Music Essays

Eulogy for Friend

Eulogy for FriendWhen he heard the news of Alan’s death, a mutual friend and colleague noted poignantly that Alan was a man that was non-judgmental. Alan accepted people largely for what they were and for who they were.Alan was a man without prejudice. His many friendships crossed the barriers of social position and educational background.And his spirit, his generosity, his warmth also reached through barriers of race and cultural background. They reached through the barriers of age and generation.Because everyone was welcomed into Alan’s circle of friends and what a multi-coloured, multi-cultural, multi-national, and multi-generational circle of friends it is indeed.What’s more, Alan worked eagerly to bring these people from different backgrounds together. To me, he seemed happiest when he’d organised a gathering of the most diverse people one could imagine.If Alan couldn’t remake the world outside to his liking, he would make it so in his backyard.He was a man without prejudice. This was not just a matter of principle for Alan, not something he merely theorised in his academic work and teaching. It was his instinct, his very nature.This was not simply tolerance, it was his personal culture.Because when we stop to think about it, Alan’s preoccupation in life was people. He was always introducing people to other people. Always saying: you must meet so and so; and with his extraordinary sense of social occasion, by and large you did get to meet them. How many people have we met and got to know through Alan Smith?Dr Alan Smith was among the most intelligent people I have ever known. A sociologist by original training, he completed his Bachelor degree with Honours at the University of Wales in 1978 and was awarded his Doctorate by that University in 1990. His doctoral thesis, titled ‘A Cartography of Resistance: The British State and Derry Republicanism’ was a learned study of the Irish republican struggle. The freedom of the Irish people and Gaelic people generally was a cause very close to his heart throughout his adult life.His experiences in Londonderry in the 1980s exposed him to the brutal realities of war and I think shaped his political outlook in particular ways.One of these I believe was to deepen his affinity with people from oppressed nationalities and cultures wherever they were and whenever he came across them in his many travels around the world. Alan was a passionate empathiser with people who are not free.Among his favourite music were their songs of adversity and triumph, songs like ‘Nkose Sikilele Africa’ and ‘Bran Nue Dae’, songs he often liked to sing, and urged the crowd around him to join in.His solidarity naturally extended to those people who are not free in this country, and was expressed in action. One of my lasting images of Alan goes back to 1992 at the Old Swan Brewery—or Goonininup as the Nyoongar people call it.It is an image of Alan surrounded by a crush of demonstrators, his hands locked around the bull-bar of an advancing police van, pushing forward with all his might to stop the van from driving through the picket line.Other images in my mind are of Alan standing at the mass burial grounds of the Rottnest Island gaol, and marching through the city alongside the Martu people who had come to town to demand the return of their land.Alan’s commitment to the ideals of freedom and humanity also extended far into his intellectual work and teaching. This is reflected in the types of courses he designed and taught during his fifteen years at Murdoch University. Courses like Language and Power, and Popular Culture and Everyday Life.Alan was one of the new breed of thinkers about culture and society, about language and the media, about power and knowledge, that came to work at Murdoch University in the 1980s and helped to put the School of Humanities on the cutting edge nationally.This committed teacher has inspired countless students over the years. One of Alan’s particular contributions was his guiding of people through their post-graduate studies and early academic careers. He did this for me. I know his students will sorely miss his care, his enthusiasm, his intellectual insight.Alan of course delighted us with his talents and enthusiasms, his incomparable knowledge of food and how we must enjoy it.He charmed us with his own personal fashion movement—his trade-mark flat-top hair-cut.And those outfits, those works of art that he wore to make social occasions special. He cut quite a figure in the crowd.Outrageous? Sometimes. Inappropriate? Rarely. Cool? I think so. Dull? Never.The particular warmth and quality of Alan’s friendship, how can we possibly describe it? Those who treasured him have helped.It’s the bottle of chilled champagne delivered unexpectedly to your restaurant table on your birthday. Alan couldn’t be there, he was by then halfway to Europe. But he didn’t forget you. That was his style.It’s moving your family to Perth to take up a new job at university. You don’t know anyone and you’ve got nowhere to stay. Alan installs the lot of you in his place, shows you around town, makes his friends yours. This isn’t a courtesy, it’s a whole other way of being.It’s when you were down in the dumps and he’d dropped what he was doing and was on your doorstep—how about I cook you something nice to eat? And he could cook.It’s simply when you had not seen him for quite some time, no matter, he’d greet you with ‘Hello stranger’, give you one of those hugs, and you’d both pick up where you left off. Because Alan bonded with you forever.It is because of things like these that Alan’s friends around the world—and colleagues in universities here and in Europe and America—are grieving today. One that I spoke to said Perth without Alan seemed already a smaller and diminished place. How true.This man lying here, who in big and small ways, while he was alive, never stopped trying to make us feel good, was himself inside a very troubled man. Contained deep within him was something so intensely painful that nothing and no one, it seems, could ease it for very long. And our hearts and understanding go to Sikim here.It is perhaps a terrible paradox that Alan’s pain was part of Alan’s driving force, his life force.Although we all wanted him to come to terms with it, to be able to survive it, it seemed to be part of what made Alan, Alan—unique, irresistible and completely irreplaceable.His death has stunned, bewildered and agonised those of us who were close to him. I will miss him terribly, we all will. Some things are just too difficult to accept all at once—we try to manage our acceptance of it, to receive it gradually and in smaller parcels of grief and loss.We wish so much for it to have been otherwise, but sooner or later we need to come to terms with it and accord to him the great measure of dignity he deserves. While Alan gave much to us, I think we need to remember also the happiness our various friendships gave to him.So Al, very special man, lovely man, fantastic man, your friends bid you farewell this afternoon.In the strange and hollow days since you died some of us find it helps us to remember the times we had already shared with you, the things we had already done with you and enjoyed, and to be eternally grateful for that.In the Welsh language that you loved, I say heddwch to you Alan. Heddwch.Heddwch! … Peace to you Alan.

History of Television in the United States

We all own at least one television. Many people at least watch one hour of television, whether it be the news or their favorite show. Once invented, television significantly changed life, as it was previously known. Television was invented before World War 2, but production stopped shortly after the start of World War 2. Television impact on the media was not predicted. The four networks were always competing against each other to be the best. Television influenced American culture and society in many ways. A major invention during the 1930s drastically changed life known in the 1930s.
A single person did not invent the television, but rather it was a vicious battle as inventors and corporations realized the technology as a possible profit. Before, networks could start mass-producing television, many economic and technical problems had to be fixed. “Television technology advanced through the 1930s, most importantly was the development in 1937 of the coaxial cable, which allowed long-distance broadcast and networking, (Schwartz).” To receive television shows, an antenna had to be pointed correctly to receive the station.
Once United States was involved in World War 2 production of the television stopped to help with the production of military and war needs. Instead, all manufacturing went toward the manufacture of tanks, ammunition, ships, etc. as such industrialists no longer made television for American public. Since many Americans were not able to purchase a television during World War 2, Americans who actually owned a television became instantly popular. People who were fortunate enough to own a television were able to see and listen to what was happening in the war.
“In TV’s early days, people who had no set often visited friends who had one just to watch television. In addition, many stores placed television sets in windows, and crowds gather on the sidewalk to watch programs., (Curtin).” Since production was stopped, the television was not widely marketed. “After the war, television development continued where it left off, with the invention of better television sets, creative programming, and large markets (Communication).” However, television was widely marketed across the United States after World War 2 ended. Following, World War 2, television invention became better than it had been before the war. Networks that stopped airing or were on a short schedule during the war became full-time, except one network. After a fifteen-month break, ABC network went back on air. Television impact was very big, and mostly affected was the radio and the theaters.
“Radios suffered the biggest lose in the changeover to television. (Young).” First, radio underestimated the impact of television, so many radio networks were surprised by the loses. Many Americans owned radios but once they owned a television what they heard and how long they were listening changed drastically. Since very few Americans were listening to news and entertainment, the radio networks stopped news and entertainment as their focus. Instead, they changed their focus to music.
In addition to the radio, movie theaters were impacted. After people realized its potential as a new medium, many people did not go to movie theaters as often. They were able to have a range of different shows at home. The movie theaters hopelessly competed with television, but did not succeed. “Their research disclosed that movie attendance dropped sharply in those areas receiving a signal whereas those without TV reception showed no commensurate drop (Young).” To make people come to movie theaters, movie industries widen the screens and invented 3-D, so they would not look like television screens.
Other places and equipment were also impacted after the invention of the television. Many people who owned a television did not go out to sporting events or restaurants as often. Even libraries in the era of television signal saw a decrease of people. Newspaper and magazine companies saw a decline in subscriptions, because Americans were entertained by a television. “Because of television, newspapers were forced to provide more visual copy. Newspapers began to experiment with new style of writing. Because of television, newspapers now have longer content, narratives whether many are generally more interesting (JoMC).” Television was a new invention and many people realized the huge profit it earned.
Black and white television was available to everyone around the nation. Networks understood that to have people choose their network, they needed something that would set them apart from other networks. Networks decided to experiment with color broadcast. The television industry set estimated that the color television set would cost from $700 to $1000 per set. This profit would benefit the network that had this broadcasting system and would be considered the leader of television in 1950s. “…CBS had come up with the technology to broadcast in color at the beginning of the decade, but the network’s rush to be first overlooked major problems (Young).” NBC and other networks had their own system of color broadcast. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) chose to go with CBS’s system of color. Instead of CBS being the leader of the decade, NBC when the leader because CBS was not able to fix the problems with their system. Programmers of television changed throughout the 1950s. Advertisers controlled the programs during the early years of television and the golden age of television (1950s). Many changes happened by the end of the 1950s. First, color television was available and television became the mass media for everyone…” Television changed the way it operated, specifically, advertisers who had controlled television programs during its infancy including television’s golden age, lost their status as the primary programmers at the networks” (Prebinossoff). Networks did not allow advertisers to sponsor them, instead they started to sell commercial time in many of their shows. Networks depended a lot on public ratings because the better the rating, the higher the price commercial time was sold at.
Television impact on American culture and society was huge. As soon as American people became familiar with the idea of having a wide range of shows available in their homes the demands of television increased severely. The first thing that changed once someone bought a television was the arrangements of the furniture in the living room, as the new focus of attention became the television. “What was portrayed on television became accepted as normal. The ideal family, the ideal schools, and neighborhoods, the world was all saw in a way, which had only partial basis in reality. People began to accept what was hear and seen o television because they were “eye witnesses” to events as never before” (Bradley). Television helped bring families together to share their entertainment with each other. The average family spent four or five hours each day watching television by 1955. In 1956, a study on how many hours’ kids ages 10-16 watched televisions was taken. Based on the results an average kid spent six hours in front of the television. It equaled to the amount of time spent at school. Many kids thought watching television was more important than homework.
Though the television was invented before World War 2, it was not widely marketed until after the war. Television changed the radio, newspaper, and other aspects of the media. NBC became the leader of the television network, even though CBS had the color broadcast system. Television’s overall effect on 1950s changed the way life was like. Many people were able to witness the news instead of having to paint a picture in their mind.“The 1950’s.” Kidsnewsroom.org: Providing Children with a Safe, Kid-friendly Internet Site. Web. 18 Jan. 2010. <http://www.kidsnewsroom.org/elmer/infocentral/frameset/decade/1950.htm>.
“Communication Revolutions of the 19th and 20th centuries.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com>.
Perebinossoff, Philippe, Brian Gross, Lynne S. Gross, and Edwin T. Vane. Programming for TV, Radio, and the Internet: Strategy, Development, and Evaluation. Amsterdam: Focal, 2005. Print.
Schwartz, Richard A. “television during the cold war.” Cold War Culture: Media and the Arts, 1945–1990. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2000. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE52&iPin=CWC695&SingleRecord=True
Young, William H., and Nancy K. Young. The 1950s. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 2004. Print

Humorous Wedding Speech – Two Best Men

Humorous Wedding Speech – Two Best MenFor those of you that are wondering why there are two best men standing up here, it’s perfectly simple. Arthur wanted to appoint a best man for the occasion, but sadly couldn’t find one, so he got two barely competent ones instead.So before I start, let me clarify the ‘role’ situation.Dennis, Arthur’s university friend and very trustworthy, was responsible for carrying the rings in church. I am Steve, Arthur’s childhood friend and very good with lager (beer). I was responsible for organizing the stag weekend (bachelor’s party). We both had the responsibility of getting him to the church on time, smartly dressed and sober… but neither of us could achieve that last part.And, regrettably, we have both been asked to give a short speech. So why does it take two of us to describe the bridegroom? Well, as the man in Moss Bros said, ’There’s a lot to fit in’. But you can rest assured that I’ll be keeping my part brief… as I know the other bloke (guy) can drone on for hours!So what can I tell you about Arthur Wilson? He is my oldest friend and I’m convinced that without his guiding hand while we were growing up I would have been half the man I am today… and certainly twice as popular. From an early age we lived a few doors away from each other, so not only did we become great friends we also became great rivals, and obviously I always came out on top! I was better than him at football, I made sure I had at least one penny more than him to buy sweets with, I was a year older, an inch taller and a size bigger in shoes. We’d measure everything, well, nearly everything! It’s fair to say that over the years he has overtaken me in some things, like finding a terrific girl to marry.You’ve married a beauty Arthur, Linda is such a kind hearted girl and will do anything it seems for her family and friends. Except let me take you down the pub on a Monday night to watch the televised game. Despite this, I consider her a friend and always look forward to being in her company. But such a beautiful, kind and intelligent girl could have the choice of any man, which leaves me feeling slightly perplexed as to how she ended up with Arthur. I wasn’t around when they got together, so let me hand over to Scot who was.I have known Arthur for a much shorter period, since we started university together. During this time he has been a source of great companionship, many enjoyable nights out, and occasionally some very high scoring coursework. To begin with, though, Arthur took his university career very seriously. He diligently attended lectures, always sitting at the back. He avoided other students, boys as well as girls, and spoke to nobody. But … all was not lost. His rescue came in the form of a rusty, dirty, foul-smelling Vauxhall Nova. It was a wreck: held together with duck tape and super glue. He’d blown his grant on a car that drove like a tug boat. But to me and the rest of the guys on campus it was access to supermarkets, proper pubs and best of all … town girls! Overnight, Arthur had become popular. And with our help, he soon realized that there was more to life than history books, and started taking a more hands-on approach to study … especially with females. In a short time he’d evolved into a carefree student, which is lucky… otherwise he’d never have been interesting enough to attract Linda.Let’s get on to how Arthur and Linda met. I was present that eventful night in Madisons – a classy drinking establishment – when Linda wondered through the door and was approached by Arthur. She immediately became trapped in the sticky beer socked carpet, the music was too loud for a conversation and it was pretty dark as well. Everything was in Arthur’s favour!Playing hard to get though, Linda tells me it was months before she fell for Arthur. But having witnessed how quickly they progressed to a cat and five kittens, I’m not so sure.Ladies and gentlemen, thanks for listening to Steve and myself. If you’re having a fantastic time today – which I’m sure you all are – that’s a direct result of the months of hard work and meticulous planning by Arthur and Linda. They have done an incredible job to make this a truly wonderful wedding, so please all stand as I propose this toast – to the bride and groom.

My Personal Philosophy of Education

Personal Philosophy of EducationI would not be considered your typical college student in search of an education degree. I am a 31 year old male, married, with two children, and working on my second career. My previous life consisted of working in the coal mines till I was injured. My injury, however, is considered a blessing in disguise. My injury has leaded me to the world of education.
I have seen first hand the difference an educator can make in the life of a child; the child was my own son. My eldest son, diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome, was unable to communicate. He had the opportunity to be enrolled in the early intervention program in Raleigh County. The first individual with the challenge of assisting my child was not able to fulfill her roles and think “outside of the box” to reach him. My wife and I promptly searched for the appropriate educator for him. My family was blessed when we found “Ms. Mitzi”. In the matter of weeks our son was able to tell his mommy he loved her. This impacted my life significantly and I wish to be able to pass on what was given to my child and my family.I can not narrow down my educational philosophy to one area. I have studied the teacher-centered philosophies and I would consider myself somewhat eclectic, having a mixture of progressivism and essentialism.
Essentialism is Essentialism refers to the “traditional” or “Back to the Basics” approach to education. It is so named because it strives to instill students with the “essentials” of academic knowledge and character development. The term essentialism as an educational philosophy was originally popularized in the 1930s by the American educator William Bagley. American) essentialism is grounded in a conservative philosophy that accepts the social, political, and economic structure of American society. It contends that schools should not try to radically reshape society. Rather, essentialists argue, American schools should transmit the traditional moral values and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model citizens. Essentialists believe that teachers should instill such traditional American virtues as respect for authority, perseverance, fidelity to duty, consideration for others, and practicality.
Reflecting its conservative philosophy, essentialism tends to accept the philosophical views associated with the traditional, conservative elements of American society. For example, American culture traditionally has l) placed tremendous emphasis on the central importance of tile physical world and of understanding the world through scientific experimentation. As a result, to convey important knowledge about our world, essentialist educators emphasize instruction in natural science rather than non-scientific disciplines such as philosophy or comparative religion. Essentialists urge that the most essential or basic academic skills and knowledge be taught to all students. Traditional disciplines such as math, natural science, history, foreign language, and literature form the foundation of the essentialist curriculum. Essentialists frown upon vocational, lift-adjustment, or other courses with “watered down” academic content. Elementary students receive instruction in skills such as writing, reading, measurement, and computers. Even while learning art and music, subjects most often associated with the development of creativity, the students are required to master a body of information and basic techniques, gradually moving from less to more complex skills and detailed knowledge.
Progressivism’s respect for individuality, its high regard for science, and its receptivity to change harmonized well with the American environment in which it was created. The person most responsible for the success of progressivism was John Dewey. Dewey taught that people are social animals who learn well through active interplay with others and that our learning increases when we are engaged in activities that have meaning for us. Book learning, to Dewey, was no substitute for actually doing things. Fundamental to Dewey’s epistemology is the notion that knowledge is acquired and expanded as we apply our previous experiences to solving new, meaningful problems. Education, to Dewey, is a reconstruction of experience, an opportunity to apply previous experiences in new ways. Relying heavily on the scientific method, Dewey proposed a five step method for solving problems:1. Become aware of the problem;
2. Define it;
3. Propose various hypotheses to solve it;
4. Examine the consequences of each hypothesis in the light of previous
5. Experience; and
6. Test the most likely solution.Believing that people learn best from what they consider most relevant to their lives, progressivists center the curriculum on the experiences, interests, and abilities of students. Teachers plan lessons that arouse curiosity and push the students to a higher level of knowledge. In addition to reading textbooks, the students must learn by doing Often students leave the classroom for fieldtrips during which they interact with nature or society. Teachers also stimulate the students’ interests through thought-provoking games. For example, modified forms of the board game Monopoly have been used to illustrate the principles of capitalism and socialism.
In a progressivist school, students are encouraged to interact with one another and to develop social virtues such as cooperation and tolerance for different points of view. Also, teachers feel no compulsion to focus their students’ attentions on one discrete discipline at a time, and students may be responsible for learning lessons that combine several different subjects.
Progressivists emphasize in their curriculum the study of the natural and social sciences. Teachers expose students to many new scientific, technological, and social developments, reflecting the progressivist notion that progress and change are fundamental. Students are also exposed to a more democratic curriculum that recognizes accomplishments of women and minorities as well as white males. In addition, students solve problems in the classroom similar to those they will encounter outside of the schoolhouse; they learn to be flexible problem solvers.
Progressivists believe that education should be a perpetually enriching process of ongoing growth, not merely a preparation for adult lives. They also deny the essentialist belief that the study of traditional subject matter is appropriate for all students, regardless of interest and personal experience. By including instruction in industrial arts and home economics, progressivists strive to make schooling both interesting and useful. Ideally, the home, workplace, and schoolhouse blend together to generate a continuous, fulfilling learning experience in life. It is the progressivist dream that the dreary, seemingly irrelevant classroom exercises that so many adults recall from childhood will someday become a thing of the past.
As I look into my future past graduation I see myself as working towards a permanent position with the Raleigh County School System. My dream is to be able to successfully teach higher level mathematics in such a way all can understand. I have plans to continue to further my education by receiving further training in special education and possibly working towards my mater’s degree.
In conclusion, it seems my philosophies of education are contradictory; one philosophy focusing on the basics and the other with the focus being on real world experiences. I feel that I can combine both in order to reach my future classroom.

Hot 107.1- Interview With A Radio Personality

When I’m in a car riding down the street there is only one radio station that I really enjoy,KXHT107.1. The music they play is quite specific. They are a hip-hop and R&B station that plays mostly southeastern groups. Hip-hop is quite new to me having really only gotten into it in the early years of high school were as I liked rock since childhood. It was for this reason and a few others that I decided to interview a personality from Hot 107 as they are nicknamed.Memphis is the first city that I have been to that has a station such as Hot 107 that plays only rap and R&B. Most other places will only have songs that are mainstream and then they are only played on the dance music stations. The other main reason I chose KXHT was its involvement on the campus at the University of Memphis.For my assignment I chose to interview one of the daytime radio personalities named Playboy. Playboy is actually a 25-year-old gentleman by the name of Tre Munson.When he originally came to the station he did so by the means of simply filling out a job application. He did not meet with success at his first couple of attempts. He actually had to go in and fill out quite a few and after that had to keep calling and pestering them until the finally offered him a job. Not the job he wanted, however, he was first just a support member for a street team. He felt that it was still a good way to get his foot in the door and he would be able to show the station he could do more for them elsewhere.After a few months of street team he was finally selected to become a personality.First he was given just part time and filler assignments like when the regular guy was on vacation or something. Then as he got more experience and a better knowledge of how things work he finally was put in as one of the six full time DJ’s.For Tre the future does not involve radio although he truly loves his job at KXHT. His big goals down the road are more grounded in records and dealing with music groups. He would like to become an A&R guy or possibly a tech rep.Someone who does all the dealings between a group and whatever location they will be playing or a group and the record label. He would ideally like to be employed by one of the big record companies because he says that is where the real money is. He likes the music, but he really like the money. It is funny when you meet a radio celebrity. You can never be too sure that you actually met the person you thought you had, with radio being strictly audio. I am delighted with the experience this interview has given me and the background information that I now know. My fondness for KXHT 107.1 has only grown and I hope they continue to be a great contributing force to this university and community. Thank you very much Playboy for a job well done.

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The Video Game Wars

The Video Game Wars     Video games are a big market these days. Within the past few years, the
industry has boomed into a very large business. Within this business, there are
three big companies are fighting to be the best. Nintendo’s N64, Sega’s Saturn,
and Sony’s Playstation are the three main systems in this huge market. Because
there are so many games for these systems, and because it is such a big business,
stores specializing in only these games are opening everywhere.
     A few days ago, I walked into one of these stores. My friend wanted to
purchase the new nintendo machine. According to the reviews, the system was
supposed to be able to have amazing polygon graphics. Video games coming out
these days are considered good if they consist of many polygonal graphics moving
at a smooth and fast speed. From what he said, I thought that no other video
game system could compare with it. When I entered the store, the walls were
covered with many games for different systems. On one wall, there were
Nintendo’s games, on another, were Sega’s games, and on the last, were Sony’s
games. Surprisingly, Nintendo’s new games didn’t look much different than the
other two companies’. On three corners of the room, there were television sets
displaying the latest and greatest games for each popular console. While
watching these new games, I was in awe.
When I was younger, I remembered playing what those times considered,
“high tech” video games. During those years, the games had little blocky
characters who looked more like a blob than a human being. The music wasn’t
even music at all. It was more of a bunch of beeping at different pitches.
These characters walked around and jumped over other blocky characters in a two
dimensional environment. The new games that I observed, however, were being
played right off a CD. The characters were digital images of real people, and
the music was in CD quality. The game took place in a completely three
dimensional environment.
These days, companies are competing with each other to bring out cutting
edge video games. The reason the games are so much more realistic than before,
is because each company must bring out a better game than the other. Since they
keep bringing out new games, they get better and better. And when they can’t
improve games any more for that particular video game machine, the companies
will make a new machine which can handle better games. Already in my life time,
both Nintendo and Sega have created three video game systems. As I mentioned
earlier, while my friends new Nintendo machine was supposed to be amazing, both
Sega and Playstation’s systems looked just as good. In a few years, however,
all three of those systems will be obsolete, just as the systems in my early
years are obsolete now.
Although new and better systems are coming out all the time, they must
stay cheap enough to buy. Already, the systems are way too expensive. All
three retail for about $200 and that doesn’t include a game. Games are an
additional $80. Those are big prices, considering that when I was younger,
systems were $80, with games around $20. Those prices, however, are only for
the United States.
In Japan, the country where these systems are made, the video game
market is even bigger. In that country, the same three systems retail for
around $400 with separate games for around $100. The funny thing is, the people
actually buy it.
Both Japan and The US are lucky because the systems are manufactured in
both countries. In countries where they aren’t manufactured, the people there
have to import, and that is a very expensive thing to do. When I lived in Korea,
many people I knew, bought imported systems from Japan. They paid amounts up to
$800 for a system with additional games being purchased for $150 apiece.
Imports also occur in the United States.
There, die hard video game players sometimes import systems from Japan
before they are released in the USA. When doing that, the purchaser will pay
amounts up to $1000! Why do they do pay these ridicules prices? These video
game players are addicted to the market and are always looking for the best.
Today’s video games are very entertaining. People spend hours in front
of the television to play these games. Why do they enjoy them so much? Maybe
it’s the ability to control things like a god. Maybe they just enjoy the way
they games look. I don’t know the answer to that, but what I do know, is that
it is a very big business.
Who will be the eventual winner in the video game wars? Right now, it
is probably Nintendo in first place, Sony in second, with Sega at the bottom.
The reason for this, is because Nintendo is the newest, and Sega the oldest. In
a few years, however, it could totally change. Sega will eventually bring out a
new system which will be better than both the N64 and Playstation. Then, Sega
will be in first place. That too, will eventually change.
It is a never ending battle and no one will eventually win. Just as in
other businesses, new companies will be formed, and old companies will die. For
the time being, however, people will enjoy playing the newest and most high tech
video games.

