control over him, by
subverting him into an incomplete and image of his master, defective of
all other attributes ie of magic. Caliban, similar to every colonised
people before him adapted his adopted culture and power of speech
inflic! ted upon him as a weapon to communicate his own indignation
and animosity towards his oppressor. And despite being frequently
referred to as a crude savage, disfigured, and evil Caliban exemplifies
a better set of values than most of the ‘civilised’ characters in the
play. This image derives from speculation regarding the popular
English belief that uncivilised pagans were below their civilised
counterparts in the hierarchy which had God at its apex and inanimate
nature at it base. However a few individuals were beginning to
question this assumption and ‘there is evidence in the play that
Shakespeare believed that the corruption in a civilised man was more
abhorrent than any natural albeit uncivilised behaviour.’14 At a time
when many books and sermons, effected a characteristic Renaissance
union between moral and political implications, and concerned
themselves with the task of persuading the public that exploration was
an honourable and indeed a sanctified activity and Drake was compared
to Moses, combining voyaging and mystagogy a practical justification
of “the lawfulnesse of Discovering”. It was a somewhat sophistical
argument by Purchas, in favour of the propriety of usurping the
rights of native populations, and an insistence, half-mystagogic,
half-propagandist, on the temperate, fruitful nature of the New World,
and the unspoilt purity of its inhabitants. ‘The True Declaration
defends colonizing, on the ground that it diffuses the true religion
and has authority from Solomon’s trade to Ophir (whether it lay in the
East or, as Columbus thought15 in the West Indies). There is room for
all; and in any case the natives cannot be regarded as civilized
people.’16 The revelations of The Tempest of watching Caliban suffer at
the hands of Prospero affords interesting material for examination.Caliban endures his abuse and insistent that he has deprived him of
what is rightfully his, and this perhaps may have been Shakespeare’s
way of confronting his contemporary pro-colonising audience with the
problems of ownership of newly discovered lands.

John Steinbeck’s East of Eden – Confused Notions of Good and Evil

Confused Notions of Good and Evil in East of EdenEast of Eden is an epic novel about individual ethics – whether men and women have the power to choose between good and evil. East of Eden, to be polite, it is not Steinbeck’s best novel. Not by a long shot. Steinbeck had wrestled with a moral question and lost. It was as though he had been thinking about life, but not too deeply.“East of Eden” was a third-rate best seller, the story of two American families over three generations, seven decades from the Civil War to World War I, told in a book that confuses us with contradictions, that lacks fictional concentration and that wanders in and around too many themes.Clifton Fadiman once said it was wrong to describe Steinbeck as a hard boiled writer. Well, if a comparison with eggs is necessary, “East of Eden” is an overdone omelet.Steinbeck himself worried about its weaknesses. In a letter to his editor, he said, “It’s kind of a sloppy sounding book, but it’s not sloppy, really.”Well, it was sloppy. Begging the forgiveness of the people who gave Steinbeck the Pulitizer and the Nobel Prizes for Literature, there are portions of “East of Eden” that sound like something out of Freshman Composition I.Some of the syntax seems like scrambled eggs:- “All around the main subject the brothers beat.”- “The wrinkles around them (his eyes) were drawn in radial lines inward by laughter.”- “In human affairs of danger and delicate success, conclusion is sharply limited by hurry.”All of which sounds a bit like Charlie Chan explaining life to No. 1 son.Steinbeck’s “East of Eden” now has been adapted for television by ABC, an eight-hour presentation beginning tonight (Channel 5, 8 to 11), tomorrow (9 to 11) and Wednesday (8 to 11).This is no cheapie. Ten years in the making, “East of Eden” was shot on location at a cost of $11.2 million, with Savannah, Ga. standing in for Connecticut scenes and Salinas, Cal. for itself.ABC boasts in a press release that the 1955 film starring James Dean covered only a small portion of “East of Eden,” while the 1981 film attempts to depict the entire novel. Ironically, by the way, today (Sunday) is the 50th anniversary of Dean’s birth.The current film version of “East of Eden” is crippled by the same problems that detracted from the book, plus a few more.For one thing, the key role of Adam Trask is played by Timothy Bottoms, whose reservoir of acting skill is limited to three expressions – happy, sad and baffled – which are enough to hold our attention for about 10 minutes. The other seven hours and 50 minutes is another matter.Bottoms had the misfortune, in addition, to be cast opposite Jane Seymour, who is superb as the beautiful but black-hearted Cathy Ames, who is not the kind of girl you’d want to bring home to mom. Cathy marries Adam Trask and then, on their wedding night, seduces his brother, Cal. Seymour is chilling in her portrayal of evil. Frequently, she is filmed from low angles to make her seem even more intimidating. In the scene where she gives birth to twins, she seems like the personification of Mephistopheles himself, reminiscent of Linda Blair’s performance in “The Exorcist.”Another outstanding portrayal is provided by Soon-Teck Oh, the Korean actor, who has appeared in “M*A*S*H,” “Hawaii Five-O,” and “Charlie’s Angels.” Several scenes with Bottoms survive because of Soon-Teck in the role of Lee, the Chinese servant who hides behind pigeon English, although he attended Berkeley, smokes opium, drinks workwood and quotes from the “Meditations of Marcus Aurelius” in English translation.Other principals are Bruce Boxleitner, Lloyd Bridges, Warren Oates, Howard Duff, Richard Masur, Karen Allen and Anne Baxter.The theme, as the title suggests, is the story of Cain and Abel. The story opens in Connecticut just after the Civil War and follows the lives of the Trask family across several generations to California.There are literally hundreds of allusions to the biblical story. Indeed, both book and film worry it to death, leaving little to the imagination of reader or viewer.For example, the bad characters, based on Cain, have names beginning with C – Cyrus, Charles, Cathy and Caleb, while the good characters, based on Abel, have names beginning with A – Adam, Alice, Aaron and Abra.What makes both the book and this film unfullfilling is that Steinbeck never succeeds in proving whether mankind does have the free will to chose between good and evil. He seems not to be sure himself, and as as result,neither are we.“Just as there are physical monsters,” Steinbeck asks, “can there not be mental monsters born with face and body perfect? If a twisted gene or a malformed egg can produce a physical monster, may not the same process produce a malformed soul?”But Steinbeck cannot have it both ways. He cannot argue the existence of free will and then deny it to his main character, Adam Trask. As Lee, the servant, says, “Adam couldn’t help being good. That’s his nature. It was the only way he knew.”How are we to accept Steinbeck’s notion of free will when Cathy is given the physical characteristics of Lucifer himself, such as feet as small as hooves and a tongue that flickers serpentinely. For Cathy, there was some balance out of weight, Steinbeck tells us, some gear out of ratio. “She was not like other people,” he says. “Never was.” Does that sound like free will?For Steinbeck, all of this is a long way from Tim Casey’s idea in “Grapes of Wrath” that there is no sin and there is no virtue, just the stuff people do.Just as many readers enjoyed the book, many others will enjoy this film. It is good to remember, though, that Steinbeck’s story does not adequately interpret the myth nor does it solve the riddle.If the film becomes tedious, though, you can make up a game to see who can pick out the most references to the Cain-Able fable.Five points for each reference, 10 point penalty if you’ve read the book.Here’s an example to get you started.On the day Aaron enlists in the Army to fight in World War I, his father asks Aaron’s twin brother, Cal, “Where is your brother?” and Cal answers, “How do I know? Am I supposed to look after him?”

Understanding About the Homogeneous Precipitation

Understanding About the Homogeneous PrecipitationSynthesis and thermal analysis of the group 2(IIA) metal oxalate
Objective :
1. To run the synthesis of calcium oxalate via the precipitate from
solution containing calcium ion and oxalate ion.
2. To do a thermo gravimetric analysis on calcium oxalate.
3. Understand and practice the method of homogeneous precipitation
through this experiment.
Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) is one of the common analytical
thermal analysis techniques that widely use to determine the thermal
profile and stability of compound. This is rather important in the
industry. When the thermal profile of certain substance was know, it
can be produce in large quantity by an accurate reaction with the
lowest cost. With theTGAtechniques, a sample of material is being
heated, while the sample mass is recorded as a function of
temperature. By doing so, the composition of the material is analyzed,
both qualitatively (which components are present in the material) and
qualitatively (how much of these components is present).
In this experiment, synthesis and thermo gravimetric analysis of
calcium oxalate has been carried out. Synthesis of calcium oxalate was
done by the reaction between calcium ions and oxalate ion:
Ca2+(aq) + C2O42-(aq) arrow CaC2O4(s)
In which prepared via precipitation from solution at about pH 5 called
homogeneous precipitation. Since calcium oxalate is an oxalic acid, it
dissolve in acidic solution, to make the calcium oxalate form
precipitate, the solution was adjust to more basic by addition of
ammonia, but this is not done by adding the ammonia solution directly
into the solution. Conversely, make the ammonia forms slowly within
the solution through the reaction of hydrolysis of urea:
(H2N)2C=O + H2O arrow 2NH3 + CO2
Urea is a suitable compound in this reaction because it can decomposed
easily to form ammonia.During the experiment, the solution was heated
after urea has been added in, this is to increase the degree of
hydrolysis of urea and therefore increase the formation of ammonia.
The formation and hydrolysis of ammonia slowly increase the pH of
solution to about 5, that is sufficient to generate free oxalate and
precipitate calcium oxalate. In this condition, supersaturation is
minimized and local built up of concentration of ammonia are avoid
compare to add directly of ammonia from initial state.
Summary of experiment procedure:
- 25 mg of calcium carbonate was weigh in to a 25ml beaker follow by
2.0ml of deionized water and magnetic stirring bar. 6M HCl was added
drop wise to the solid with stirring. The beaker was cover by a small
watch glass and the solution was gently warm on a magnetic stirring
hot plate until all the solid dissolve.
- The solution was dilute to 10.0ml by deionized water and one drop of
1% methyl red indicator was added into the solution. After that, 1.5ml
of saturated ammonium oxalate solution and 1.5 gram of solid urea was
added into the solution.
- With stirring, the solution was gently boiled until the colour
changes from red to yellow. Some water was added during the heating
process to compensate for loss of water due to evaporation. 6M ammonia
should add into solution to neutralized any excess acid if there are
no precipitate from. The solution was cool to room temperature and the
product crystal was collected by using Hirsch funnel and water tarp by
suction filtration. The product was then wash by cold water until free
from chloride ion (test by AgNO3, where the stage of few drops of
filtrate do not show any turbidity with a drop of 1% AgNO3 solution).
The product was dry on a clay tile and the yield percentage was
(theoretical value)
Weight of empty beaker = 36.0130mg
Weight of beaker + sample = 36.0383mg
Weight of sample = 0.0253 g
Molecular weight of CaCO3 = [40.0780+12.0107+(3×15.9994)] = 100.0869
No. of mole of CaCO3 used = 0.0253g/100.0869g mol-1
= 2.5278 × 10-4 mole
According to the equation: Ca2+(aq) + C2O42-(aq) arrow CaC2O4(s)
1 mole of calcium ion will produce 1 mole of calcium oxalates,
therefore, 2.5278 × 10-4 mole of calcium oxalate will be produced.
Molecular weight of CaC2O4 .H2O= [40.0780+(2×12.0107)(4×15.9994)(2×1.0079)+15.9994 ] = 146.1123
The mass of CaC2O4 .H2O produced = 2.5278 × 10-4 × 146.1123
= 0.03693g.
The actual mass of CaC2O4 .H2O produce in this experiment cannot be
calculated because the mass of the filter paper was not measured at
the beginning, therefore the mass of filter paper cannot be subtracted
from the total weigh of product and filter paper. It is recommended
that each time running the experiment which involve the filtration,
the mass of filter paper need to be measured.
Discussion :
1.Generally, the reaction between the calcium carbonate and
hydrochloric acid will produce the calcium chloride, water, and the
carbon dioxide.
CaCO3 + HCl arrow CaCl2+ H2O + CO2
When calcium carbonate dissolved in acid, it gave up the Ca2+ ion into
the solution which reacted with oxalate ions to form calcium oxalate
in this experiment.
2. Methyl red (2-(4-Dimethylaminophenylazo) benzoic acid) is in form
of dark red crystalline powder. It is stable compound and incompatible
with strong oxidizing agents, thus it has been widely use as indicator
in many types of titration. Methyl red has a transition range from pH
4.4 to pH 6.2. In more acidic condition it shows red colour, while in
less acidic condition it will change colour to yellow. The Molecular
Weight of methyl red is 269.30 g/mol, its molecular formula is (CH3)2NC6H4N=NC6H4CO2H
and its structure are shows below:
[IMAGE] 3. The boiling point of water is on 100 oC. Therefore the water of
hydration will lost when the compound was heated to 100 oC. Hydration
enthalpy increases as the size of an ion decreases and as the charge
on an ion increases. This is because both of these factors create a
high charge density and cause the ion to attract more water molecules
making hydration more exothermic. As going down group 2, the increase
in cationic size decreases the hydration enthalpy.
4. When heat was applied on the carbonate of group 2(II2) metal, it
will decomposed to form the respective metal oxide and gave up the
carbon dioxide gas.
MCO3 arrow MO + CO2 ,Where M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba
The table below shows the temperature where the carbonate of these
elements decomposed:
Temperature / oC
The above table clearly indicated that: When going down a group, the
metal carbonate is increasing in temperature in which the compound
decomposed. It is more and more difficult to get the compound to be
decomposed as the as the period number of the element increases. This
means that the thermal stability of the carbonate is increases down a
5. Since the solution was heat at a temperature of over 70 oC, the
hydrated salt form is in monohydrate form.The water molecule was bond
to the group2 (IIA) oxalate in square planar form.‌
[IMAGE]6. The person who first determined the copper sulfate is a
Swiss chemist Alfred Werner (1866-1919). Alfred Werner earned his
Ph.D. from the University of Zürich (1890) for work with Arthur
Hantzsch on the oximes, a class of organic nitrogen compounds. He
received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1913 for his coordination
theory of transition metal-amine complexes.
Copper sulfate usually crystallizes as a pentahydrate compound
containing five molecules of water (CuSO4.5H2O) and is known in
commerce as blue vitriol. It is prepared by the treatment of copper
oxides with sulfuric acid.
Cu (s) + 2H2SO4 (l) + 3H2O (l) rightarrow CuSO4.5H2O (s) + SO2 (g)
The beautiful blue color arises from water molecules attached directly
to the copper (II) ion. The water/copper ion complex absorbs photons
of yellow or red light which promotes an electron from the water to
the copper (II) ion. Since only yellow or red light is absorbed, blue
light is transmitted, and the crystals appear in blue colour. The
structure of copper sulfate hydrate is shown as below:
[IMAGE] [IMAGE] In this experiment, deionized water was use instead of distill water
to avoid any unexpected reaction of the impurities ion that contain in
the water. In order to get more accurate result and higher yield
percentage of product, the experiment should be carry out in a larger
scale. That is, use more reactant when perform this experiment, since
the amount of reactant used is much, the weigh lost of yield product
due to the error is negligible compare to total amount of the product,
then the yield percentage can be calculate accurately. Besides that, a
centrifuges can be used to helps to minimized the lost of calcium
oxalates when collecting the precipitate.
The theoretical mass of calcium oxalate should be produce in this
experiment is 0.03693g and the yield percentage of product cannot be
calculate since the weigh of product cannot be found. The very little
of calcium carbonate used in this experiment makes the results be
expected highly inaccurate. The calcium oxalate produce in this
experiment is calcium oxalate monohydrate. Generally heating the
solution below 70 oC will give the dehydrated salt while heating above
70 oC will give monohydrate salt.
1. Seamus P.J.Higson, Analytical Chemistry, 2003, 1st edition, New
York: Oxford University Press, page 89-102.
2. David Harvey, Modern Analytical Chemistry, 2000, 1st edition,
Singapore: Mc GrawHill International, page 255-262.
3. F.Albert Cotton, Geoffrey Wilkinson, Paul L.Gaus, Basic Inorganic
Chemistry, 1995, 3rd edition, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc,
page 307-315.
4. Thermogravimetry. Retrieved 14 November 2005, from
WordReference.com English Dictionary web site:


5. The Physical Chemistry behind the Periodic Table, from bbc.Co.
Reproduction, 2005
web site:


The Lost Tools of Learning

The Lost Tools of LearningThat I, whose experience of teaching is extremely limited, should presume to discuss education is a matter, surely, that calls for no apology. It is a kind of behavior to which the present climate of opinion is wholly favorable. Bishops air their opinions about economics; biologists, about metaphysics; inorganic chemists, about theology; the most irrelevant people are appointed to highly technical ministries; and plain, blunt men write to the papers to say that Epstein and Picasso do not know how to draw. Up to a certain point, and provided the the criticisms are made with a reasonable modesty, these activities are commendable. Too much specialization is not a good thing. There is also one excellent reason why the veriest amateur may feel entitled to have an opinion about education. For if we are not all professional teachers, we have all, at some time or another, been taught. Even if we learnt nothing—perhaps in particular if we learnt nothing—our contribution to the discussion may have a potential value.However, it is in the highest degree improbable that the reforms I propose will ever be carried into effect. Neither the parents, nor the training colleges, nor the examination boards, nor the boards of governors, nor the ministries of education, would countenance them for a moment. For they amount to this: that if we are to produce a society of educated people, fitted to preserve their intellectual freedom amid the complex pressures of our modern society, we must turn back the wheel of progress some four or five hundred years, to the point at which education began to lose sight of its true object, towards the end of the Middle Ages.Before you dismiss me with the appropriate phrase—reactionary, romantic, mediaevalist, laudator temporis acti (praiser of times past), or whatever tag comes first to hand—I will ask you to consider one or two miscellaneous questions that hang about at the back, perhaps, of all our minds, and occasionally pop out to worry us.When we think about the remarkably early age at which the young men went up to university in, let us say, Tudor times, and thereafter were held fit to assume responsibility for the conduct of their own affairs, are we altogether comfortable about that artificial prolongation of intellectual childhood and adolescence into the years of physical maturity which is so marked in our own day? To postpone the acceptance of responsibility to a late date brings with it a number of psychological complications which, while they may interest the psychiatrist, are scarcely beneficial either to the individual or to society. The stock argument in favor of postponing the school-leaving age and prolonging the period of education generally is there there is now so much more to learn than there was in the Middle Ages. This is partly true, but not wholly. The modern boy and girl are certainly taught more subjects—but does that always mean that they actually know more?Has it ever struck you as odd, or unfortunate, that today, when the proportion of literacy throughout Western Europe is higher than it has ever been, people should have become susceptible to the influence of advertisement and mass propaganda to an extent hitherto unheard of and unimagined? Do you put this down to the mere mechanical fact that the press and the radio and so on have made propaganda much easier to distribute over a wide area? Or do you sometimes have an uneasy suspicion that the product of modern educational methods is less good than he or she might be at disentangling fact from opinion and the proven from the plausible?Have you ever, in listening to a debate among adult and presumably responsible people, been fretted by the extraordinary inability of the average debater to speak to the question, or to meet and refute the arguments of speakers on the other side? Or have you ever pondered upon the extremely high incidence of irrelevant matter which crops up at committee meetings, and upon the very great rarity of persons capable of acting as chairmen of committees? And when you think of this, and think that most of our public affairs are settled by debates and committees, have you ever felt a certain sinking of the heart?Have you ever followed a discussion in the newspapers or elsewhere and noticed how frequently writers fail to define the terms they use? Or how often, if one man does define his terms, another will assume in his reply that he was using the terms in precisely the opposite sense to that in which he has already defined them? Have you ever been faintly troubled by the amount of slipshod syntax going about? And, if so, are you troubled because it is inelegant or because it may lead to dangerous misunderstanding?Do you ever find that young people, when they have left school, not only forget most of what they have learnt (that is only to be expected), but forget also, or betray that they have never really known, how to tackle a new subject for themselves? Are you often bothered by coming across grown-up men and women who seem unable to distinguish between a book that is sound, scholarly, and properly documented, and one that is, to any trained eye, very conspicuously none of these things? Or who cannot handle a library catalogue? Or who, when faced with a book of reference, betray a curious inability to extract from it the passages relevant to the particular question which interests them?Do you often come across people for whom, all their lives, a “subject” remains a “subject,” divided by watertight bulkheads from all other “subjects,” so that they experience very great difficulty in making an immediate mental connection between let us say, algebra and detective fiction, sewage disposal and the price of salmon—or, more generally, between such spheres of knowledge as philosophy and economics, or chemistry and art?Are you occasionally perturbed by the things written by adult men and women for adult men and women to read? We find a well-known biologist writing in a weekly paper to the effect that: “It is an argument against the existence of a Creator” (I think he put it more strongly; but since I have, most unfortunately, mislaid the reference, I will put his claim at its lowest)—“an argument against the existence of a Creator that the same kind of variations which are produced by natural selection can be produced at will by stock breeders.” One might feel tempted to say that it is rather an argument for the existence of a Creator. Actually, of course, it is neither; all it proves is that the same material causes (recombination of the chromosomes, by crossbreeding, and so forth) are sufficient to account for all observed variations—just as the various combinations of the same dozen tones are materially sufficient to account for Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata and the noise the cat makes by walking on the keys. But the cat’s performance neither proves nor disproves the existence of Beethoven; and all that is proved by the biologist’s argument is that he was unable to distinguish between a material and a final cause.Here is a sentence from no less academic a source than a front- page article in the Times Literary Supplement: “The Frenchman, Alfred Epinas, pointed out that certain species (e.g., ants and wasps) can only face the horrors of life and death in association.” I do not know what the Frenchman actually did say; what the Englishman says he said is patently meaningless. We cannot know whether life holds any horror for the ant, nor in what sense the isolated wasp which you kill upon the window-pane can be said to “face” or not to “face” the horrors of death. The subject of the article is mass behavior in man; and the human motives have been unobtrusively transferred from the main proposition to the supporting instance. Thus the argument, in effect, assumes what it set out to prove—a fact which would become immediately apparent if it were presented in a formal syllogism. This is only a small and haphazard example of a vice which pervades whole books—particularly books written by men of science on metaphysical subjects.Another quotation from the same issue of the TLS comes in fittingly here to wind up this random collection of disquieting thoughts—this time from a review of Sir Richard Livingstone’s “Some Tasks for Education”: “More than once the reader is reminded of the value of an intensive study of at least one subject, so as to learn Tthe meaning of knowledge’ and what precision and persistence is needed to attain it. Yet there is elsewhere full recognition of the distressing fact that a man may be master in one field and show no better judgement than his neighbor anywhere else; he remembers what he has learnt, but forgets altogether how he learned it.”I would draw your attention particularly to that last sentence, which offers an explanation of what the writer rightly calls the “distressing fact” that the intellectual skills bestowed upon us by our education are not readily transferable to subjects other than those in which we acquired them: “he remembers what he has learnt, but forgets altogether how he learned it.”Is not the great defect of our education today—a defect traceable through all the disquieting symptoms of trouble that I have mentioned—that although we often succeed in teaching our pupils “subjects,” we fail lamentably on the whole in teaching them how to think: they learn everything, except the art of learning. It is as though we had taught a child, mechanically and by rule of thumb, to play “The Harmonious Blacksmith” upon the piano, but had never taught him the scale or how to read music; so that, having memorized “The Harmonious Blacksmith,” he still had not the faintest notion how to proceed from that to tackle “The Last Rose of Summer.” Why do I say, “as though”? In certain of the arts and crafts, we sometimes do precisely this—requiring a child to “express himself” in paint before we teach him how to handle the colors and the brush. There is a school of thought which believes this to be the right way to set about the job. But observe: it is not the way in which a trained craftsman will go about to teach himself a new medium. He, having learned by experience the best way to economize labor and take the thing by the right end, will start off by doodling about on an odd piece of material, in order to “give himself the feel of the tool.”Let us now look at the mediaeval scheme of education—the syllabus of the Schools. It does not matter, for the moment, whether it was devised for small children or for older students, or how long people were supposed to take over it. What matters is the light it throws upon what the men of the Middle Ages supposed to be the object and the right order of the educative process.The syllabus was divided into two parts: the Trivium and Quadrivium. The second part—the Quadrivium—consisted of “subjects,” and need not for the moment concern us. The interesting thing for us is the composition of the Trivium, which preceded the Quadrivium and was the preliminary discipline for it. It consisted of three parts: Grammar, Dialectic, and Rhetoric, in that order.Now the first thing we notice is that two at any rate of these “subjects” are not what we should call “subjects” at all: they are only methods of dealing with subjects. Grammar, indeed, is a “subject” in the sense that it does mean definitely learning a language—at that period it meant learning Latin. But language itself is simply the medium in which thought is expressed. The whole of the Trivium was, in fact, intended to teach the pupil the proper use of the tools of learning, before he began to apply them to “subjects” at all. First, he learned a language; not just how to order a meal in a foreign language, but the structure of a language, and hence of language itself—what it was, how it was put together, and how it worked. Secondly, he learned how to use language; how to define his terms and make accurate statements; how to construct an argument and how to detect fallacies in argument. Dialectic, that is to say, embraced Logic and Disputation. Thirdly, he learned to express himself in language— how to say what he had to say elegantly and persuasively.At the end of his course, he was required to compose a thesis upon some theme set by his masters or chosen by himself, and afterwards to defend his thesis against the criticism of the faculty. By this time, he would have learned—or woe betide him— not merely to write an essay on paper, but to speak audibly and intelligibly from a platform, and to use his wits quickly when heckled. There would also be questions, cogent and shrewd, from those who had already run the gauntlet of debate.It is, of course, quite true that bits and pieces of the mediaeval tradition still linger, or have been revived, in the ordinary school syllabus of today. Some knowledge of grammar is still required when learning a foreign language—perhaps I should say, “is again required,” for during my own lifetime, we passed through a phase when the teaching of declensions and conjugations was considered rather reprehensible, and it was considered better to pick these things up as we went along. School debating societies flourish; essays are written; the necessity for “self- expression” is stressed, and perhaps even over-stressed. But these activities are cultivated more or less in detachment, as belonging to the special subjects in which they are pigeon-holed rather than as forming one coherent scheme of mental training to which all “subjects”stand in a subordinate relation. “Grammar” belongs especially to the “subject” of foreign languages, and essay-writing to the “subject” called “English”; while Dialectic has become almost entirely divorced from the rest of the curriculum, and is frequently practiced unsystematically and out of school hours as a separate exercise, only very loosely related to the main business of learning. Taken by and large, the great difference of emphasis between the two conceptions holds good: modern education concentrates on “teaching subjects,” leaving the method of thinking, arguing, and expressing one’s conclusions to be picked up by the scholar as he goes along’ mediaeval education concentrated on first forging and learning to handle the tools of learning, using whatever subject came handy as a piece of material on which to doodle until the use of the tool became second nature.“Subjects” of some kind there must be, of course. One cannot learn the theory of grammar without learning an actual language, or learn to argue and orate without speaking about something in particular. The debating subjects of the Middle Ages were drawn largely from theology, or from the ethics and history of antiquity. Often, indeed, they became stereotyped, especially towards the end of the period, and the far-fetched and wire-drawn absurdities of Scholastic argument fretted Milton and provide food for merriment even to this day. Whether they were in themselves any more hackneyed and trivial then the usual subjects set nowadays for “essay writing” I should not like to say: we may ourselves grow a little weary of “A Day in My Holidays” and all the rest of it. But most of the merriment is misplaced, because the aim and object of the debating thesis has by now been lost sight of.A glib speaker in the Brains Trust once entertained his audience (and reduced the late Charles Williams to helpless rageb by asserting that in the Middle Ages it was a matter of faith to know how many archangels could dance on the point of a needle. I need not say, I hope, that it never was a “matter of faith”; it was simply a debating exercise, whose set subject was the nature of angelic substance: were angels material, and if so, did they occupy space? The answer usually adjudged correct is, I believe, that angels are pure intelligences; not material, but limited, so that they may have location in space but not extension. An analogy might be drawn from human thought, which is similarly non-material and similarly limited. Thus, if your thought is concentrated upon one thing—say, the point of a needle—it is located there in the sense that it is not elsewhere; but although it is “there,” it occupies no space there, and there is nothing to prevent an infinite number of different people’s thoughts being concentrated upon the same needle-point at the same time. The proper subject of the argument is thus seen to be the distinction between location and extension in space; the matter on which the argument is exercised happens to be the nature of angels (although, as we have seen, it might equally well have been something else; the practical lesson to be drawn from the argument is not to use words like “there” in a loose and unscientific way, without specifying whether you mean “located there” or “occupying space there.”Scorn in plenty has been poured out upon the mediaeval passion for hair-splitting; but when we look at the shameless abuse made, in print and on the platform, of controversial expressions with shifting and ambiguous connotations, we may feel it in our hearts to wish that every reader and hearer had been so defensively armored by his education as to be able to cry: “Distinguo.”For we let our young men and women go out unarmed, in a day when armor was never so necessary. By teaching them all to read, we have left them at the mercy of the printed word. By the invention of the film and the radio, we have made certain that no aversion to reading shall secure them from the incessant battery of words, words, words. They do not know what the words mean; they do not know how to ward them off or blunt their edge or fling them back; they are a prey to words in their emotions instead of being the masters of them in their intellects. We who were scandalized in 1940 when men were sent to fight armored tanks with rifles, are not scandalized when young men and women are sent into the world to fight massed propaganda with a smattering of “subjects”; and when whole classes and whole nations become hypnotized by the arts of the spell binder, we have the impudence to be astonished. We dole out lip-service to the importance of education—lip- service and, just occasionally, a little grant of money; we postpone the school-leaving age, and plan to build bigger and better schools; the teachers slave conscientiously in and out of school hours; and yet, as I believe, all this devoted effort is largely frustrated, because we have lost the tools of learning, and in their absence can only make a botched and piecemeal job of it.What, then, are we to do? We cannot go back to the Middle Ages. That is a cry to which we have become accustomed. We cannot go back—or can we? Distinguo. I should like every term in that proposition defined. Does “go back” mean a retrogression in time, or the revision of an error? The first is clearly impossible per se; the second is a thing which wise men do every day. “Cannot”— does this mean that our behavior is determined irreversibly, or merely that such an action would be very difficult in view of the opposition it would provoke? Obviously the twentieth century is not and cannot be the fourteenth; but if “the Middle Ages” is, in this context, simply a picturesque phrase denoting a particular educational theory, there seems to be no a priori reason why we should not “go back” to it—with modifications—as we have already “gone back” with modifications, to, let us say, the idea of playing Shakespeare’s plays as he wrote them, and not in the “modernized” versions of Cibber and Garrick, which once seemed to be the latest thing in theatrical progress.Let us amuse ourselves by imagining that such progressive retrogression is possible. Let us make a clean sweep of all educational authorities, and furnish ourselves with a nice little school of boys and girls whom we may experimentally equip for the intellectual conflict along lines chosen by ourselves. We will endow them with exceptionally docile parents; we will staff our school with teachers who are themselves perfectly familiar with the aims and methods of the Trivium; we will have our building and staff large enough to allow our classes to be small enough for adequate handling; and we will postulate a Board of Examiners willing and qualified to test the products we turn out. Thus prepared, we will attempt to sketch out a syllabus—a modern Trivium “with modifications” and we will see where we get to.But first: what age shall the children be? Well, if one is to educate them on novel lines, it will be better that they should have nothing to unlearn; besides, one cannot begin a good thing too early, and the Trivium is by its nature not learning, but a preparation for learning. We will, therefore, “catch ’em young,” requiring of our pupils only that they shall be able to read, write, and cipher.My views about child psychology are, I admit, neither orthodox nor enlightened. Looking back upon myself (since I am the child I know best and the only child I can pretend to know from inside) I recognize three states of development. These, in a rough-and- ready fashion, I will call the Poll-Parrot, the Pert, and the Poetic—the latter coinciding, approximately, with the onset of puberty. The Poll-Parrot stage is the one in which learning by heart is easy and, on the whole, pleasurable; whereas reasoning is difficult and, on the whole, little relished. At this age, one readily memorizes the shapes and appearances of things; one likes to recite the number-plates of cars; one rejoices in the chanting of rhymes and the rumble and thunder of unintelligible polysyllables; one enjoys the mere accumulation of things. The Pert age, which follows upon this (and, naturally, overlaps it to some extent), is characterized by contradicting, answering back, liking to “catch people out” (especially one’s elders); and by the propounding of conundrums. Its nuisance-value is extremely high. It usually sets in about the Fourth Form. The Poetic age is popularly known as the “difficult” age. It is self-centered; it yearns to express itself; it rather specializes in being misunderstood; it is restless and tries to achieve independence; and, with good luck and good guidance, it should show the beginnings of creativeness; a reaching out towards a synthesis of what it already knows, and a deliberate eagerness to know and do some one thing in preference to all others. Now it seems to me that the layout of the Trivium adapts itself with a singular appropriateness to these three ages: Grammar to the Poll-Parrot, Dialectic to the Pert, and Rhetoric to the Poetic age.Let us begin, then, with Grammar. This, in practice, means the grammar of some language in particular; and it must be an inflected language. The grammatical structure of an uninflected language is far too analytical to be tackled by any one without previous practice in Dialectic. Moreover, the inflected languages interpret the uninflected, whereas the uninflected are of little use in interpreting the inflected. I will say at once, quite firmly, that the best grounding for education is the Latin grammar. I say this, not because Latin is traditional and mediaeval, but simply because even a rudimentary knowledge of Latin cuts down the labor and pains of learning almost any other subject by at least fifty percent. It is the key to the vocabulary and structure of all the Teutonic languages, as well as to the technical vocabulary of all the sciences and to the literature of the entire Mediterranean civilization, together with all its historical documents.Those whose pedantic preference for a living language persuades them to deprive their pupils of all these advantages might substitute Russian, whose grammar is still more primitive. Russian is, of course, helpful with the other Slav dialects. There is something also to be said for Classical Greek. But my own choice is Latin. Having thus pleased the Classicists among you, I will proceed to horrify them by adding that I do not think it either wise or necessary to cramp the ordinary pupil upon the Procrustean bed of the Augustan Age, with its highly elaborate and artificial verse forms and oratory. Post-classical and mediaeval Latin, which was a living language right down to the end of the Renaissance, is easier and in some ways livelier; a study of it helps to dispel the widespread notion that learning and literature came to a full stop when Christ was born and only woke up again at the Dissolution of the Monasteries.Latin should be begun as early as possible—at a time when inflected speech seems no more astonishing than any other phenomenon in an astonishing world; and when the chanting of “Amo, amas, amat” is as ritually agreeable to the feelings as the chanting of “eeny, meeny, miney, moe.”During this age we must, of course, exercise the mind on other things besides Latin grammar. Observation and memory are the faculties most lively at this period; and if we are to learn a contemporary foreign language we should begin now, before the facial and mental muscles become rebellious to strange intonations. Spoken French or German can be practiced alongside the grammatical discipline of the Latin.In English, meanwhile, verse and prose can be learned by heart, and the pupil’s memory should be stored with stories of every kind—classical myth, European legend, and so forth. I do not think that the classical stories and masterpieces of ancient literature should be made the vile bodies on which to practice the techniques of Grammar—that was a fault of mediaeval education which we need not perpetuate. The stories can be enjoyed and remembered in English, and related to their origin at a subsequent stage. Recitation aloud should be practiced, individually or in chorus; for we must not forget that we are laying the groundwork for Disputation and Rhetoric.The grammar of History should consist, I think, of dates, events, anecdotes, and personalities. A set of dates to which one can peg all later historical knowledge is of enormous help later on in establishing the perspective of history. It does not greatly matter which dates: those of the Kings of England will do very nicely, provided that they are accompanied by pictures of costumes, architecture, and other everyday things, so that the mere mention of a date calls up a very strong visual presentment of the whole period.Geography will similarly be presented in its factual aspect, with maps, natural features, and visual presentment of customs, costumes, flora, fauna, and so on; and I believe myself that the discredited and old-fashioned memorizing of a few capitol cities, rivers, mountain ranges, etc., does no harm. Stamp collecting may be encouraged.Science, in the Poll-Parrot period, arranges itself naturally and easily around collections—the identifying and naming of specimens and, in general, the kind of thing that used to be called “natural philosophy.” To know the name and properties of things is, at this age, a satisfaction in itself; to recognize a devil’s coach-horse at sight, and assure one’s foolish elders, that, in spite of its appearance, it does not sting; to be able to pick out Cassiopeia and the Pleiades, and perhaps even to know who Cassiopeia and the Pleiades were; to be aware that a whale is not a fish, and a bat not a bird—all these things give a pleasant sensation of superiority; while to know a ring snake from an adder or a poisonous from an edible toadstool is a kind of knowledge that also has practical value.The grammar of Mathematics begins, of course, with the multiplication table, which, if not learnt now, will never be learnt with pleasure; and with the recognition of geometrical shapes and the grouping of numbers. These exercises lead naturally to the doing of simple sums in arithmetic. More complicated mathematical processes may, and perhaps should, be postponed, for the reasons which will presently appear.So far (except, of course, for the Latin), our curriculum contains nothing that departs very far from common practice. The difference will be felt rather in the attitude of the teachers, who must look upon all these activities less as “subjects” in themselves than as a gathering-together of material for use in the next part of the Trivium. What that material is, is only of secondary importance; but it is as well that anything and everything which can be usefully committed to memory should be memorized at this period, whether it is immediately intelligible or not. The modern tendency is to try and force rational explanations on a child’s mind at too early an age. Intelligent questions, spontaneously asked, should, of course, receive an immediate and rational answer; but it is a great mistake to suppose that a child cannot readily enjoy and remember things that are beyond his power to analyze—particularly if those things have a strong imaginative appeal (as, for example, “Kubla Kahn”), an attractive jingle (like some of the memory-rhymes for Latin genders), or an abundance of rich, resounding polysyllables (like the Quicunque vult).This reminds me of the grammar of Theology. I shall add it to the curriculum, because theology is the mistress-science without which the whole educational structure will necessarily lack its final synthesis. Those who disagree about this will remain content to leave their pupil’s education still full of loose ends. This will matter rather less than it might, since by the time that the tools of learning have been forged the student will be able to tackle theology for himself, and will probably insist upon doing so and making sense of it. Still, it is as well to have this matter also handy and ready for the reason to work upon. At the grammatical age, therefore, we should become acquainted with the story of God and Man in outline—i.e., the Old and New Testaments presented as parts of a single narrative of Creation, Rebellion, and Redemption—and also with the Creed, the Lord’s Prayer, and the Ten Commandments. At this early stage, it does not matter nearly so much that these things should be fully understood as that they should be known and remembered.It is difficult to say at what age, precisely, we should pass from the first to the second part of the Trivium. Generally speaking, the answer is: so soon as the pupil shows himself disposed to pertness and interminable argument. For as, in the first part, the master faculties are Observation and Memory, so, in the second, the master faculty is the Discursive Reason. In the first, the exercise to which the rest of the material was, as it were, keyed, was the Latin grammar; in the second, the key- exercise will be Formal Logic. It is here that our curriculum shows its first sharp divergence from modern standards. The disrepute into which Formal Logic has fallen is entirely unjustified; and its neglect is the root cause of nearly all those disquieting symptoms which we have noted in the modern intellectual constitution. Logic has been discredited, partly because we have come to suppose that we are conditioned almost entirely by the intuitive and the unconscious. There is no time to argue whether this is true; I will simply observe that to neglect the proper training of the reason is the best possible way to make it true. Another cause for the disfavor into which Logic has fallen is the belief that it is entirely based upon universal assumptions that are either unprovable or tautological. This is not true. Not all universal propositions are of this kind. But even if they were, it would make no difference, since every syllogism whose major premise is in the form “All A is B” can be recast in hypothetical form. Logic is the art of arguing correctly: “If A, then B.” The method is not invalidated by the hypothetical nature of A. Indeed, the practical utility of Formal Logic today lies not so much in the establishment of positive conclusions as in the prompt detection and exposure of invalid inference.Let us now quickly review our material and see how it is to be related to Dialectic. On the Language side, we shall now have our vocabulary and morphology at our fingertips; henceforward we can concentrate on syntax and analysis (i.e., the logical construction of speech) and the history of language (i.e., how we came to arrange our speech as we do in order to convey our thoughts).Our Reading will proceed from narrative and lyric to essays, argument and criticism, and the pupil will learn to try his own hand at writing this kind of thing. Many lessons—on whatever subject—will take the form of debates; and the place of individual or choral recitation will be taken by dramatic performances, with special attention to plays in which an argument is stated in dramatic form.Mathematics—algebra, geometry, and the more advanced kinds of arithmetic—will now enter into the syllabus and take its place as what it really is: not a separate “subject” but a sub- department of Logic. It is neither more nor less than the rule of the syllogism in its particular application to number and measurement, and should be taught as such, instead of being, for some, a dark mystery, and, for others, a special revelation, neither illuminating nor illuminated by any other part of knowledge.History, aided by a simple system of ethics derived from the grammar of theology, will provide much suitable material for discussion: Was the behavior of this statesman justified? What was the effect of such an enactment? What are the arguments for and against this or that form of government? We shall thus get an introduction to constitutional history—a subject meaningless to the young child, but of absorbing interest to those who are prepared to argue and debate. Theology itself will furnish material for argument about conduct and morals; and should have its scope extended by a simplified course of dogmatic theology (i.e., the rational structure of Christian thought), clarifying the relations between the dogma and the ethics, and lending itself to that application of ethical principles in particular instances which is properly called casuistry. Geography and the Sciences will likewise provide material for Dialectic.But above all, we must not neglect the material which is so abundant in the pupils’ own daily life.There is a delightful passage in Leslie Paul’s “The Living Hedge” which tells how a number of small boys enjoyed themselves for days arguing about an extraordinary shower of rain which had fallen in their town—a shower so localized that it left one half of the main street wet and the other dry. Could one, they argued, properly say that it had rained that day on or over the town or only in the town? How many drops of water were required to constitute rain? And so on. Argument about this led on to a host of similar problems about rest and motion, sleep and waking, est and non est, and the infinitesimal division of time. The whole passage is an admirable example of the spontaneous development of the ratiocinative faculty and the natural and proper thirst of the awakening reason for the definition of terms and exactness of statement. All events are food for such an appetite.An umpire’s decision; the degree to which one may transgress the spirit of a regulation without being trapped by the letter: on such questions as these, children are born casuists, and their natural propensity only needs to be developed and trained—and especially, brought into an intelligible relationship with the events in the grown-up world. The newspapers are full of good material for such exercises: legal decisions, on the one hand, in cases where the cause at issue is not too abstruse; on the other, fallacious reasoning and muddleheaded arguments, with which the correspondence columns of certain papers one could name are abundantly stocked.Wherever the matter for Dialectic is found, it is, of course, highly important that attention should be focused upon the beauty and economy of a fine demonstration or a well-turned argument, lest veneration should wholly die. Criticism must not be merely destructive; though at the same time both teacher and pupils must be ready to detect fallacy, slipshod reasoning, ambiguity, irrelevance, and redundancy, and to pounce upon them like rats. This is the moment when precis-writing may be usefully undertaken; together with such exercises as the writing of an essay, and the reduction of it, when written, by 25 or 50 percent.It will, doubtless, be objected that to encourage young persons at the Pert age to browbeat, correct, and argue with their elders will render them perfectly intolerable. My answer is that children of that age are intolerable anyhow; and that their natural argumentativeness may just as well be canalized to good purpose as allowed to run away into the sands. It may, indeed, be rather less obtrusive at home if it is disciplined in school; and anyhow, elders who have abandoned the wholesome principle that children should be seen and not heard have no one to blame but themselves.Once again, the contents of the syllabus at this stage may be anything you like. The “subjects” supply material; but they are all to be regarded as mere grist for the mental mill to work upon. The pupils should be encouraged to go and forage for their own information, and so guided towards the proper use of libraries and books for reference, and shown how to tell which sources are authoritative and which are not.Towards the close of this stage, the pupils will probably be beginning to discover for themselves that their knowledge and experience are insufficient, and that their trained intelligences need a great deal more material to chew upon. The imagination— usually dormant during the Pert age—will reawaken, and prompt them to suspect the limitations of logic and reason. This means that they are passing into the Poetic age and are ready to embark on the study of Rhetoric. The doors of the storehouse of knowledge should now be thrown open for them to browse about as they will. The things once learned by rote will be seen in new contexts; the things once coldly analyzed can now be brought together to form a new synthesis; here and there a sudden insight will bring about that most exciting of all discoveries: the realization that truism is true.It is difficult to map out any general syllabus for the study of Rhetoric: a certain freedom is demanded. In literature, appreciation should be again allowed to take the lead over destructive criticism; and self-expression in writing can go forward, with its tools now sharpened to cut clean and observe proportion. Any child who already shows a disposition to specialize should be given his head: for, when the use of the tools has been well and truly learned, it is available for any study whatever. It would be well, I think, that each pupil should learn to do one, or two, subjects really well, while taking a few classes in subsidiary subjects so as to keep his mind open to the inter-relations of all knowledge. Indeed, at this stage, our difficulty will be to keep “subjects” apart; for Dialectic will have shown all branches of learning to be inter-related, so Rhetoric will tend to show that all knowledge is one. To show this, and show why it is so, is pre-eminently the task of the mistress science. But whether theology is studied or not, we should at least insist that children who seem inclined to specialize on the mathematical and scientific side should be obliged to attend some lessons in the humanities and vice versa. At this stage, also, the Latin grammar, having done its work, may be dropped for those who prefer to carry on their language studies on the modern side; while those who are likely never to have any great use or aptitude for mathematics might also be allowed to rest, more or less, upon their oars. Generally speaking, whatsoever is mere apparatus may now be allowed to fall into the background, while the trained mind is gradually prepared for specialization in the “subjects” which, when the Trivium is completed, it should be perfectly will equipped to tackle on its own. The final synthesis of the Trivium—the presentation and public defense of the thesis—should be restored in some form; perhaps as a kind of “leaving examination” during the last term at school.The scope of Rhetoric depends also on whether the pupil is to be turned out into the world at the age of 16 or whether he is to proceed to the university. Since, really, Rhetoric should be taken at about 14, the first category of pupil should study Grammar from about 9 to 11, and Dialectic from 12 to 14; his last two school years would then be devoted to Rhetoric, which, in this case, would be of a fairly specialized and vocational kind, suiting him to enter immediately upon some practical career. A pupil of the second category would finish his Dialectical course in his preparatory school, and take Rhetoric during his first two years at his public school. At 16, he would be ready to start upon those “subjects” which are proposed for his later study at the university: and this part of his education will correspond to the mediaeval Quadrivium. What this amounts to is that the ordinary pupil, whose formal education ends at 16, will take the Trivium only; whereas scholars will take both the Trivium and the Quadrivium.Is the Trivium, then, a sufficient education for life? Properly taught, I believe that it should be. At the end of the Dialectic, the children will probably seem to be far behind their coevals brought up on old-fashioned “modern” methods, so far as detailed knowledge of specific subjects is concerned. But after the age of 14 they should be able to overhaul the others hand over fist. Indeed, I am not at all sure that a pupil thoroughly proficient in the Trivium would not be fit to proceed immediately to the university at the age of 16, thus proving himself the equal of his mediaeval counterpart, whose precocity astonished us at the beginning of this discussion. This, to be sure, would make hay of the English public-school system, and disconcert the universities very much. It would, for example, make quite a different thing of the Oxford and Cambridge boat race.But I am not here to consider the feelings of academic bodies: I am concerned only with the proper training of the mind to encounter and deal with the formidable mass of undigested problems presented to it by the modern world. For the tools of learning are the same, in any and every subject; and the person who knows how to use them will, at any age, get the mastery of a new subject in half the time and with a quarter of the effort expended by the person who has not the tools at his command. To learn six subjects without remembering how they were learnt does nothing to ease the approach to a seventh; to have learnt and remembered the art of learning makes the approach to every subject an open door.Before concluding these necessarily very sketchy suggestions, I ought to say why I think it necessary, in these days, to go back to a discipline which we had discarded. The truth is that for the last three hundred years or so we have been living upon our educational capital. The post-Renaissance world, bewildered and excited by the profusion of new “subjects” offered to it, broke away from the old discipline (which had, indeed, become sadly dull and stereotyped in its practical application) and imagined that henceforward it could, as it were, disport itself happily in its new and extended Quadrivium without passing through the Trivium. But the Scholastic tradition, though broken and maimed, still lingered in the public schools and universities: Milton, however much he protested against it, was formed by it—the debate of the Fallen Angels and the disputation of Abdiel with Satan have the tool-marks of the Schools upon them, and might, incidentally, profitably figure as set passages for our Dialectical studies. Right down to the nineteenth century, our public affairs were mostly managed, and our books and journals were for the most part written, by people brought up in homes, and trained in places, where that tradition was still alive in the memory and almost in the blood. Just so, many people today who are atheist or agnostic in religion, are governed in their conduct by a code of Christian ethics which is so rooted that it never occurs to them to question it.But one cannot live on capital forever. However firmly a tradition is rooted, if it is never watered, though it dies hard, yet in the end it dies. And today a great number—perhaps the majority—of the men and women who handle our affairs, write our books and our newspapers, carry out our research, present our plays and our films, speak from our platforms and pulpits—yes, and who educate our young people—have never, even in a lingering traditional memory, undergone the Scholastic discipline. Less and less do the children who come to be educated bring any of that tradition with them. We have lost the tools of learning—the axe and the wedge, the hammer and the saw, the chisel and the plane— that were so adaptable to all tasks. Instead of them, we have merely a set of complicated jigs, each of which will do but one task and no more, and in using which eye and hand receive no training, so that no man ever sees the work as a whole or “looks to the end of the work.”What use is it to pile task on task and prolong the days of labor, if at the close the chief object is left unattained? It is not the fault of the teachers—they work only too hard already. The combined folly of a civilization that has forgotten its own roots is forcing them to shore up the tottering weight of an educational structure that is built upon sand. They are doing for their pupils the work which the pupils themselves ought to do. For the sole true end of education is simply this: to teach men how to learn for themselves; and whatever instruction fails to do this is effort spent in vain.Paul M. Bechtel writes that Dorothy Leigh Sayers (1893-1967) briefly entered on a teaching career after graduating from Oxford. She published a long and popular series of detective novels, translated the “Divine Comedy,” wrote a series of radio plays, and a defense of Christian belief.During World War II, she lived in Oxford, and was a member of the group that included C.S. Lewis, Charles Williams, J.R.R. Tolkien, and Owen Barfield. By nature and preference, she was a scholar and an expert on the Middle Ages.In this essay, Miss Sayers suggests that we presently teach our children everything but how to learn. She proposes that we adopt a suitably modified version of the medieval scholastic curriculum for methodological reasons.