No Doubt

In the begaining – In Anaheim California Eric Stefani Gwens older brotherwould write songs like (Stick it in a hole) about a pencil sharpener, andsinger John Spence quits and forces Gwen to sing at their first gig. In thesummer of 1987 Gwen and Tony (their basses) start going out.December21-1987 John Spence shots him self in a park in Anaheim Cal. In the springof 1988 the heavy metal guitarist Tom, a college student,refuses his sistersoffer to play in her band to play in No Doubt.In 1987-1988 part of thethen underground-ska-scence, No Doubt built a huge following of” rude boys” and after numerous gig openings for the untouchables andfishbones, as well as their own all- ages show. In 1989-1990 No doubtevoled into a soild five piece unit, expanding their sound to include the styleof each,natural evolvution shows opening for The Red Hot Chilli Peppers,Ziggy Martey, Mano Negra, their forbrace board sound that appealed to thecollege crowd. August of 1991 No doubt signs a “big” record contract withInterscope Records. October- December 1991, between working and drivingto school (Tom’s a music major, Gwen’s a art major, and Tony and Adrionare psychology majors) the band drives to a Los Angeles studio as oftenas possible to record their debut album, a 14 song collection of oldermaterial as well as recently plained tracks. Finally in march of 1993 No Doubtbegains the first sessions for what would be called Tragic Kingdom. Ericdeparts before the completion of Tragic Kingdom, and continues as aanimator for the simpsons. After a seven year relationship, Tony getsclawstrophobic and dumps Gwen and after that she wrote “don’tspeak”an evoled from a love song to a broken heart song .January of 1996several mounths after the release Tragic Kingdom debuts on billboards top200 at no. 175 and the “just a girl” reaches no. 10 Tom who created themusic guitar world ” I always thought the song was cool but never thoughtthe song would fly like it has , says Tom.June 1996 the song “spiderwebs”with music by Tony and Gwen penned not about their relationship , reachesno. 5 on the billboards.The band begins their first European tour,followed by dates in Austratia,New Zealand , and Indonesial in July 1996Tragic Kingdom goes plamtinum and so does Gwens hair.August of 1996 ,Tragic Kingdom centified goes double platinum. Salons across the countrycomplained that teenage girls wants to get her hair colored and dyed likeGwen stefani .Dec-7-1996 No Doubt performed “don’t speak’’ onSaturday Night Live. the following week Tragic Kingdom reaches no. 1on the billboard—14 mounths after it’s release , selling 229,000,000copies the first week top spot , more than 500,000 Christmas weekand 6 million total, th album will spend nine weeks at no.1 and 36weeks in the top ten. Jan-16-2000No Doubt is shot but it’s all good,the band is shot by photograher David lachappelle for their newestcd,Return of Saturn .Jan-24-26-2000 Ex-girlfriend driected byHype Williams is shot, in Apirl of 2000 Return of Sarturn goesPlatinum. Jan 2000-sept 2001 in studio making “Rock Steady”.

Development Plan for a New Venue in Essex

Development Plan for a New Venue in EssexThis Nightclub will be the premier, high-energy, themed dance and
nightclub in Basildon, Essex. Our goal is to remain a step ahead of
our competition through an exemplary service provision. We expect our
guests to have more fun during their leisure time. We will provide
more video and electronic technology per square footage than anyone
else in the region. A simple, yet unique, themed menu and atmosphere
will create a sense of ‘belonging’ for locals and tourists alike. Our
operating credo is: “happy enthusiastic employees create happy
enthusiastic guests.”
The main objectives of the development of this new venue are:
• Capitalize on excellent location opportunity with swift commitment
to the new • Town Square development.
• To launch the venue with a highly publicized grand opening event in
the summer of 2001.
• To maintain tight control of costs, operations, and cash flow
through diligent management and automated computer control.
• To maintain a food cost below 33% of food revenue.
• To maintain a total beverage cost below 25% of beverage revenue.
• To exceed £2 million in annual sales by the third year of plan
implementation.
The keys to success in achieving our goals are:
• Provide exceptional service that leaves an impression.
• Consistent entertainment atmosphere and product quality.
• Managing our internal finances and cash flow to enable upward
capital growth.
• Strict control of all costs, at all times, without exception.
[IMAGE] 2.0 Company Summary
The key elements of the Nightclub’s concept are as follows:
• Entertainment and dance based themes — The company will focus on
themes that have mass appeal.
• Distinctive design features — The Nightclub will be characterized
by the elaborate dance club situated in a spectator setting which
comfortably accommodates 350 guests. The area will also offer three
private sky boxes which can be combined for use in a conference or
private party setting. This room is intended for special events and
daily use. The adjoining dining room and bar would present an inviting
and relaxing atmosphere, which displays a collection of musical and
dance memorabilia. A live dj will coordinate the events and entertain
the patrons with music and games during music breaks and off-times.
• Location, location, location — One of the major advantages that the
Nightclub will have over its competition will be its location in the
new, high-profile Festival Leisure Park
• Gaming — The Nightclub will provide several interactive style video
games and pool tables to provide for both additional entertainment and
revenue.
• Quality food — All would be lost without special attention being
paid to the level of food quality. A simple menu offering foods
similar to those found at a premier venue. Traditional ‘bar’
appetizers will be on hand for people craving nachos, wings, or
quesadillas while they drink and enjoy themselves.
• Exceptional service — In order to reach and maintain a unique image
of quality, the Nightclub will provide attentive and friendly service
through a high ratio of service personnel to customers, and will also
invest in the training and supervision of its employees. We estimate
nearly one service staff member for every 35 guests.
2.1 Start up Summary
The company is seeking a loan for start-up purposes for a new
entertainment venue in Basildon.
Funds needed to accomplish goal referenced above will be £350,000. The
applicant will require the entire £350,000 to finish project
build-out.
We will utilize the anticipated loans in the amount of £200,000 to
build out the approximate 10,000 square foot space and purchase
equipment necessary for the start-up of a new nightclub venue. The
following tables and charts illustrate the capital requirements.
3.0 Services
The emergence of the High Street area of Basildon represents a unique
opportunity for a high-energy, dance-themed venue. The development’s
central location, demographics, and lack of direct competition are
major advantages to this project. The proposed venue will provide a
local solution to the lack of social atmosphere and live sports venues
geared primarily toward the 21-35 age group in the Basildon area and
will help keep late night entertainment expenditures within the
localized region.
The new venue will specialize in high-energy themes, a quality video
and gaming area, and will offer beer, wine and an array of liquors and
mixed drinks. In addition, the venue will sell non-alcoholic beverages
such as soft drinks, juices and bottled water. A “casual” food menu
consisting mostly of appetizers and small entrees ranging in cost from
£3 – £4 will also be available. The initial hours of operation will be
10:00 P.M. to 2:00 A.M., four nights a week. The establishment will
draw primarily from the Basildon market while attracting guests from
the area’s other surrounding cities and towns, for example Billericay
and Southend.
4.0 Market Analysis Summary
The concept and management of the Nightclub has been well received,
and has been offered key placement at the centre of Basildon’s Town
Centre.
The Nightclub will be a 10,000 square foot unit, which will also house
the company’s corporate business office. The dance club and bar will
accommodate 750 people. With Basildon’s rapidly growing population,
the variety of the Nightclub from across the country would create mass
appeal for all of the Nightclub’s customers. The store will be
equipped with state-of-the-art audio and video systems like none other
found in Basildon. It will serve the need for a true nightclub in
Basildon. The general appearance will be clean, open, and pleasing to
the customer. The demographics are favourable, with minimal
competition from other dance-themed venues and bars.
4.1 Target Market Segment Strategy
Our strategy is based on serving our niche markets exceptionally well.
The nightclub enthusiast, the tourist and business traveler, the local
nightclub crowd, the local service industry as well as groups going
out together, can all enjoy the Nightclub experience.
The marketing strategy is essential to the main strategy:
• Emphasize exceptional service.
• Create awareness of the Nightclub’s unique features.
• Focus on our target markets.
We must charge appropriately for the high-end, high-quality service
and food that we offer. Our revenue structure has to match our cost
structure, so the wages we pay and the training we provide to assure
superior quality and service must be balanced by the fees we charge.
Part of the superior experience we offer is the simplicity o the menu
items. While being unique, they are relatively inexpensive and easy to
prepare. While a premium is appropriate for the experience, the
pricing has to be balanced in accordance with what we are serving.
All menu items will be moderately priced. We expect an average guest
expenditure of £10 for beverages and £6 for the percentage of our
guests who choose to take advantage of our food menu. Our target
customer spends more than the industry average for moderately priced
establishments. This is due to our creating an atmosphere that
encourages longer stays and more spending, while still allowing
adequate table turns due to extended hours of appeal.
4.2 Service Business Analysis
[back to top] The typical venue of our style is open from 8:00 P.M. to 2:00 A.M.,
and within this time frame, the venue can achieve gross revenues
anywhere from £1,250 to £15,000, nightly. The primary sources of
revenue in a venue of this type are high volume traffic, coupled with
comparably nominal spending. In addition to alcohol revenues, we will
also generate substantial revenues from food sales that can typically
range from £6 – £10 per person, and admission fees that range between
£4 – £8 per admit.
Entertainment venues in the late 1980’s and 1990’s focused on
high-energy light and sound, multiple source video screens, and
participative events. This relatively simple concept is still quite
popular today. However, these concepts have greatly evolved with
society. In recent years this industry has become more sophisticated
with the availability of new technology. Larger metropolitan areas
have taken this technology to new heights with sound, lighting, video
and interactive designs that create an exciting and memorable
experience. Fortunately, no one in Essex area has been a pioneer in
this specific segment of the industry as of the date of this report.
Additionally, the nightclub and bar industry is shifting towards a
more entertainment-oriented concept. Guests of these venues are not
only offered a dynamic place to gather and mingle, but also a place to
participate in the entertainment through interactive contests, theme
nights, and other events. We intend to heavily utilize
entertainment-oriented marketing in an effort to withstand the
perpetual shift in trends and cater to as large a client base as
possible.
Nightclubs and other drinking establishments rely heavily on their
primary suppliers. The primary suppliers are the various beverage
distributors that provide the establishment with both alcoholic and
non-alcoholic beverages. The alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, and
liquor) are the primary sources of income in this industry. Other
beverage suppliers also play a crucial role by providing non-alcoholic
beverages. These are either served alone or mixed with alcohol.
In the area, all major brands of alcoholic beverages are available, in
addition to several regional brands of beer. Initial research shows
that the major distributors in the market have a high rating in both
product availability and delivery.
4.2.1 Business Participants
The Nightclub will be part of the restaurant and bar industry, which
includes several kinds of businesses:
• Locally Operated Bars and Nightclubs – This genre usually appeals to
the local neighbourhood clientele. This same client base dictates that
the average price structure be drastically scaled down in order to
create “regulars.”
• Nightclub Entertainment Complexes – This type of complex represents
the concept we will most closely compete with. They are typically
placed in high traffic locations and are normally treated as
destination entertainment. An admission charge is usually in place and
the associated price structure is also most like our proposed
structure. Thankfully there is not an abundance if this type of
entertainment within our region.
• Conventional Dining – Primarily owned by large national chains,
usually less than 10,000 square feet, focused on serving good quality
food in a reasonable amount of time in a dining room setting. The
service and food quality are superior to that of a fast food
establishment. People go there to eat and leave when they’re done
eating since there’s rarely a reason to stay.
• Formal Dining – Similar to conventional dining yet offering a higher
quality of food and service for the added expense. As with the
conventional dining facilities, there is little interaction and when
people are done eating, they leave.
• Casual Dining – Commonly building upon conventional dining with the
addition of a bar, playing of music and sporting events on numerous
televisions. Some establishments offer their own brand of beer made on
the premises. The food quality and service are at best, similar to
that found in a conventional dining experience.
• Chain Entertainment – Typically manifested in each market through
theTGIFridays, etc. We expect to create an atmosphere that thrives
on its trendy feel. These chain entertainment venues can not hope to
draw the same “hip” clientele.
4.3.2 Main Competitors
The Nightclub competition lies mainly with other casual facilities and
less with conventional and chain entertainment establishments. We need
to effectively compete with the widely held idea that you can’t get
good service anymore, while maintaining the idea that being out can be
a lot of fun. Our polling has indicated that consumers think of
atmosphere, price, and quality respectively. Additionally, price was
frequently mentioned by pointing out that if the former concerns are
present then they are willing to pay more for the experience.
Our review of the market concludes that there are four entertainment
venues that can be considered direct competition to the proposed new
venue. We do realize that the proposed venue will also compete
indirectly for every entertainment dollar spent in the Festival
Leisure Park area.
The main competitors of the Nightclub will be:IKON====
(Information retrieved from official website)
Open: Tuesday through to Saturday;
“With a capacity of 2500, we are the largest nightclub on the south
coast. Boasting two rooms, 6 bars, 3 state-of the art lasers & 4 huge
video projectors – there is no better-designed venue in the south of
England to experience a ‘Big’ club night out!”JUMPINJAKS===
(Information retrieved from official website)
Open: All week
Cheap drinks and cheap tickets, to create lots of revenue, and lots of
customers. The nightclub is situated in a place called the Festival
Leisure Park, where lots of nightlife activities are found. Lots of
customers, regulars, customers from out of town, etc, are attracted to
this place nearly every night.
5.0 Strategy and Implementation Summary
In order to place emphasis on exceptional service, our main tactics
are bi-monthly service training, employee recognition, and higher
service employee to customer ratios. Our specific programs for
training include employee for life training for management, customer
for life training for employees, and the sharing of success stories
among employees and management. Our specific employee recognition
programs include employee of the month with a personal parking space,
service excellence recognition awards of specific employees attached
to advertising. To achieve higher service employee to customer ratios,
we include separate beverage servers and bussing personnel, as well as
maintaining a comfortable table count for the wait staff.
Our second strategy is emphasizing entertainment. The tactics are
interactive entertainment, constant sensory appeal, and unique event
viewing. Our specific programs for interactive entertainment and
constant sensory appeal are frequent contests, games, music, and
karaoke all hosted by an in-house dj who is also in charge of event
programming for the main room and lounge. A billiard room will
overlook the main area. Billiards was selected due to its widespread
popularity (fifth most popular sport in the world, according toCNN).
A limited number of video and pinball games, as well as computer dart
boards, will compliment the billiard tables in order to offer a less
interactive entertainment option. With an adjoining bar and plenty of
seating, yet another unique experience could be carved out of a visit
to the Nightclub.
Our promise fulfilment strategy may be our most important. The
necessary tactics are ongoing value-based training, maintenance, and
attention to detail, especially after popularity has been established.
Through empowerment of service employees to solve problems without
making a customer wait for management consultation we create a win-win
situation for the customer and the restaurant. Continuous and
never-ending improvement is the order of the day through our regular
training sessions and meetings. Since value is equal to service
rendered minus the price charged, it is crucial to go beyond the mere
serving of food in a room full of lights and sound, you have to create
a long-lasting impression.
• Emphasize exceptional service — WeMUSTprove to guests that
exceptional service is still available and should be expected as part
of a dining experience. We need to differentiate ourselves from the
mediocre service venues.
• Emphasize an entertaining experience — By assuring that all guests
will enjoy themselves, we would be securing market share through
repeat business.
• Focus on target markets — Our marketing and themes of mass appeal
and music based entertainment will attract our target market segments.
• Differentiate and fulfil the above promises.
We can’t just market and sell another dance club, we must actually
deliver on our promise of quality, service and a unique guest
experience. We need to make sure we have the fun and service intensive
staff that we claim to have.
5.1 Marketing Strategy
A high growth area, such as Basildon, has an annual influx of new
residents from many other parts of the country. This trend is true of
Essex in general, and definitely areas around, or in London.
Many new residents, as well as many existing ones, are members of
clubs in other markets. The Nightclub is a place for all. The enabling
technology will be an inherent part of the Nightclub’s image.
Advertising budgets and event promotion are ongoing processes of
management geared to promote the brand name and keep the Nightclub at
the forefront of the dance theme establishments in Basildon’s
marketing area.
We depend on radio advertising as our main way to reach new customers.
Our strategies and practices will remain constant, as will the way we
promote ourselves:
• Advertising — We’ll be developing a core positioning message.
• Grand Opening — We will concentrate a substantial portion of our
early advertising budget towards the ‘Grand Opening Event.’
• Direct Marketing — We’ll directly market to local hotels
surrounding the powers and the local airport.
The Nightclub will create an identity-oriented marketing strategy with
executions particularly in radio media, alongside print ads, and
in-store promotions.
A grand opening event will be held to launch the Nightclub in the
summer of 2001. A radio advertising blitz will precede the event for
three weeks, with ambiguous teasers about an “event like no other” in
the city’s history and the forthcoming opening date. Contests will be
held on the target radio stations giving away V.I.P. passes (tickets)
to the event while at the same time, creating excitement about the
opening. The opening date is tentative at this point and dependent
upon construction completion. The budget for the event will be £3,000,
and the milestone date will parallel the available opening date,
currently September of 2005.
Achievement of the following campaigns will be measured by the polling
of customers as to how they heard of the Nightclub for the first
ninety days of operation. Budget adjustments will be made as the
results dictate.
We will be running regular local radio and newspaper ads to create
brand awareness. Our radio ads will be concentrated strongly on Essex
FM and Heart FM, the city’s top radio stations among our target market
segments. Through commercial repetition, a teaser campaign, and the
use of catchy phrases, we hope to obtain intellectual ownership of our
target market segments: when they think dance club and bar they’ll
have to think the Nightclub. Drink specials will also be staples of
our radio advertising in order to bring people in.
Ads will also go into the college newspapers for the local areas of
Basildon College. The monthly budget for these ads will be £170 -
£200. The event date will be in tandem with the grand opening.
5.2 Sales Strategy
Sales projections for this plan are presented in the following topics.
5.2.1 Sales Forecast
This chart represents our forecast for Income on a monthly basis. The
table presents yearly expected sales. Complete monthly forecast
figures for the first year are presented in the appendix.
[IMAGE] Sales Forecast
Sales
2001
2002
2003
Beverage Sales
£1,346,100
£1,480,710
£1,628,781
Food Sales
£93,500
£102,850
£113,135
Admission Sales
£836,740
£920,414
£1,012,455
Total Sales
£2,276,340
£2,503,974
£2,754,371
Direct Cost of Sales
2001
2002
2003
Beverage Sales
£336,525
£370,178
£407,196
Food Sales
£30,855
£33,941
£37,335
Admission Sales
£0
£0
£0
Subtotal Direct Cost of Sales
£367,380
£404,119
£444,531
5.2.2 Daily Revenue Forcast
[back to top] This table illustrates our daily revenue forecast for the Nightclub.
We are assuming a seating capacity for said space of 750 guests. In
addition, we expect just less than one complete rotation of this space
for food and beverage guests alike.
Daily Revenue Breakdown **
Mon
Tue
Wed
Thu
Fri
Sat
Sun
Weekly
Total Guests Charged Admission
0
0
325
475
675
775
0
2,250
Average Admission Fee
£7
£7
£7
£10
£10
$10
$7
$9.57
Total Admission Sales
$0
$0
$2,275
$4,750
$6,750
$7,750
$0
$21,525
Total Bar Guests
0
0
350
550
775
1,100
0
2,775
Average Drinks per Person
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3.25
Average Beverage Sales per Guest
$12.50
$12.50
$10.00
$12.50
$12.50
$12.50
$12.50
$12.18
Average Price per Drink
$0
$3.75
$3.75
$3.75
$3.75
$3.75
$3.75
$3.75
Total Beverage Sales
$0
$0
$3,500
$6,875
$9,688
$13,750
$0
$33,812
Total Admission and Beverage Sales
$0
$0
$5,775
$11,625
$16,438
$21,500
$0
$55,337
Total Food Guests
0
0
30
50
70
100
0
250
Average Food Sales per Guest
$5.00
$5.00
$7.50
$7.50
$7.50
$7.50
$5.00
$45.00
Total Food Sales
$0
$0
$225
$375
$525
$750
$0
$1,875
Misc. Sales (10% of Gross Sales)
$0
$0
$578
$1,163
$1,644
$2,150
$0
$5,533
Total Revenue
$0
$0
$6,578
$13,163
$18,606
$24,400
$0
$62,746
**based on 750-person capacity
6.0 Daily Staffing
Day
Position
Quantity
Rate
Avg Hrs
Sub-total
Burden
Total
Monday
Staff Cost/Mon.
0
$0
0
$0
$0
$0
Tuesday
Staff Cost/Tues.
$0
$0
$0
Wednesday
Waitress
2
$5.00
7.5
$75
Security
4
$7.00
6.5
$195
Bartender
2
$5.00
7.5
$75
Barback
1
$4.50
7
$31
Police Detail
1
$15.00
0
$0
Misc.
$8.00
0
$0
Staff Cost/Wed.
$376
$64
$441
Thursday
Waitress
3
$5.00
7.5
$113
Security
5
$7.50
6.5
$244
Bartender
3
$5.00
7.5
$113
Barback
1.5
$4.50
7
$47
Police Detail
0
$15.00
0
$0
Misc.
0
$15.00
0
$0
Staff Cost/Thur.
$516
$88
$604
Friday
Waitress
4
$5.00
7.5
$150
Security
7
$7.50
6.5
$341
Bartender
4
$5.00
7.5
$150
Barback
2
$4.50
7
$63
Police Detail
0
$15.00
0
$0
Misc.
0
$15.00
0
$0
Staff Cost/Fri.
$704
$120
$824
Saturday
Waitress
4
$5.00
7.5
$150
Security
9
$7.50
6.5
$439
Bartender
5
$5.00
7.5
$188
Barback
2
$4.50
7
$63
Police Detail
0
$15.00
0
$0
Misc.
0
$15.00
0
$0
Staff Cost/Sat.
$839
$143
$982
Sunday
Staff Cost/Sun.
0
$0
0
$0
$0
$0
Ttl Wkly/Hrly
$2,436
$414
$2,850
Salaried Staff
Position
Salary
Yearly
Weekly
Burden
Total
Manager #1
Oper Prtnr
$55,000
$877
$179
Manager #2
Oper Prtnr
$55,000
$877
$179
Manager #3
General Mgr
$50,000
$798
$163
Manager #4
PR Mgr
$45,000
$718
$147
Manager #5
Bar Mgr
$35,000
$558
$114
Manager #6
Asst.
$25,000
$399
$81
Entertainmnt
DJ
$65,000
Ttl Salaried
$5,480
$866
$6,346
Ttl Weekly Staff
$9,196
Personnel Plan
2001
2002
2003
Salaried Staff
£284,736
£298,968
£313,916
Hourly Staff
£107,200
£112,560
£118,188
Total People
0
0
0
Total Payroll
£391,936
£411,528
£432,104

Tourism in Cozumel

Michael Karnes Madrigal

Michael Karnes MadrigalWork Cited
Kamien, Roger. Music, an Appreciation. McGraw-Hill 1998 pg. 85.
Randel, Michael Don. The New Harvard Dictionary OF Music. The
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press 1996 pg. 462-64.

Misplaced Government Spending

Misplaced Government SpendingI enjoy the fact that I am ?protected? from the ?bad guys? that make up what George Dubya calls the ?The Axis of Evil.? However if you ask a group of people to locate Iraq, Iran, North Korea, Syria, Cuba, or Libya on a map, some people wouldn?t know where to start looking. Which is why spending almost a billion dollars a day on the military is preposterous when the quality of our education system is so low! The American government needs to sort out its priorities. They need to focus on the education of our children. According to A Citizen’s Guide to the Federal Budget Fiscal Year 2002, 19% (about $373 Billion) of the national budget falls into the Non Defense Discretionary department. This provides funding for things such as education, public transportation, and housing. While 18% of the national budget is given to National Defense, all of which is spent solely on the military.However, according to the Department of Education (ED), the structure of education finance in our country comes from state, local and private sources. In fact of the estimated $732 billion that is spent nationwide on education 90% of the money was from the three sources mentioned earlier. Which means that these sources are paying around $658.8 billion dollars a year and the federal government contributes the other 10% (www.ed.gov). This includes expenditures not only from the Department of Education, but also from other federal agencies, including the Department of Health and Human Services’ Head Start program, which is a comprehensive child development program that serves children from birth to age 5, pregnant women, and their families. They are child-focused programs and have the overall goal of increasing the school readiness of young children in low-income families (http://www2.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb), and the Department of Agriculture’s School Lunch Program which provides nutritionally balanced, low cost or free lunches to more than 25 million students each school day (http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/Lunch/ default.htm). When these are subtracted, the Department of Education is left with 6% of the total education spending. Which in turn is $55.8 billion dollars and 2.7% of the federal government’s budget of $2 trillion. Despite this large amount of money spent on the American education system, it is still not a reflection its quality.Perhaps if the government were to “trim the fat” on their national defense budget which will reach $451 billion by 2007, there might be hope for the education system in our country. Instead of spending billions of dollars on a fighter jet, we could use that money to improve education; the cost of one B2 bomber plane is $3 billion. Imagine what all that money could be used for instead of spending it on an airplane. It could help increase teachers’ salaries and/or provide technology to underprivileged schools that can’t afford computers or other technological equipment. People choose to become teachers; they take pride in educating America’s youth while receiving meager salaries.I’m not saying that if teachers’ salaries increase then the quality of their work will also improve, but the teachers do deserve more credit than they presently receive. Perhaps a reduction in class size would also help improve the quality of our education system. When the student to teacher ratio exceeds 25 to 1, it makes the teachers; job much more difficult. It is very hard for a teacher (regardless of their qualifications) to effectively teach their students.Furthermore in a study done by the U.S. Department of Commerce, they found that majority of high school dropouts come from middle income families (61.1%). In fact that percentage more than doubles the percentage of drop outs that come from low income families (28.9%). As a result, the problem with our education system is not just a problem with underprivileged schools and lower income families. And the ethnicity of high school dropouts is also predominately White, non-Hispanic (56.6%) followed by Hispanic (20.5%) and then Black (18.6). Thankfully the dropout rate doesn?t rise annually instead it varies from year to year. The focus should not only be on helping by increasing the funding for underprivileged schools, but also increasing the funding for all schools in need of some relief.Currently the emphasis on improving the quality of education is based on the students? performance on standardized tests. Many schools now are basing their entire budgets around preparation for those tests. The fact that America wants to improve its low test scores is a noble idea however with limited budgets in many school districts, many school specialty programs have disregarded. For example many schools have abandoned programs like music, art, and even physical education in order to emphasize on getting higher test scores. As a result these kids are learning that the quality of their education is reflected by their test scores. I understand that improving the schools performance on these tests is important, however students also need some recreation in class be it in a physical education class in which they have the opportunity to keep physically fit of in an art class in which they can explore their creativity. Nevertheless these schools care more about how well their students can fill in a bubble on an answer sheet. A well balanced education is more important than any standardized test score. It a much more comforting fact to know that a student has received a well rounded education, as opposed to knowing that when they don?t know the answer to fill in bubble C.Education should be a top priority for all Americans. Most politicians are people who attended school and later went on to college and became successful. If they did so well, how come they don’t want American citizens to have the same opportunities?