Catcher In The Rye

One theme developed in Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger is that bonds to our family is one of the most important factors in life. This is evident throughout the book since Holden spends so much of his time thinking about, and striving to be with his brothers and sister. Each one of Holden’s siblings plays an important role in helping him cope with his life in school and the many questions that he faces in his everyday life. Aswell as give him a positive thought when he was down. Looking at his relationships with Allie, D.B. and Pheobe give you ample proof of this.     Allie was one of the major factors that greatly affected Holden’s thoughts and actions. Allie, even though dead, was still on Holden’s mind and in a way assisting him in solving some of his largest problems. One way that Allie affected Holden’s thoughts was by how much Holden thought about Allie. “My brother Allie had this left handed fielders mitt. He was left handed. The thing that was descriptive about it though was that he had poems written all over the fingers and pocket” (pg 38). Holden missed Allie a lot and thought about him constantly during the book. Another way that Allie affected Holden was he could affect his actions, even though he was dead. Holden always said that things should be how “Allie would of wanted them” and in a way his actions reflected that. And finally Allie could affect Holden because the thought of Allie made him very emotional. “Anyway, that’s what I wrote Stradlater’s composition about. Old Allie’s baseball mitt” (pg 39).This affected him a few times in the book, one of them was when Stradler asked Holden to write a short poem for Stradlers English class. Holden thought about Allie and certain things about him and instantly he was able to write Stradler a great poem. The thoughts that Holden had about Allie helped him though some of the tough times, using Allie as a model for how his life should be.     The sister of Holden, Pheobe , had more influence on his life then the rest of the other characters combined. He always did things to make her happy and when she was happy it made him very happy as well. One way the Pheobe affected Holden was when he thought of that record that she liked. “There was this record I wanted to get for Pheobe, called Little Shirley Beans. It was a very hard record to get” (pg 114). Holden was so determined to find the record that he went all over looking for it. After finding it and buying it he dropped it in the park and it shattered. Holden was tremendously saddened by this and the thought of not being able to make Pheobe happy with that as a gift. Another way that Pheobe affected Holden was when he nearly lost her when they were walking down the street. “I started walking downtown towards the zoo, on the park side of the street. And she started walking downtown on the other goddamn side of the street” (pg.208). When he lost sight of her his mind began to race and thoughts of panic and fear ran through his mind. And finally, Pheobe affected Holden’s whole plan for his Christmas break. He was planning on leaving New York to work at a farm for a while but was unable to leave without seeing her at least one more time. His feelings and thoughts of Pheobe were enormous in this book. Without her Holden would not of been able to make it in the city alone for all of that time.      Family is one of the most important themes in life. At least in the life of Holden Caulfield. From the time that he wrote the poem for Stradler that was inspired by Allie to Pheobe, who was his only reason for staying in New York for as long as he did Family was always a strong factor in all major decisions that Holden made, and actions that he took. Without his family Holden would have been lost and would not of lasted as long as he did in the city.

Satie, Erik

Satie, Erik     The French composer Erik Satie was born on May 17, 1866, and died on
July 1, 1925, was the son of an English mother and a Parisian music publisher.
He entered the Paris Conservatory in 1879 but failed to benefit from
academic education, which he embarked on again only in his 40th year, when he
enrolled as a pupil of Vincent d’Indy and Albert Roussel at the Schola Cantorum.
Long before that, however, he had composed a number of short piano pieces, whose
eccentric titles and unfashionable and yet convincing simplicity of melody were
matched by an individual sense of harmony. It is still a moot point whether
Satie got his harmonic ideas from his fellow student and friend Claude Debussy,
or whether the debt was on Debussy’s side. It is quite clear, however, that
Satie’s tasteful principles influenced Debussy in the composition of his opera
Pelleas et Melisande and that Satie was the main influence in helping Debussy to
free himself from the musical domination of Richard Wagner. Satie became
interested in plainsong through his association with a so-called Rosicrucian
group, while he earned his living as a cafe pianist in Montmartre.
Satie was a conscious eccentric and a determined enemy of all
establishments, including the musical. The comical titles that he attached to
his small piano pieces are characteristic of the Bohemian wit in the Paris of
his day. Irony and a deceptively childlike attitude, a dislike for pomposity of
all kinds, and an instinctive secretiveness were hallmarks of both the man and
his music. In 1916, Satie was befriended by Jean Cocteau and wrote the music
for a ballet, Parade, on which Pablo Picasso and Leonid Massine also
collaborated. By far the most important of Satie’s works is Socrate , an harsh
setting for four sopranos and chamber orchestra of Plato’s account of the death
of Socrates. The young composers who formed the essentially Parisian group
known as Les Six regarded Satie as a kind of tutelary genius, and in 1923 one of
them, Darius Milhaud, tried to found an “Ecole d’Arcueil,” named for the obscure
Paris suburb where Satie lived in extreme poverty.

A Clockwork Orange

A Clockwork OrangeAfter some years in prison he kills an inmate, and he has to try a new technique called the Ludovico’s Technique, which cures criminels who likes violence. After two weeks he is cured. He no longer wants to hurt other people, and he gets sick just by thinking of it. After the treatment he gets out of jail. But he can´t live at home any more. In the city the police catches him, and they beat him up. Afterwards he finds an author, who wants to help him. In the start of the story, Alex raped and killed a woman infront of her husband. The husband is the author. But in the beginnnig he can´t recognize Alex. He wants Alex to help him, with destroying the government. But he tricks Alex into committing
suicide, but he survives. After the suicide attempt, he no longer fells sick when he is thinking on violence. So he joins a new gang. But one day he meets Georgie, one of his old friens, who now have a wife and a baby. After this episode Alex realises that he is an adult now, and that he also wants a wife and a baby.The novels composition is a based on a classic
narrativ model, which comes from fairy tales. The narrative model is called the “Home – Away – Home” Model. In the beginning of the book, Alex is in his own town, and is living at home. He likes violence very much. Later he is captured and put to prison. Now he is away from home, and he is not incharge of things anymore. After getting the Ludovico’s Technique treatment he no longer likes violence. He is now completely away from home, and away from the person that he used to be. In the ending, he is back home, living with his parents. He is also the leader in a new gang, which means that he is in control. He also likes violence again. But in the very last bit of the story, there is a twist. He changes from being a teenager to being an adult. This could mean that he is away again. But I don´t think so. I think that this means, that he is finally home, and that he has becomed the person that he really is.In book the language is primary on english. But Burgess also uses a language called “Nadsat”. This language consists of a lot of Russian words. It´s not used in whole sentences, but only as slang in sentences. In the story it is only the teenagers who uses it. The reason why Burgess has chosen
to used this language is, that some things in the book would be to violent and scary if it was on english. Nadsat is therefore hiding the violence a bit. It is also used to make Alex and his gang more youthfull. In many generations the youth have used a lot of slang, and therefore the youth in this book should also do it. But if there were used a lot of slang from the time where Burgess wrote this book, it would seem outdated in just a few years. Nadsat is therefore used to make the book timeless.As said before, the main character in the book is Alex. In the beginning he is a very strange
person. He loves violence, rapping, being in charge and music. He has a passion for music, especially classical music fx Beethoven. When he is at home, he likes to ie on his bed hearing Beethoven and thinking on violence. It even turns him on. In the beginning he is the leader of the gang. When he hits Dim, and Dim protests he doesn´t care about it. Georgie, Dim and Pete also surggests that they want the gang to be run more democratically, but Alex refuses. He wants to be the only one in charge.But when he is prison, he loses a lot of this control and freedom. He doesn´t like that, so he wants a way out. After killing an other inmate, he gets that other way out. If he gets the treatment he will be released. Alex thinks that he can easily handle the treatment, but he can´t. Now he loses more and more of his control and freedom. He can`t think on violence any more without getting sick. The thought of this makes him even more sick. When he is realised from prison, he can`t live at home. This also means that he loses more freedom and control. And that he is beaten by some old people and by the police dosen´t help. Earlier he was the leader, now he is in the bottom of the food chain. He is the weakest link. His situation get more worse for each day that goes by, until he reaches the bottom. He tries to commit suicide, but he fails. After this episode he gets cured from the treament in prison, and he becomes a leader again. But this isn´t good enough for him anymore. Now he wants something else. He realises what it is, when he meets Georgie and his family in the end. Now Alex knows that he is an adult. When he was a teenager, he thougt that he was free, but now he has reached the true freedom.Dim, Pete and Geogie are minor important characters in the story. In the beginning they are all under Alexs “dictatorship”, but they all becomes adults before Alex. Pete doesn´t becomes one because he dies in an young age. F. Alexander is also a minor important character. But he has much influence on Alex. In the beginning it is F. Alexander who is Alexs victim, but in the end it it Alex who is F. Alexanders victim.The major theme in the book is freedom and free will. In the book it is told that you have to have free will and freedom to be human. But there can all so be something bad about having free will and freedom. In the beginning of the story, Alex has both free freedom and free will. He is therefore human. But he doesn´t use it to anything good. He only uses it for evil. Therefore there is a problem about this. Is it better to have free will and freedom even if it means that you harm people, or is it better to destroy the free will and freedom physically or psycically to avoid people from getting hurt. In the book, Alex gets beaten by the police, old men and prison guards. They try to destroy his free will. When Alex gets the treatment his free will is also destroyed. Burgess gives his answer on what the best thing is. He means that goodness is only real goodness if it´s chosen
. If it´s forced it is unhuman and mechanical. You can see it in the novel in the sentence “without choice and free will, man is no longer human but a “clockwork orange,” a deterministic mechanism”, which is said both by F. Alexander and by a prison guard.An another theme in the story is having original Sin over environmental behaviorism. Environmental behaviorism means that our behavior is a product of the society that you live in. How you were raised and your academic desciplin, both means a lot on how you will behave. Original sin means that you have some bad things in the them, and that you can´t help it. It is all because of the fall of Adam ad Eve in the Garten of Eden. Of course you have an implus to do good things, but you also have an impulse to do bad things. This means that if your are evil, it is not because of the world you live in, but you just have evil inside you. Alex expresses this in the story “what I do I do because I like to do “. But if this was the truth it would mean, that we don´t have real free will and freedom. But in the end Alex says “over time, we can erase the effects of Original Sin by choosing goodness”. This also means that you don´t have completely free will and freedom when you are young. But when you grow up, you can choose goodness, and if you do, you will have chosen
it by your self and therefore have free will and freedom.Some times capitalism is critised in the book, and so is dictatorship. But the government in the story is more socialistic, or so it seem on many points. In a socialistic society, it is the state that is controlling everything. The market, all property and the mass media. Once in the story Alex is talking about “Statefilm”. This can be a sign of that the state is controlling the mass medie. If they do, they can use it to make propaganda to control the minds of the people. With the Ludovico’s Technique, they are also trying to control the minds of the people. One of the themes in the book was, that free will and freedom was nessesary to be human. In the society in this story, they don´t have free will and freedom, and if this is a socialistic society, it is surtain that Burgess don´t like socialisme.In the end Alex realises that he is mature. He doesn´t like violence any more, and he wants to start a family. This is something that he has chosen
himself, and not through a treatment or anything else. Therefore he is an adult, who have free will and freedom. He knows that you can only get it, when you have made mistakes and have life experience. He doesn´t want his son be like him, when he was young, but he knows that he will be. He thinks that the youth is mechanic. The youth has to make their own mistakes over and over again before they can choose the right way out, and then have free will and freedom. This is an unbreakable circle that cannot be broken, and it a clock that keeps on walking. The youth is “A Clockwork Orange”.


LuckyWhen I was little, I used to dream about being the Governor of Hong Kong. I still remember the composition I wrote in my primary school, in which I conveyed my vision and even outlined the policies I planned to carry out once I became the leader of the government. After a few years, I realized that it was almost impossible for me to be the Governor of Hong Kong, because the position was in fact appointed by the British government. This was a piece of disheartening news. I tried to console myself by saying that at least I had aimed at entering politics. In my mind, politicians are not only smart, but also selfless and I sincerely appreciated their contribution to the society. In Hong Kong, however, it was unusual, if not odd, for a young boy to want to be a politician. You might accuse me of over-generalizing, but this was what I thought at that time.
A few years later, as my general knowledge of the world outside my classroom gradually developed, a gleam of light was shed on my dream again. I realized that Hong Kong people would eventually have the chance to choose their own governor some years after the handover of Hong Kong back to Mainland China in 1997. The idea of Hong Kong being returned to China was frightening to many Hong Kong people in the early 80s, but the handover turned out to be a joyful and memorable moment for most of the citizens. Today, Hong Kong is no longer a colony of Britain and Chinese are holding most of the top positions in the government. More significantly, the Governor, now renamed as the Chief Executive, is also Chinese. In other words, I still have my chance.
I am convinced that not only I, but the Hong Kong community in general welcomes this political change, which brings more power to the hands of Hong Kong citizens. Possessing more political rights seems to be a foreign concept to us, but it definitely sounds like something positive. People used to wonder why Hong Kong people were so indifferent to politics. I think I know the answer now. It is indeed very straightforward. Hong Kong people were essentially unable to make an impact on the government, as we were under the rule of foreigners. We tend to stand aloof from politics, since we have grown up in a world where the notion of self-governing is unfortunately absent. Nobody gave a damn about politics back then, but will the general public now become active in the political process? It takes time to prove, but I am rather optimistic about it because I have seen a parallel situation in Taiwan.
Because I would eventually attempt to run for office, I visited Taiwan with some of my schoolmates when the Taiwanese were holding their democratic presidential election this year. If you know some Chinese history, you would have loved to go with me, you would have also wanted to witness this presidential election in which, for the first time in the 5000 years of Chinese civilization, the ruling party would actually have the chance to be ousted. (Both Mainland China (People’s Republic of China) and Taiwan (Republic of China) claim that they are the legitimate Chinese governments.)
I arrived in Taipei one month before the election day. The first thing I saw after stepping out of the airport was a big picture of one of the candidates. Not surprisingly, the second thing that came into my sight was a picture of another candidate. There were a total of five competing candidates and three of them had been dominating the polls. A parade of flags was hung on the street and there were numerous banners of all sorts of sizes displayed on the walls of buildings. Thanks to the political parties, much color and substance were added to the city and I was constantly reminded of the election while I was touring. My favorite souvenir from the trip was a little cute model of one of the candidates, who happened to be the one finally elected.
On my way to a hotel, I was astonished that a taxi driver was able to tell me everything about the candidates, from their policies to their personalities. After I turned on the television in my room, I understood why the taxi driver was so knowledgeable. Two-thirds of the channels were occupied by election-related programs. No matter what time I switched on the TV, I would see a heated debate about the presidential election. Sometimes, there would be interviews of the candidates. Sometimes, the reporters would be questioning the representatives of different parties. Sometimes, I would see fierce debates between groups of analysts and professionals on current affairs. Sometimes, I would see some actors acting as candidates making fun of each other. However, what I would not find was a time when I was not hearing issues pertaining to the election. Even when I was watching cartoons at night, propaganda was shown every fifteen minutes. This phenomenon was absolutely novel to me.
At first, I thought that the Taiwanese were manic. Why were they so enthusiastic about the election? As I chatted with people in restaurants or public transports, the reason was gradually unveiled. A lot of factors contributed to stirring up the enthusiasm, such as the military threat and political pressure imposed by mainland China and the closeness of the popularity of the three main candidates, which was continuously revealed by surveys. The most crucial factor was the fact that the Taiwanese were so proud of their election, as it was the best manifestation of the successful implementation of democracy in Taiwan. They possessed not only the inviolable right to vote, but also the attitude of treasuring it. Democracy might not be the best political system, but it is undoubtedly something much better than Taiwan’s original single-party politics. After all, only a democratic election can possibly kick out the current party, which has held power since the establishment of Taiwan sovereignty, and bring the opposition party to the government office. Will democracy flourish in Hong Kong? It is hard to predict, but Taiwan has certainly been a successful precursor of establishing a non-authoritarian political system on Chinese soil.
This same year, there will also be a presidential election held in the United States, a country admired as a buttress of democracy. As incredible as it sounds, I am lucky enough to now be studying in Boston, and there is only one week left before the new U.S. President is elected. Can you imagine how delighted I was when I found out that I would experience the presidential election in the U.S.? I expected the election to be of an even higher class than the one held in Taiwan, in terms of the public discussion of the policies, the coverage of the mass communications and, most profoundly, the attitude of the voters.
However, I am disappointed. I might have expected too much, but probably not. I am unsatisfied not because I cannot see a parade of banners and thousands of flyers, but because of the altitude of Americans towards the election.
Who will lead the U.S. into the 21st century? It is impossible to foresee right now because it is as if each of the two major contenders is sharing half of the votes. Nevertheless, it is not who will win the election that matters, because no matter who wins, this person is the choice of the nation. What matters is the public’s involvement in the election, since that is the point of having a democratic election. Sadly, that is what Americans appear to be unable to achieve . A lot of Americans are apathetic about the election and do not even take it seriously. When you turn on the television, you can still see a number of programs that refer to the election, such as sitcoms, talk shows and commercial advertisements. However, the candidates are figures that people laugh at, and are the subject of rational discussions. Sitcoms and talk shows like the Tonight Show, The Late Show and Saturday Night Live tell many jokes that directly disparage the candidates and the election. There is an ‘interesting’ chocolate bar advertisement that I have seen, which is typical of the ads that show no respect to the candidates or the election. The ad depicts George W. Bush as a clumsy elephant who can only make impotent speeches with a strong Texas accent. He mentions his father’s name in every sentence of all his remarks. The only good thing about the ad is that it is fair, as Al Gore, too, cannot escape from being portrayed as a clown.
Besides, nearly every student I have talked to has told me not to vote for Bush. (I am not eligible to vote.) This sentiment is acceptable as long as the reasons behind it are sound. But the reasons that people offer are that he is stupid, he comes from Texas, he does not speak English and so on, but no one looks closely at his policies. I can hardly see any thorough analysis shown on television either. When the Americans are laughing hard, they do not realize that they are also laughing away their invaluable time that can be used to discuss the policies properly. They miss their opportunity to make a well-informed decision to choose their own leader and government. Democracy does not come easily but can slip away or deteriorate easily. If the voters do not make an effort to understand the policies and the candidates or even do not take a walk to the voting place, they will have no right to regret and rebuff when the outcome of the election is unfavorable.
When I was little, I used to dream about being the Governor of Hong Kong, because I did not even understand that I was under the colonial rule of Britain. Later I realized that I had no right to vote and no chance to run for office. If you have been given these rights since the day you were born, I will tell you that you are lucky.