Nelson Mandela

Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela is born in a small village in the Transkei province in the Eastern Cape of South Africa on July 18, 1918. He was in a tribe called The Madiba, his tribal clan, is part of the Thembu people. His family has royal connections; his great-grandfather was a King and Mandela’s father is a respected counselor to the Thembu royal family. His father has four wives and He is one of thirteen children.On his first day of school, Rolihlahla is given the English name Nelson by an African teacher. After receiving a good education at local boarding schools, Mandela enters Fort Hare University and completes two years before deciding to leave for Johannesburg to avoid a marriage arranged for him by his guardian, Chief Jongintaba.
Mandela then earns his B.A. degree, enrolls in law school and joins the ANC (AFRICAN NATONAL CONGRESS) which is an organization est. in 1918 to promote black freedom.
Believing that the ANC leadership is too staid, Mandela, Oliver Tambo and Walter Sisulu form the ANC Youth League. They plan to organize mass support for the ANC and make it a more verbal organization.1948; the National Party comes to power under Dr. Daniel Malan. His platform is called apartheid, meaning “apartness.” They make new laws supporting racial discrimination and almost deleting almost all black rights. In1949, The ANC responds to the new apartheid policies, the ANC drafts a Program of Action calling for mass strikes, boycotts, protests and passive resistance. In 1951, Mandela becomes national president of the ANC Youth League. After that it is all downhill and Mandela is arrested several times. Later 1952, He draws up a plan for the ANC to work underground called the M-Plan. Early 1960’s Mandela escapes the country and travels in Africa and Europe, studying guerrilla warfare and building support for the ANC. Late 1962,
Returning to South Africa, Mandela is arrested, convicted and sentenced to five years. He is held on Robben Island .He is held there for more then 20 years.
1985, United States Senator Edward Kennedy visits South Africa to show his anti-apartheid support. He is hosted by Bishop Desmond Tutu the recipient of the 1984 Nobel Peace Prize; Kennedy also visits Winnie Mandela (Nelson’s Wife). Same year, South Africa’s church leaders take up the anti-apartheid cause, led by Bishop Tutu. Late1985, During the summer, anti-apartheid rallies and protests take place in New York City, Atlanta and Washington. North America keeps up their support when world famous musicians, including Bruce Springsteen and Miles Davis, release the anti-apartheid disk “Sun City.’ The song “Free Nelson Mandela” reaches the Top Ten on rock-music charts in England. Feb 2 1990, In a dramatic speech to Parliament, de Klerk (head of getting Mandela out of jail) announces the lifting of the bans against the ANC and other political organizations.Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela is born in a small village in the Transkei province in the Eastern Cape of South Africa on July 18, 1918. He was in a tribe called The Madiba, his tribal clan, is part of the Thembu people. His family has royal connections; his great-grandfather was a King and Mandela’s father is a respected counselor to the Thembu royal family. His father has four wives and He is one of thirteen children.
On his first day of school, Rolihlahla is given the English name Nelson by an African teacher. After receiving a good education at local boarding schools, Mandela enters Fort Hare University and completes two years before deciding to leave for Johannesburg to avoid a marriage arranged for him by his guardian, Chief Jongintaba.
Mandela then earns his B.A. degree, enrolls in law school and joins the ANC (AFRICAN NATONAL CONGRESS) which is an organization est. in 1918 to promote black freedom.
Believing that the ANC leadership is too staid, Mandela, Oliver Tambo and Walter Sisulu form the ANC Youth League. They plan to organize mass support for the ANC and make it a more verbal organization.1948; the National Party comes to power under Dr. Daniel Malan. His platform is called apartheid, meaning “apartness.” They make new laws supporting racial discrimination and almost deleting almost all black rights. In1949, The ANC responds to the new apartheid policies, the ANC drafts a Program of Action calling for mass strikes, boycotts, protests and passive resistance. In 1951, Mandela becomes national president of the ANC Youth League. After that it is all downhill and Mandela is arrested several times. Later 1952, He draws up a plan for the ANC to work underground called the M-Plan. Early 1960’s Mandela escapes the country and travels in Africa and Europe, studying guerrilla warfare and building support for the ANC. Late 1962,
Returning to South Africa, Mandela is arrested, convicted and sentenced to five years. He is held on Robben Island .He is held there for more then 20 years.
1985, United States Senator Edward Kennedy visits South Africa to show his anti-apartheid support. He is hosted by Bishop Desmond Tutu the recipient of the 1984 Nobel Peace Prize; Kennedy also visits Winnie Mandela (Nelson’s Wife). Same year, South Africa’s church leaders take up the anti-apartheid cause, led by Bishop Tutu. Late1985, During the summer, anti-apartheid rallies and protests take place in New York City, Atlanta and Washington. North America keeps up their support when world famous musicians, including Bruce Springsteen and Miles Davis, release the anti-apartheid disk “Sun City.’ The song “Free Nelson Mandela” reaches the Top Ten on rock-music charts in England. Feb 2 1990, In a dramatic speech to Parliament, de Klerk (head of getting Mandela out of jail) announces the lifting of the bans against the ANC and other political organizations.Feb 11 1990, After 27 years of imprisonment, Mandela is released. His new life is busy, visiting old friends and supporters, becoming deputy president of the ANC, and traveling with Winnie to the U.S., Europe and North Africa. In Sweden, he visits his old friend Oliver Tambo. 1993. Mandela and de Klerk are jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. 1994, Nelson Mandela is inaugurated as president of South Africa, with his daughter Zenani beside him; de Klerk is sworn in as deputy president.

Ancient Greece

Ancient GreeceThe Greeks, made sacrifices to the gods, so that the gods would honor them, and help them in times of trouble. They sacrificed animals, and other things that were special to them.
The Greeks built temples, where they worshipped the gods. Each city had several temples, because each temple was used to worship one god. In each temple, there was a statue of a god that they worshipped. They had an extra big temple, and statue for the god that guarded their city.The Greeks had lots of heroes, who were like role models for their children. Hercules was the strongest man ever, and destroyed many monsters with his strength. Perseus had killed a monster called the Medusa. If someone looked at it, they would immediately turn to stone. Oddysseus beat the Trojans in the Trojan war, and on his way home, with his cunning, tricked, and killed many monsters.The Greeks are also known for their creativity, and knowledge in arts, such as making sculptures, music, and paintings. They made statues out of clay, gold, silver, and bronze. For instruments, they used harps and flutes.The Greeks had houses like us. All the houses had a kitchen, an eating nook, and a bedroom. The richer families had rugs, and decorations, such as vases, paintings, and tapestries. They also had a courtyard in the middle of the house, and in the courtyard was a well. All the other people, though, had to use a public well, that was located in the middle of the city. The poor people had stone floors, and probably only family heirlooms for decorations, if they had any decorations at all.
The men worked all day earning money for the family by working. The Greeks had a lot of jobs that people could do. For example, there was shoe making, blacksmithing, pottery, doctors, actors, teaching, soldiers, fish mongers (someone who cuts up fish), and architecture. Their wives cooked, cleaned, and weaved, while the children under the age of eight played games all day, except during meals, and at bedtime. Children eight and over, went to school.The Greeks thought that education was very important, so they sent their sons to school at age 8. They quit school at age 14. There, they learned music, math, and writing. The older boys were taught politics. The boy’s teachers were male Greeks. The boys were taught outside in a field or under a tree in a forest.Any work The Greeks did not want to do, they left for their slaves, if they had any. For slaves, they used prisoners of war, such as other Greeks, and Romans. They had the slaves do housework, build buildings, harvest crops, and row ships.The Greeks loved entertainment. They went to music performances, singing, sports events, and plays. Everyone was allowed to go, except people on jail, and slaves. For plays, the actors were Greek men who liked acting. They wore large masks, so they people in the back rows could see them. The masks showed what type of character that actor was playing. For sports, the athletes wore no clothes. They did things such as chariot racing, long jump, javelin, discus, wrestling, and running.The cities in Greece had a particular layout. In the center of the city there was a piece of land called the Agora. On the Agora, was the public well, temples, and other important buildings. Around the Agora were shops. After the shops, there were houses, and other buildings. Around the whole city, there was a large stone wall that protected it.
The Greeks had many laws. All citizens (free men over 20) could vote, offices of government were filled by elections, and killing a Tyrant was excused. If somebody murdered someone, stole something, or disobeyed some other law, they could be punished by going to jail, being whipped, or death. War was often fought in Greece. Greek cities attacked other cities to gain more power. The wars were fought by brave, courageous, and strong young men. Here are some of the weapons that they used-daggers, catapult, spears, bows and arrows, and, swords. The Greeks ate about three meals a day. In a day, They ate fish, fruit, vegetables, bread, cheese, a cake made mostly from flour and honey. They drank juice, wine, and water.Women had very few rights in Greek society. For instance, they could not vote, compete in sports events, or act in plays. All they did all day was take care of the children, cook, clean, and weave. The Greeks loved to be clean. To do this, they took baths, covered themselves in oil, and wore perfume. The women wore bracelets and earrings, if they could afford it.Philosophy was important in Greece. One important Greek Philosopher was called Plato.(Plato wasn’t his real name. It was just a nickname he got in school. His real name is not known.) He was born around 429 BC. He figured out that all the planets revolved around the sun, and not the earth. He died in his 70’s. The rich Greek people were buried in Tombs, while the poor were burned, and their ashes were buried. He was buried in a Tomb.As you have read, and maybe noticed, the Greek civilization was a lot like ours, and maybe even better. They had the same type of government, the same jobs, homes, schools, and other things. It was a very important society, especially because they taught us so much about art, and Space.

The Man In Black: Johnny Cash

The son of Southern Baptist sharecroppers, Cash began playing guitar and writing songs at age 12. During high school, he performed frequently on radio station KLCN in Blytheville, Arkansas. Cash moved to Detroit in his late teens and worked there until he joined the Air Force as a radio operator in Germany. He left the Air Force and married Vivian Liberto in 1954; the couple settled in Memphis, where Cash worked as an appliance salesman and attended radio announcers school.Cash moved near Ventura, California, in 1958, signed with Columbia, and began a nine-year period of alcohol and drug abuse. He released a number of successful country and pop hits, among them “Ring of Fire” (#1 pop, #1 C&W, 1963), written by June Carter of the Carter Family and Merle Kilgare. By then, he had left his family and moved to New York’s Greenwich Village. Late in 1965, Cash was arrested by Customs officials for trying to smuggle amphetamines in his guitar case across the Mexican border. He got a suspended sentence and was fined. After a serious auto accident and a near fatal overdose, his wife divorced him. By then Cash had moved to Nashville, where he became friends with Waylon Jennings. Together they spent what both have described as a drug-crazed year and a half.But in Nashville, Cash began a liaison with June Carter, who helped him get rid of his drug habit by 1967 and reconverted him to fundamentalist Christianity. By the time Cash and Carter married in early 1968, they had begun working together regularly. They had hit duets with “Jackson” (#2 C&W, 1967), “Long-Legged Guitar Pickin? Man” (#6 C&W, 1967), and versions of Bob Dylan’s “It Ain?t Me, Babe” (#58 pop, #4 C&W, 1964) and Tim Hardin’s “If I Were a Carpenter” (#36 pap, #2 C&W, 1970).Cash’s 1968 live album, At Folsom Prison (#13), became a million-seller in 1968. Bob Dylan invited him to sing a duet (“Girl from the North Country”) and write liner notes for Nashville Skyline, and Dylan appeared in the first segment of ABC-TV’s The Prison Show in June 1969. The highly rated series, which lasted two years, developed a reputation as an eclectic showcase of contemporary American music, with guests ranging from Louis Armstrong to Carl Perkins to Bob Dylan. Cash had a 1969 hit with Shel Silverstein’s “A Boy Named Sue” (#2), a track from Prison at San Quentin; his bestselling album, the live LP was #1 for four weeks.In 1970 Cash performed at the Nixon White House. He and June Carter traveled to Israel in 1971 to make a documentary, Gospel Road. Cash continued to tour and make hits through the Seventies, including “A Thing Called Love” (#2 C&W, 1972) and “One Piece at a Time” (#1 C&W, 1976). He also became active in benefit work, particularly on behalf of prisoners, Native American rights, and evangelist Billy Graham’s organization.In 1982 Cash regrouped with Sun Records label mates Carl Perkins and Jerry Lee Lewis to record The Survivors. Three years later Cash hooked up with three other campadres — Kris Kristofferson, Waylon Jennings, and Willie Nelson — to form the Highwaymen, releasing Highwayman in 1985. The Highwaymen performed together sporadically throughout the late Eighties and Nineties, recording Highwayman 2 in 1990. They released The Road Goes On Forever, produced by Don Was, in 1995.Cash’s long relationship with Columbia Records ended in the mid-Eighties, and in 1986 he began a somewhat desultory liaison with Nashville’s branch of Mercury Records. By the late Eighties, his long streak of country hits had ended, and Cash complained to an interviewer that he?d been “purged” from Nashville, replaced by contemporary “hat acts.” He continued to perform constantly, however, usually with a package tour that included his wife and her sisters Helen and Anita Carter, as well as Johnny and June’s san, John Carter Cash (other Cash and Carter siblings would sometimes show up too). Throughout these years, Cash turned to acting, in a slew of Western-themed movies and TV shows. He also suffered from health problems, and underwent heart surgery and drug treatment for an addiction to painkillers.Already a member of the Nashville Songwriter’s Hall of Fame (Cash has more than 400 songs to his credit) and the Country Music Hall of Fame, Cash was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992. Also that year came the release of the critically acclaimed boxed set, The Essential Prison. In 1993, he began his return to the forefront with a guest vocal turn an U2’s Zooropa; he sang lead vocals on the darkly haunting track “The Wanderer.” The following year, Cash was toasted by alt-rock audiences with the release of American Recordings, on the label by the same name, known for its rap and rock artists. Label chief Rick Rubin’s production emphasized Cash’s brooding, deep vocals, backed by his own simple, but rhythmic acoustic guitar. Featuring, among Cash’s own compositions, covers of such artists as Nick Lowe, Leonard Cohen, and Tom Waits, the album’s songs veered from Cash’s “Redemption” to satanic-rocker Glenn Danzig’s “Thirteen.” Appearing solo or backed by guitar, bass, and drums, Cash performed in several intimate venues crawling with such hipsters as actor Johnny Depp and his gal-pal model Kate Moss, who starred in the video for the album’s “Delia’s Gone,” frequently shown on MTV. Though the album only reached #110 on the pop charts (#29 C&W), it received airplay an alternative-rock and college radio stations, garnering critical raves and the 1994 Grammy for Best Contemporary Folk Album.

Taking Away Paul’s Meaning of Life in Paul’s Case

Taking Away Paul’s Meaning of Life in Paul’s CaseWhen Paul’s father took him out of school and demanded he not work or see anyone at the Theatre, I believe it was at this point of the story that he took away apart of Paul’s life, his fantasy life. He took away Paul’s meaning of life and put him back into the reality, the world Paul did not like because for him it was the instruments, the music and the lights, as well as, his job responsibilities which made him feel like someone special.
Once Paul lost all of this, he followed his dream about going to New York and while there, fell into more of a fantasy world. I think this is where Cather uses the weather to symbolize and point out Paul’s feelings.
I believe the phrase “The snow was whirling in curling eddies” was referring to Paul’s excitement of being in New York whirling inside him recalling his dearest pleasures. “the grey winter twilight’s in his sitting-room; his quiet enjoyment of his flowers, his clothes, his wide divan, his cigarette, and his sense of power”. He could not remember a time when he had felt so at peace within himself.
The statement “violets, roses, carnations, lilies-of-the-valley somehow vastly more lovely and alluring that they blossomed thus naturally in the snow” I feel was referring to how Paul felt inside while in New York. He finally could be at peace with himself and felt as though his life had blossomed, the story makes reference by Paul feeling that everything was perfect now, he was the kind of person he always wanted to be, perfect like the flowers. He no longer had to “wonder whether he was destined always to shiver in the black night outside, looking up at it all”, looking for what he longed to enjoy, even if it were not forever.
I think that when the Denny and Carson finally found out that Paul had taken the money, Cather refers to their anger by “The snow was whirling so fiercely outside”. As Paul “watched the snowflakes whirling by his window until he fell asleep”, he was replaying his every move to get to New York, stealing the money, boarding the train, and recalling his thoughts on how easy it was for him to do this.
When Paul believes his father is coming to New York to find him he knows its over for him, “the old feeling that the orchestra had suddenly stopped, the sinking sensation that the play was over” he had to return home. Paul dreaded this and felt he was again losing “the drifts lay already deep in the fields and along the fences, while here and there the tall dead grass and dried weed stalks protruded black above it.” Cather does say he has “the hopeless feeling of sinking back forever into ugliness and commonness that he had always had when he came home.”
I think the sentence describing his watching the snowflakes whirling by his window is in fact the whirling of his life – reality to fantasy. This made me feel saddened. The following statements in the story also made reference to his feeling; “flower gardens blooming” – he was budding out into the person which whom he had always wanted to become. “The flowers which blossomed unnaturally in the snow” – this was the life he saw natural for himself, therefore he too blossomed inside. “The raging Atlantic winds” – made reference to his real life which he did not like and that of which he dreamed, which he knew he could not hold onto forever. The “sickening vividness” – of his life at home.

Meaning in Pat Green’s Song, Wave on Wave

Meaning in Pat Green’s Song, Wave on WaveParker underscores the joyous reality that there are as many different ways to appreciate music as there are people who listen. There are some who simply flip the radio on in their car to hum along and then there is a different ilk. I belong to that sect of music lovers who halt in grocery stores to identify the song playing, make their friends listen to excerpts from lyrics, and relate to music as a blend of notes and poetry combining to articulate my feelings in a way I cannot— to think something never thought before. Recently, I have been captivated by Pat Green’s “Wave on Wave.”
I’m not a country music fan, so I haven’t heard the rest of the 2003 album (which shares the song’s name). Despite my inexperience with the genre and the foreign sound of twang, I found this song, about the quest for authenticity and liberation, meaningful on its own merits. It opens with unaffected picking that reminds me of things simple and true, while a steady bass gives the song an easy rhythm, like taking a long drive. A persistent background harmony is maintained throughout, the melody grows more emphatic, and Green’s voice finally asserts itself in tones of safety and guidance as if a trusted friend were nearby. The lyrics support the tone with refreshing honesty about the basic search for truth and redemption, fighting timidity and pretense at the same time. “Wave on Wave” continues about the frustration of trials and setbacks and vague pursuit without gain, overcoming obstacles and learning to have faith. With conviction we are left to consider the idea of a continuous searching process and the unrelenting awareness of a truth so resonant it comes in waves.

Importance of the Counter-Culture Concept in Understanding the Changes of the Sixties

Importance of the Counter-Culture Concept in Understanding the Changes of the Sixties
Works Cited Not Included
There were many changes, shifts in ideas and movements during the
period of the Sixties, which may or not be easily defined by the term
counter-culture. It can be argued that there were changes at this
time which were a progression of earlier events over a long period of
time, and therefore cannot be defined to the Sixties; also some
changes appear to be more ideological than counter-cultural; and there
were also changes which could be considered a reaction to the
counter-culture itself, and therefore be considered counter
counter-cultural. I am going to discuss changes in History, Science
and Religion, in order to establish to what extent the concept of
counter-culture can be of use in this study of the Sixties.By careful study of the Chronology in Resource Book 4, we discover
that changes were happening to the social climate from 1954 onwards.
In theUSA, the fight for black civil rights and desegregation won a
victory in this year when segregation in public schools was pronounced
illegal in the Supreme Court. In the following year, the movement
accelerated when ‘Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat to a white
man on a segregated Montgomery, Alabama, bus’, and in the same town
‘Martin Luther King leads a boycott of Montgomery buses’ (Resource
Book 4, p5). Also in 1955, in the UK, Mary Quant opened Bazaar in
London, indicating new ideas in fashion, and we have the beginnings of
commercial television. Soon after this we see the emergence of Elvis
Presley, and both ‘pop’ and modern ‘art’ exhibitions in London. There
was another victory for the civil rights movement, when ‘President
Eisenhower sends US army to Little Rock to enforce desegregation of
central high school’ (Resource Book 4, p6). Authors were beginning to
break the boundaries with novels, and after the New Obscene
Publications Act in 1959, books like ‘Lady Chatterley’s Lover were
being published.
It is obvious that from these few examples alone that more liberal
thinking, new ideas, and questions concerning human rights and freedom
actually began in the 1950’s, and so these changes cannot be
exclusively confined to the sixties. However, there was an
acceleration during the sixties, with stuffiness on television being
replaced by satire, bands like The Beatles and The Rolling Stones
becoming popular almost overnight, and in fashion Biba and Mary Quant
produced fashions that were counter-cultural, dresses made in the
‘short, shift style made famous by Jean Shrimpton’ (Resource Book 4,
A5). There were changes in attitudes that challenged mainstream
culture, according to Maureen Nolan and Roma Singleton, who were
teenagers in Liverpool in the Sixties. They believed that the changes
in attitudes ‘gave us tolerance for new ideas, and brought us a step
nearer to equality of rights, removing many prejudices of sexual,
racial and moral origin. It gave us the freedom to accept or reject
things on their own merits…….the right of individual expression was
encouraged’ (Resource Book 4, A5).
The feminist movement didn’t achieve much in the sixties, although it
did gain prominence in the seventies, spurred on by higher
expectations and changing attitudes. Women were no longer happy with
being expected to stay at home and conform to society’s expectations.
In her book, ‘The Feminine Mystique’, Betty Friedan describes the
dissatisfaction women feel about the role they are expected to
perform, based on her own feelings ‘There was a strange discrepancy
between the reality of our lives as women and the image to which we
were trying to conform, an image I came to call the feminine mystique’
(Resource Book 4, A10, p.28).
It is clear from this evidence, that there were many changes in the
sixties, in ideas, attitudes and culture, both in Western Europe and
theUSA, nevertheless, the term counter-culture can be used only in
respect to fashion, art, music and literature, which all challenged
the mainstream culture, as the fight for black civil rights, the new
feminism, and other forms of protest are more accurately described as
movements or ideologies.
Questions were also being asked concerning the lack of women in
professional jobs, especially in science, and women were being
encouraged to take up professional careers. In Alice S. Rossi’s
article published in Science, vol. 148, she states that ‘Educators,
employers, government officials, and manpower specialists are urging
women to enter more fully into the occupational life of the nation.’
(Resource Book 4, B6, p.50). Rossi explains the difficulties women
have to overcome in order to enter professional professions due to
assumptions society places on them ‘What a man “does” defines his
status, but whom she marries defines a woman’s.’ (Resource Book 4, B6,
p.50) She also explains in her article that in order for more women
to be able to enter scientific professions, children of both sexes
need to be educated ‘for all their major adult roles – as parents,
spouses, workers, and creatures of leisure.’, and that ‘we must stop
restricting and lowering the occupational goals of girls on the
pretext of counselling them to be “realistic” (Resource Book 4, B6,
p.51).
Prior to the Sixties science was classed as men’s domain, and the
research that was being performed was generally based on men’s values
and assumptions. In Rita Arditti’s article, ‘Feminism and science’,
she explains the difficulties that women working in science
encountered ‘The laboratories resemble a patriarchal household, with
the “head” of the laboratory usually male, women in marginal positions
without independent status, job security or benefits, and younger
students playing child-like roles.’ (Resource Book 4, B8, p.52).
There were also ideologies in science that were being challenged. Due
to the thalidomide tragedy it was discovered that the placenta did not
form a barrier to the embryo, as previously thought. ‘Medical
students were taught that the human placenta gave perfect protection
to the fetus and was impervious to toxic substances except in such
large doses that they killed the mother’ (Resource Book 4, B9, p.53).
Pregnant women were not given advice concerning toxic substances being
dangerous to the fetus, and ‘Routine testing of new drugs on pregnant
animals was perfunctory or non-existence’ (Resource Book 4, B9,
p.53). Since the Victorian age, the placenta was thought to be
impervious, and ‘a perfect barrier against damaging influences in the
environment’ (Resource Book 4, B9, p.54), and it was only following
the thalidomide tragedy that this mind-set was altered, when there was
such a vast amount of evidence to the contrary that it could not be
ignored.
Another example of an ideology or mind-set was in the area of
primatology. Feminists began to question ideas about male primates
being dominant over females, with the females being submissive and
passive. In Londa Schiebinger’s book ‘Has Feminism changed science?’,
she describes the way primates were being studied ‘Primatologists
tended to divide primates into three groups for study: dominant
males, females and young, and peripheral males.’ (Resource Book 4,
B10, p.54). She argues that females ‘were described as dedicated
mothers to small infants and sexually available to males…but otherwise
of little social significance…. Primatologists tended to view females
as noncompetitive, docile creatures who traded sex and reproduction
for protection and food’ (Resource Book 4, B10, p.54). Primatologists
decided to examine female primates more carefully, and realised that
they were equally as competitive as males, and were not ‘housebound’
as previously thought, but ‘were found to be adventurous and to
wander’ (Unit, p.113) and ‘Like males, female monkeys were found to be
sexually assertive’ (Unit, p.113).
Another criticism of science in the sixties concerned scientists and
the work they were doing, namely developing weaponry, i.e. the atomic
bomb, and radar for the military, instead of the fundamental research
that was done prior to World War II. President Eisenhower expressed
his concerns regarding what he called the
‘military-industrial-complex’ (Unit, p75), and critics were concerned
that science ‘had become heavily militarized and that it was dedicated
to the development of weapons of mass destruction rather than to
improving the lot of humankind’ (Unit, p75). The
military-industrial-complex soon became known as the
‘military-industrial-academic complex’ (Unit, p75), due to the fact
that the universities, especially the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, were doing the majority of their research on weaponry and
technology. According to Edward Shils in his article ‘Anti-science’,
the main objections against scientists was that they had become
irresponsible ‘scientists…….are indifferent to the well-being of
mankind, basically because they are subservient to the ruling powers
of government, the military and private industry.’ (Resource Book 4,
B3, p.46).
The surfacing of New Religious Movements towards the end of the
Sixties can be described as a reaction to the failure of
counter-cultural ideas. Many young people turned to these movements,
because they had become disillusioned with the changes that had
occurred, and their expectations had not been met. There were also
many young people who had become involved with the drug culture, i.e.LSD, who turned to religion in order to regain control over their
lives. These people, however, were not interested in ‘mainstream
religion’ i.e. Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, as they felt that
these had become corrupt. David Berg states that ‘The young people
are sick and fed up with what really amounts to a pagan, cruel,
whoremongering, false Christianity. They’re trying to return to the
peace-loving religions of old, including ancient Christianity’
(Resource Book 4, C8, p.81). The peace young people were searching
for was often found in the Eastern religions, and these movements were
extremely popular. Many young people who were unhappy with their
family life also turned to New Religious Movements, where they felt
their needs could be met. Some historians describe New Religious
Movements as ‘adaptive and integrative, rehabilitating drug users and
reassimilating dropped out, transient youth, training individuals to
retake their place in it’ (Unit, p.160), while Robbins describes them
as ‘a kind of haven or asylum from both the system and the
counterculture in which individuals could temporarily sustain the
deviant style of the counterculture while changing their practical
values and behaviour in the direction of conventional expectations’
(Unit, p.160). This view seems to indicate the dissatisfaction and
disillusionment of young people at this time of contradictory cultural
changes. While these New Religious Movements were very different to
the mainstream churches, they seemed to pose no threat to them, and
therefore cannot really be considered counter-cultural. New Religious
Movements were, in the main, tolerated by the mainstream churches, as
they realised they did not pose a threat, and they saw ‘a possibility
of hope for the future of belief’ (Unit, p155).
In conclusion it is apparent that there were many changes during the
Sixties, possibly due to the high number of young people resulting
from the baby boom after World War II. The term counter-culture is
not entirely an adequate way of describing all of the changes that
took place for several reasons: some changes were a progression of
events throughout the century, other changes were due to scientific
discoveries which have always produced new ideas and ways of looking
at the world, and many changes can be better described as movements or
ideologies.