They Flee From Me by Thomas Wyatt

Thomas Wyatt, “They Flee From Me”Sir Thomas Wyatt’s sixteenth-century lyric “They flee from me” is an enigmatic poem that pleases at least partly because it provides no final certainty about the situation it describes. Yet the poem, while in some respects indefinite and puzzling, is nevertheless quite specific in its presentation of a situation, particularly in the second stanza, and it treats a recognizable human experience—that of having been forsaken by a lover—in an original and intriguing fashion.They flee from me, that sometime did me seek
with naked foot stalking in jay chamber.
I have seen them gentle, tame, and meek
That now are wild, and do not remember
(5) That sometime they put themself in danger
To take bread at my hand: and now they range,
Busily seeking with a continual change.Thanked be fortune it bath been otherwise
Twenty times better, but once in special,
(10) In thin array after a pleasant guise *
When her loose gown from her shoulders did fall,
And she me caught in her arms long and small, *
Therewithal sweetly did me kiss,
And softly said, ‘Dear heart, how like you this?’(15) It was no dream: I lay broad waking.
But all is turned thorough my gentleness
Into a strange fashion of forsaking,
And I have leave to go of her goodness,
And she also to use newfangleness.
(20) But since that I so kindly am served,
I would fain know what she hath deserved.*manner or styleslender
The image developed in the first stanza is especially striking, with its suggestion of once tame and friendly animals who have reverted to wildness and will no longer risk the seemingly innocent taking of bread from the speaker’s hand. This stanza establishes at once the theme of change, a change from a special, privileged condition to one of apparent mistrust or fear, and the sense of strangeness (no explanation is given for the change) that will continue to trouble the speaker in the third stanza. Strangeness is inherent in the image itself — “with naked foot stalking in my chamber” – — and the stanza is filled with pairs of words that reinforce the idea of contrast: “flee”/“seek,” “tame”/“wild,” “sometime”/“now,” “take break”/“range.” Most interestingly, we are never told who “they” are.Moving from this somewhat disconcerting description of the speaker’s present situation, the second stanza abruptly shifts the reader to an earlier moment in the speaker’s life when “Thanked be fortune, it hath been otherwise/Twenty times better.” There follows the description of another privileged moment, an explicitly particular moment this time, that is fixed in the speaker1s memory. Wyatt’s evocation of this intimate scene, with its overtones of eroticism, is subtly lyrical in its rhythms and yet quite straightforward and direct. We are not given the speaker’s reply to the lady’s playful question, but the tone of the lines and the obvious fondness with which the speaker regards the incident give the description a compelling charm and authenticity.The first line of the third stanza confirms this sense of lived experience with two colloquial statements affirming the reality of that dreamlike moment. But the realization that such an enchanting scene did in fact take place only brings the speaker back to the hard reality of the present. He blames (and at the same time absolves) himself by attributing the change in affections to his own “gentleness,” but, as in the first stanza, can find no clear reason for his present condition. It is, he says, the result of a “strange fashion of forsaking,” a “newfangleness” on the part of the lady. The final couplet, with its ironic and ambiguous “kindly” (although in the sixteenth century “kyndely” could mean “after the law of kind or nature,” it also had its modern sense) is complex in its suggestion of disappointment, resignation, curiosity, and aplomb. The lover, although forsaken, is not completely embittered or heartbroken. His potential self-pity has been distilled into a critically philosophical commentary on the lady who, while clearly guilty of unkindness, cannot be utterly condemned for her “newfangleness” because its cause remains strange and unexplained.The basic purpose or a set of multiple-choice questions on a poem like “They flee from me” is to test a student’s ability to read the text with understanding and to be aware of the ways in which the poet uses language to produce various effects. The questions do not differ, therefore, from many of the questions that a classroom teacher night ask a group of students in the course of an analytical discussion of the poem. Such a discussion might include questions about the dramatic situation (or situations) presented in the poem. about the relationship between stanzas (structure), about the imagery and its coherence or tack of it, about the contribution of syntax and rhythm to meaning, about diction and tone, about irony and ambiguity Almost all of these elements can be treated using a multiple-choice format. Obviously, there are some aspects of the poem that cannot be dealt with effectively using multiple-choice questions, and the psychological response of individual students to the imagery or to the situation presented in the poem can be most successfully dealt with in essays or discussions which allow for a fuller treatment of the nuances, contradictions and enigmas that the reader discovers in the text. What the set of multiple-choice questions presents, however, is at least part of the preliminary analysis that a reader must necessarily undertake before he or she settles upon a reading of the poem- Who is speaking? What is his or her point of view? How is the poem organized? Are there recurring patterns of imagery, diction, or syntax? In preparing to answer such questions, a student is preparing not merely to take a test but to respond with sensitivity and acuity to the literary texts that he or she may read in the future.The set of questions that follows, written by a specialist in Renaissance literature, was reviewed and revised several times by others of similar background. It was then “pretested” — administered to a group of students in English courses at several colleges — in order to provide two important statistics for each question. The first is an index of difficulty, as determined by the percentage of students in the group who chose the correct answer; the second is an index of discrimination which indicates the extent to which the question discriminated between the most and least able students taking the test, with ability being determined by the students’ performance on the test as a whole (35 questions on two poems). A question is said to discriminate well when the group that chooses the correct answer also has a clearly higher score on the entire test than any of the groups choosing the other options. As a result of this pretesting, the questions may be revised further to eliminate ambiguities in wording or to change one of the five choices that, on a given question, might have misled a substantial number of very able students. In short, the pretest is a test of the questions rather than of the students. When the Development Committee and the test specialists from Educational Testing Service (ETS) are satisfied that each question contains only one “best” answer, the set is ready for use on an AP examination. The following set of questions on the Wyatt poem was part of the 1979 AP English Literature and Composition Examination.1. The central ambiguity in stanza 1 stems from the(A) strange behavior of women
(B) identity of “they”
© ideas of danger and change
(D) image of the naked foot
(E) contrast between danger and meeknessThe first question presents as a given that the first stanza of the poem contains a central ambiguity and asks the student to identify its source. Clearly, the most puzzling aspect of the stanza is the identity of “they,” and 63% of the students chose that option. These students, as a group, also had a higher score on the test as a whole (which included other passages and poems) than did any of the groups that chose the other options. “They” is particularly ambiguous because it might refer to human beings or to animals, and, in fact, “they” are not identified or referred to again in the rest of the poem. A group of 19% (the next largest group) chose option (A), “strange behavior of women.” The stanza does not include any mention of women, but these students may have been interpreting “they” as women in view of the scene with the woman in stanza two, thus eliminating a central ambiguity rather than identifying one. Options ©, (D), and (E), while all present in the first stanza, are not sources of ambiguity and were chosen by 4%, 1%, and 10% of the students respectively. Three percent of the students chose not to answer this question.2. All of the following reinforce the imagery in stanza 1 EXCEPT(A) “stalking” (line 2)
(B) “tame” (line 3)
© “remember” (line 4)
(D) “bread” (line 6)
(E) “range” (line 6)This question asks students to identify words that, together, reinforce the imagery in stanza one. The imagery itself is not identified, so the students must try to define it and then to determine which words among the five options support or contribute to that imagery. The words “stalking,” “tame,” “bread,” and “range” all help to define and reinforce the suggested image of animals being fed; “remember” is the one word that does not fit the image and it was identified as such by 64% of the candidates. (As on all questions in this set, the group choosing the right answer had a higher mean score on the entire multiple-choice section of the test than did the other groups.) This question tests the ability of readers to recognize a pattern of related words or images that work together to provide meaning in the poem.3. Which of the following best describes the event in stanza 2?(A) Sentimental and maudlin
(B) Symbolic and religious
© Comic and surprising
(D) Erotic and sensual
(E) Vulgar and insincereQuestion 3 calls for a judgment about the nature of the event described in the second stanza. One should remember that what is asked for is the best answer among five options, not necessarily the ultimate correct description of the nature of the event, if such a response were possible. Here, 72% of the candidates saw that (D), “Erotic and sensual,” was a more accurate description of the scene than any of the other choices. Although the speaker recalls the scene fondly, it would be an exaggeration to qualify the description as “maudlin” (A), and there is nothing religiously symbolic (B), comic ©, or vulgar and insincere (E) about the scene. The frankness with which the scene is depicted helps to make it convincing. Despite the apparent subjectivity in making such a decision, the choices given made this an easy question for the students.4. The question “Dear heart, how like you this?” (line 14) can best =
be described as(A) open and insecure
(B) playful and inviting
© probing and melancholy
(D) ironic and cruel
(E) demanding and sarcasticIn keeping with their accurate perception of stanza two, 84% of the students were able to qualify line 14 as “playful and inviting.” The next largest group chose (A), “open and insecure,” perhaps because of “open,” but, once again, the other options made the best answer stand out rather clearly. Testing for tone is always tricky, but recognizing the tone of this line and understanding the nature of the scene itself do not call for great powers of discrimination from the candidates. Subtler and more personal characterizations of the scene would best be handled in an individual essay on the poem.5. The details of stanza 2 especially emphasize the woman’s(A) arrogance
(B) fastidiousness
© assertiveness
(D) wittiness
(E) meeknessQuestion 5, answered correctly by 67% of the students, required an examination of the details of stanza two in order to arrive at a characterization of the woman’s behavior. What is most striking, of course, is her assertiveness ©. It is she who initiates the action, catches the speaker in her arms, kisses him, and poses her playful question. The speaker is the object of her affection and plays a completely passive role. Very few students saw the woman as arrogant (A) or witty (D), since what she does is intimate and inviting and what she says a commonplace. Six percent chose “fastidiousness” as her main characteristic, with no apparent justification since she seems rather negligee both in behavior and attire, while 18% saw her as meek, perhaps because they replaced the active picture that Wyatt provides with a more stereotypical image but one unsupported by the details of the stanza.6. In line 17, “forsaking” reinforces all of the following EXCEPT(A) “flee” (line 1)
(B) “range” (line 6)
© “change” (line 7)
(D) “waking” (line 15)
(E) “turned” (line 16)Question 6 is similar to Question 2 in that it requires the reader to discover a unifying device, a pattern of similarity in the diction of the poem. It also indirectly identifies the theme of forsaking that is central to the poem and asks students to choose one word among five taken from lines 1-16 that does not help to suggest this theme. Sixty-one percent—by far the ablest group among the candidates—saw that (D), “waking,” had nothing to do with this central theme. The other four options proved about equally attractive to groups of equally less able candidates for the obvious reason that these words — “flee,” range,” “change,” and “turned” — are all indeed related to the idea of forsaking. Again, this question obliges a reader not to make an interpretation of the poem but to identify a pattern that helps to define its meaning.7. The phrase “use newfangleness” (line 19) is best interpreted to mean(A) seek for novelty
(B) act with caution
© behave carnivorously
(D) renew previous vows
(E) employ her inventivenessThis is a reading question that requires the student to choose the closest equivalent for the phrase “use newfangleness” in the context of stanza three. Forty percent of the students chose (A), “seek for novelty.” From Chaucer’s time to the present, “newfangled” has signified “excessively novel or modish.” A reader sensitive to connotation would be aware of the negative implications of the word even outside the context of the poem. In this stanza, the speaker’s point is that the woman has deserted him and is behaving like the “they” in the first stanza who are “Busily seeking with a continual change.” The only other choice that was attractive to a large (44%) but less-able group of candidates was (E), “employ her inventiveness.” These candidates either missed the speaker’s critical irony towards the woman or associated “newfangleness” with inventiveness (as in the phrase “newfangled invention”) rather than with the fickleness and infatuation with novelty that the word actually denotes. An interpretation that sees the woman’s “inventiveness” as the focus of stanza three would be difficult to support using the details provided by the speaker.8. All of the following contribute to the narrative quality of the poem EXCEPT the(A) speech-like rhythm of lines 3-6
(B) use of reminiscence, beginning “but once in special” (line 9)
© use of “and” as the first word in many lines
(D) interruption with a defensive comment (line 15)
(E) ironic implications of lines 20-21This question proved to be the most difficult of the set for the Advanced Placement candidates taking the exam. Answered correctly by a very able group comprising 30% of the total number of candidates, the question tells the student that the poem has a “narrative quality,” that is, that there is a speaker recounting incidents in time. In fact, the speaker uses both description and narration, and includes personal comments on his situation. This question asks the reader to notice the elements that give the poem the quality of personal narrative, or rather to eliminate from the five choices the one element that does not. The first four options all describe aspects of the poem that suggest this narrative quality; only (E), “ironic implications of lines 20-21,” although an accurate observation about the lines, does not contribute to this quality, since irony may occur in many other contexts. This question may have been difficult because it required students first to interpret the phrase “narrative quality” (not a precise literary term) and then to examine each of the options for what it might contribute to the “sense of storytelling.” The best students were probably also familiar with the concept of irony and realized that it was not a technique specific to the narrative mode.9. Which of the following does NOT indicate the time when an action described in the poem took place?(A) “sometime” (line 1)
(B) “sometime” (line 5)
© “now” (line 6)
(D) “once” (line 9)
(E) “since” (line 20)This question directs the student’s attention to the importance of time in the poem. As we have mentioned, a structural element in the poem is the contrast between “then” and “now.” Options (A), (B), and (D) all refer to previous (happier) time and option © to the strange and disappointing present. Option (E), “since,” means, in line 20, “inasmuch as” and, of course, does not serve to define a time sequence. Sixty-six percent of the students answered this question correctly.Question 9, like questions 2, 6, and 8 in this set, requires the student to choose not a single correct characterization about an aspect of the poem but a single element that is not true or not part of a pattern. Questions like these, although they require a mental shifting of gears by the student (who is alerted to their difference in format by the words “NOT” or “EXCEPT”), are extremely useful for getting at the multiple meanings of literary language or at patterns of repetition in a poem or prose passage. Images and words in literature often suggest more than a single meaning or connotation, and this reversal of the typical multiple-choice format allows the testmaker to deal with rhetorical patterns, with unifying structural elements, and to some degree with the polysemous nature of literary language.10. Which of the following is most clearly ironic in tone?(A) “Busily” (line 7)
(B) “sweetly” (line 13)
© “waking” (line 15)
(D) “strange” (line 17)
(E) “kindly” (line 20)This final question in the set asks the student to recognize the irony in the use of the word “kindly” in line 20. Seventy-one percent of the candidates chose the correct answer. To do so they had to look carefully at five words that appear in the poem between lines 7 and 20 and notice that an ironic tone (which may also color lines 18 and 19) is present only in the last of these; the other words are part of the straightforward description and narration. Being aware of this tone is, of course, an essential part of understanding the complexity of the attitudes contained in Wyatt’s poem.=20As has been said before, these questions constitute not a definitive interpretation of the poem but a test of a student’s ability to do some of the preliminary work necessary for arriving at a reading or interpretation. They oblige the student to look closely at the text and to notice how his or her own experience of the poem is shaped and guided by Wyatt’s artistry.