Concert Review of Postcard in Morocco

Concert Review of Postcard in Morocco Missing Works CitedTo gain my attention in the beginning of the opera was a vocal fight over a dream of having a boat between Matt Morgan’s character and Matthew Shaw’s character. This was a most pleasant display of range and delivery. Shaw obviously used techniques studied while he was at the Manhattan school of music and opera theatre, where he acquired his master of music degree. I felt Matt Morgan was a bit over acted on some of the vocal parts and had trouble following the music played at points, but an overall performance was adequate. Also, The knock off of the titanic when the two are pushing around on a janitors cart was a bit out of place. With Shaw being a Bass-Baritone, he really brought out the low range of voice integers, which made the difference in the first half of the opera.During the middle of the opera, Coral Owdom performed a solo. Ms. Owdom received her bachelor of music degree from the university of Dayton followed by a master’s degree in music at the Manhattan school of music in the spring of 2000. The performance was great vocally. The use of deep bass from the musicians emphasized changes in her performance and also in the whole opera. But, in a performance, I think it is important to know your audience and adapt to the stylistic comfort that they would most likely be at. When Owdom’s character performed a great musical piece, and great example of how a soprano should sound, she turned the opera into a strip tease for the 15 minutes she was singing her solo. There were comments in the crowd from Grandmothers to Grandson’s to close their eyes. Even though I felt this to be appropriate for an audience of her age, the elderly people and young folks in the crowd didn’t appreciate this as much as they would of liked to.The turning point that actually swayed my decision to stay and finish this opera about nothing, was the simple line “is that your hat boy” sung in harmony by all three females. Along with Owdom, Coker, a former standout in Hansel of Hansel and Gretel performed in North Carolina theatre last year and Gunlogson a performer with a B.A. in music from Indiana university of Pennsylvania, stole the show. The sweet sounds of harmony, polyphony and wide ranges of musical intervals really displayed un-humanlike qualities from all three females. The use of imitation was well practiced and the constant relief of strings from the composer was smooth yet powerful. I was impressed by the way these females could take the crowd over by this 1 line.The opera was definitely a well thought out performance, but could use more attention to detail and practice. I think some actions should be re-thought that occur during the play. At the climax of the opera when the painter played by Nathan Granner was overwhelmed with fog from the fog machine, the seats needed to be equipped with oxygen masks for the audience to just catch there breath. Nathan Granner dealt with the fog beautifully; while I was coughing he was putting out notes that were well inspired by his dream depicted in the storyline. I think this opera is an awkward yet intriguing story with great uses of vocal and musical response. The musical climax is displayed when two young people fall in love and go through a whole relationship without saying a word. All of the actions are depicted through the music changing from retarnando to accelerando, with soft strings for love to powerful bass and trombones for anger. Any music analyst would have been pleased by the musical aesthetics of this production. In all I think if you are willing to sit two hours to see a whole bunch of nothing happening, go see a Postcard from Morocco.

Holocaust

     The Holocaust was a tragic event that ended many Jewish lives. The Nazis murdered over 6 million innocent Jews. They tortured so many of them leaving the few Holocaust survivors with horrid memories.
     Propaganda played a huge role and affected many people’s thinking during this time period. The propaganda was designed to influence the targeted people’s opinions, beliefs, and emotions. Joseph Paul Goebbel’s was the German national socialist propagandist. He had complete control over radio, press, cinema, and theater. What the propagandist preached may have been either true or false. They did whatever it took to sway the people to believe their ideas. They wanted people to think that their way was right.
     The Nazi’s were known for using terms that had literal and actual meaning in their propagandized language. Their thoughts were hammered into people’s brains so they soon became unconsciously thinking the way the Nazi’s did. The propagandist had rules like our 10 Commandments. The first three were to divide and conquer, tell the people what they want, and the bigger the lie, the more people will believe it. (www.primenet.com/~popgnda/goebbels.htm)
     Like I stated earlier, propaganda was used to sway the ideas and minds of Jews, just like the hoax that took place at Theresienstadt. Theresienstadt was a ghetto concentration camp. It was located in today’s Czech Republic. It was suppose to be the “model ghetto” for the Red Cross. There were rumors about this killing center so the Nazis arranged a hoax. A lot was done to this ghetto; a café was created, a children’s opera was performed, a monument was built to honor the dead. When the visitors showed up to inspect the camp they had music playing in the background and a beauty garden was planted at the entrance. All of these things and more were done so that the Red Cross would be persuaded that Theresienstadt was not a killing center. This event did persuade the Red Cross, just like how the Nazi propaganda persuaded many of the Jews.

The Significance of the Title of To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee

The Significance of the Title of To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper LeeThe title of this novel is ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ and throughout the
book the word mockingbird appears several times. The mockingbird is
the most significant symbol in the novel. The motif of the story is
the innocent creature of the mockingbird. What is a mockingbird? A
mockingbird is a type of finch. It is a small plain bird and has a
beautiful song. It got its name because its beautiful sing ‘mocks’
other birds.
The mockingbird idea first comes about in chapter 10,when Atticus is
telling the children how to use their shotguns. He tells them:
“Shoot all the blue jays you want, if you can hit ’em. But remember
it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.”
It was very unusual for Atticus to say something like this, as he
never tells Scout or Jem that anything is a ‘sin’. This makes Scout a
bit surprised and so Miss Maudie explains that it is because
mockingbirds are neither harmful nor destructive and only make nice
music for people to enjoy. Here is what she said:
“Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They
don’t eat up peoples gardens, don’t nest in corncribs, they don’t do
one thing but sing their hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to
kill a mockingbird.”
In chapter 10, Tim Johnson the rabid dog is slowly walking up the road
and all the people of Maycomb are waiting for him to appear, waiting
for what is about to happen. The mockingbird idea comes up when it
says:
’The trees were still, the mockingbirds were silent, the carpenters at
Miss Maudie’s house had vanished.’
I think that the mockingbirds in this situation are all of the
innocent people of Maycomb waiting for this rabid dog (Tim) to come up
the road. They haven’t done anything wrong and are scared that they
may get hurt or something bad may happen when the dog appears.
Another time the mockingbird idea comes up is in chapter 21,when
everyone is in the court room waiting for the verdict on whether Tom
Robinson has been found guilty or not. Scout describes the atmosphere
in the courtroom like this:
’The feeling grew until the atmosphere in the court-room was exactly
the same as a cold February morning, when the mockingbirds were still
and the carpenters had stopped hammering on miss Maudie’s new house.’
I think that when Scout talks about the atmosphere being like a cold
February morning she is describing the tension in the room. When
everyone is still and silent. When Scout says that the mockingbirds
were still I think that she was referring to Atticus and Tom Robinson.
I think this because Tom is waiting to see if he has been found guilty
or not and Atticus is waiting to see if he has won his case. They are
both deadly still and anxious to hear the verdict. They have been
regarded as mockingbirds because both Atticus and Tom are innocent
characters that have done nothing wrong.
Also another place in which the idea of mockingbirds appears is in
chapter 25,when Mr Underwood is talking about Tom Robinson’s escape
and death. He seems very opposed to Tom being shot, as he was a
cripple. In the newspaper article he wrote he said that
‘It was a sin to kill cripples, be they standing, sitting or escaping’
Then he likened Tom’s death to
‘The senseless slaughter of songbirds by hunters and children.’
Mr Underwood is likening Tom to a mockingbird/songbird. As a
mockingbird is not harmful or a horrible creature but a nice peaceful
one, Tom Robinson was a quiet family man who had done nothing wrong.
His death was an injustice.
In chapter 28,the children (Jem and Scout) are walking home from their
school Halloween play. It is night time and so everywhere is dark and
cold. The idea of the mockingbird appears when it says:
’High above us in the darkness a solitary mocker poured out his
repertoire in blissful unawareness of whose tree he was sat in.’
I think this is likening the children to mockingbirds because the
mocking bird is innocent and unaware of whose three he is sat in and
the children are innocent and unaware of what us about to happen next.
In chapter 30,Atticus and Heck Tate are deciding what to do about the
situation of Bob Ewells death. Both Atticus and Heck know that Boo
killed Bob to save and help the children but to arrest Boo would
probably kill him. Scout over-heard and says:
“It’d be sort of like shootin’ a mockingbird.”
This is saying that to arrest an innocent creature like Boo and make
it public would kill him. They need to protect him as they have
already lost one mockingbird (Tom Robinson) through injustice.
The characters I think Harper Lee regarded, as mockingbirds are Boo
Radley and Tom Robinson.
Tom Robinson is regarded as a mockingbird because he is an innocent
man who was arrested and found guilty for something he did not do. The
people of Maycomb judge him and critisise him because they think that
this black man has raped and taken advantage of a white woman. He
faces racial prejudice and discrimination and is killed in travesty of
justice. A quote to show the discrimination against black people is:
“Its time somebody taught em a lesson…the next thing they think they
can do is marry us”. This was said by a teacher at Jem and Scouts
school.
Also when Bob Ewell is testifying in court against Tom, he uses
phrases like:
” I see that black nigger yonder ruttin’ on my Mayella.”
Boo Radley is regarded as a mockingbird because he is a lonely
innocent old man who lives in his old house on the corner away from
the public. He does not bother or disturb anybody. He is nice to the
children by giving them small gifts and leaving them in the hole in
the tree for them to find. Boo faces individual prejudice. This is fed
by fear, rumour and superstition.
Scout describes him as ‘a malevolent phantom’
In comparison to each other both Boo and Tom show kindness (Boo to the
children and Tom to Mayella), they are both innocent, both victims of
prejudice and both are imprisoned in some way (Tom is imprisoned and
then later killed and Boo is imprisoned in his home away from the
prejudiced public).
In addition, Atticus in a sense is a mockingbird too because he has
been telling everybody in Maycomb the true story and that Tom is
innocent and his innocent children are attacked as a result by Bob
Ewell because he wants to get revenge on Atticus for trying to defend
Tom Robinson. This likens to a mockingbird singing its song to the
people of Maycomb.
Scout first learnt that it was a sin to kill a mockingbird when
Atticus brought her and Jem the shotguns and told them about it. I
think that after Atticus explained that it was wrong to kill an
innocent creature that can do no wrong, Scout becomes more respectful.
Also by her father telling her this it helps her to understand her
father and what he has to do. She understands that he has to defend
innocent people like Tom Robinson that have done no wrong.
Over the course of this book Scout learns different lessons. She
learns from Calpurnia that she should be polite to everyone, from Aunt
Alexandra the value of being a lady and from Heck and Atticus the
problems that could be caused by the society’s prejudice.
I think that over the course of this novel Scout comes out to be quite
clever and forever learning new morals and ways of life. By the end of
the novel she has learnt one key lesson. That she must see thing’s
from other people’s views. She shows this in the book in the last
chapter when she is standing on Boo Radley’s front porch. Here is the
quote on what she said:
“Atticus was right. One time he said you never really know a man until
you stand in his shoes and walk around in them. Just standing on the
Radley porch was enough.”
Here she puts herself in Boo Radley’s shoes and imagines what it must
be like for him.
My final impression of Scout is that after all what she has been
through she has become wiser and more grown up. She has learnt
important values to life and has become more caring and understanding.

Film Review of Saving Private Ryan

Film Review of Saving Private RyanA slow, sombre opening to “Saving Private Ryan” leads you to believe
that this film will be like any other war film. American idealism,
German hatred, a few scattered gunshots, and a trickle of German blood
is what any film fan would expect of an American war film, and this
film certainly does lead you to believe that in the first opening
scenes. Instead, you are surprised to find yourself landed back into
1944, amongst the diffident soldiers who have been thrust against
their will into the new and terrifying world of combat.
American realism, German anger, intense gunfire, and tureens of
anybodies and everybody’s blood is what you really get at the frenzied
landings of the Dog Green Sector at Omaha Beach. No film has ever
portrayed the realism of the Normandy landings to the extent that this
film has.
This is a sharp contrast to the modern day opening scenes, featuring
an ageing war hero and his family visiting the infamous War Cemeteries
in France, complete with a patriotic faded American flag flapping in
the cold breeze.
A slow panning of the camera around the graveyard really shows the
full amount of the white crosses there. The old man, who obviously
knows which grave to see, is determined to do just that, and becomes
overcome with grief when he reaches it.
A slow zoom of the camera focuses on the man’s eyes, which transform
into wrinkle-free eyes. The solemn but calm non-diagetic music is
cruelly snatched from the viewer, to be replaced with the
uncomfortably loud crash of the sea. A fast zoom out and you find
yourself trapped in a large container filled with soldiers, sweat,
fear and vomit crashing violently into the rocks. The stormy weather
has to be a sign from Spielberg of the trauma that is about to come.
As a viewer, you have a slight inkling of what is about to come, but
nothing, nothing, can prepare you for the next 25 minutes. A jumble of
blood, noise, and death takes place not before you, but around.
Spielberg’s intentional dodgy camera work and a gun waving about in
front of the camera forces you to become a part of the brutal
massacre.
Dead bodies flail about like rag dolls, gallons of blood slowly makes
its way down the beach to meet with the already blood stained sea.
Grown men run about lost and confused, unsure of what to do, deep in
shock at the trauma they are witnessing. The whole scene is filled
with emotion- shock, sadness and funnily enough, humour are all
evident in the extensive opening scenes.
Irony also plays a big part. A man is shot at his head, saved by his
helmet, which he then goes on to remove in awe to marvel at the large
dint in it, only to get shot in the head again and die.
Another man has his arm blown off, and unsure what to do, does the
crazy thing of staggering about in full exposure of the gunfire and
picks up his detached arm as if it will be useful to him.
Throughout the entire scene there isn’t really a focus on one main
character. Yes, the camera does keep on returning to the same six or
seven people, but it isn’t until the end of the scene that the camera
does start to focus on the main character.
Captain Miller, played expertly by Tom Hanks, is the soldier of the
highest rank amongst the few soldiers actually left. They look to him
for orders on what to do next, and it becomes clear that Captain
Miller is probably the old man from the first, and long forgotten
graveyard scene. However in the very last scene of the film, we
discover that the man is really Private. James Ryan, the films
namesake.
Although Spielberg does focus on Captain Miller, there is no heroism
involved at all. Spielberg expertly portrays that Miller is a normal
human being, and has flaws and fears just like the rest of us.
The elongated battle scene may seem unnecessary to some when they hear
how long it actually is, but when you see this film for yourself, you
lose a sense of time. You are not aware that this momentous landing is
over until the gunshots, although still there, quieten down and the
main characters sit and regain their breath from the exhaustive
military action that they have just participated in.
One soldier, ironically, states “Quite a view” Such a statement,
usually used in completely different circumstances, allows the viewer
to regain their own breath and wonder what he is talking about.
This is the moment Spielberg excels himself. A slow panning of the
camera allows you to see the full extent of the devastation you have
just sat and watched. Thousands of bodies lie motionless upon the
blood stained terrain. The camera, no longer shaky, glides over the
bodies and goes down towards the spot where the boats landed, what
feels like, an eternity ago. Bodies clash together in the water, some
brought onto the sand by the tide, others come in and float back out
to sea again.
The camera seems to then focus on one soldier, gradually getting
closer. A zoom in allows you to see the backpack the dead soldier is
wearing, but more importantly, the name stamped on his backpack. Ryan.
S.
Then, and only then, do the opening credits roll.
You will leave this film exhausted after experiencing a roller-coaster
of emotions. This film is a must-see, except for anyone with an
exceptionally weak disposition.

Marketing Mix

Marketing Mix PaperMotorola and the Marketing Mix
Product:
Organizations need to identify who will be interested in buying their products or services. Once this is done, they need to see if their products or services will satisfy their customers’ needs. An organization also needs to examine the packaging design, the materials used, and size. By analyzing the market requirements, an organization will be able to change the product or develop a product in order to match those requirements. In the wireless phone industry there are new products constantly being introduced. In the case of Motorola the product is the cell phone.
Considered by many as an essential part of their lives, the cell phone performs more functions today than it did just a year ago. It serves as a communication device, a source of entertainment, and a safety precaution. Motorola concentrates on attractive design, excellent call quality, ease of use, value added features such as a music player, camera, and video features, and high quality, reliable products. Text, picture, and video messaging are becoming more and more popular and Motorola phones are increasingly being used to capture and share experiences. To remain competitive, the company continually seeks to innovate by building phones that are slim and well designed. It is important that the organization remember that customer needs constantly change and their products should change as the market changes. Products also go through what is known as the product life cycle.
If a company is introducing a brand new product, it is in the introductory stage. The company needs to carefully consider how it will be introduced into the market, how it will be priced, how it will be promoted, and how it will be placed. After being introduced, the company’s product might be one of a kind, but after a short time, similar products are being introduced. This is what is called the growth phase. If a company’s product is one of many similar products, it has entered the maturity phase. This phase is a dangerous time for many products since it is in this phase that many products are swallowed up by competitors. If a company notices that sales are dropping despite marketing changes, their product may be in the decline phase.
Price:
Price is the one element of the marketing mix that generates revenue; all the others are costs. Customers obviously like a bargain and may be attracted to buy a product even if they had never considered purchasing the product before. Prices could be artificially reduced to attract customers to a new product and to discourage competitors from capturing the market. In the case where a product is in great demand or where there are few competitors, prices could be artificially raised to recoup costs or immediate profit. There is the chance that competitors could enter the market with a realistic price, thus stealing the market. Prices can be raised or lowered depending on the market where the product is sold. For companies like Motorola, price is a key element of the marketing mix.
Price is a critical selling point. Getting the price right is the key to building relationships with customers. According to Motorola’s official website, www.motorola.com (2006), “We will build long-term relationships with our customers by demonstrating honesty and integrity.” As with other companies, prices charged are linked with product cycle. When a new product is launched, prices are usually quite high. This is the result of extensive product and market research. It usually takes time for a lot of customers to buy a new product and as the product matures and sales increase, prices will usually come down. State of the art products are sold at premium prices, however the costs to the users of Motorola phones are kept down because network providers such as Verizon Wireless subsidize them. Network providers want as many customers as possible to subscribe to their networks; they therefore link with producers like Motorola for the best-designed phones with the latest features.
Place:
According to the website www.quickmba.com (2006), “Place (or placement) decisions are those associated with channels of distribution that serve as the means for getting the product to target customers.” The term place deals with various methods of transporting and storing goods and making them available to the customer. Getting the product to the right place and time involves the distribution system. It is this process that moves the goods to the places where they are wanted. Whatever method of distribution a company chooses, they need to consider where their customers live and the cheapest and quickest way to get their products to them. The place where you are able to buy sometimes depends on the product. Some companies like Motorola often give exclusive offers to certain retailers. Many people like to buy phones from independent retailers such as Best Buy, Radio Shack, and Circuit City. A large number of customers prefer to buy from retail stores that belong to network providers such as Verizon Wireless. There is an increasing number of people that buy their phones from the network providers’ websites as well as Motorola’s website.
Promotion:
The fourth part of the marketing mix refers to the process of informing customers of a company’s product. Promotion includes all the techniques that a company might use to communicate with other individuals and organizations. There are a number of methods a company can use; they include media advertising, personal selling, and non-personal communication. By using market research a company can establish what are the best market segments to aim their promotional plans. An important avenue of communication is advertising.
Companies might use advertising to promote their product. An advertiser may use television, radio, newspapers, the Internet, or magazines as a means of promotion. Authors Philip Kotler and Kevin Keller (2006) state, ” A marketer might selectively employ television, radio, and print advertising, public relations and events, and PR and Web site communications so that each contributes on its own as well as improves the effectiveness of others.” Motorola effectively uses television, network providers, and their website to promote their products. Motorola works in close partnership to promote its phones with retailers. Promotion costs are shared with retailers; thus, the more retailers sell the more Motorola is able to help them.Conclusion:
Successful companies effectively use all four elements of the marketing mix: product, price, place, and promotion. If a company is introducing a brand new product, they need to consider how it will be introduced into the market, how it will be priced, how it will be promoted, and how it will be placed. In the case of Motorola the product is the cellular phone. Price is the one element of the marketing mix that generates revenue; all the others are costs. For companies like Motorola, price is a key element of the marketing mix. It is a critical selling point; people are always looking for a good product at a low price. The term place deals with various methods of transporting and storing goods and making them available to customers. Motorola often gives exclusive offers to certain retailers. Many people like to buy phones from independent retailers such as Best Buy, Radio Shack, and Circuit City. A large number of customers prefer to buy from retail stores that belong to network providers. The fourth element of the marketing mix is promotion. Promotion is the process of informing customers of a company’s product. Motorola effectively uses television, network providers, and their website to promote their products. By effectively combing all four elements of the marketing mix, a company can compete successfully in today’s economy.References
Kotler, P. & Keller, L. R. (2006). Marketing management (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Pearson Prentice Hall.
The marketing mix (the 4 p’s of marketing) (2006). Retrieved January 27, 2007, from

http://www.quickmba.com

www.motorola.com (2007). Retrieved January 27, 2007.

Kerrang Magazine Blink182 Article Analysis

Kerrang Magazine Blink182 Article AnalysisBlink182 – when they were younger *
This Blink182 interview was published in alternative music magazine
‘Kerrang’ – issue 979 in November last year and was written by Tom
Bryant.
It’s purposes are mainly to discuss their past, their success and
above all their new album ! They tell us how it was almost never made
as two years ago they were ready to split.
This article is informative and at times quite humorous, ’There are
many ways you’d imagine how a conversation with Tom DeLonge might
start. Most of them involve a certain level of immaturity, a teenage
crack about blow jobs, poop or possibly your mother. A reasoned debate
on Californian politics is roughly last on the list ’. But it also
feels sad as the band recall feeling as though they were drifting
apart. I think fans of the band would find this piece interesting.
The implied readers would include Blink’s fans (usually teenagers),
people considering buying their latest album, fans of punk-rock music
and people who may just be curious about them. So in general – most
readers of ‘Kerrang’ i.e- people interested in alternative music such
as punk, metal and rock.
Having read the article through a few times now i have noticed that it
differs to previous Blink interviews i have read. As a group they have
been out of the public eye for the past two years producing their self
titled album. Although Blink are a hugely successful, international
band and every young person knows a little about them i dont think
there is any evidence of implied reader knowledge. After reading the
title page ‘But seriously folks…’ we know right away Blink have
grown up as it describes their old stuff is out and new mature
material is the way forward. This feeling of change continues
throughout the piece. It feels new, exciting and deep.
I dont think this interview was planned, as the guys seem to be
relaxed and speak their mind. Which i think helps put their
personality and true feelings across. They change location around
three times. Each time they do the new surroundings are described and
the purpose of visiting them revealed. This gives more information on
the band and the audience continue to learn more about them.
As a fan of the band i am glad to say there is a fair amount of spoken
text included in the article, without any nonfluenecy features such as
pauses or hedges. I think its very well written. Inbetween the spoken
text are narrative like passages from the writter ’Relaxing in a
pancake house a mile from the coast north…’.
At times he tells us what the band are doing (their actions) during
the interview ‘Tom DeLonge eases himself into a chair’, or he will
tell us stories of their past ’It’s been two years since the four
million selling “Take Off Your Pants And Jacket”’, he also makes sure
his own opinions are heard, ’Make no mistake about it – this is a much
more mature album’. All this combined makes for great reading, the
different types of writing hold your interest right to the end.
Because of the nature of this article and where it has been published
there is bound to be technical jargon and some slang words included in
it, as it deals with a very percific topic and audience. There are
words such as ‘stiffs’ meaning fails, used when talking about when Box
Car Racer’s only album was released,‘candily’,’eponymous’and terms
like ‘dissmissive disdain’ used when they mention hotel staff. Some
readers like myself may not be able to understand all of these
completly. But it gives the piece an intelligent and thourght
provoking feel. Which in my opinion is a good thing as they draw it’s
audience in.
Adjectives used to descirbe how the band feel/felt at the time make
any stories or actions descibed more realistic and believable.’Hoppus
and DeLonge shift uncomfortably’, ‘sharp stare’, ’non-committal
shrug’. Something fans will appreciate.
I think fans would also like the fact that there are a couple of
pictures of the band, one takes up a whole page intended to be used as
a poster. Blink are even on the cover of the magazine. I think thats
because they are the main feature of this issue and putting them on
the front would ensure good sales.
The title page is spread over two pages. On one side is Mark and the
articles title the other Tom and Travis. The title is in a large font
incased in speech marks. “But Seriously folks…” this reminds me of
cartoons (‘thats all folks’) and i think it is typical of what the
guys would say, being American and all. A brief outline of what the
next pages are about follows the title, ’Penis gags and
“donkey-f**king songs” are out, dark thoughts and fatherhood are in
for Blink182 right now. The fact their band almost split last year has
everything to do with this…>’. This short, to the point
introduction invites it’s auidence to read on.
Over the page is one full of small text and a large photograph
opposite. In the text is a section of large bold speech from Mark “At
the end of 2001 it felt like Blink182 had broken up. It wasn’t spoken
about, but it felt over.” This is the first thing i read and it makes
me wonder why he would say such a thing and want to find out.
The caption on the following picture reads, “dude, did you just fart?”
“Shut up Tom, we’re artists now, remember?” Its just a bit of fun.
Blink182 are known for playing pranks and being rude and still are,
just not so much. They have finally grown up, a little.
Over onto the final page is another picture of the guys and half a
page of text. The caption says ‘No more fools: californian punk’s
clown princes get serious: (from left)…’ In the picture the guys
look exactly that, serious and older. Something that stands out is
another quote from Mark “When Tom and Travis started Box Car Racer i
felt like the odd man out. It sucked. It really sucked”. Also right at
the end, in bold theres information on the new album, giving the
title, release date and record label.