An Inspirationally Destructive Red Pen

An Inspirationally Destructive Red PenWhen children first start school they begin a new extensive journey, first meeting all new people and then having to learn a broad array of new things. One of those new things is how to read and also write. Teachers start out slow by having students write in big capital letters on funny looking red and green striped paper, next moving on to cursive letters with still that same silly paper. After a short while the students are on their own, writing notes for classes, notes to friends and family, along with research papers and stories for their teachers in school. And that is where my story begins, room 216 on the second floor of Pottsville Area High School.
School had just started; it was the fall of my sophomore year. I was excited about having new teachers and being able to boss around those little freshmen since I had finally lost that ridiculous title of “freshy.” Although one class did turn all that excitement right into knots in my stomach, it was English 10. Ugh I hated English, partially because I could never remember all those rules of writing, which I had just thought of as “dumb.” I figured, “Why would I ever need to know all them? Computers will be able to fix all my mistakes for me!” As I would soon find out, boy was I ever wrong. Surprisingly, class was going good; our teacher Mr. Mieckowski seemed to be a little weird and quite boring at times but all in all not too bad I mean who isn’t boring occasionally? He had a shiny head with very little hair and never wore long sleeves to class. He was also quite tall and skinny, so everyone had his or her own conclusion about Mr. Mieckowski’s personal life. A lot of the time this ended up being the topic of conversation for his students, along with his hatred towards icicle lights, white reindeer, and especially technology; the thing I loved most.
We spent most of the first month in Mr. M.’s class just going over “the infamous page one” as he liked to call it and just reading some great pieces of literature, including Of Mice and Men and Julius Caesar. Then one winter day, we all came into his cool green room and sat down, chatting with our neighbors as usual until the bell rang to signify the start of class. When the bell rang, our teacher began talking about our upcoming assignments; he told us we would be writing 3 essays during the next couple weeks. I cringed when I heard that; I hated writing essays. He then told us we would have 3 days in class to work on each of them, then at the end of the period on the third day they must be handed in. My heart sank! “There goes my straight A’s,” I said to myself. The next day in class he went over the format he would like his assignments done in and some basics on how to write a paper properly. He began by telling us his papers are only one paragraph long. This included at least 5 sentences, which were a topic sentence, 3 details to support the topic sentence, and a clincher statement. He then proceeded to teach us certain things we must do and must not do, such as use a different device in our topic sentence and clincher statement, and how we could not use the word “You” in our papers. There were many more rules, too many to list. I was trying to think of any easy way out of this but it just wasn’t working. Thinking of all those rules and only 3 days to write it made me sick to the stomach, even though the paper was only a single paragraph long.
Then finally that one-day came, and we had to start on our papers. All my friends around me just began to write like it was nothing to them. Me, I couldn’t think of one single topic to write about that we learned while reading Of Mice and Men. I asked my friends all around me for help, none of them were much help. My friend next to me, Griff, his friend, Jason, and even the cute blonde girl who sat behind me, Randall, all had good topics and really couldn’t think of any others for me. I felt like a total idiot. All the freshmen around me were writing like crazy and I just sat there with nothing, so much for making fun of all those freshmen. That was the end of that; I put my head down and went right to sleep with the plan of working on it later that night.Day 2 came around quite fast; I was ready for it though. I had Espanol dos (Spanish 2) before my English class, and as soon as that bell rang I ran up those stairs to the second floor so I could be the first in line to have my paper reviewed by Mr. Mieckowski. He came into the room promptly after the bell had rung. He sat down on his old wooden stool right behind his podium, and I was right there waiting with my paper. I set my paper down, and he looked at the paper then at me and said, “What?” I was speechless, what was I supposed to say? The only thing I could think of was, “What’s wrong with it?” He read over it carefully, and in my mind, just destroyed my paper with that red pen of his. I would have never guessed it would be one of the things that most inspired my ability to write. Then he just looked at me again. I thought to myself, “Is that all?” He then began to explain to me all the things I had done wrong. He made it sound like he had written renowned pieces of literature. The creature in my nightmares had become my savior and mentor. I may not have known it right then and there, but he was showing me the right ways to write, easily. He was going to lead me in the right direction on that bumpy road of writing. After that first session with Mr.Mieckowski, I still didn’t like writing but I now had a different perspective on it. The rest of that whole period I spent revising my paper, adding sentences, changing words, and removing things. I felt like a massive weigh had been lifted off my shoulders. I couldn’t wait for day 3 to come so I could have him review my paper one final time before it would be susceptible to his red pen and actual grading.
Day 3 finally came; once again I anxiously waited for the bell to ring to end 2nd period. The bell sounded. I was off to the race once again, full sprint up the stairs and down the hall. Oh no To my dismay someone had beaten me to my spot. I disappointedly got into the line as the second person. This worried me because I wasn’t sure if I would have enough time to have my paper reviewed, write my final copy and hand it in by the end of the short 43-minute period. Score The student in front of me only had a short question to ask, I was up again. Mr. M. once again read over my paper and went to work with his cruel red pen. He then explained once again what I had done wrong and how to correct it. This time I understood everything even better. I sat down at my wooden desk with its broken seat once more and began to revise my work. Finally I was satisfied; I hurriedly wrote my paper on the nice, clean white, blue lined composition paper, making sure to use the proper format and all. I stapled it together and placed it on his desk when the bell rang. Paper 1 was done, only 2 more to go but I had a day or 2 to rest and prepare myself.
The next day in class everyone sat around talking like every other day, mostly questioning one another if they knew if we would get our papers back. No oneREALLYknew but everyone had his or her own ideas to share. Mr. M. came in right after the bell as always, but he had our papers in his hand. He said he was impressed with the writing we had all done, with a few exceptions. My faced turned pale, I knew for sure I was one of those exceptions. He began to discretely pass our papers back to us. Everyone was getting his or her papers except me. Sure enough I was on the bottom of the pile. I didn’t even want to look at it. While everyone was asking their friends how they had done, I just sat there. Griff then asked me how I did and I replied, “I dunno, you tell me” and handed him my paper. He looked at it and said, “Damn you beat me” I was shocked I looked at it; I had received a 97%. I just felt as though I wanted to jump out of my seat and scream. I would have had a 100 except for a few spelling errors, probably due to how fast I had written the final copy. Disregarding those lost 3 points, I was ecstatic. My paper was a work of art to me I wanted to frame it and hang it on my wall at that point. As time went on that excitement wore off and I realized it just wasn’t a paper I had written, it was a story along with an instructional guide I had written in my mind on how to write a paper. From that point on I knew I could tackle any paper those teachers could throw at me and it was all thanks to Mr. Mieckowski and his inspirationally destructive red pen.

Verbal Image Translation Analysis Based Upon Ian Flemings “From Russia With Love”

This paper deals with the problem of verbal image translation from SL ( English ) into TL ( Ukrainian ). The research is based on comparison of the original [ 1; 337p. ] and Ukrainian translation [ 2; 190p. ] of Ian Fleming’s “ James Bond : From Russia With Love”A few words should be mentioned about the author and his book . Ian Fleming ( 1908 – 1964 ) was a great journalist and detective stories writer . In 1931 he joined Reuters news agency, and during the World War 2 he was a personal assistant to the Director of Naval Intelligence at the admiralty, rising to the rank of commander . At this time he acquired the first-hand knowledge of secret operations . He started his first James Bond novel “ Casino Royale” at the age of 44 , by which time he became the foreign manager of Kemsley Newspapers . He wrote it in the Golden Eye , the house he had built in Jamaica . James Bond has won Ian Fleming the world fame , being the greatest British fictional icon of the late 20-th c.
The book is about a British secret agent James Bond , on whom every major foreign government has a file, and whom the Russia’s deadly SMERSH organisation has targeted for elimination – they have the perfect bait in the irresistible Tatiana Romanova . Her mission is to lure Bond to Istanbul and seduce him, while her superiors handle the rest . Bond walks into the trap – but he is always the one to win .
The language of this detective story is mostly unexpressive, unemotional, and the stylistic devices ( SD ) that the author uses are typical of the genre : the lyrical images are absent, most of the SDs are used as the means serving to create the picture of the cold, ruthless world of constantly alternating death and fight for survival . Artistic images mostly are stylistically neutral , as no or little expressiveness or emotional colouring is present in them . The same concerns the idioms and phraseologisms ( of which the verbal image is the basic constituting element [ 3 ; 28 ] ) occuring infrequently . The translated work of art is percepted as the artistic one only provided that it corresponds to artistic and stylistic tradition of the TL [ 3; 28 ] . The translator has to preserve the stylistic status of ST by using the equivalents of the same style or , failing that, options for stylistically neutral words [ 4 ; 138 ] The translator manages to reproduce the original content keeping to ST style, but introduces syntactic and other transformations in order to keep to TL norms and requirements .
The research examines and studies this linguistic and literary phenomenon from different viewpoints, it highlights different ways of verbal image translation, which derive from the specifics of its structure and initial formation process. It was concluded that the best way to understand the notion of verbal image and its translation properly is to regard this lingual phenomenon as a whole, a system or a living organism depending on the extralinguistic world and the processes circuiting in it, for any efforts aimed at studying the separate parts of the image ( lexical units bearing no expressive imagerial charge, except for the denotation ) will end in failure.As it was stated above, understanding the image’s structure is an important precondition of realizing its essence and, thus, of finding a stylistically proper equivalent of it in the language translation. Proffessor R. P. Zorivchak and I. Arnold provided a good scheme of its formation and structure . Verbal image is a very complicated artistic unity, since its structure results in its originality and literary value . R. P. Zorivchak provided a conceptual theory, while I. Arnold approached it formally. Being the polylexemic construction, it consists of the combination of lexemes of a certain grammatical and derivational structure ( the first sense layer ) . Verbal image can have a varying structure . It may consist of a word, word combinations, paragraph, chapter of literary piece, and even of an integral and whole literary creation.[ 14; Vinogradov p.119 ]. Its formation undergoes a certain regularity and it is not occasional . Unexpected cooccurrence of lexical units within the structure of image violates the significant conceptual basis and normal combinability of both components, which makes the reader’s imagination work intensively and transform the usual understanding of the notion . The meaningful lexemes somehow change their semantics, forming the new conceptual imagery, the new concept as the semantic field of each one is violated and some semantic components are extracted, so that the denotational meanings of each element are weakened and almost erased , while the connotation and accordingly expressiveness are foregrounded and stressed . This is how the new entity is formed – the second sense layer. Now the functional – stylistic and emotional – expressive connotations are amalgamated with the new semantical unity . As the denotation becomes vague, and only some semantic components are foregrounded ( leaving out, ousting the others ), the actual sense of the image is not constituted by the sum of the first layer components ( divergent ). Still the image is tightly related to the first semantic layer ( the outer verbal image manifestation ), as its elements ( their certain combination ) are of primary importance in its formation ( being its initial building material, they are transformed into a new semantic unity ). When encountering artistic image the recepient sees it as a bilateral transparent unity ( through percepting the first layer he senses the inner form, the implication of which can not be revealed through literally summing the dictionary meanings of the constituting elements up ). Assymetry ( difference in meaning ) between the two sense layers ( outer shell ( denotative ) >and fresh and bright inner semantic content ( connotative ) which are actualized simultaneously in the discourse ) is the image’s essential property, the source of its expressiveness . [ 11; p. 219 ] I. Arnold adds the following properties of image : 1) it emerges in the process of reflection and recreation of the world, which is the source of other properties , esp. 2) concreteness and 3) emotionality [ 8; p. 114 ] . So the five main image’s properties have been outlined .
In terms of I . Arnold the verbal image consists if such sructural elements :
1)The tenor ( denotatum ) – what is being discussed.
2) The vehicle ( signifier ) – the object with which the tenor is compared
3) The ground ( the basis for comparison ) – common feature of the compared notions
4) The relation between the first and second
5) Comparison technique as a type of trope
6) Grammatical and lexical specifics of the comparison .
The image’s expressiveness and brightness depends upon the semantic distance of its constituants in direct proportion – the brighter the gap – the brighter the image is [ 8; 115 ].
From the statements made above concerning tropes it may be concluded that tropes are some of the lingual implementations of verbal image ( as image is their basis and source ). They are otherwordly called stylistic devices ( SD ) . They are used mostly in belle-lettres style . The term comprizes such notions as simile, epithet, metaphor , metonimy, synecdoche etc., the SDs based on transferrence of meaning – intended substitution of the existing names of the objects or notions approved by long usage and fixed in dictionaries by new occasional ones prompted by the speaker’s individual world view and evaluation of things ( the name of one object is transferred onto another one and this transferrence is based on their semantic similarity ( shape, colour , function ) or closeness ( of material existense ( container/ content ) cause/effect, part/whole, instrument/result , part/whole relations ). [ 15; 42 ] One should explicate the notions of SDs within the research, because their occurrence in the Ian Fleming’s work is rather frequent . This was done perfectly by V. A. Kukharenko, I. Arnold and I. Galperin. First and foremost the concept of metaphor should be mentioned – transferrence of names based on the associated likeness between the two objects. On the initial stage metaphor, just like all other SDs, is original and bright , but the more frequently it is used the more trite and usual it becomes, – until the whole expressiveness and freshness of it is lost and the artistic unit becomes another dictionary entry. So the SD’s brightness of image ‘dies out’ with the growth of its usage frequency. One subtype of metaphor is the sustained (prolonged) metaphor – the intended development of the transferred meaning by extention of the quantity of its constituants, each of which adds another feature to the described notion. Personification – is another kind of metaphor, implying the likeness between inanimate and animate objects.
Metonymy – it is also based on transferrence of meanings, but similarity of the objects is not considered. Only their closeness is taken into account ( adjacence or contiguity ) – the common ground of existance in reality . Many cases of its usage are no more accepted as fresh . Synecdoche is its subtype, it is based on the part/whole relations . Its syntactic function is the function of noun ( subject, object, predicative ) [ 15, p. 46 ].
Epithet – is a stylistic device based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning in an attributive word, phrase or sentence . It may be classified from different views: semantic and structural . Sematically it is divided into 1) associated and 2) unassociated with the noun following . Structurally the epithet is divided proceeding from the compositional and distributional aspects. From compositional aspect it’s devided into : 1) simple, 2) compound , 3) and phrase epithets. From distributional one – into 1) string of epithets ( giving many-sided depiction of the object, their expressiveness from first to last epithet rises, so that the last one is the most expressive ), 2) transferred epithet ( logical attributes, describing the state of human being, but referring to inanimate objects )[ 16 , 157 ] . Frequent epithet usage with certain nouns results in their becoming the stable word combinations, so such epthets are divided into the language epithets and speech epithets [ p.154 ] .
Simile – is the stylistic device intensifying some certain feature of the object or concept in question by comparing it to an object or concept from different sphere of material existance ( one common feature of the objects compared is foregrounded, while all the others are excluded ) . Similes have formal elements in their structure : connecting words as, like, such as, as if, seem. Sometimes the simile forming like is placed after a phrase, turning into a half-suffix .
Periphrasis – the re-naming of an object by a phrase highlighting its specific feature and being desipherable only in the context . Thus, it has to be distinguished from a mere synonymic expression . Its subtypes are circumlocution ( the roundabout speaking of simple, ordinary things ,which is pompous and deprived of any aesthetic value ) and euphemisms ( replacing the names of vulgar or abusing content with the words and expressions depicting it in a softened and covert way ) .
Hyperbole – a stylistic device in which emphasis is achieved through deliberate exeggeration . Opposite to it is understatement .
The contextual realization of the transferred and direct meaning ( dictionary) or different dictionary meanings serve the source of the phenomenon of pun ( referring to the latter ) and zeugma . Zeugma – the use of a word in the same grammatical but different semantic relations to two adjacent words or collocations, the semantic relations being on one hand literal, and on the other transferred ( 16 ; p.145 ). It restores the literal meaning of the word, which also occurres in violation of phraseological units .The importance of the separate consideration of images in translation studies is undeniable, as they are the main bearers of the emotional and expressive artistic load ( the author puts his thoughts and impressions into it [ 17 ; p. 25 ] ) in any text of belle-lettres, the core of its literary value. In order to translate verbal image properly one should penetrate into it, which implies studying and researching its characteristic features, structure, etymology ( as language is dynamic and it constitutes an integral unity with verbal image, the image sense itself may change in the course of time reacting to the semantic change in its lexical constituants and acquiring new semantic tinges, the new semes ) in close-up, history of its formation ( how it was brought into being, what is the reason for choosing this or that real life object for its creation, how are the objects interrelated ( the ground of semblance ) what emotional impact does their liason produce on the SL reader ( pragmatic aspect ) ), its relation to other expressive images in the canvas of the literary ( artistic ) discourse .
A good way of understanding the image and the methods of its translation was provided by V.V. Koptilov . Subordination of all the lexical units of belle-lettres style to the task of forming the artistic image is the main feature of literature . Image is the main component of a literary text and its main translation unit. But it shouldn’t be regarded separately from the linguistic means of its realization. One should find out the reasons for this or that way of its embodiment on paper ( the choice of words, types of sentenses, rhythmics ). After finding out the the answer to this question, he endeavours to find the means of his native literary language which would correspond to the SL in the most profound way, i.e. which would help him to express the author’s idea naturally and truthfully [ 18 ; p. 74. ].
R. P. Zorivchak provides the types of equivalence of verbal images, proceeding from the contrastive approach ( SL/TL ) to the works of literature of both languages. According to her conclusions, such imageral equivalents may be drawn :
Full image equivalents
These are the cases of imageral parallels existing in Ukrainan ( TL ) and English ( SL ) . Such images coincide in all aspects ( denotative content ,stylistic and emotionally – expressive tinges ).
Partial sense-image equivalents
Sometimes inspite of the fact that the denotative imagery of verbal images varies ( because of the componential difference of the SL and TL ), they still preserve the equal subject-logic meaning, emotional-expressive characteristics and contiguous funtional–stylistic connotations. Generally , it is possible to reproduce the semantic-stylistic specifics of SL by partial equivalence because of such reasons : 1) the images themselves tend to become trite ( or dead ), losing their expressiveness and becoming the neutral lexical units of the language, which is surely reflected in dictionaries ; 2) sometimes the expression with a vague imagery in TL corresponds to the bright SL image. It is very rarely possible to find the total equivalents in artistic image translation, except when it concerns a phraseological unit . One of the solutions can be resorting to the type of translation, effective in reproducing the SL national colouring and the author’s individual style. This is calquing. Still, it cannot be considered proper to use calque translation if it concerns the cases when the SL image became a clichee like phrase, with no expressiveness left in it that could be perceptible by the SL reader.
While translating the SL image into TL it’s very important to allow for the lexical – grammatical specifics of, aesthetical potentials, stylistic traditions of the TL and the background knowledge of the TL reader .Denotative-image calque
The verbal image is based on the meanings of its separate lexical components ( it’s related to the first semantic layer ). Thus, they should be primarily taken into account by the translator, who sometimes manages to preserve the sense of original by reproducing each semantic component of the SL verbal image’s first layer. But, due to the norms of the TL grammatical order, restricting the translator’s ability to reproduce the image’s specifics as fully as possible, even such type of translation cannot provide the full equivalence.
Sense-image calque
Often, due to target language norms and restrictions, the translators task resolves itself to translating only the image’s second layer, or logical sense by violating its outer manifestation, especially if it concerns the genetically distant languages. Effective calque can enter the TL image system in the course of time.
Descriptive translation
The last and the least effective type of reproducing the verbal image is its main content rendition by means of a separate word or by occasional collocation deprived of any imagery on the level of speech ( partial non-imageral equivalence ) rendering neither expressiveness, nor the stylistic- markedness or other important characteristics of the SL units . But it doesn’t mean that this translation type should be avoided totally. The translator has to resort to it when it’s impossible to use calque – in reproducing the original , nationally coloured images, related to a people’s mode of thought and its understanding of the surrounding world.
As tropes ( based on imagery ) are the main structural units of an artistic text, dealing with its translation means encountering with the difficulties of their reproduction into TL. The practical issues concerning their translation are highlighted in the following chapter.
1) [The drowsy luxurious silence of early aftrenoon was broken by the sound of a car coming down the road (p. 5)] .
[ C >==C A=C B*8*H*C* *0*=*=*L*&gt;*3*&gt;* ?*&gt;*;*C*4*=*O* ?*&gt;**C*H*8*2* 3*C*@*:*V*B* 0*2*B*>**1*V*;O, I*>* 7*C*?8=*8*2*A*O* ?*5*@*5*4* 2*V*;;>N ( p . 4 ) ] .
D r o w s y i s a n e p i t h e t w i t h l i t t l e e x p r e s s i v e n e s s ( b e c a u s e o f f r e q u e n c y o f i t s u s a g e ) t h o u g h i t i s a t r a n s f e r r e d o n e ( t h e f e a t u r e o f a n i m a t e o b j e c t i s t r ansferred to inanimate one ). According to Galperin it is a speech epithet .[ Galperin ; 154 ] In ST the word silence collocates with the word to break ( initially was used metaphorically, but in the course of time the image became trite ( and even neutral ) ). The type of translation used here is the full image equivalence, as the image parallels exist in both languages, and the trite imagery is normally translated by the neutral TL unit .[ It was as if the eyelids had pri c k e d u p , l i k e a n a n i m a l * s e a r s ( 5 ) ] .
[ >2*V*:8 ?*V*4*=O;*8*A*L*, O*:* >B>* =*0*H*>@>*H*C*N*B*L*A*O* 2*C*E*0* B*2*0*@*8*=8 ( 4 ) ] .
T h i s S D i s a s i m i l e , b u t i t s f u l l e q u i v a l e n t ( c o n c e p t u a l ) e x i s t s i n t h e T L – F u l l i m a g e e q u i v a l e n c e .3 ) [ T h e s m a l l c r u e l l i p s . . . . ( p . 6 ) ] .
U n u s u a l f e a t u r e o f t h e p a r t o f b o d y i s f o r e g r o u n d e d . I t * s a t r a n s f e r r e d e p i t h e t . T h e t y p e o f e q u i v a l e n c e i s F u l l i m a g e .[ H e a l t h y a n i m a l p e a s a n t g i r l ( 6 ) ] [ **@*0*6*5*==O* 2*V*4* A*5*;O=*A*L*:>3*>* 7*4*>@>*2** O* V* W A*8*;8 2* F*V*T*W* 4*V*2*G*8*=8 ( 5 ) ] .
T h e s e m e s o f p o w e r a n d v i v a c i t y i m p l i e d b y t h e s i m i l e * a n i m a l * i s e x p l i c a t e d i n t r a n s l a t i o n b y m e a n s o f t h e c o l l o c a t i o n * B*2*0*@*8*==0* ( e p i t h e t ) A*8*;*0** . T h e v i o l a t i o n o f f i r s t s e m a n t i c l a y e r ( i n o r d e r t o e x p l i c a t e t h e i m p l i e d s e n s e o f t h e s e c o n d s t r u c t u r a l l a y e r ) i s o b s e r v e d . S o t h i s i s t h e s e n s e * i m a g e c a l q u e .[ F r o m t h e v e r y f i r s t t i m e h e h a d b e e n l i k e a l u m p o f i n a n i m a t e m e a t ( 9 ) ] .
[ **V*4* A*0**3*>* ?>G*0*B*:C 2*V*=* =*0*3*0*4*C*2*0*2* 1*@*8*;C =*5*6*8*2*>3>* *7**2*C*2*0*;0 2*>=0*, =*V*1*8* E*B*>*A*L* ?*@*8*B*O*3* A*N*4*8* ?>*F*5*;*O*=*&gt;*2*C* ;*O*;*L*:*C* V* @*&gt;*7**1*;*8*G*G*O*, I*&gt;*1* =*0*A*B**0*E*0*B*8* ;*N*4*5*9* ( 7 ) ] .
T h e S L s e n t e n c e h a s a s i m i l e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( b a s e d on the sustained metaphor ) . It was reproduced without essential transformations of the 1-st layer , and ,thus, no changes were introduced in the sense (2-nd layer) . This is the denotative-image calque .[ The bullet – headed guard (14) ] [ E>@>=5*F*L* V*7* :C;5?>4*V*1*=>N* 3*>;>2>N ( 9 ) ] .
I n S L t h e r e i s a t r a n s f e r r e d e p i t h e t . T h e r e i s n o g r a m m a t i c a l e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e S L s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e . T h u s , t h e f o r m i s v i o l a t e d i n o r d e r t o r e p r o d u c e t h e s e n s e , a n d t h e S L c o m p o u n d e p i t h e t i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a s i m i l e , t o w h i c h t h e m e a n i n g f u l p a r t o f w o r d * * l i k e ( ?>4*V*1*=*8*9* ) * i n d i c a t e s * s e n s e * i m a g e e q u i v a l e n t .8 ) [ T h e t w o e n g i n e s w h i n e d a n d c o u g h e d a n d f i r e d ( 1 8 ) ] .
[ **1*8*4*2*0* 4*2*8*3*C*=8 V* A*:*8*3*;8;8, 9* :*0*E*8*:0;8 , 9* ?>A*B*@*V*;*N*2*0*;8 ( 1 2 ) ] .
The imagery of some kinds of animals is created in ST by means of personification and reproduced equivalently ( lexical components and the image’s sense ) in TL by means of full-image equivalence .9) [ He took to drink instead ( 22 ) ] [ … 2*V*=* =*0**3*>*A*L* ) i s l e s s e x p r e s s i v e o r e m o t i o n a l , w h i l e t h e T L * s e q u i v a l e n t i s b r i g h t e r , a s t h e T L i m a g e * s s t r u c t u r e i s s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t ( t h e e x p r e s s i v e c o m p o n e n t ( 4*8**;:>2=8:* ?>=V* 2*>3=8:8, I*>* =0 *G*0*E* ( 1 6 ) ] .
E a c h e l e m e n t i s t r a n s l a t e d a d e q u a t e l y , s o t h a t t h e i m a g e r y r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e T T r e m a i n s t h e s a m e . F u l l * i m a g e e q u i v a l e n c e .1 2 ) [ – T h a n k y o u , S i r ! * h e s a i d w o r m l y ( 2 9 ) ] [ – O:*C*N* , A*5*@* ! * @*>*7*G*C*;5=> A*:*0*7*0*2* 2*V*=* ( 1 8 ) ] T h e i m a g e o f t h e S T i s v a g u e , d u e t o f r e q u e n t u s a g e . T h e s e S D s a r e c a l l e d l a n g u a g e e p i t h e t s T h u s , u s i n g t h e n e u t r a l w o r d i n T T i s a g o o d e q u i v a l e n t . T h i s i s t h e p a r t i a l s e n s e – i m a g e e q u i v a l e n c e , b e c a u s e n o t a l l o f t h e S T w o r d s p e c i f i c s , e x c e p t t h e g e n e r a l s e n s e , w e r e r e p r o d u c e d .1 3 ) [ T h e s e w e r e b e a t i n g s u p ( 3 4 ) ] [ **Û
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18) [ Burgeois horseplay ( 51 ) ] [ **C*@*6*C*0*7*=0 2*>*2*B*C*7*=O ( 3 1 ) ] T h e i m a g e i s v a g u e i n S L , b u t t h e w o r d h a s n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n . I n T L t h e s e n s e o f t h e S L u n i t i s r e p r o d u c e d , t h e t r a n s l a t i o n i s d o n e o n t h e c o n n o t a t i v e l e v e l a n d i t i s a d e q u a t e .1 9 ) [ E v e n t h e h i g h e s t t r e e h a s a n a x e w a i t i n g a t i t s f o o t ( 5 0 ) ] [ **0*2*V*B*L* ?*V*4* =*0*9*2*8*I*8****:*8*@*0* ( 3 0 ) ] C a l q u e t e c h n i q u e i s u s e d t o r e p r o d u c e t h e e x p r e s s i o n . T h i s i s p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e e x i s t i n g v e r b a l i m a g e p a r a l l e l s . T h e y ( i d i o m a t i c u n i t s ) c o i n c i d e i n a l l a s p e c t s ( 1 – s t a n d 2 – n d s e m a n t i c l a y e r ) . T h i s i s t h e d e n o t a t i v e – i m a g e c a l q u e2 0 ) [ . . . w i t h w h o m h e h a d b e e n c r o s s i n g s w a r d s a l l h i s l i f e ( 5 3 ) ] [ . . . 7* O*:*8**4*0*9* >4=>3*>* :>;>A*:0 ( 3 5 ) ] T h e e x p r e s s i o n s h a v e equal general sense, but the subject-logical sense differs a little , because of one different semantic element in the structure of TL phraseologism . ( sense – image calque )     *PAGE *PAGE *21y y .y* >y* Dy* ry* xy* Žy* Å¡y* ¦y* ¨y* ¶y* Ày* Ây* Äy* ÃŒy* ÃŽy* Gz* Ÿz* ³z* µz* ¶z* ·z* ¸z* ¾z* ¿z* Àz* Äz* ñæÖÊÖÊÖÊÖÊÖæÊ濳§›‰›§›z§kM **hÆ*ú h¸h8 CJ aJ* mH     sH      **hÆ*ú *hl*÷ CJ* aJ* mH     sH      **hÆ*ú *hÆ*ú CJ* aJ* mH     sH      **hÆ*ú hµ8ã CJ aJ* mH     sH      “hµ8ã *hµ8ã 5?6*?CJ* aJ* mH     sH      hµ8ã CJ aJ* mH     sH      **hÆ*ú CJ* aJ* mH     sH      h~3¼ CJ aJ* mH     sH      **hÆ*ú h~3¼ CJ aJ* **hÆ*ú CJ* aJ* mH”sH” **hÆ*ú *hÆ*ú 6*?CJ* aJ* mH”sH”**hÆ*ú *hÆ*ú CJ* aJ* h‡]ï *h‡]ï CJ aJ* mH     sH     Äz Ã…z* Æz* Èz* Éz* Ïz* Ñz* Öz* Øz* Ùz* Ûz* Ãœz* Ýz* Þz* áz* îÜÐÁ²£”…vgXI:+ **hÆ*ú hÃŒQ÷ CJ aJ* mH     sH      **hÆ*ú *h{*} CJ* aJ* mH     sH      **hÆ*ú h…c’ CJ aJ* mH     sH      **hÆ*ú *h’*p CJ* aJ* mH     sH      **hÆ*ú *hÀ** CJ* aJ* mH     sH      **hÆ*ú h &5 CJ aJ* mH     sH      **hÆ*ú hËœyµ CJ aJ* mH     sH      **hÆ*ú h- U CJ aJ* mH     sH      **hÆ*ú h
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Native American Music