A Comparison of Two Media Players

Contrast two computer programmes
Music has been accepted by every social level all over the world. Fortunately, instead of using radio or cassette player, two great programmes are being used globally. These programmes are called “Windows Media Player” and “Winamp”. However, even though they have many things in common. They also have some obvious differences, which are their designs and functions.The first major difference between Windows Media Player and Winamp is style. Winamp is a program which was invented before Windows Media Player; thus, its style is more simple and classic thanWMPby using plain-colored skin. On the other hand,WMPhas been designed to have a modern feature which is more attractive to the young.However, at present, these two programmes are developing their programmes to have the best quality. Additionally, due to these progressing, the benefit will finally come to consumers like us. Actually, it cannot be said that which program is better that the others. It depends on consumers choices to decide that which one is good and suitable for them the most.

Jourody Free Essay Importance of the Journey in Homer’s Odyssey

Importance of the Journey in Homer’s Odyssey  In the Odyssey, by Homer, Odysseus’s main goal was to reach home. Even though all of his thoughts were turned towards his home and family, he learned many lessons along the way. Odysseus’s greatest learning experiences were in his journey, not his destination. One of Odysseus’s biggest challenges was to resist temptation. The first temptation Odysseus and his men encountered was the sweet lotos plant, “They fell in, soon enough, with Lotos Eaters, who showed no will to do us harm, only offering the sweet Lotos to out friends…” (IX. 98-100). Eating the plant did not seem like a bad idea, but resisting was a much wiser option, .“..but those who ate this honeyed plant, the Lotos, never cared to report, nor return: they longed to stay forever, browsing on that native bloom, forgetful of their homeland” (IX. 101-104). If they had eaten the plant, they never would have gotten home. Another great temptation they had to withstand was the Seirênês. The Seirênês would tempt the men to them with their beauty and music, “Square in your ship’s path are Seirênês, crying beauty to bewitch men coasting by…” (XII. 101-104). If men did not resist, they would fall into the Seirênês’ clutches and die, “Woe to the innocent who hears that sound! He will not see his lady nor his children in joy, crowding about him, home from sea; the Seirênês will sing his mind away on their sweet meadow lolling…” (XII. 50-54). The biggest temptation that Odysseus had to defy was from the sea nymph, Kalypso, “I fed him, loved, him, sang that he should not die or grow old ever, in all the days to come” (V. 1420143). Kalypso wanted to have Odysseus as her husband, but all he could think of was home, “Meanwhile he lives and grieves upon that island in thralldom to the nymph; he cannot stir, cannot fare homeward…” (V. 15-17). Odysseus resisted, and was not completely unfaithful to his wife. If he had not resisted temptation, he would have been on the island of the Lotos Eaters, dead, or without a wife. Next, Odysseus learned that greed would never result in any good. After they visit Aiolia, Odysseus received a bag of wind of wind from Aiolos. His crew got jealous because they did not get anything, “How about ourselves – his shipmates all the way? Nigh home we are with empty hands. And who has gifts from Aiolos? He has. I saw we ought to crack that bag, there’s gold and silver plenty in that bag!” (X. 46-50). When they opened it up, the wind got loose and propelled them back to where they started, “Then every wind roared into hurricane; the ships went pitching west with many cries; our land was lost” (X. 53-55). The lesson that they learned was that greed sends them back, not forward, literally and figuratively. The next thing Odysseus learned was humility. Odysseus was very conceited after he escaped the Kyklops, “I would not heed then in my glorying spirit, but let my anger flare and yelled : `Kyklops, if ever mortal man inquire how you were put to shame and blinded, tell him Odysseus, raider of cities, took your eye: Laërtês son, whose home’s on Ithaka!’” (IX. 546-552). With these word, the Kyklops grew angry and almost hit their ship with a great boulder, “Now he laid hands upon a bigger stone and wheeled around, titanic for the cast, to let if fly in the black-prowed vessel’s track” (IX. 587-589). Odysseus was almost killed because he was supercilious. The next lesson he learned was if he acted like a pig, he became one. His men took advantage of Kirkê and her food, “On thrones she seated them, and lounging chairs, while she prepared a meal of cheese and barley and amber honey mixed with Pramnian wine…” (257-259). As a result they turned into actual pigs, “Scarce had they drunk when she flew after then with her long stick and shut them in a pigsty – bodies, voices, heads, and bristles, all swinish now…” (X. 262-265). Odysseus learned not to act like a swine because that is what he would become, at least metaphorically. Sometimes, sacrifice was the best option. Odysseus was willing to fight to save all of his men, “Only instruct me goddess, if you will, how, if possible, can I pass Kharybdis, or fight of Skylla when she raids my crew?” (XII. 132-134). Odysseus was willing to risk his own life for his men. Kirkê tells them to go by Skylla and sacrifice some of his men, “No, hug the cliff Skylla, take your ship through on a racing stroke. Better to mourn six men than lose them all, and the ship, too” (XII. 128-130). Odysseus realizes that losing some men would be better than losing them all; he had to sacrifice six men. By the time Odysseus finally reached home, he realized life’s greatest lessons. He knew that family was the most important thing in the world, “Now from his breast into his eyes the ache of longing mounted and he wept at last, his dear wife, clear and faithful, in his arms, longed for…” (XXII. 259-262). He resisted Kalypso, and all the other temptations, and realized that nothing is better than being home at last. He became much more humble, “May Zeus and all the gods give you your heart’s desire for taking me in so kindly, friend” (XIV. 62-63). Being modest to somebody superior is one thing, but being humble to your servant is a completely different level of modesty. Odysseus learned that you receive more with modesty, rather than arrogance. Odysseus was also not greedy, “Sit down and help yourselves. Shake off your wonder. Here we’ve been waiting for you all this time, and your mouths water for good roast pig!”(XXIV. 434-436). Instead of saving the food for himself, he offered it to everyone around him. He learned to be giving. Odysseus would not have been the man he was without the journey home. He may have been without a wife, on an island somewhere, arrogant, a swine, avaricious, or even deceased. The trials he went through may have been difficult, but they proved to be helpful in the end.  

Celebration of Black Culture

Celebration of Black Culture

Humorous Wedding Speech – Best Man

Humorous Wedding Speech – Best ManI think we all agree that Linda looks fantastic today, a number one hit if ever there was one. And Steve’s looking a bit like a chart-topper himself in that suit – although I’m not sure from which year. As for the bridesmaids, they look wonderful, and have performed their duties splendidly. It can’t have been easy dragging Linda to the church – it certainly wasn’t easy dragging Steve.We have now reached that pivotal moment in the speech where I am meant – in good taste – to put the groom down. However, when the subject of my speech cropped up during the meal, and my obligation to discuss Steve, Linda made me promise that I restrict myself to speaking only of the good things about her husband. Because a one-minute speech would seem ridiculous, I’ve decided to change course completely. And tell you about how we came to be sitting here today.Steve and Linda met five years ago in a very, very romantic location – the Hippodrome nightclub in Exeter. This place was renowned for being the hangout of drunken wide boys and white stiletto girls, so it was pure coincidence that they met on that fateful night.Steve had nearly given up hope of ever pulling a girl when he caught a glimpse of Linda across a crowded dance floor. I can see now, lying there. She smiled and shouted hello but the music swallowed her voice before it could reach him. He untucked his jeans from his florescent socks and casually strolled over to her as she slid through the crowd to meet him. With their arms wrapped tightly around each other, the two danced into the night, igniting a passion that threatened to engulf them both.When the music stopped, the legendary silver tongue – legendary in the sense that it only exists in Steve’s imagination – took over: ‘Are you lost, love?’ When the unimpressed Linda said she certainly was not, our smooth-talking love hero replied, ‘It’s just that I didn’t know that angels could fly so low!’Unbelievably, Linda agreed to go out with him. I don’t know where Steve took her on their first date. He hinted it was an expensive restaurant but he wants to keep it a secret so the place remains special only to them. All I know is that he wooed Linda that night with the immortal line, ‘If you were on the menu here, you’d be a McGorgeous!’Their romance seemed to blossom at an alarming rate and it was clear to everyone that they were extremely well suited. Linda brought to the relationship beauty, integrity, honesty, reliability and intelligence – while Steve brought, er … [pretend to check notes], ah, Steve brought his used beer matt collection and a wrinkly old copy of Readers Wives.True love finally caught up with Steve – when Linda bought him a Sony Playstation for Christmas – and he decided it was time to pop the question. Following the tradition, before they announced their engagement, Steve went to ask Linda’s father for her hand in marriage. He said that it was fine by him, providing Steve took the hand that for the last 20 years had spent most of it’s time in his wallet!Steve and Linda share the same core values, and I am sure that as husband and wife their relationship will continue to flourish. When apart, their loving co-dependence means that they pine for each other and long to be reunited, particularly when Steve needs a shirt ironed or Linda wants to set the video.Finally, I’d like to give the newlyweds the traditional best man’s wish for good luck, good health and happiness! I’m sure you’ll all agree that Linda and Steve are a marvellous couple and they thoroughly deserve all the happiness they’re going to share together.Ladies and gentlemen, the toast is to the bride and groom!

Tupac Shakur

Tupac ShakurTupac was shot five times on September 7, 1996 at a party in Knight’s Club in California. He was rushed to the hospital and remained there until September 13, 1996, when he was finally pronounced dead. Tupac officially died at 4:03 PM.(4+3 = 7) Also he “died” at an age of 25 years.(2+5 = 7) It seems as if seven is Tupac’s number. There is nothing in the new album that says “TUPAC RIP 1971-1996.” Wouldn’t it make sense to include something like that in the first album after his “death”? The only thing mentioned is “EXIT TUPAC ENTER MAKAVELI.”
A confidential reliable informant told the LVPD that the shooting might have had something to do with what had happened at the Lakewood mall in Compton. The informant stated that a man named Travon Lane, a Death Row affiliate was at the mall’s Foot Locker in July or August, where he was confronted by several members of the South Side Crips. A fight broke out and Lane’s Death Row medallion was taken from him.
On September 7, in Las Vegas, moments after the Tyson/Seldon fight at the MGM Grand, Lane was walking through the hotel when he spotted Orlando Anderson. Anderson was the same man that Lane thought had taken his medallion at the mall. Lane then pointed the man out to Tupac. Tupac confronted Anderson, and asked him if he was associated with the South Side Crips. Almost an hour later, a line of Death Row cars went to a party at Knight’s Club 662. A white Cadillac pulled up to Tupac and Knight’s vehicle. The passenger shot Tupac with a Glock 40 Caliber handgun, critically wounding him and grazing Knight.
The real question is; Is Tupac really dead or is he still living to this day? In a recent survey over 83 % of his fans believe that he is still alive. In his song, “Life Goes On,” he raps about his funeral. Tupac did many songs and videos about his death and his funeral. In the song “Ain’t Hard To Find” Tupac raps, “I heard raps that I died, murdered in cold blood, traumatized pictures of me in my final states, you know momma cried, but that was fiction, some coward got the story twisted. . . .” In Tupac’s song “Hold Ya’ Head,” on Tupac’s Machiavelli album, a voice says before Tupac, “Can you see him?,” and another one replies, “I see him.” Then Tupac softly says, “I’m alive.” In the video “I Ain’t Mad At Cha,” Tupac dies. In his next video, “Toss It Up,” his name is Machiaveli.
While Tupac was in prison, he studied Machiavelli in depth. He was a 16th century Italian philosopher who played out the staging of one’s death in order to escape one’s enemies in order to gain power. In Tupac’s new album “Machiavelli A.K.A. The Seven Day Theory,” relates to how he was shot on the seventh day of September and died seven days later. Also, in this album, he states, “I’ve been shot and murdered, can’t tell you how it happened word for word, but best believe that niggas’ gonna get what they deserve.” The cross that Tupac has on his back says, “Exodus 16:31.” The line above this one in the bible states, “So the people rested on the seventh day.” In essence, Exodus 16 is about the seven days.
The sketchy part about the whole story is that he was cremated immediately after he died, the next day. Why would they cremate a murder victim the day after the murder? That is a question that remains to be unanswered. The memorial services were canceled in both Los Angeles and Atlanta.

The Change in American Society in 1967

The Change in American Society in 1967The war in Vietnam was the main focus of many of the major things during the sixties. Thousands of men were being drated into service for the Vietnam War each year and many were scared. Because of this went to Canada where refuge was offered. Media reports from overseas were receieved back increasingly gruesome, and televisien showed the death and destruction created by the bombing of U.S. forces. By the end of 1967, 500,000 American soldiers were hopelessly killed in the Vietnam jungle. They used huge amounts of ammunition while gaining really nothing at all. Most soldiers were seen as horrible men burning villages, destroying rice crops, killing women and little children. The nation soon began to take a harder look at the United States intervention in Vietnam and began to wonder if the war was even worth fighting for.The Civil Rights movement and the endless war in Vietnam were the two main causes for social protest in 1967. Since the end of the Civil War many organizations had been created to promote the goals of racial justice and equality in America. However progress was slow and it wasn’t until around 1967 that a hundred years of effort would begin to gain the attention that it needed in order to force a change for the better. peaceful methods and believed change could be affected by working around the established system. There were tons of marches, rallies, strikes, riots, and violent confrontations with the police. The violence of racism would claim the lives of young and old African Americans. Some Restaurants, hotels, nightclubs, public facilities, and school systems were still segregated. The African-American community, being the minority, depended on the support of the white population. Those caught up in the hippie movement racial justice and equality to the heart, and then put it into action. Protests soon were being held everywhere.Who are these hippies and what do they all want? It all happened really fast. Suddenly young men were wearing long hair and growing beards. Young women were dressing like peasants and wearing psychedelic colors. Everyone just seemed dirty. They were dropping out of college, starting up rock bands, living in communes, and traveling to the far reaches of the planet. To many it was frightening and mystifying, almost surreal even. Hippies believed that the world was a beautiful place. That they were surrounded by love, and believed that love could conquer all. They were engaged in a period of the sexual revolution. This was a period in which morals were left up to the individual, and individual pleasure was what they wanted. The sexual revolution of 1967 was more about instant sexual gratification. Birth control pills, then a new thing, quickly became extremely popular among many young girls. It was a year of all kinds of experimentation.One of the major social changes brought about by 1967 was the widespread use of illegal drugs, mostly hallucinogens, marijuana and LSD. Before this time, jazz musicians and people mostly on the streets used marijuana. The people trying to copy the jazz musicians began using marijuana, and drugs were starting to be used in poems, novels, essays, and in popular protest songs. LSD, which was unknown to American society in the early sixties, gained widespread recognition. By 1967, marijuana and LSD use was common across the country. Many books were written to justify the use of drugs. Other more harmful drugs followed like cocaine, heroin, amphetamines and barbiturates. The idea of using mind-expanding drugs to gain an understanding into the world became very popular. Famous musicians such as Janis Joplin and Jimi Hendrix died as a result of this.By 1967 rock music was one of the most important styles of music that fueled the new hippie movement. Bob Dylan showed how meaningful songs could be with his strong imagery. Though he was one of the few artists who was not into the hippie style, his then revolutionary music inspired a whole bunch of bands that did. The first rock bands came from San Francisco. The Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother and the Holding Company came out with rock music and suddenly people caught on everywhere. It spread to musical groups in New York such as The Fugs and the Velvet Underground. Even soul groups like Sly and the Family Stone and the Chambers Brothers started enjoying this sound. The Beatles had many popular songs that made everyone love them. “All you need is love” dominated the charts and their album, Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band sold millions of copies that year. Pink Floyd was another very popular artist. His powerful music captivated millions and was especially great to listen to while under the influence of drugs. “Music shaped the way people felt, and it felt pretty damn good (Leonard 126.)”For some people protests, riots, and drug abuse was just not for them. To escape from the problems of society, a trip to the movies was always enjoyable. A favorite to many was “Bonnie and Clyde”. Warren Baety played a bank robber accomplice in this film. Another hit movie was “In the Heat of the Night.” The star of this move, Rod Steiger won best actor for his role as a private investigator who searches to prove his best friend’s innocence.Aside from movies many people also enjoyed watching sports. In 1967 there were so many great athletes. In baseball that year St. Louis won the World Series over Boston in a four to three series. Orlando Cepeda was voted MVP for his outstanding performance. In football the Greenbay packers defeated the Oakland Raiders thirty-three to fourteen in the Super Bowl. Johnny Unitas was voted the Pro MVP of this game for scoring two touchdowns. In basketball the Philadelphia seventy-sixers won the NBA championship. Wilt Chamberlain led this game with a whopping twenty four rebounds which gave him the MVP spot.1967 was a year of unbelievable changes in all aspects of American society. A series of political demonstrations gave people the freedom to experience their different viewpoints. These events that occurred over 30 years ago has made a major impact in our lives today. 1967 was a good year and it will never be forgotton.

Wartime Propaganda: World War I

Wartime Propaganda: World War IIt is one of history’s great ironies that Woodrow Wilson, who was re- elected as a peace candidate in 1916, led America into the first world war. With the help of a propaganda apparatus that was unparalleled in world history, Wilson forged a nation of immigrants into a fighting whole. An examination of public opinion before the war, propaganda efforts during the war, and the endurance of propaganda in peacetime raises significant questions about the viability of democracy as a governing principle.Like an undertow, America’s drift toward war was subtle and forceful. According to the outspoken pacifist Randolph Bourne, war sentiment spread gradually among various intellectual groups. “With the aid of Roosevelt,” wrote Bourne, “the murmurs became a monotonous chant, and finally a chorus so mighty that to be out of it was at first to be disreputable, and finally almost obscene.” Once the war was underway, dissent was practically impossible. “If you believed our going into this war was a mistake,” wrote The Nation in a post-war editorial, “if you held, as President Wilson did early in 1917, that the ideal outcome would be ‘peace without victory,’ you were a traitor.” Forced to stand quietly on the sidelines while their neighbors stampeded towards war, many pacifists would have agreed with Bertrand Russell that “the greatest difficulty was the purely psychological one of resisting mass suggestion, of which the force becomes terrific when the whole nation is in a state of violent collective excitement.”
This frenzied support for the war was particularly remarkable in light of the fact that Wilson’s re-election had been widely interpreted as a vote for peace. After all, in January of 1916, Wilson stated that “so far as I can remember, this is a government of the people, and this people is not going to choose war.” In retrospect, it is apparent that the vote for Wilson cloaked profound cleavages in public opinion. At the time of his inauguration, immigrants constituted one third of the population. Allied and German propaganda revived old-world loyalties among “hyphenated” European- Americans, and opinions about US intervention were sharply polarized. More than 8 million German-Americans lived in this country, and many were sympathetic to the cause of their homeland. Meanwhile, anti-German feeling was strong among the upper classes on the Atlantic coast, and was particularly intense among those with social and business connections to Britain.
The Committee on Public Information The absence of public unity was a primary concern when America entered the war on April 6, 1917. In Washington, unwavering public support was considered to be crucial to the entire wartime effort. On April 13, 1917, Wilson created the Committee on Public Information (CPI) to promote the war domestically while publicizing American war aims abroad. Under the leadership of a muckraking journalist named George Creel, the CPI recruited heavily from business, media, academia, and the art world. The CPI blended advertising techniques with a sophisticated understanding of human psychology, and its efforts represent the first time that a modern government disseminated propaganda on such a large scale. It is fascinating that this phenomenon, often linked with totalitarian regimes, emerged in a democratic state.Although George Creel was an outspoken critic of censorship at the hands of public servants, the CPI took immediate steps to limit damaging information. Invoking the threat of German propaganda, the CPI implemented “voluntary guidelines” for the news media and helped to pass the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918. The CPI did not have explicit enforcement power, but it nevertheless “enjoyed censorship power which was tantamount to direct legal force.” Like modern reporters who participate in Pentagon press pools, journalists grudgingly complied with the official guidelines in order to stay connected to the information loop. Radical newspapers, such as the socialist Appeal to Reason, were almost completely extinguished by wartime limitations on dissent. The CPI was not a censor in the strictest sense, but “it came as close to performing that function as any government agency in the US has ever done.” Censorship was only one element of the CPI’s efforts. With all the sophistication of a modern advertising agency, the CPI examined the different ways that information flowed to the population and flooded these channels with pro-war material. The CPI’s domestic division was composed of 19 sub-divisions, and each focused on a particular type of propaganda. A comprehensive survey is beyond the scope of this paper, but the use of newspapers, academics, artists, and filmmakers will be discussed. One of the most important elements of the CPI was the Division of News, which distributed more than 6,000 press releases and acted as the primary conduit for war-related information. According to Creel, on any given week, more than 20,000 newspaper columns were filled with material gleaned from CPI handouts. Realizing that many Americans glided right past the front page and headed straight for the features section, the CPI also created the Division of Syndicated Features and recruited the help of leading novelists, short story writers, and essayists. These popular American writers presented the official line in an easily digestible form, and their work was said to have reached twelve million people every month.The Division of Civic and Educational Cooperation relied heavily on scholars who churned out pamphlets with titles such as The German Whisper, German War Practices, and Conquest and Kultur. The academic rigor of many of these pieces was questionable, but more respectable thinkers, such as John Dewey and Walter Lippmann, also voiced their support for the war. Even in the face of this trend, however, a few scholars refused to fall in line. Randolph Bourne had been one John Dewey’s star students, and he felt betrayed by his mentor’s collaboration with the war effort. In one of several eloquent wartime essays, Bourne savagely attacked his colleagues for self-consciously guiding the country into the conflict. “The German intellectuals went to war to save their culture from barbarization,” wrote Bourne. “And the French went to war to save their beautiful France!… Are not our intellectuals equally fatuous when they tell us that our war of all wars is stainless and thrillingly achieving for good?”The CPI did not limit its promotional efforts to the written word. The Division of Pictorial Publicity “had at its disposal many of the most talented advertising illustrators and cartoonists of the time,” and these artists worked closely with publicity experts in the Advertising Division. Newspapers and magazines eagerly donated advertising space, and it was almost impossible to pick up a periodical without encountering CPI material. Powerful posters, painted in patriotic colors, were plastered on billboards across the country. Even from the cynical vantage point of the mid 1990s, there is something compelling about these images that leaps across the decades and stirs a deep yearning to buy liberty bonds or enlist in the navy.Moving images were even more popular than still ones, and the Division of Films ensured that the war was promoted in the cinema. The film industry suffered from a sleazy reputation, and producers sought respectability by lending wholehearted support to the war effort. Hollywood’s mood was summed up in a 1917 editorial in The Motion Picture News which proclaimed that “every individual at work in this industry wants to do his share” and promised that “through slides, film leaders and trailers, posters, and newspaper publicity they will spread that propaganda so necessary to the immediate mobilization of the country’s great resources.” Movies with titles like The Kaiser: The Beast of Berlin, Wolves of Kultur, and Pershing’s Crusaders flooded American theaters. One picture, To Hell With The Kaiser, was so popular that Massachusetts riot police were summoned to deal with an angry mob that had been denied admission.The preceding discussion merely hints at the breadth of CPI domestic propaganda activities. From lecture hall podiums and movie screens to the pages of popular fiction and the inside of payroll envelopes, the cause of the Allies was creatively publicized in almost every available communication channel. But this is only part of the story. The propaganda techniques employed by the CPI are also fascinating, and, from the standpoint of democratic government, much more significant.Demons, Atrocities, and Lies Propagandists usually attempt to influence individuals while leading each one to behave “as though his response were his own decision.” Mass communication tools extend the propagandist’s reach and make it possible to shape the attitudes of many individuals simultaneously. Because propagandists attempt to “do the other fellow’s thinking for him,” they prefer indirect messages to overt, logical arguments. During the war, the CPI accomplished this by making calculated emotional appeals, by demonizing Germany, by linking the war to the goals of various social groups, and, when necessary, by lying outright.Emotional Appeals CPI propaganda typically appealed to the heart, not to the mind. Emotional agitation is a favorite technique of the propagandist, because “any emotion may be ‘drained off’ into any activity by skillful manipulation.” An article which appeared in Scientific Monthly shortly after the war argued that “the detailed suffering of a little girl and her kitten can motivate our hatred against the Germans, arouse our sympathy for Armenians, make us enthusiastic for the Red Cross, or lead us to give money for a home for cats.” Wartime slogans such as “Bleeding Belgium,” “The Criminal Kaiser,” and “Make the World Safe For Democracy,” suggest that the CPI was no stranger to this idea. Evidence of this technique can be seen in a typical propaganda poster that portrayed an aggressive, bayonet-wielding German soldier above the caption “Beat Back The Hun With Liberty Bonds.” In this example, the emotions of hate and fear were redirected toward giving money to the war effort. It is an interesting side-note that many analysts attribute the failure of German propaganda in America to the fact that it emphasized logic over passion. According to Count von Bernstorff, a German diplomat, “the outstanding characteristic of the average American is rather a great, though superficial, sentimentality,” and German press telegrams completely failed to grasp this fact.
Demonization A second propaganda technique used by the CPI was demonization of the enemy. “So great are the psychological resistances to war in modern nations,” wrote Lasswell “that every war must appear to be a war of defense against a menacing, murderous aggressor. There must be no ambiguity about who the public is to hate.” American propaganda was not the only source of anti-German feeling, but most historians agree that the CPI pamphlets went too far in portraying Germans as depraved, brutal aggressors. For example, in one CPI publication, Professor Vernon Kellogg asked “will it be any wonder if, after the war, the people of the world, when they recognize any human being as a German, will shrink aside so that they may not touch him as he passes, or stoop for stones to drive him from their path?”A particularly effective strategy for demonizing Germans was the use of atrocity stories. “A handy rule for arousing hate,” said Lasswell “is, if at first they do not enrage, use an atrocity. It has been employed with unvarying success in every conflict known to man.” Unlike the pacifist, who argues that all wars are brutal, the atrocity story implies that war is only brutal when practiced by the enemy. Certain members of the CPI were relatively cautious about repeating unsubstantiated allegations, but the committee’s publications often relied on dubious material. After the war, Edward Bernays, who directed CPI propaganda efforts in Latin America, openly admitted that his colleagues used alleged atrocities to provoke a public outcry against Germany. Some of the atrocity stories which were circulated during the war, such as the one about a tub full of eyeballs or the story of the seven-year old boy who confronted German soldiers with a wooden gun, were actually recycled from previous conflicts. In his seminal work on wartime propaganda, Lasswell speculated that atrocity stories will always be popular because the audience is able to feel self-righteous indignation toward the enemy, and, at some level, identify with the perpetrators of the crimes. “A young woman, ravished by the enemy,” he wrote “yields secret satisfaction to a host of vicarious ravishers on the other side of the border.”Anti-German propaganda fueled support for the war, but it also contributed to intolerance on the home front. Dachshunds were renamed liberty dogs, German measles were renamed liberty measles, and the City University of New York reduced by one credit every course in German. Fourteen states banned the speaking of German in public schools. The military adversary was thousands of miles away, but German-Americans provided convenient local scapegoats. In Van Houten, New Mexico, an angry mob accused an immigrant miner of supporting Germany and forced him to kneel before them, kiss the flag, and shout “To hell with the Kaiser.” In Illinois, a group of zealous patriots accused Robert Prager, a German coal miner, of hoarding explosives. Though Prager asserted his loyalty to the very end, he was lynched by the angry mob. Explosives were never found.The War to End All Wars Emotional appeals and simplistic caricatures of the enemy influenced many Americans, but the CPI recognized that certain social groups had more complex propaganda needs. In order to reach intellectuals and pacifists, the CPI claimed that military intervention would bring about a democratic League of Nations and end warfare forever. With other social groups, the CPI modified its arguments, and interpreted the war as “a conflict to destroy the threat of German industrial competition (business group), to protect the American standard of living (labor), to remove certain baneful German influences in our education (teachers), to destroy German music – itself a subtle propaganda (musicians), to preserve civilization, ‘we’ and ‘civilization’ being synonymous (nationalists), to make the world safe for democracy, crush militarism, [and] establish the rights of small nations et al. (religious and idealistic groups).” It is impossible to make rigorous statements about which one of these appeals was most effective, but this is the advantage that the propagandist has over the communications scholar. The propagandist is primarily concerned with effectiveness and can afford to ignore the methodological demands of social science.Dishonesty Finally, like most propagandists, the CPI was frequently dishonest. Despite George Creel’s claim that the CPI strived for unflinching accuracy, many of his employees later admitted that they were quite willing to lie. Will Irwin, an ex-CPI member who published several confessional pieces after the war, felt that the CPI was more honest than other propaganda ministries, but made it clear that “we never told the whole truth – not by any manner of means.” Citing an intelligence officer who bluntly said “you can’t tell them the truth,” G.S Viereck argued that, as on all fronts, victories were routinely manufactured by American military authorities. The professional propagandist realizes that, when a single lie is exposed, the entire campaign is jeopardized. Dishonesty is discouraged, but on strategic, not moral, grounds.Post-War Propaganda In the final months of 1918, as the war drew to a close, the CPI fell under increasing scrutiny from a war-weary American public and from the Republican majority that had gained control of Congress. On November 12, 1918, George Creel halted the domestic activities of the CPI. The activities of the foreign division were ended, amidst great controversy, a few months later. One might assume that the wartime propagandists then put down their pens and paintbrushes and returned to ordinary life. This was not the case.According to Lasswell, many former agents of the CPI stayed in Washington and New York and took advantage of their skill and contacts. Two years later, the Director of the CPI’s Foreign Division argued that “the history of propaganda in the war would scarcely be worthy of consideration here, but for one fact – it did not stop with the armistice. No indeed! The methods invented and tried out in the war were too valuable for the uses of governments, factions, and special interests.” Sigmund Freud’s nephew, Edward Bernays, took the techniques he learned in the CPI directly to Madison Avenue and became an outspoken proponent of propaganda as a tool for democratic government. “It was, of course, the astounding success of propaganda during the war that opened the eyes of the intelligent few in all departments of life to the possibilities of regimenting the public mind,” wrote Bernays in his 1928 bombshell Propaganda. “It was only natural, after the war ended, that intelligent persons should ask themselves whether it was not possible to apply a similar technique to the problems of peace.”This peacetime application of what was, after all, a tool of war, began to trouble Americans who suspected that they had been misled. In The New Republic, John Dewey questioned the paternalistic assumptions of those who disguised propaganda as news. “There is uneasiness and solicitude about what men hear and learn,” wrote Dewey, and the “paternalistic care for the source of men’s beliefs, once generated by war, carries over to the troubles of peace.” Dewey argued that the manipulation of information was particularly evident in coverage of post-Revolutionary Russia. The Nation agreed in 1919, arguing that “what has happened in regard to Russia is the most striking case in point as showing what may be accomplished by Government propaganda… Bartholomew nights that never take place, together with the wildest rumors of communism in women, and of murder and bloodshed, taken from obscure Scandinavian newspapers, are hastily relayed to the US, while everything favorable to the Soviets, every bit of constructive accomplishment, is suppressed.”When one considers the horrible legacy of the war, it is tempting to pin complete responsibility for American involvement on hate-mongering militarists in the CPI. Such retroactive condemnation is no more complex than a wartime slogan. Ultimately, their guilt is less important than the questions their activities raised about the role of propaganda in a democratic society.Democratic theory, as interpreted by Jefferson and Paine, was rooted in the Enlightenment belief that free citizens could form respectable opinions about issues of the day and use these opinions to guide their own destiny. Communication between citizens was assumed to be a necessary element of the democratic process. During the first world war, America’s leaders felt that citizens were not making the correct decisions quickly enough, so they flooded the channels of communication with dishonest messages that were designed to stir up emotions and hatred of Germany. The war came to an end, but propaganda did not. For the past seven decades, those who lead our nation, along with those who seek to overthrow it, have mouthed the ideals of Jefferson while behaving like Bernays.Is propaganda compatible with democracy, or does it undermine the population’s ability to think critically about world events? What happens when simplistic, emotional appeals are endlessly repeated? During the war, Bourne complained that “simple syllogisms are substituted for analysis, things are known by their labels, [and] our heart’s desire dictates what we shall see.” Could this description apply equally to a political climate in which slogans like “Three Strikes, You’re Out,” “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” and “Just Say No” are treated as if they were actual policies for dealing with social needs?
What of the propagandist’s argument that the complexity of the modern world makes obsolete the Enlightenment faith in popular wisdom? It is impossible for one person to simultaneously be an expert in foreign policy, labor disputes, the environment, the educational system, health care, constitutional law, and scientific regulation. Even the President is forced to rely on the advice of key advisors. Should America follow Bernays’ prescription and accept the wisdom of “a leadership democracy administered by the intelligent minority who know how to regiment and guide the masses?” Or is “leadership democracy” simply one stage of our democratic development? Could it someday be replaced by something more far reaching?What contribution will emerging communication technologies make to the dissemination of propaganda? Does the myth of “interactivity” legitimize an unbalanced social relationship, or does it make it possible for the audience to challenge the propagandist? The hosts of radio talk shows claim that theirs is a democratic medium, but callers are screened in advance and filtered through a three-second time delay. Are truly interactive tools on the horizon?The important difference between our “leadership democracy” and a totalitarian state is that we are allowed to raise questions such as these. However, history shows that, in times of political crisis and social dislocation, this freedom is one of the first to disappear. As we approach the end of the twentieth century, finding answers to these questions is more important than ever.BibliographyChase, Stuart. Guides to Straight Thinking. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1956.
Combs, James and Nimmo, Dan. The New Propaganda: The Dictatorship of Palavar in Contemporary Politics. New York: Longman Publishing Group, 1993.
Doob, Leonard. Propaganda: Its Psychology and Technique. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1935.
Edwards, Violet. Group Leader’s Guide to Propaganda Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938.
Ellul, Jacques. Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes. New York: Vintage Books, 1965.
Hummel, William and Huntress, Keith. The Analysis of Propaganda. New York: William Sloane Associates, 1949.
Institute for Propaganda Analysis. Propaganda Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938.
Institute for Propaganda Analysis. The Fine Art of Propaganda. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1939.
Lee, Alfred McClung. How to Understand Propaganda. New York: Rinehart and Company, 1952.
Lowenthal, Leo and Guterman, Norbert. Prophets of Deceit. 1949. Palo Alto: Pacific Books Publishers, 1970.
Miller, Clyde. The Process of Persuasion. New York: Crown Publishers, 1946.
Pratkanis, Anthony and Aronson, Elliot. Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1991.
Rank, Hugh. Language and Public Policy. New York: Citation Press, 1974.
Thum, Gladys and Thum, Marcella. The Persuaders: Propaganda in War and Peace. New York: Atheneum, 1972.

A View From the Bridge by Arthur Miller

A View From the Bridge by Arthur MillerThe final moments of Act One are some of the most tense and dramatic
in the entire play, and thus they need to be emphasized in such a way
that the audience understand their significance and start anticipating
the next act. A director must be careful in doing this, to avoid
overdoing the drama and therefore making the production seem
unrealistic.
In this scene, the whole Carbone family – Eddie, Beatrice, Catherine,
Marco and Rodolpho – are in the living room of the Red Hook apartment.
They have just finished dinner and I think it would be a good idea to
have the sun setting on the horizon out of a window. Some brilliant
lighting effects could be done here. It also tells the audience that
the end of this act is nigh, so something dramatic is going to happen.
All of the characters in this scene are Italian immigrants, and the
play would not be done justice if they didn’t have the appropriate
accents. They speak in Brooklynese dialect, which is a vigorous
language with lots of y’knows, ain’ts, sump’ms, and double negatives
in it, e.g. “she didn’t take nothin’ yet’’. This reflects the
characters’ lack of education due to poverty rather than intelligence.
Generally, Italian conversation contains a lot of liveliness and
gestures, and I would expect the immigrants to have taken that with
them to America. The actors in a production of this must have the
correct body language and at least not pronounce their ’g’s when at
the end of words, i.e. nothin’.
By this stage in the play, Catherine has fallen in love with Rodolpho,
one of Beatrice’s illegal immigrant cousins. He and his brother Marco
are lodging with the Carbones. Unknown to himself, or maybe just not
admitted, Eddie wants Catherine in another way than as a niece; this
is obvious throughout the play with his attempts to stop her growing
up. He comments on her short skirt and high heels, resents her getting
a job and forms a very strong grudge against Rodolpho which is based
on pure jealousy. Eddie, when confronted about his strange behaviour,
puts it down to fearing for Catherine’s safety and needing to protect
her as would an uncle in place of a father. “I don’t like the
neighbourhood over there’’, etc.
Beatrice is becoming aware of his feelings but does not comment or
action this realisation in this act; she is a very kind hearted person
who tries to appease everybody. I might tell the actress to reflect
this part of her by putting in some fake smiles.
Marco tries to stay neutral on the matter. He does defend Rodolpho in
the face of Eddie, but is firm with Rodolpho and gives him warnings,
(“You come home early now, Rodolpho’’) as he does not want him to get
into trouble and jeopardise his status with Eddie any further.
Leading up to the ending, there is a heated discussion going on where
Eddie is accusing Rodolpho of “dragging off Catherine without
permission’’. During these conversations, pauses and silences can
encapsulate the tension, and the characters’ feeling uncomfortable
with each other. Miller plays on this – “There is a pause, an
awkwardness’’. At this point Eddie is using any excuse he can to put
Rodolpho down, in order to drive a wedge between him and Catherine. It
is not working as they are deeply in love, so he gets quite desperate
and resorts to blunt, put-down comments. Rodolpho is a laid-back,
light hearted character and Eddie tries to show up his femininity with
remarks like “He sings, he cooks, he could make dresses.’’ This is a
hint that Rodolpho is homosexual, which Eddie finds the idea of
completely repulsive and hopes Catherine will too. His next ploy, near
the end of Act One, is to teach Rodolpho how to box, with the
intention of making him look feeble and sissy-like. Rodolpho crushes
his glory by being a very quick learner and impressing the rest of the
family. That done, Eddie retreats to a chair looking thoughtful, while
Catherine and Rodolpho are dancing to “Paper Doll’’. The romance could
be represented casting a red or pink, fuzzy light on them. Eddie and
Marco, who the main focus is on, would be in a harder, unstructured
light so the audience can clearly see what’s going on, and see the
characters’ facial expressions, which are very important here.
Marco knows that Eddie has just tried to humiliate his brother, and
that having failed to do so, is at a weaker point. He challenges Eddie
to lift a chair above his head whilst kneeling on the floor with one
hand behind his back. Eddie manages to raise it a couple of
centimetres and laughs it off. When Marco does it, he not only lifts
it above his head but stands up as well. Miller writes his exact
movements…
“Marco is face to face with Eddie, a strained tension gripping his
eyes and jaw, his neck stiff, the chair raised like a weapon over
Eddie’s head – and he transforms what might have been a glare of
warning into a smile of triumph, and Eddie’s grin vanishes as he
absorbs his look’’.
The ‘glare of warning’ in this is to tell Eddie that he knows what’s
going on, and he cannot keep picking on Rodolpho and getting away with
it. Eddie obviously picks up on this message, as his grin fades.
This is the point where the story changes from a petty squabble to a
civil war, and it is now inevitable that Marco and Eddie will confront
each other. The best way for the drama to be maximised is by
orchestral music, which could start up quietly whilst Eddie lifts the
chair and gradually escalate. While Marco has a go, the music could
suddenly turn sinister-sounding, which correlates with the feelings of
the characters. As the sun drops down, the tension reaches a climax
and the music gets very loud, the audience should realise that it is
too late for Eddie to even try to accept Catherine and Rodolpho’s
love, because Marco knows very well what he’s up to. If Eddie does
decide to apologize and turn over a new leaf, both Marco and Beatrice
would know that he’s lying and not accept it. There is now no solution
to this unfolding chaos – someone in it has a destiny, and that
destiny is to die.

Personal Narrative – Speeding Ticket

Personal Perspective- Speeding TicketI never predicted this beautiful trip ending up as a nightmare in my existence. I drove for approximately 40 minutes and my partner shared the driving for an additional 40 minutes. We were driving my friend mom’s brand new Toyota Camry XLE; one of the most comfortable cars I had ever been in. We enjoyed the elongated ride with new hit music, and air conditioning set to an exact temperature that met our necessities. On the way to the beach some doubts about going there started to circle around our minds, but the fact that we were about half way there made them all disappear.While arriving at the beach, I could admire the last minutes of the sun before the moon scared it across the ocean. The traffic at the strip was ridiculous, but some how we manage to turn the traffic situation to our benefit by getting contaminated with the party feeling there was in the air. Soon enough, my thoughts of swimming in the ocean and walking on the sand demolish into a tailgating feeling. Our summer trip had turn into our last spring break trip we had a couple of weeks ago.Hours after driving in the region of the Panama City Beach strip, I decided that we should go back home. Since my friend drove the largest part around the strip, he let all the driving to me. It was around 1:30 am. I was heavy-eyed, but not sleepy enough in order to impair my driving skills. My friend was guiding me the way home since I was not as familiar with it as he was, but some how due to the darkness of the night, I passed the street that I was supposed to turn, and it lead us to about 20 minutes off the schedule we had planned.This 20 minute setback impacted our whole trip. In order to get home back on time I decided to amplify the speed from 55 to 80.One of the biggest mistakes in my life occurred at that time. It was 1:45 am already and the highway was as very dark. I was still going 80, and I never thought there would be a sheriff automobile just waiting for someone at almost 2:00am in the morning to be speeding in an empty highway such as the one I was in. But some how he caught someone, and that “someone” was me. He pulled me over on the side of the grassy highway of Bay County. I was extremely nervous, but deep inside I was hoping that he would let me go since it was my first offence with the law, but this never happened. He lighted my friend mom’s car with his very powerful cop light, got off his vehicle and walked to my window. As he got to my window he asked for my driver license right away. I was in shock and so nervous that it was impossible for me to remove my driver license off my wallet. Once I gave him my license, I waited for a couple of minutes in the car until he ended his background search on me, and gave me a $204.50 speeding ticket. I was feeling crushed and guilty, but I kept driving until the nearest gas station to let my companion drive the rest of the way back.Not only did my insurance go up, but my father kept telling me I was a bad driver for about a month. What I took away from the experience was the importance of obeying the law. It doesn’t matter how tiny the law is, you must always consider the impact and consequences of your actions.

The Classical Period

The Classical PeriodThe Classical period spans roughly between 1750-1820, and was a time
where significant changes in musical form and style occurred.
Influenced by the civilised restraint of the new age of Enlightenment,
the main principle of the day was the search for intellectual freedom.
Music of the Classical period became an embodiment of Enlightenment
ideals that were centred on the idea that ‘the reason of man could
ultimately unlock every mystery, that civilisation was heading onward
and upward and that extremes of emotion were undesirable’1. The
enlightenment age brought about nationalism and humanitarian ideas
while mysticism and superstition faded.
During this period, ‘taste’ became significant and the belief was that
music was designed first and foremost to appeal to the listener and
for the gratification of the sense of hearing, not a means for the
composer to show off, as in the baroque period. The aim of the new
musical style was to make the music more directly expressive and
simpler for the audience to follow and the musicians concentrated on
making the music clearer by making the top melodic line the main point
of listening.
General Musical Characteristics of the Classical Period
===========
Form:
The classical period is generally characterised by a near-obsession
with the clarification of formal structure as the modern sonata form
emerged from the rounded binary form of Baroque. During this period,
the evolution of the trio sonata into the string quartet; concerto
grosso into symphony concertante; and emergence of symphony and modern
solo concerto occurred, and both the symphony and concerto form
expanded so that each movement became self-contained- a small
self-sufficient unit.
Melodic style:
A new type of melody is developed and is often folk-like in its
clarity and simplicity. This homophonic texture replaced the long
lines and figuration styles of baroque polyphony. Elements of grand
baroque style such as basso continuo were abandoned and inner parts
were fully written out.
Homophonic Style:
Homophonic style has decided preference over polyphony style due to
the new importance of distinct thematic material. A special aspect of
this characteristic is the Alberti Bass, a special type of
broken-chord accompaniment
Counterpoint:
Counterpoint is still used especially in thematic development but is
of secondary importance. Contrapuntal forms were generally abandoned
although it was used sparingly and for specific purposes.
Harmony:
On the whole, there is less harmonic complexity and ingenuity in the
classical period with no significant harmonic developments occurring
until the time of Beethoven, although slow harmonic progression was
among the most striking features that distinguished harmony after
about 1730 from that of the Baroque era. Many passages in instrumental
music consisted solely of principle triads. Seventh chords were used
sparingly and ninth chords not at all whilst tonic-dominant harmony,
IV-V-I harmonic progressions and classical cadential progression
IIb-V-I were used frequently as the use of strong cadential
progression frequently compensated for the use of chromatism in terms
of tonality. The use of chromaticism for expressive effect was common.
This was usually melodic chromaticism without affecting the underlying
plain harmony. In its simplest form, it occurs in unaccented passing
or auxiliary notes. Melodic chromaticism was used to compensate for
the underlying harmonic plainness (especially in Mozart). Extensive
modulations (equivalent to the use of dissonance by Baroque composers)
were used to build longer arches of tension and release, and the
borrowing of one or two chords from the tonic minor key or modulating
to the tonic minor (major to minor shift was typical of Mozart and
Schubert and only used in Vienna) were used.
Phraseology:
An aspect of formal clarity is the evident clarity of phraseology. On
the whole, the phrases in classical music are shorter and more
regular. Themes are made of very short fragments cast in 4 or 8 bar
phrases and the repetition of short phrases became the characteristic
of stile gallant, as opposed to a long uninterrupted stream of music
in the Baroque period. Classical melodies usually fall into even
phrases, and were often organized into symmetrical ‘question and
answer’ structure.
Orchestration:
The basis of modern orchestration and instrumentation was established
in the Classical period. Instrumental combinations became
standardized. The flute and solo voice was used frequently, the roles
of the harpsichord and string instruments were reversed and the piano,
with its ability to produce gradations of dynamics, became the most
important solo instrument for Classical composers.
Dynamics:
Composers in this period paid considerable attention to effects of
loud and soft and an enriched use of rhythm and silence was used.
There was also the use of dynamic shading, of crescendo and diminuendo
as opposed to the baroque use of contrasting levels (ripieno against
concertino)
Mood:
Establishing a single emotional quality and maintaining it throughout
a composition seemed constricting to the younger composers, and so the
mood of music was changeable in the same piece, with different moods
in close succession existing in Classical pieces. With the contrasting
themes of the sonata form, this thematic dualism became an essential
structural element in Classical music as opposed to the constant moods
and the principle of the basic affection of Baroque music.
The Classical Concerto
======
The classical concerto is a three-movement form based upon the
exchange of material between a solo instrument and the entire
orchestral ensemble (tutti).
Because it is a modified version of the classical sonata-allegro form,
the first movement of the classical concerto begins with an exposition
consisting of 3 main parts:
1) Opening tutti- principle themes are introduced, ends in the tonic
key
2) Entrance of the solo instrument followed by an exchange of material
3) Short tutti section to close the exposition.
The development is usually short and leads through various keys back
to the tonic. The Recapitulation is basically a repetition of the
exposition, only shorter, and with the second tutti section ending on
a six-four chord (tonic chord with the fifth in the bass). The sole
instrument then plays a cadenza- written by either the composer
himself or the performer or someone else or was improvised by the
performer, as was the case in most classical concertos. A brief tutti
section, with or without the solo instrument to conclude the movement,
then follows this cadenza.
Usually in some sort of enlarged song form, a first rondo or a
variation form, the second movement of the classical concerto is less
virtuosic and more ornamental than the first movement. The cadenza is
rarely used in the andante movement.
For a finale, the third and last movement is in a fast tempo, and,
like the last movement of the classical symphony, it is usually some
sort of rondo form. A short cadenza is occasionally used.
Horn Concerto No. 3 in E Flat- Mozart (K. 447)
Tempo: Allegro. No tempo changes
Time Signature: Common time
Rhythm: Mostly crotchets and quavers
Structure: Sonata form
Instruments: B Flat Clarinet, Bassoon, E Flat Horn, Violins, Viola,
Cello, Double Bass
Tone Colour: Happy & light, shown by the soft music, slurs and light
sound of the horn
Dynamics: Mostly played soft
Stylistic Features: Trills, cadenza, Alberti bass, homophonic,
tremolo, triplet
Exposition (bars 1-82) Development (bars 82-111) Recapitulation (bars
111-183)Starts off with the 1st theme played by Violin I and accompanied
by the strings
2nd theme starts at the end of bar 9 also by Violin I accompanied
by the strings
A codetta starts in bar 19 and leads into the soloist exposition
in bar 29. Violin II plays an Alberti bass in bars 20-24, and
syncopation in the entire orchestra (minus horn) in bar28.
At bar 36-51 is a bridge passage, which modulates into the
dominant, B flat shown by the natural placed on the A in bar 46
2nd subject starts in bar 51 first by violin I and then repeated
by the horn in bar55
Modulates into D minor in bar 60 shown by a natural sign in front
of the A and E
Codetta begins at bar 70 until development starts at 82.
Development starts in a remote key, D Flat major shown by a D flat
and G flat.
Theme in bars 85-92
Travels through various modulations in the sequence-like bars from
97-111.
Recap: 1st theme in tonic by violin in bars 111-120. Taken up by
horn in 121.
Bridge passage from bars 132-139
2nd subject starts 139 by violins. Horn plays this in bar143.
Chromaticism in bars 151-152
Cadenza in bar 171
Coda from 172-end
Movement ends in a cadential 6/4 chord.
Piano Concerto No. 3 in C Minor, First Movement- Beethoven (Op. 37)
Duration: 16:58
Tempo: Allegro con brio. No tempo changes
Time: Cut common time
Rhythm: Mostly crotchets, quavers and semiquavers.
Tone Colour: Fierce, Powerful and energetic, shown by many staccatos
and sforzando.
Dynamics: Many crescendo and diminuendo, mainly loud- even fortissimo
and sforzando
Stylistic Features: a lot of trills, grace notes, Alberti bass,
cadenza, homophonic, use of rhythm and sonata form
Instrumentation: Flute, Oboe, Clarinet in B Flat, Bassoon, Horn in E
Flat, Trumpet, Timpani, Piano, Violins, Violas, Cello and Double Bass.
Exposition (1-249) Development (244-308) Recapitulation (309-443)Strings play 1st theme in unison. Oboe, bassoon and horn then
imitate melody moved up a tone, i.e. a sequence.
Starts in C minor and alternating between E Flat major and C minor
from bar 9.
2nd subject at bar 50-74, played by violin and clarinet with the
rest of the orchestra accompanying. Mainly in the relative major,
E Flat Major
Climax/codetta starts at bar 74 with an elaboration of the opening
theme played by bassoon then taken up by strings in 77 and then
orchestra with harmony
Finishes with a round of the first theme starting at bar 104
played by wind instruments then strings finishing at 111, ending
in a perfect cadence.
2nd exposition starts in bar 111with the piano playing solo scale
passages in C minor into soloists 1st subject. Strings join from
122 onwards.
Question and answer dialogue from bar131 between strings, horn and
piano. Rest of the wind instruments join in at 138. Modulates
through various keys
2nd subject starts at 114 in E Flat major with strings
accompanying.
Tutti comes in at 171, imitating the piano
From 199, strings accompany with the tonic-dominant theme in bar 3
until 216
Finishes the exposition with a codetta played by the tutti at 227.
Development starts in D Major, dominated by scale passages and
triplets
Canonic imitation at bars 267-271
Bars 291-309, there are various small modulations to bring the
piece to C minor
Recapitulation starts at 309 with the tutti playing the first
theme in unison
317-325 Question and answer effect using the rhythm of bar 3.
Use of alberti bass in bars 326-329
2nd subject in C Major in 340 with piano, winds take over theme
until 355
Bars 358-366 in G Major
374 in C major
Piano plays a cadenza at bar 416 ending with a trill to signal the
entrance the rest of the orchestra.
Timpani joins in tapping at 403, playing C and G-tonic dominant.
Coda starts at 417 with all instruments playing besides winds and
brass.
Whole movement ends with a scale passage in the piano accompanied
by the tutti ending with the entire orchestra on C.
Bibliography: History of Music- Hugh M. Miller

http://members.tripod.com/~dorakmt/music/classical.html

Encyclopaedia of Classical Music- General Editor: Robert Ainsley
http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/eras/clsty.html-—————————————————————————————————1The Encyclopaedia of Classical Music- general editor: Robert
Ainsley

certain slant of light

How Nature Brings Emotions of SolemnityThe chief characteristic of this feeling drawn by the “slant of light” is its painful oppressiveness. “Oppresses,” “weight,” “hurt,” “despair,” and “affliction” convey this aspect. A large component in it is probably consciousness of the fact of death, though this is probably not the whole of its content nor is this consciousness necessarily fully formulated by the mind. Yet here we see the subtle connection between the hour and the mood. For the season is winter, when the year is approaching its end. And the time is late afternoon (winter afternoons are short at best, and the light slants), when the day is failing. The suggestion of death is caught up by the weighty cathedral tunes (funeral music possibly—but hymns are also much concerned with death) and by “the distance on the look of death.” The stillness of the hour (“the landscape listens, Shadows hold their breath”) is also suggestive of the stillness of death.
But besides the oppressiveness of the feeling, it has certain impressiveness too. It is weighty, solemn, and majestic, like organ music. This quality is conveyed by “weight of cathedral tunes,” “heavenly,” “seal” (suggesting the seal on some important official document), and “imperial.” This quality of the mood may be partly caused by the stillness of the moment, by the richness of the slanting sunlight (soon to be followed by sunset), and by the image of death, which it calls up.
The mood gives “heavenly” hurt. “Heavenly” suggests the immateriality of the hurt, which leaves “no scar”; the source of the sunlight—the sky; the ultimate source of both sunlight and death—God. The hurt is given internally “where the meanings are”—that is, in the soul, the psyche, or mind-that part of one which assigns “meanings”—consciously or intuitively—to life and to phenomena like this.
“None may teach it anything”—Both the sunlight and the mood it induces are beyond human correction or alleviation; they are final and irrevocable—”sealed.” There is no lifting this seal— this despair.
“When it goes, ’tis like the distance On the look of death”—The lines call up the image of the stare in the eyes of a dead man, not focused, but fixed on the distance. Also, “distance” suggests the awful distance between the living and the dead—part of the implicit content of the mood. Notice that the slanted ray and the mood are still with us here, but are also going. The final remarkable image reiterates the components of the hour and the mood—oppressiveness, solemnity, stillness, and death. But it hints also at relief—hopes that there will soon be a “distance” between the poet and her experience.