George Orwell and Animal Farm

George Orwell and Animal Farmfather continued to work in India until he retired in 1912, in 1907,
the family returned to England and lived at Henley. With some
difficulty, Blair’s parents sent their son to a private preparatory
school in Sussex at the age of eight. At the age of thirteen, he won a
scholarship to Wellington, and soon after another to Eaton, the famous
public school (Gross, p.112). His parents had forced him to work at a
dreary preparatory school, and now after winning the scholarship, he
was not any more interested in further mental exertion unrelated to his
private ambition. At the beginning of Why/Write, he explains that from
the age of five or six he knew he would be, ^must be, a writer (Gross,
p.115).^ But to become a writer one had to read literature. But
English literature was not a major subject at Eaton, where most boys
came from backgrounds either irremediably unliterary or so literary
that to teach them English Literature would be absurd. One of Eric’s
tutors later declared that his famous pupil had done absolutely no work
for five years. This was, of course, untrue: Eric has apprenticed
himself to the masters of English prose who most appealed to him,
including Swift, Sterne and Jack London (Gross, p.117). However, he
has finished the final examinations at Eaton as 138th of 167. He
neglected to win a university scholarship, and in 1922, Eric Blair
joined the Indian Imperial Police (Gross, p.118). In doing so he was
already breaking away from the path most of his schoolfellows would
take, for Eaton often led to either Oxford or Cambridge. Instead, he
was drawn to a life of travel and action. He trained in Burma and
served for five years in the police force there. In 1927,while home on
leave, he resigned. There are at least two reasons for this. First,
his life as a policeman was a distraction from the life he really
wanted, which was to be a writer. And second, he had come to feel
that, as a policeman in Burma, he was supporting a political system in
which he could no longer believe (Stringer, p.412). Even as early as
this, his notions about writing and his political ideas were closely
linked. It was not simply that he wished to break away from British
Imperialism in India: ! he wished to ^ escape from … every form of
man’s dominion over man, as he said in Road to Wigan Pier (1937), and
the social structure out of which he came dependent (Stringer, 413).^
Back in London he settled down in a gritty bedroom in Portobello Road.
There, at the age of twenty-four, he started to teach himself how to
write. His neighbors were impressed by his determination. Week after
week he remained in his unheated bedroom, thawing his hands over a
candle when they became too numb to write. In spring of 1928 he turned
his back on his own inherited values, by taking a drastic step. For
more than one year he went on living among the poor, first in London
then in Paris. For him, the poor were victims of injustice, playing the
same part as the Burmese played in their country. One reason for going
to live among the poor was to over come a repulsion which he saw as
typical for his own class. At Paris he lived and worked in a working
class quarter. At the time, he tells us, Paris was full of artists and
would-be artists. There Orwell led a life that was far from bohemian.
When he eventually got a job, he worked as a dishwasher. Once again his
journey was d! ownward into the life to which he felt he should expose
himself, the life of poverty-stricken, or of those who barely scraped
up a living (Stringer, p.415). When he came back to London, he again
lived for a couple of months among the tramps and poor people. In
December 1929, Eric spent Christmas with his family. At his visit he
announced that he’s going to write a book about his time in Paris. The
original version of Down and Out, entitled A Scullion^s Diary, was
completed in October 1930 and came to only 35,000 words for Orwell had
used only a part of his material. After two rejections from publishers
Orwell wrote Burmese Days, published in 1934, a book based on his
experiences in the colonial service. We owe the rescue of Down and Out
to Mabel Firez: she was asked to destroy the script, but save the paper
clips. Instead, she took the manuscript and brought it to Leonard
Monroe, literary agent at the house Gollancz, and bullied him to read
it. Soon it was accepted – on condition that all curses were deleted
and certain names changed. Having completed this last revision Eric
wrote to Victor Gollancz: ^I would prefer the book to!
be published pseudonymously. I have no reputation that is lost by
doing this and if the book has any kind of success I can always use
this pseudonym again’ (Stringer, p.419). But Orwell’s reasons for
taking the name Orwell are much more complicated than those writers
usually have when adopting a pen name. In effect it meant that Eric
Blair would somehow have to shed his old identity and take on a new.
This is exactly what he tried to do: he tried to change himself from
Eric Blair, old Etonian an English colonial policeman, into George
Orwell, classless antiauthoritarian (Gross, p.131). Down and Out in
Paris and London, was not a novel; it was a kind of documentary
account of life about which not many of those who would read the book
at the time would know very much about, and this was the point of it:
he wished to bring the English middle class, of which he was a member,
to an understanding of what life they led and enjoyed, was founded
upon, the life under their very noses (Gross, p.144). Here we see two
typical aspects of Orwell as a writer: his idea of himself as the
exposure of painful truth, which people for various reasons do not wish
to look at; and his idea of himself as a representative of the English
moral conscience (Gross, p.148).
His next book was A Clergyman^s Daughter (1935) and Keep The
Aspidistra Flying (1936). He opened a village shop in Wellington,
Hertfordshire, in 1936, where he did business in the mornings, and
wrote in the afternoons. The same year he married Eileen O
‘Shaughnessy. In that year he also received a commission from the Left
Book Club to examine the conditions of the poor and unemployed. This
resulted in The Road to Wilgan Pier. He went on living among the poor
about whom he was to write his book. Once again it was a journey away
from the comparative comfort of the middle class life. His account of
mining communities in the north of England in this book is full of
detail, and conveys to the reader what it is like to go down a mine.
When the Left Book Club read what he had written about the English
class system and English socialism in The Road to Wigan Pier they were
not pleased, and when the book was published it contained a preface by
Victor Gollancz taking issue with many of ! Orwell’s main points. The
Left Book Club wasn’t pleased because in the second half of the book
Orwell criticized the English socialism, because in his eyes it was
mostly unrealistic. Another fact criticized by Orwell was that most of
the socialists tended to be members of the Middle class (Stringer,
p.438). The kind of socialist Orwell makes fun of is the sort who
spouts phrases like ^proletarian solidarity, and who puts of decent
people, the people for whom Orwell wants to write (Stringer, p.439).^
Having completed The Road to Wigan Pier he went to Spain at the end of
1936, with the idea of writing newspaper articles on the Civil War
which had broken out there. The conflict in Spain was between the
communist, socialist Republic, and General Franco’s Fascist military
rebellion. When Orwell arrived at Barcelona he was astonished at the
atmosphere he found there: what had seemed impossible in England seemed
a fact of daily life in Spain. Class distinction seemed to have
vanished. There was a shortage of everything, but there was equality.
Orwell joined in the struggle, by enlisting in the militia of POUM
(Partido Obrero de Unificacin de Marxista), with which the British
Labor Party had an association. For the first time in his life
socialism seemed a reality, something for which was worth fighting for.
He was wounded in the throat. Three and a half months later when he
returned to Barcelona, he found it a changed city. No longer a place
where the socialist word comrade was!
really felt to mean something, it was a city returning to “normal.”
Even worse, he was to find that his group that he was with, the POUM,
was now accused of being a Fascist militia, secretly helping Franco.
Orwell had to sleep in the open to avoid showing his papers, and
eventually managed to escape into France with his wife. His account of
his time in Spain was published in Homage to Catalonia (1938). His
experiences in Spain left two impressions on Orwell’s mind. First,
they showed him that socialism in action was a human possibility, if
only a temporary one. He never forgot the exhilaration of those first
days in Barcelona, when a new society seemed possible, where
“comradeship” instead of being just a socialist was reality. Second,
the experience of the city returning to normal, he saw as a gloomy
confirmation of the fact that there will always be different classes.
He saw that there is something in the human nature that seeks
violence, conflict, and power over others. ! It will be clear that
these two impressions, of hope on one hand, and despair on the other
are entirely contradiction. Nevertheless, despite the despair and
confusion of his return to Barcelona, street fights between different
groups of socialists broke out again, Orwell left Spain with a hopeful
impression (Stringer, p.441-446). In 1938, Orwell became ill with
tuberculosis, and spent the winter in Morocco. While there he wrote his
next book, a novel entitled Coming up for Air published in 1939, the
year the long threatened war between England and Germany broke out.
Orwell wanted to fight, as he has done in Spain, against the fascist
enemy, but he was declared unfit. In 1941, he joined the British
Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) as talks producer in the Indian section
of the eastern service. He served in the Home Guard, a wartime civilian
body for local defense. In 1943, he left the BBC to become literary
editor of the tribune, and began writing Animal Farm. In 1944, the
Orwells adopted a son, but in 1945 his wife died during an operation.
Towards the end of the war Orwell went to Europe as a reporter
(Stringer, p.448-449). Late in 1945, he went to the island of Jura off
the Scottish coast, and settled there. He wrote Nineteen Eighty-four
there. The islands climate was unsuitable for someone suffering from
tuberculosis and Nineteen Eighty-four reflects the bleakness of human
suffering, the indignity of pain. Indeed he said that the book wouldn’t
have been so gloomy had he not been so ill. His wedding to Sonia
Bronwell took place at his bedside in University College Hospital. By
the time of his death in January 1950, he had been judged a major
author by cities on both sides of the Atlantic, and his value as a
cultural critic has been increasingly widely recognized (Stringer,
p.450).AnalysisAnimal Farm, Orwell wrote, was the first book in which I tried, with
full consciousness of what I was doing, to fuse political purpose and
artistic purpose into one whole (Hopkinson, p.12). Orwell^s purpose
of writing this book was to write a book in simple language with
concrete symbolism so that ordinary English people, who had enjoyed a
tradition of justice and liberty for centuries, would realize what a
totalitarian system, like Russia^s government, was like. His
experience in Spain had shown him how easily totalitarian propaganda
can control the opinion of enlightened people in democratic countries.
Orwell^s style in composing a cynical novel in simplistic manners
allows the reader to easily relate the plot and characters to the
events and leaders of the Russian government from 1917 to the middle
1940s. Orwell wrote Animal Farm to destroy the Soviet myth that Russia
was a true socialist society. He attacks the injustice of the Soviet
regime and seeks to correct Western misconception about the Soviet
Communism. Orwell^s Animal Farm is based on the first thirty years of
the Soviet Union, a real society pursuing the ideal of equality
(Atkins, p.120). His book argues that a society where men live
together fairly, justly, and equally hasn^t worked and couldn^t work.
Animal Farm, a brief, concentrated satire, subtitled A Fairy Story,
can also be read on the simple level of plot and character. It is an
entertaining, witty tale of a farm whose oppressed animals, capable of
speech and reason, overcome a cruel master and set up a revolutionary
government. They are betrayed by the evil power-hungry pigs,
especially by their leader, Napoleon, and forced to return to their
former servitude. Only the leadership has changed. On another, more
serious level, of course, it is a political allegory, a symbolic tale
where all the events and characters represent issues and leaders in
Russian history since 1917, in which the interplay between surface
action and inner meaning is everything (Atkins, p.125). Orwell^s
deeper purpose is to teach a political lesson. Orwell uses actualhistorical events to construct his story. Each animal stands for a
precise figure or representative type. The pigs, who can read and
write and organize, are the Bolshevik intellectuals who came to
dominate the vast Soviet bureaucracy (Iftinkar, p.731). Napoleon is
Stalin, the select group around him the Politburo, Snowball is Trotsky,
and Squealer represents the propagandists of the regime. The pigs
enjoy the privileges of belonging to the new ruling class, which
include special food and shorter working hours, but also suffer the
consequences of questioning Napoleon^s policies. The other animals
represent various types of common people. Boxer, the name suggesting
the Boxer Rebellion of 1900 where revolutionaries tried to expel
foreigners from China, is the decent working man, fired by enthusiasm
for the egalitarian ideal, working overtime in the factories or on the
land, and willing to die to defend his country. Clover is the eternal
motherly working woman of the people. Molly, the unreliable, frivolous
mare, represents the White Russians who opposed the revolution and
fled the country (Iftinkar, p.732). The dogs are the vast army of
secret police who maintain Stalin in power. The sheep are the ignorant
public who repeat the latest propaganda without thinking and who can be
made to turn up to spontaneous demonstrations (Orwell, p.108) in
support of Napoleon^s plans. Moses, the raven, represents the
opportunist Church. He flies off after Mr. Jones, but returns later,
and continues to preach about the Sugarcandy Mountain (heaven), but the
pi! gs^ propaganda obliterates any lingering belief. Benjamin the
donkey, the cynical but powerless average man, never believes in the
glorious future to come, and is always alert to every betrayal.
Orwell^s allegory is comic in its detailed parallels: the hoof and horn
is clearly the hammer and sickle, the Communist party emblem. Beasts
of England is a parody of the Internationale the Communist party^s
song. The Order of the Green Banner is the Order of Lenin, and the
other first- and second-class awards spoof the fondness of Soviet
Russia for awarding medals, for everything from exceeding one^s quota
on the assembly line or in the harvest to bearing a great many children
(Iftinkar, p.732).The poem in praise of Napoleon (Orwell, p.90 -
91) imitates the sycophantic verses and the mass paintings and
sculptures turned out to glorify Stalin. Each event of the story has a
historical parallel. The Rebellion in chapter 2 is the October 1917
Revolution, and the Battle of the Cowshed in chapter 4 is the
subsequent Civil War. Mr. Jones and the farmers represent the loyalist
Russians and foreign forces that tried, but failed, to dislodge the
Bolsheviks. The hens^ revolt in chapter 7 stands for the brutally
suppressed 1921 mutiny of the sailors at Kronstadt, (Iftinkar, 732)
which challenged the new regime to release political prisoners and
grant freedoms of speech and the press. Napoleon^s deal with Whymper,
who trades the farm^s produce at Willingdon market, representsRussia^s 1922 Treaty of Rapollo with Germany (Iftinkar, p.733).
Orwell emphasizes Napoleon^s decision to trade because it breaks the
First Commandment, that whatever goes upon two legs is an
enemy(Orwell, p.33). Official Soviet policy was hostile to Germany,
a militaristic, capitalist nation, but the Treaty revealed that the
Communist regime h! ad been trading arms and heavy machinery, and
would continue to do so (Iftinkar, p.734).
The Windmill stands for the first Five-Year Plan of 1928,
which called for rapid industrialization and collectivization
of agriculture (Iftinkar, p.734). In chapter 6 a terrible
storm caused the windmill to fall to ruins (Orwell, p.71),
which symbolizes the grim failure of this policy. Chapter 7
describes in symbolic terms the famine and starvation which
followed. The hens^ revolt stands for the peasants^ bitter
resistance to collective farming, when they burned their crops
and slaughtered their animals. The animals^ false confessions
in chapter 7 are the Purge Trials of the late 1930s. The false
banknotes given by Mr. Frederick for the corn represent
Hitler^s betrayal of the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 (Iftinkar,
p.735), and the second destruction of the Windmill, by Mr.
Frederick^s men, is the Nazi invasion of Russia in 1941
(Iftinkar, p.735). The last chapter brings Orwell up to date
of the book^s composition. He ends with a satiric portrait of
the Teheran Conf! erence of 1943, the meeting of Churchill,
Roosevelt, and Stalin, who were planning to divide the world among
themselves (Atkins, p.163). The quarrel over cheating at cards
predicts the downfall of the superpowers as soon as the war ended.
The plot^s circular movement, which returns the animals to
conditions very like those in the beginning, provides occasions
for vivid irony. In the first chapter they lament their forced
labor and poor food, but by chapter 6 they are starving, and
are forced to work once more. In chapter 1 Old Major predicts
that one day Jones will send Boxer to the butcher, and in
chapter 9 Napoleon fulfills this prophecy by sending him to the
slaughterhouse. In chapter 7, when various animals falsely
confess their crimes and are summarily executed by the dogs,the air was heavy and the smell of blood, which had been
unknown there since the expulsion of Jones (Orwell, p.83).
These ironies all emphasis the tragic failure of the
revolution, and support Benjamin^s view that life would go on
as it had always gone on ^ that is badly (Orwell, 56). Though
all the characters are representative types, Orwell
differentiates the two most important figures, Napoleon and
Snowball, so that they resemble their real-life counterparts
both in the broad lines of their characterizations and in their
two major disagreements. Like Stalin, Napoleon, having a
reputation for getting his own way (Orwell, p.25), takes
charge of indoctrinating the young, sets up an elaborate
propaganda machine, cultivates an image of omnipotent
portraying charismatic power, and surrounds himself with
bodyguards and fawning attendants. Like Trotsky, Snowball is
an intellectual, who quickly researches a topic and formulates
plans. He is a persuasive orator, but fails to extort the
leadership from Napoleon. Napoleon and Snowball^s quarrel over
the Windmill represents their dispute over what should take
priority in developing the Soviet Union. Stalin wanted to
collectivize the agriculture; Trotsky was for developing
industry. Ultimately Stalin adopted both programs in his first
Five-Year Plan (Iftinkar, p.736), just as Napoleon derides
Snowball^s plans, then uses them as his own. Their most
fundamental disagreement was whether to try to spread the
revolution to other countries, as classical Marxism dictated,
or confine themselves to making a socialist state in Russia
(Meyers, p.137). Napoleon argues for the latter, saying that
the animals must arm themselves to protect their new
leadership. Snowball says that they must send more pigeons
into neighboring farms to spread the news about the revolution,
so at the end Napoleon assures the farmers that he will not
spread the rebellion among the animals. Expelled from the
Politburo in 1925, Trotsky went into exile in 1929 and was
considered a heretic. His historical role was altered; his
face cut out of group photographs of the leaders of the
revolution. In Russia he was denounced as a traitor and
conspirator and in 1940 a Stalinist agent assassinated him in
Mexico City (Iftinkar, p.737). Similarly, Snowball is blamed
for everything that goes wrong in Animal Farm, and the animals
are persuaded that he was a traitor from the beginning. It has
been said that the very act of reducing human characters to
animals implies a pessimistic view of man, and that in Animal
Farm the satiric vision is close to the tragic. Orwell turns
elements of comedy into scenes of tragic horror (Connolly,
p.176). In chapter 5, Napoleon comically lifts his leg to
urinate on Snowball^s plans. But shortly afterwards, he
summons the dogs and orders them to rip out the throats of
those who confess their disloyalty. In one instance Napoleon^s
contempt is amusing, in the next it is horrifying. The
beast-fable is not only a device that allows Orwell^s serious
message to be intelligible on two levels; the use of animals to
represent man is basic to his whole theme. We can readily
grasp that animals are oppressed and feel it is wrong to
exploit them and betray their trust. Orwell counts on our
common assumptions about particular species to suggest his
meaning. The sheep and their bleating are perfect metaphors
for a gullible public, ever read to accept policies and repeat
rumors as truth. We commonly believe pigs are greedy and
savage, even to the point of devouring their young, which
describes the power-hungry government officials of the 1917 ^
1945 interval. In chapter 3, the work of the farm went like
clockwork (Orwell, p.36) when the animals were in charge; into
this simple fabric Orwell inserts a word with Marxist
overtones: with the worthless ^parasitical human beings gone,
there was more for everyone to eat (Orwell, p.36).^ The
simplicity of his vocabulary adds to the creativeness and
ingenuity Orwell displays through the double meanings in his
writing. The political allegory of Animal Farm, whether
specific or general, detailed or allusive, is persuasive, thorough and
accurate, and the brilliance of the book becomes much clearer when the
satiric allegory is compared to the political actuality of Russia^s
historic government. Critics who write, It makes a delightful
children^s story are completely oblivious to the sophisticated,
underlying meanings the parable satires. The pleasure of reading
Animal Farm lies in recognizing the double meanings, the political and
historical parallels, in the story that George Orwell cleverly
disguised through creative symbolism. Some critics say that Orwell^s
satire is over-exaggerated. But to those critics I would ask then why
did customs officials at the Moscow International Book Fair in 1987
clear the British exhibitors shelves of Animal Farm (Meyers, p.241).^
I believe there is no better certification of the book^s truth.BibliographyAhmad, Iftinkar, Herbert Brodsky, et al., World Cultures: A Global Mosaic. Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1993.Atkins, John. George Orwell. London: Calder and Boyers, 1954.Connolly, Cyril. Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Vol. 31. Detroit, Michigan: Gale
Research Inc., 1986.Gross, Miriam. The World of George Orwell. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971.Hopkinson, Tom. George Orwell. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1953.Meyers, Jeffery. A Reader^Ã’s Guide to George Orwell. London: Thanes and Hudson,
1975.Orwell, George. Animal Farm. New York, New York: New American Library, 1946.Stringer, Jenny. The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English.
Oxford: New York, 1996.