Composing a Piece of Music

Composing a Piece of Music We were asked to compose a piece of music that fused two different
cultures. I chose to fuse Indian Raga with western dance/club music. I
picked this because I like both Indian and Western music so it was set
fit to do a composition of the two fused together.I decided to use a keyboard for my piece because of its wide range of
voices and beats just to set my mind in what I wanted to put threw the
computer in the initial stages that is.
After that I noted down on Manuscript paper what exactly I was going
to play apart from the improvised areas which I just wrote the one
that just came in to my head first. On this I also included Chords and
a rough idea of backing notes in brackets. This was all achieved by
simple twinkling around on the piano and writing notes down as I went
along which is a skill in its self with a broken wrist so only with
one hand.
I set about thinking of a Indian top part to the music so I started
with Indian scales and progressed from there with the classical
version being popped up to produce a faster more lively scale and
tune.
Because one of are criteria was to make it danceable to I added a
computer added beat which may sound easily done but it did turn out to
be quite a task choosing what to play threw the computer what style
what tempo e.t.c.
Overall I performed my fusion piece on a keyboard with the chords and
the tune and then layed done the computer track on top after woods.

Comparing Romeo and Juliet and West Side Story

Romeo and Juliet versus West Side Story          Romeo and Juliet, West Side Story, two timeless dramas that will liveforever.  Although both of these stories have many similarities, there are alsomany differences.  These differences include the differences in sililoquy, thefact that Maria doesn’t die, the fact that we never see Tony or Maria’s parents,as well as the issues of marriage, the importance of gangs and families to eachstory.  To understand these differences, I have read and/or watched both Romeoand Juliet, and the similar tragedy, West Side Story.           Above, I named a few of the many differences between WilliamShakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and Ernest Leaman’s screenplay, West Side Story.One main difference is that in Romeo and Juliet the sililoquy is spoken while inWest Side Story there is sililoquy, but it is in song.  While both equallyexpress the character’s feelings at the moment, it is my feeling that West SideStory’s musical style brings the viewer/listener further into the play and makesthe play more effective.  An example of this is when, in Act II, Scene II, ofRomeo and Juliet, otherwise known as the balcony scene, Romeo expresses histhoughts in a sililoquy until Juliet shows up.  While in Romeo and Juliet all ofthis is spoken, in West Side Story, this is written as music shared betweenMaria and Tony.           Another major difference between these two stories is that in Romeoand Juliet, Juliet sees Romeo dead and decides to kill herself.  While, in WestSide Story, Tony (the Romeo of the play) does die – shot by Chino- Maria is notso stricken and overshelmed that she decides to kill herself.  This is veryimportant because in Romeo and Juliet, neither Romeo or Juliet is allowed tomove on with their lives.  In West Side Story, however, I’m sure Maria, althoughnot shown in the film, moves on and gets over Tony.           My theory on why the above is true, is that Romeo and Juliet are keptapart by family ties or blood; Juliet a Capulet and Romeo a Montague.  Bloodties are what family is all about and tend to be very strong bonds.  In WestSide Story the only thing holding each other back from one another are theirties to gangs; Maria, the Sharks and Tony, the Jets.  This, in my eyes, makesRomeo and Juliet’s love for one another stronger than Maria and Tony’s.  This iswhy it is easier for Maria to get over Tony.           Also a major difference between these tragedies is the issue, or non-issue as it were, of marriage.  Marriage is another tie that Romeo and Juliethave that Tony and Maria don’t.  In Romeo and Juliet’s case marriage isseriously brought up almost immediately after they meet.  In Tony and Maria’scase marriage is brought up but, only in a joking/kidding manner.  To me thisindicates that Romeo and Juliet are more grown up and ready to tackle life’schallenges, while Tony and Maria are a little more childish and unprepared forwhat they’ve gotten themselves into.           Although not a major difference, there is the absence of Tony andMaria’s parents.  This may not affect the story too much, but Romeo and Juliet’sparents come into major play in William Shakespeare’s love story or love tragedy,depending on your point of view.  In Romeo and Juliet, without Lord Capuletthere is no wedding conflict and much of the quick “thinking” doesn’t have totake place.           You may have previously thought that West Side Story and Romeo andJuliet were identical love tales.  Of course, not counting the fact that WestSide Story is obviously updated.  I hope that my report on the differencesbetween the two has finally cleared this up.  I greatly appreciated theopportunity to write this report and I certainly learned a lot from it.  I hopeyou’ve enjoyed it.

Not Looking at Pictures – Not Reading Texts

Not Looking at Pictures – Not Reading TextsOur eyes exit the frame and return to the room, where two men still stand. We walk around them to see their eyes and find both sets in motion, yet they move differently. While two paired eyes seem to move easily across the canvas, the other pair struggle-these eyes dart, they dash; and now the eyes appear to relax on a plane beyond the painting, beyond the wall on which it hangs. “Pictures,” writes E.M. Forster, bringing us into “Not Looking at Pictures,” “are not easy to look at” (130). Standing in the gallery, we are inclined to believe him, having seen St. George and the Dragon as colorless subjects and objects intermediated by verbs; here no paint has dried. Yet there must be some paint in Forster’s essay, and we would sooner see it than watch his walls go bare, for ours would go bare, too. Where Forster imagines that the dragon utters some silly things, we too have brought imagination to bear on the picture; where Forster’s vision of the picture had amazed Roger Fry “that anyone could go so completely off the lines” (131), the play of our eyes in space might have troubled the critic no less. There is some relationship between our problems, I think. Paintings are “intended to appeal to the eye,” Forster tells us in his first paragraph, and we know of no other organs that might have sensed this picture; so we do not know quite what has happened when the eyes enter a painting and the mind “takes charge instead and goes off on some alien vision” (130). The nature of a painting’s “appeal” seems to have eluded us, and I fear that our vision has moved some distance from the frame. We must realize where we stand.I have placed us within a vision of the gallery, the verbal gallery into which Forster narrates himself, helped by Roger Fry and Charles Mauron, in “Not Looking at Pictures”; we enter to see what Forster hangs on the walls. First there is “a fifteenth-century Italian predella, where a St. George [is] engaged in spearing a dragon of the plesiosaurus type”; the spear has gone through the dragon’s “hooped-up neck” (131), we read. If it has been painted by a particular fifteenth-century Italian painter, we do not know which one; if it truly hangs in a non-verbal gallery among other painted pictures, we know neither the gallery’s name nor its location. Yet it remains my expectation that Forster describes an object that verifiably exists, that he has chosen a St. George among St. Georges, one Italian painting, so that I may look at its paint. As he is seeing this picture with Fry, let us assume that the gallery is in England: there are two fifteenth-century Italian paintings of St. George in London galleries, both of whose creators are documented. In one of the paintings I see a dragon with St. George’s spear lodged in its neck, but it has been painted on canvas, not as part of an altar. The other painting is a predella, which fits Forster’s medium description, but here the dragon has taken George’s spear in the belly and, lying prone on its back, it bites the weapon. Has Forster commingled two painted St. Georges into one faulty piece of prose sketched from memory? There can be no looking at pictures of this sort, yet Forster deserves the benefit of the doubt-we draw no hasty conclusion. The St. George and the Dragon of his essay may exist somewhere as paint on canvas, but if it does it seems to have got lost in the move from experience to expression.There are other works on view in “Not Looking at Pictures,” but our eyes must rest up for their next trip to the gallery. We proceed towards the exit: “On the whole I am improving,” writes Forster in the first sentence of his essay’s last paragraph; “I am learning to get myself out of the way a little and to be more receptive, and my appreciation of pictures does increase” (133). This sentence describes an action, a small movement, a slight shift that gets “myself” out of the path of an implied object, a learned practice that, though it affords the object a free course of movement, places “myself” in a superior position to receive. But what is to be received? Forster does not tell us overtly, yet he shows us what it must be, insofar as improved appreciation is expressed in a clause conjoined to the preceding clause that describes the aforesaid movement. We can allow that to move in this particular way is to improve appreciation, but we do not yet know what Forster has learned to move, only that he calls it “myself,” and that it has hitherto diminished his appreciation of pictures; it seems to have affected his treatment of St. George and the Dragon, which he has appreciated in such a way as to forget who painted it, where he saw it, what medium had been used, and where the dragon had been speared. Paintings, we remember, are made to “appeal” to the eye; “myself,” we must conjecture, is bound up in some relationship with the eye, likewise to the mind that sets off on alien visions, and therefore to the nature of paintings’ “appeal”; with which we are deeply concerned, though we cannot interrogate it in isolation. Recalling Walter Pater’s revision of Mathew Arnold’s ‘true aim of aesthetic criticism,’ that in striving to see one’s object as it truly is, one must labor to know, discriminate, realize one’s impression thereof, we must understand that it is only through careful discrimination of Forster’s “myself” that our enquiry may truly strike the core of his “appeal.”The word “myself” has a referent in “E.M. Forster, author of ‘Not Looking at Pictures,’” but we do not go deep enough if we take this to signify Forster-discussing-Forster, as though there were a whole Forster in this text, a unitary author-man that exists without respect to time. If we can imagine ourselves perhaps 90 years into the past, there is a Forster whose feet really strike a particular gallery floor in the company of a person named Roger Fry, whose eyes strive to look at pictures and stay with them, whose body knows worldly stimuli, whose mind parses physical sensation. If we will venture back 63 years, there is a Forster whose memory has some record of galleries, St. Georges, and Fry. Though not looking at pictures is still a problem for him, his relationship to the problem has changed. And in our own time, as “Not Looking at Pictures” lies open before me, there is Forster whose I’s declare their presence, whose work it is to enfold the personal, embodied Forsters who have existed, bound by time, in timeless, impersonal literature that has body of its own, though it never walked a gallery mile. This last Forster, I believe, has mostly kept out of the way, and wants no serious repositioning. It stays near its object in this essay, the appreciator of pictures that seldom sees what the painter has painted, though nothing but paint hangs before him. We have found “myself” in the gallery, yet it has got tired of standing here, so we follow it out.There sits Forster in a concert hall, surrounded by listeners he can see and music he cannot. What to make of it? “Listening to music is such a muddle that one scarcely knows how to start describing it,” begins “Not Listening to Music.” Indeed, music can elude description for many formal reasons: unlike pictures, music exists only with respect to time-whether constrained by or free from it-so one is bound to experience music as sound over time. Another problem is that realistic representation, which seems to be the essential mode of painting by which all other modes orient themselves, does not exist in most tonal music. For these reasons, musical forms may be more difficult for lay appreciators to apprehend than visual ones. But if pictures are made to appeal to the eyes, it follows that music is made to appeal to the ears, and that if one can hear music, one ought to be able to listen to it. Forster begins describing the act of listening to music with a curious admission, telling us that “during the greater part of every performance I do not attend”-yet this man looks no different from the Forster we found in the gallery! “The nice sounds,” he continues, “make me think of something else” (127). Do our eyes deceive us; have we been duped by a Forsterian imposter? No, there sits the body, its legs draped from the seat. One foot is planted on the floor, while the other taps along to the music, emphasizing one of three counts in each measure, emphasizing the proper count for a few minutes at a time. After a while, though, the tapping foot seems to find it own tempo, its own time signature. “I do not attend,” writes Forster, though his body has not left the concert hall; this must be a special sort of attendance.Having failed to find a St. George among St. Georges, we now turn to the OED for an “attend,” finding sixteen definitions among three genuses: I. “To direct the ears, mind, energies to anything”; II. “To watch over, wait upon, with service, accompany as servant, go with, be present at”; III. “To wait for, to await, to expect.” There is work implicit in every sense of this word, in application of the mind or the senses to, in readiness to be commanded by, in anticipation of the attended, that it will command, possessing an authority to do so. In this sentence, in this essay, the attended is music, and to think of something other than music in response thereto is not to attend, to except one’s self from the network of labor and responsibility that attendance implies. Yet attendance is not merely a grim sign, for there is a rewarding moral among its signifiers: ‘attendre’ et puis ‘danser’; do work with your mind, then dance with your body. “I do not attend”: the body is not moved, cannot be moved, though the mind has wandered for its private, personal pleasure.After “. . .I do not attend,” we read, “I wool gather most of the time, and am surprised that others don’t” (127). In the paragraphs that follow, Forster shows us his mind wandering away from music, and he suggests that music may be harder to listen to than a novel is to read; this may stem from there being two sorts of music, one that does associative work, making the listener think of things other than music, and a privileged one that is designed for close listening, encouraging the listener to consider the music for its own autonomous forms. Of this privileged sort, Forster writers, “We gather a superior wool from it, still we do wool-gather, and sounds slip by blurred” (129). How we read these sentences should tell us something about why we are reading “Not Listening to Music,” what we think it might be about. Though Forster knows more about music than he overtly admits, it is not principally for music that we read his essay, though our ears remain alert. If we think that “wool-gathering” does but describe the act of not listening to music, we are not reading text. Wool-gathering ought to strike us as a uniquely chosen phrase. Though some meaning of the term has come to us through context, this is but one and, in fact, the second listed entry in the OED. Here is the first: “The action of gathering fragments of wool torn from sheep by bushes, etc.” What we took to be a general absent-mindedness or inattentiveness is, we learn, grounded in a particular practice that we have not likely encountered off the page.Here is an analogy that wants parsing: not listening to music is to wool-gathering, as listening to music is to not wool-gathering. To wool-gather is to collect small, non-whole pieces of wool that a sheep has lost gradually, perhaps unknowingly, never touching, perhaps never seeing, the sheep from which the wool has come; one attends to a bush or some other thing, which, having caught a certain amount of wool by standing in the way of sheep, has no special relationship with, reveals nothing we did not already know about wool-it grows on sheep, from which it detaches. To not wool-gather, then, is perhaps to shear larger pieces of woolen coat from a captive sheep, removing the wool thoroughly and deliberately until the whole coat has come off the sheep. So the sheep is present, restrained, movement being limited to the hand that shears, such that the wool removed is whole and substantial. But is this any way to listen to music?Let us see if we can listen to music as we do not wool-gather. First, the music’s source must be present, and we must see that it is producing the music we hear, and lastly we must end up with a complete musical form at the end, having accumulated a complete form in whole pieces. We do this steadily and consistently, with purpose, so that we may have a full piece of music when our action is complete. Now comes our time to move, to claim the music from the musicians using our ears, and we cannot do it. Time is passing, sounds are changing, and the change over time implies movement, musical movement. We sit in our chairs, essentially still, and the music moves around us, causing our eardrums to vibrate sympathetically, that is, to be moved by movement. “The sounds!” continues Forster, “It is for them that we come, and the closer we can get up against them the better” (129). What getting up against the sounds can there really be if they are always in motion? We may have come for them, but it is they who travel to us once we are properly positioned. Music itself or music that makes one think of something else, all of it is sound, and though we may travel to hear it, sound moves much faster than our feet. In the concert hall, Forster may shift in his chair a bit, but the music he is not listening to refuses to be still for an instant.We are still looking for “myself.” That it often does not attend is one thing, but how, by what means does it attend in the first place?Leaving Forster to his experiential problems, we incorporate a new one: here we stand on a geometric plane, our eyes closed, ears open. A busy noise encircles us, crashing into itself in the psycho-acoustic location from which the first noise sounded, and we open our eyes to find ourselves bound by a high wall of translucent glass bricks, segregated from a space beyond it that we have never seen; yet we know it exists without the walls by virtue of the sounds that reach our ears, a distant, muffled voice that we, having kept our mouths shut thus far, could not have made; and though we agree that the voice comes from beyond the walls, moving around our interior space, the sound is shifting, following us though we do not consciously lead. The wall, we realize, does things to the voice: some waves strike the wall’s exterior, and it resonates, while others that have struck are reflected away from us; some waves may travel over the wall, but they will collide with the wall’s interior, causing further resonance and reflection, which we hear as reverberation. Let us pause. What are the physical aspects of our problem? There is we, there is an object from which the voice we have been hearing emanated, there is a wall that cordons us from the object, and yet there is more: the voice has a physical dimension, both as expressed by the original object and as sound heard by our ears; the object has a voice, and we have heard some of it, but how much in proportion to the voice as affected by the walls, baffled by the acoustic properties of its exterior and distorted by those of its interior, we do not know. We know that we see a wall and hear sounds, but have not heard the voice, and we do not see the object.We have gone somewhere to listen to personality, but now we look at it: Experience, already reduced to a swarm of impressions, is ringed round for each one of us by that thick wall of personality through which no real voice has ever pierced on its way to us, or from us to that which we can only conjecture to be without .(60)We are poised to read a sentence from the Conclusion to The Renaissance, Pater’s prose study of Renaissance painting, that tells us what has happened to him, the paintings he has studied, and his prose in the course of looking at pictures; in so doing, he schematizes our problem. We begin: one’s “experience” with an object, “already reduced to a swarm of impressions” thereof, which cannot be equivalent to the experience itself, “is ringed round for each one of us by that thick wall of personality,” not “personality” generally but a particular sort, “through which no real voice,” a voice that was once embodied, “has ever pierced on its way to us, or. . .” We attend: “from us to that which we can only conjecture to be without” (60).Reading this sentence again, I fear that I have misunderstood, and that my misunderstanding has made me imagine the model wrongly: “we can only conjecture to be without” “Experience, already reduced to a swarm of impressions,. . .ringed round for each one of us by that thick wall of personality through which no real voice has ever pierced on its way to us,” I now read. It is “experience” that lies tattered in the center, not unknowable beyond a wall in infinite space. What fixes the space in which the former experience, the swarm of impressions (whose reduction Pater describes a few sentences earlier), exists, what encases it is “that thick wall of personality,” alienating each one of us from experience. The object has a material life and we have known it, yet we have forgotten, and then relied on coarse tools to serve our memory-we leave ourselves outside. Paterian personality, then, is not an intermediary field through which all physical sensations must pass before they reach us; it does not distill our experiences into something that is uniquely our own in a valuable way. This wall bars us from our objects, and it exists apart from us, not equivalent to us, other, neither a semi-permeable membrane nor a translucent envelope. We may take Pater’s use of the passive voice to delude ourselves if we like, believing that the wall rings itself round, that this takes place in a mystical register to which we have no access, and that we are, therefore, not implicated in the scheme, but this an unwise choice.Though we have recourse to many definitions of “personality” that seem to exonerate us from guilt in our subject-object problem, we must fly over the OED’s first definition of the word to do it, which is “The quality, character, or fact of being a person as distinct from a thing: that quality or principle that makes a being personal.” The language of this entry will not pin our problem down, yet it reinforces what we have learned from Pater by differential diagnosis: personality is neither person nor thing; it distinguishes person from thing variously, taking no specific form, but never the shape of person or thing. Yet the word “personality” is a noun, which ought to limit its variety to three familiar categories, ‘person’, ‘place’, and ‘thing’. In grammar school, these categories were always presented to me in this order, and, having just written them, I realize that I have inadvertently rewritten Pater’s subject-object schematic, and that a term has shifted: the yoke of “personality” has come off the object (or ‘thing’) and now it lies between us (‘persons’) and the object in ‘place’, where I have put it myself.What is ‘place’ as distinct from ‘thing’? We are accustomed to thinking that the items of the latter category are found in instances of the former; but are ‘things’ always found in ‘places’, and never ‘places’ in ‘things’, their relationship fixed with total rigidity? Let us consider our earthly “moon,” for surely we know what sort of noun it is. Though I remember hearing tales of a man in the moon as a child, never was I told that the moon was a man; the moon is, of course, not a ‘person’. The moon, then, is a ‘place’ or it is a ‘thing’. Men have traveled to the moon, and travel is nothing but movement from one ‘place’ to another. But what was the moon before it had been visited, before an outer space was conjectured to be without our atmosphere? It was a ‘thing’ in the sky, which was a ‘place’, for it contained a ‘thing’; it was ‘the sky in which one finds the moon’ until boots struck its surface, until a flag pole pierced the dusty floor. And yet the moon has always been the moon so long as there have been people to see it. Its verbal status, much younger than the moon itself, changed over time, but its physical state did not. Such a change in the verbal status of a ‘thing’, an object, can only be made by a ‘person’, a subject. Pater’s sentence, the problem it schematizes, our subject-object problem, is fundamentally a verbal problem, for he expresses it in verbal terms, having written it in a book of essays that binds the visual discourse to the verbal: “That thick wall of personality” is built of words, and we have built it ourselves.I have been searching for pictures in this essay that I write, while my eyes have done little seeing of their own; they need a bit more practice before I can take us back to “Not Looking at Pictures,” where Forster has hung more than we have yet seen.So I have come to the Metropolitan Museum of Art on a Tuesday afternoon, accompanied by my girlfriend, Helen, who is an art history major. We are on a working date, I think, though we have come on our separate projects; different books have brought us here, hers being fewer, heavier, and more cumbersome than mine, though they are neatly illustrated: the pictures in Helen’s books are set bare upon the pages, wanting no readerly imagination to make them visual, remaining pictures when the book is shut just as easily as when the book is laid open. Her books have sentences too, but the work they do often confuses me. Whenever I look at the pages, I feel a bit strange: here is a variously colorful rectangle, and there is a monochrome block of characters; here, I presume, is ‘art’, and there, I suppose, must be ‘history’, art existing within and often representing an historical frame, these histories of art seeming at times a bit artless. Scanning the pages of Helen’s books, I am not sure that I read art history, for the prose seems largely instructive.As we walk through a gallery of post-impressionist paintings, my eyes move across the walls, in and out of pictures: I see people and things in spaces, some of which are places, a few of which are uninhabited, thing-less scenes-moving rather quickly, my eyes do not see the strokes of paint that my I’s, my writerly declarations, do upon reflection. I move nearer the wall on my left as we walk forward. My eyes move between the space in front of me and the wall, from which I now stand only a few feet; the paintings have swollen from my nearness such that my drifting eyes see no whole picture at once. Now my eyes enter a framed space: there is a beige hand, really just an outline of one, and now an arm, and now another hand-this one is much darker than the first-and they hold a baby, the lines of whose facial features are painted thickly, especially its solid black eyes that seem to stare at me. “This is a picture of a baby held by hands,” I apprehend, and my eyes depart the painting. Helen has also been looking at it.“Van Gogh,” she begins, “painted Madame Roulin and Her Baby in 1888, during his period in residence with the family. What was the first thing you saw in the painting?” I shrug.“A hand, I think, the lower of the two-that’s what I saw.”“Impossible,” she gasps. “You saw the baby’s eyes first. He made your eyes go there by painting the picture in a certain way.” Helen has begun telling me just how the dead man did it, when I interrupt, protesting that it was actually the hand I saw first, much as I agreed that the baby’s eyes are the work’s focal points. To have seen as I maintain I did is scientifically impossible, she insists; theories of color and composition, laws of optics, preclude it; the painter, knowing such principles, made rational and conscious decisions as he painted, predetermining my visual path. “You saw the baby’s eyes first,” she pronounces, “unless there’s something wrong with your eyes.”Fearing for my sight, I return home to make a study, make a curious discovery: “There is a makeshift vase of yellow flowers on my desk as I type this sentence.” That is my first impression. I read the sentence I have just written, “There is a makeshift vase of yellow flowers on my desk. . .” and it does not tell me what I know about the thing before me, which I have moved to the floor and out of sight. I saw, and I described: my description was not equivalent to what I saw; in fact, it was so poor that it was scarcely a vision of anything. Moving the item back to my desktop, I try again. “There is a makeshift vase of yellow flowers on my desk as I type this sentence whose position has changed slightly, though the change seems negligible.” “Flowers” is on my page, but it is no match for the flowers on my desk. The I’s that I have written, placed in my sentences to signify my authorial presence in the study, do not yet do enough of the work that my eyes have done with this still-life, so I keep writing. After a few pages, “flowers” and flowers seem to be converging, and I have done it. But have I surely done it myself?Taking up “Not Looking at Pictures” once more, we reenter the gallery, hurrying past a “St. George and the Dragon” that refuses to hang stably; having once appeared to be a 15th century Italian painting of unknown authorship, the object now seems to have grown 400 years younger, British, and come into a medium a bit more various than paint on canvas. We approach three objects further down the gallery hall, “Giorgionne’s Castelfranco Madonna,” “Titian’s Entombment at Venice,” and “Velasquez’s Las Meninas,” which make it necessary to perform a bit of research outside the gallery: happily, each of Forster’s “pictures” has a discrete paint-on-canvas referent in the material world, although Titian painted at least four pictures called The Entombment during his career, most of which had been “at Venice” at some point in their histories-the picture I have selected among them seems to match Forster’s description, but one cannot be sure. Having wandered our share of miles down a verbal gallery space, we are finally treated to a look at pictures.Castelfranco Madonna and The Entombment hang next to one another, that we might see how Forster’s eyes treat them. He adverts to them in his essay as examples of pictures whose composition he has learned to identify using a special tool, the diagonal line; “When I find such a line I imagine I have gutted the picture’s secret,” he writes, before moving into and rather quickly over Castelfranco Madonna, which “has such a line in the lance of the warrior-saint” (132). Here stand a knight in armor on the left and a man wearing a frock on the right before a tall platform, where a Madonna sits on a light olive throne, a rosy red robe cloth draped over her right shoulder and across her lap, on which she cradles an infant with her right hand, her left hand grasping the throne’s hard, rectangular armrest; the knight’s wooden lance, blunt end resting on a beige tile in the monochrome parquet floor, indicating about one-third of the pictures width, rises towards the picture’s upper-left corner, crossing the knight’s left forearm, grazing his iron-clad shoulder, moving just a bit behind his helmeted head, comes to a sharp gray point in the golden haze above, from which a maroon and cream flag drapes down towards the ground.We have seen the diagonal line Forster describes, though I doubt we have gutted anything; the line, the painted lines that form the lance, was surely no secret itself, but we may use it to imagine something: though he might find it against his profession, let us repeat the lance across the picture’s vertical axis, such that it falls into the priest’s right hand, which he holds, fingers open and extended, across his right breast; now we extend both lances downward-they must pierce the parquet floor, or we betray perspective-until they meet beneath the ground. Now a V-shape safeguards Madonna in her throne, and we see that she is raised high and centered. Yet Giorgionne Giorgionne painted but one lance, one narrow diagonal form, and we have gone off the lines if we imagine any more. Whatever secrets of composition Castelfranco Madonna may have held died with Giorgionne, but this is not so lamentable. As we stand before this picture, we look at it, and see that its painter has kept nothing from us.Moving our eyes a few feet across the wall, we find The Entombment, and it seems that Forster’s eyes have done good work, for he has given us a line, not merely found one, and it gives us some direction:. . .beginning high on the left with the statue of Moses, it passes through the heads of Magdalene, Mary and the dead Christ, and plunges through the body of Joseph of Arimathea into the ground. Making a right angle to it, flits the winged Genius of Burial. And to the right, apart from it, and perpendicular, balancing the Moses, towers the statue of Faith. (132)
These are prosaic lines, and yet they move our eyes through the painted picture. Forster writes that this is one of his easiest pictures, that he looks at it intelligently, that the lines he has seen and the emotional life of the picture complement one another in his mind, and yet this picture is not easy, and the work he does with it is promising. He does not attend as long as we might like him to, offering us the “grim alcove,” “sinister tusked pedestals,” and “sounds of lamentation” before giving us color, bodily situation, lighting, and the appearance of the paint itself-and it is for them that we come, as much as we had come for the sounds in “Not Listening to Music”-but Forster makes progress looking at pictures, and our appreciation does increase.Las Meninas looms nearly life-size in the distance, though we can only guess as much before walking towards it. As our feet strike the floor, we listen for our steps and cannot make them out distinctly: scuffles and screeches bounce around this box, the gallery, filling it to a capacity we did not anticipate with our eyes; we have been joined by Charles Mauron and Forster-together we approach the picture.We near the dimly lit interior space that Velasquez has painted, and I do not know where my eyes begin. Standing before this picture, we see the backside of a very tall canvas enter the frame from the left side; a man with dark chin-length hair, holding paint brush and palette, stands before the canvas, and it casts a shadow over him. Nine more figures appear to the painter’s left, positioned at different depths. Framed rectangles appear on the back wall of this space, two of which are so lit up, suggesting particular images, not just the presence of pictures. There are three girls, dwarves, two women, a man, and a dog.But how do we begin looking at this picture for its figures; how have they been arranged? There are no diagonal lines to guide us through this picture, and so we turn to one possessing the sort of “natural esthetic aptitude” that Forster says he lacks: under the tutelage of Mauron, we are to see this picture for its waves, though the painter’s brush seems to have traced no such shape; the figures’ eyes do not signify a unified path of movement; and the bodies themselves, strewn across the dull salmon floor in such various and apparently disorganized manner, do not seem to wave at all. How can Mauron go so far off the lines; what right has he to put waves in this painting, where Velasquez has painted none? Asking this question, we have stopped looking at the picture, preferring to focus our enquiry on a Velasquez whose body, his painterly mind therein, died in 1660. What we now neglect is this picture’s only knowable painter, who is represented standing before a canvas that we cannot see; let us try looking at this Velasquez.His moustache is thick and brown, nearly black, as are his eyebrows, which hang over his sharp, crisply defined eyes. Light blue sleeves ruffle out of his dark vest, belted at the waist, on which a crimson dagger shape is emblazed, pointing down to the sharply painted brush that runs through a blurry beige shape that is a hand only by virtue of the paint brush it now seems to hold; whether its blurriness represents motion, we cannot say, but this hand that paints is paint itself, taking the form of a painted shape first, and a hand second.We have found the painter in Las Meninas, and it is over his head that the wave begins, cascading downward, sweeping over the curly auburn hair of a short, pale-skinned girl who stands in profile, bent at the waist towards a tiny girl, whose chest and upper torso are wrapped tightly in a white dress with beige overtones that blooms outward at the waist, falling to the floor almost as tablecloth from a round table; a carnation fixed to her breast, head turned slightly to her left, wispy blonde hair pinned to one side and drifting down to her shoulders, covering her ears, the girl gazes in our direction. Indeed, her eyes are so deep that we might linger in them until the gallery closes; yet we fool ourselves if we remain here too long, believing that it is we who have attracted their attention, for these are not young eyes. Over her blonde head, the wave proceeds, arcing over the head of a taller girl who stands slightly behind and to the left of the blonde girl in semi-profile, her eyes also appearing to face us; atop her head one wave ends, having given us some sense of the ceiling’s height, and another begins, swooping down over a chubby-faced female dwarf who stands facing us, exiting the frame as it moves over the head of a shabbily dressed girl who stands in profile, her left foot stepping on a dog that lies on the floor, near us in the foreground. These are waves, we must remember, not two-dimensional curvilinear outlines; they have depth, and we see one nearing us as it moves from the painter to a blonde girl, receding from us as it passes over her rightmost attendant, nearing us again as it passes over the dwarf and out of the frame. We see a small shallow wave moving across the floor, from the right edge of the painter’s canvas to the central blonde girl’s hanging dress, to the dog’s paws: this movement carves the picture’s foreground space, and, seeing that it is but a portion of the space Velasquez has painted, we may appreciate what a deep space this is.All of this seeing follows from Mauron’s “cautiously underlined” themes, and it has helped us to look at this picture, though we have gutted no secret, and more remains to be seen. We still need help seeing the picture for what it is, an enormous painted canvas. Looking for the picture’s paint, we can scarcely find any such as a brushstroke might have left. An art history text book attributes this paucity of stroke to “optical realism,” and Forster calls it the picture’s “snap-shot quality,” but neither term sits very well with me; if the painting looks the way it does because of optical devices, these glass eyes surely have a strange way of seeing, and if such a lens could be fitted to a camera. . . . Let us speak no more of the camera, for the picture has been painted, and we get ourselves in the way if we try to shoot it. Though the paint may be difficult to see, looking at the picture, we do see what the painter has painted: there is the painter himself, the subject, standing off to the side, behind his easel, the canvas placed between we who look at the painting and he who paints; and there are his objects, front and center, that he may paint them and we may look at them. What we do not see is a mirror in which the painter might find his objects, and though we might conjecture it to be without the frame, we cannot know its size, shape or location; were the easel within the picture flipped round, we might guess at the mirror’s attributes and position, but, as a museum guard taps our shoulders, we remember that only one picture stands before us, and that its flipside is bare.It has got late, and the hour has come to leave the gallery. We retrace our steps towards the exit, our eyes now following our feet, too tired to run the walls one last time. Walking, our eyes shut; we hear a new music, our steps beating regularly, keeping time for the voices that surround us. These objects we have attended will sing all night-we may depend on it. Tomorrow, they will have new listeners, and there may be more song; tonight we leave our objects, not alone, but to themselves.As we walk down the gallery’s concrete steps towards the avenue, no longer considering pictures, feeling a bit hungry and wondering where we might eat, not watching our feet as they shuffle towards the sidewalk, now feeling a bit relieved that our eyes’ work is done, a city bus enters our field of view. It rumbles up to the curb, heaving to a halt; we hear a hissing, as the bus’s suspension lowers it to the ground; the doors fly open, and a few passengers exit. The bus’s doors close, it lunges from the curb, and we see a thin rectangular space pulling away from us: here was color, here was shape, here was text before the bus left us for its next stop; it had been an advertisement, perhaps one we had seen before, not likely worth our time or attention. Sitting down on the steps only moments later, the entire bus has become a problem. And yet buses do not become problems; buses are always buses, though they may seem problematic when we encounter them ourselves. Bringing our selves to bear on these objects, in the gallery or on the street, whether by accident or by choice, we begin to realize our subject-object problem. The gallery closes, the bus leaves for good, but the problem will not, cannot leave us. Our objects come and they go, only to be replaced by new ones. We are our selves, and though we may not know who we are or what we are like, we are present, wherever we might find ourselves, whatever objects complicate our presence. “Not looking at art leads to one goal only,” ends “Not Looking at Pictures”; “Looking at it leads to so many” (134). Looking at Forster’s art has led us, I think. But even as the body of a text offers up its last contour, though we say we have read this essay, looked at that painting, watched an ordinary city bus make a stop and considered the event no further, we find a conclusion only where we have tired of working. Looking at an artful essay, not just reading one and considering it read, we must know that the work we do as readers does not end on the last page: if we strive to be led, we will find ourselves moved from the end to the beginning anew; we will not only re-read, but re-see the text with older, wiser eyes, with a set of readerly expectations that have been transformed by the text that we read. If my essay truly ends with this sentence, I have done a poor job of writing it.Works CitedForster, E.M. Two Cheers for Democracy. New York and London: Harcourt, 1951.Giorgionne. Castelfranco Madonna. Oil on wood. Duomo, Castelfranco Veneto, ca. 1506.Pater, Walter. Selected Writings of Walter Pater, Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Columbia, 1974.Titian, The Entombment. Oil on Canvas. Madrid, 1576.Velasquez, Diego. Las Meninas. Oil on canvas. Madrid, 1656.

Descriptive Narrative: The Wash Pub

Descriptive Narrative: The Wash Pubthe noise. This place sounds more like a bar than a laundry mat. There is music playing,beeping from the arcade games, a metal fan going, tumbling noises from the dryers, andwet clothes being thrown around in the washers. I can barely keep my train of thought.The humidity in the room made it very uncomfortable. The smell on the other hand isgreat it smells so clean and warm. The room was filled with many different people.There were college students, families, people that were by themselves, screaming babiesand a few senior citizens. The room is fairly large with dinghy white walls that have amoldy green border running along the bottom. The floor is covered with white vinyl tilesthat have hints of blue in it and about twenty empty laundry baskets. You probablywould never notice the blue though due to hundreds of black scuffs and old dirty gumthat covered most of the floor. The ceiling looks very industrial much like one thatwould be in a warehouse or factory. It is made up of tons of black metal pipes. To theleft of the front doors is a huge bulletin bored displaying a variety of signs advertisingeverything from used cars to Avon products. There is also a gigantic world atlas on thewall that is only partly visible because of the three arcade games standing in its way.Hanging from the ceiling there is a t.v monitor playing the news. In front of the arcadegames is a round wooden table accompanied by two dark green plastic chairs and a cokemachine with a faint buzz. To the right of the doors there is a large window that canbarely be seen out of. In front of the window is a green newspaper stand and ten redtwenty-five cent machines that contain an assortment of different candies and fakejewelry. In the clutter of twenty five-cent machines stands a tall beige scale that claimsto be able to tell your fortune by your weight. Behind that mess is another round woodentable surrounded by three more dark green lawn chairs. Sitting beside the table is a largeroaring metal fan. Hanging above the table is a surveillance camera an another t.vmonitor that displays what the camera picks up. In the center of the room there is amuddle of noisy washing machines. In both the first and last rows are ten white washingmachines similar to household ones. Between the white washers are fourteen stainlesssteel washing machines and a small lounge area. These washers are not similar tohousehold ones. They look like huge metal boxes and have a round clear window thatreveals the inside of the washer. The lounge is in the middle of the steel washingmachines and enclosed by wood railing that has two openings to get in it. A blue tweedcarpet that looks worn covers the floor. The lounge also contains two round woodentables and four blue chairs where college kids can do their homework or just stare at thewet laundry swirling around through the clear windows in the steel washers. On the backwall there is a detergent vending machine called “The Soap Stop” that dispenses manydifferent kinds of detergent and fabric softeners. Beside “The Soap Stop” is changemachine that is black with a big green money symbol on it. There are two wooden doorsin the back of the room. One is labeled with the word women in black lettering and theother labeled men. On the wall to the right are fourteen dryers that are built into the walland warm to touch when in use. Above the dryers are a few signs with warnings anddisclaimers on them. On the other wall are eleven more built in dryers. A few of thesedryers are labeled with signs that say out of order. Finally above these dryers there is aplain round clock similar to the ones you would see in a classroom. As I walked out thedouble glass doors I was filled with relief. The clutter of the room was distracting anddifficult to write about. The noises in the room were becoming unbearable so it felt goodto now hear nothing but a few crickets chirping and some leaves blowing in the wind.Bibliography:

Free College Admissions Essays: A Mind Expanding Experience

A Mind Expanding ExperienceIn reflecting upon my experiences in Singapore, I have nothing but good things to say. Overall, it was a most valuable experience, and I hope I have other such opportunities in my life. First of all, I truly enjoyed the chance to travel overseas to a place full of diversity and excitement. I have not traveled overseas before, and this experience was incredibly worthwhile. Being able to say that I have gone where few people in Duluth have traveled is extraordinary! In the past, I have seen the East Coast, the majority of the South, parts of the Midwest, and many provinces in Canada, but never a greater change in landscape, culture, and education as I did in Singapore. It was an utterly remarkable trip! Secondly, I had the opportunity to meet many new people in Singapore — even people from different parts of the United States. I have made numerous new acquaintances and good friends all from distinct places in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of my precious new friends come from Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia, just to name a few. We were able to communicate well with each other; thus, we shared much laughter, ideas, wisdom, and camaraderie during those two weeks. Furthermore, it was a pleasant change to have the majority of students, especially the Asians, be polite and mannerly — something that is not always existent in our American lifestyle. For example, the young men many times offered me their seats if I did not have one, or if I happened to be in line to get a beverage and was trying to balance a plate of food as well, the person in front of myself would offer me his or her full cup and take my empty one for his or herself! It was quite nice to have the men acting like gentlemen, which everyone should have the courtesy to do, whether they reside in America or in the Asia-Pacific region. The people at this function were again extremely kind, helpful, and conversant, and it made my trip ever so much more gratifying and amusing! Thirdly, I was exposed to an entirely different culture, as previously mentioned. One astounding feature for myself was to be put in a minority situation. In the United States, the Caucasian race comprises the majority of the population, with African-Americans, Asian-Americans, Native Indians, and Hispanic-Americans each encompassing only a portion of the society. In Singapore, Asian is the dominant race, completely inverting the circumstance in the United States. In fact, being part of a minority completely changed my outlook while I was in Singapore. Before traveling there, I had a fixed idea of what every Asian was like. I did not realize that every person there is just as unique as anyone here in America is! Being in Singapore made me change my perspective on the Asian individual and their lifestyles. I now have a greater understanding of the culture, daily life, and education. In addition, I also had the opportunity to participate in the Homestay Program. During those hours with my host, I again had the chance to witness the Asian and Singaporean existence. While with my host, I saw local markets, shopping areas, the inside of a Singaporean flat, ate true Chinese and Indian cooking, and overall had a wonderful time experiencing the “real” Singapore. The Cultural Exchange performances were also exhilarating and intriguing. I was able to see native dress, dance, and music that I would normally not have seen otherwise. The performances were quite dramatic, but it gave me a true sense of the abundance of tradition and customs upheld in these Asia-Pacific economies. The Singaporean civilization is quite different than northern Minnesota, yet it has a unique and phenomenal personality all its own! The major opportunity I received in Singapore was the chance to learn. It is impossible to recount all of the experiences I had with intelligent people, exciting sites, and the shared wisdom between participants and myself, but I will try to give an overview of all the significant happenings. Firstly, the learning began even before my arrival in Singapore! In San Francisco, during our orientation and preparation, I had the pleasure to hear Donald L. Dahlsten speak on biological control. His presentation was very interesting as I have not done research in this area, and I did not know the extent to which biological control is utilized. Next, upon my arrival in Singapore, I heard from Teo Chee Hean, Minister for Education and Second Minister for Defense, and others, at the opening ceremony. Hearing from these speakers was engaging and informative, and I learned even more the magnitude of APEC, the Youth Science Festival, and the work towards educating the young minds of today on science and technology! From there I saw displays from area students and the participating economies on their work in the science and engineering fields. It was interesting to see the diversity of each country’s and each student’s work. One of the most beautiful places where I learned during my stay in Singapore was the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. It is the highest point in Singapore (164 meters) and one of only two locations in the world that has a piece of primary rainforest right in the heart of a city! The scenery was beautiful and the spot was perfect to prepare a presentation on the Nature Reserve. My group then presented our Power Point display to other groups who had traveled to different sites. In addition to experiencing the lush rainforest of Bukit Timah, I also had the chance to hear about other localities. These included the Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research and MacRitchie Reserve Park. All of the tours taken by every group demonstrated how nature can survive in the midst of a bustling city. The next day I heard lectures from renowned scientists and scholars. In particular, I listened to Professor Kevin Warwick and Professor Casey Chan Kwan-Ho. Professor Kevin Warwick, of the United Kingdom, spoke about super intelligent machine and cyborgs, and the role they may play in the future. He believes that combining technology into humans may be the best way to progress into the future— electronics in the brain controlling movements, using thoughts to move and perform certain tasks, etc. The second speaker, Prof. Casey Chan, talked about how to successfully invent, patent, and market a product. One of the most important things to remember, he said, is persistence because that makes all things possible in the world of inventing! That day I also went to Little India on my Heritage Trails. We visited a Hindu temple, a parrot astrologer, spice and garland shops, and other interesting sites. Other great places I visited during the week were the Singapore Science Centre, the Nanyang Technological University, and the National University of Singapore, and I also heard another lecture, this time about the Human Genome Project from Professor Lap-Chee Tsui. Although all of these experiences left my mind full of enlightenment, none were quite so beneficial as the Youth Science Summit. My group was in the theme conference of Diseases. Our conference paper was on HIV/AIDS and the potential solutions to this worldwide problem. One of solutions, also voted one of the best two solutions in our conference, was a new prototype of a HIV vaccine where a protein coat from RNA in the HIV disease is extracted and put into E. Coli where it multiplies and forms antibodies which are subsequently injected back into the body in a purified form as a vaccination. Listening to the other groups presentations, I was able to learn a multitude of information about copious diseases, including malaria, genetic abnormalities, and lifestyle diseases. During this summit, all of the conference’s participants discussed critical disease issues, made recommendations, and proposed solutions to the ever-present disease problems that will be facing us, as adults, in the future. As you can see, I learned so many useful ideas, problems, solutions, and facts during this very short stay in Singapore! It was an honor to be selected by AAAS to travel to Singapore on this fantastic science journey. I learned ever so many things about the culture (including the traditions, customs, and day-to-day life of a Singaporean), about the manners and personalities of the Asia-Pacific people, and the up-to-date occurrences and facts on some of the most important science and technology issues. In its entirety, the trip to Singapore was most beneficial, not to mention fun! I believe that this trip and the multitudinous things that I learned will stay with me forever and moreover, will be extremely instrumental in the years to come!

Why The Banjo Makes America Great

Do you know what a banjo is? In case you don’t, a banjo is a four to six stringed instrument with a drum for a head. You probably know that is it played in country and bluegrass bands and might be seen in hillbilly movies. Unfortunately, you might also believe that it’s an annoying instrument and has no place in music today. This just may change your mind.
It was invented in the early 1800’s by African slaves imitating instruments from their own country. The instrument most likely imitated was the banjar which was commonly made from a hollowed out gourd. Because of its origins, the banjo was an instrument untouched by white society until, according to drhorsehair.com, “A young man named Joel Walker Sweeney, of Appomattox Court House, VA, learned to play a four- string gourd banjo at age 13, from the black men working on his father’s farm.” When he was older, Joel added a shorter fifth string to the banjo, and started to tour. Until this time, all performances on the banjo seem to have been from black players. Joel started to travel around the country playing his banjo. This was the first time a banjo had preformed in concert halls and people found it new and exciting. The banjo continued to increase in popularity from here on out. Soon minstrel and darkie bands popped up all over the country and performed in crowded concert halls, saloon theatres, wherever they were needed. Darkie bands were called so because they rubbed burnt cork on their face to appear as if they were from the Deep South. In 1857, minstrel banjo playing reached a high point as the first banjo contest ever was held in New York City. Over half the city attended this stunning event, in which, everyone was cheering and shouting for their favorite banjo player creating a huge uproar. The winner of this competition was a man named Tom Briggs who played for the Christy Minstrels. He was sent on a tour to California, where he and his band would go on tour. Unfortunately, on the boat trip through Panama, Briggs contracted a fever of which he died shortly before he arrived. A few years after this event, the Civil War began and spread the banjo even further.
During the Civil War, many banjo players joined in both the Confederate and Union armies. The players who joined were mostly amateurs and taught each other the banjo for enjoyment between fighting. Throughout the war, banjoists were constantly sought out for units because during the lulls between battles there wasn’t anything to do other than listen to music. A banjo was a valuable spoil when found among the dead, even if you couldn’t play it. If you had the good fortune to find one, chances were that if you didn’t know how to play it, someone in your brigade could teach you. Because of the reaches of the American Civil War, the banjo spread west further than it had gone before. According to drhorsehair.com,” The minstrel show, playing the popular music of the day, continued to be the biggest influence on the popularity of the banjo, not only in the West, but in the entire nation, as well as England and Australia. Of course, the most popular minstrel troupes, like Christy’s Minstrels, Buckley’s Serenaders, The Congo Melodists, and The Virginia Minstrels, to name a few, remained on Broadway in New York and other big Eastern cities where they reigned for fifty years.” The banjo also returned to the mining camps out west and could be heard at night around the fires in camps. If a town was large enough to have a theatre, opera house, or show hall, or even a saloon with a stage, chances are that there was a banjo in there and chances were that it would fill the hall. In fact, some of the high-class member in American society believed that the banjo should be an orchestra instrument.
Probably the most drastic change in banjo history was influenced greatly by a man named Earl Scruggs, a man who began playing the banjo at an early age. Earl learned the style that was relatively common in his native town of Flint Hill, North Carolina; a style called three finger picking. The banjo was usually strummed upon but the three finger style made sharp crisp notes and was similar to the way a fiddle is played. By the time earl was in the 3rd grade he had already designed his own banjo tunes. Before World War Two, Earl was a professional musician who worked with his brothers. During the war, he quit to work in a textile mill. After the war, he joined a band called the Bluegrass boys led by Bill Monroe. This is where he became famous and changes the banjo forever. The banjo used to be a supporting instrument and got very little spotlight time. However, when Scruggs got his spotlight, according to http://www.musicianguide.com, “Scruggs was dead serious in the spotlight, and the avalanche of notes that cascaded from his banjo astounded audiences. Neil V. Rosenberg notes in Stars of Country Music that Scruggs’s version of banjo picking “sounded fresh, new, and exciting, especially at the higher pitch and tempos of the Blue Grass Boys.” Monroe was quick to capitalize on the talents of his young protege. Malone writes: “In the three-year period from 1945 to 1948 the banjo assumed a prominence in Monroe’s music that it had never enjoyed in any previous band…. Throughout the nation, largely unnoticed by the more commercial world of country music, a veritable ‘bluegrass revolution’ got underway as both fans and musicians became attracted to the music.” The Bluegrass Boys were always a favorite on the Grand Ole Opry, a radio show broadcast from Nashville, Tennessee, that has been continuously running since 1925. In 1948, Scruggs formed his own band called “Flatt and Scruggs and the Foggy Mountain Boys” The banjo quickly became the lead intrument in bluegrass music. They wrote the theme song for the Beverly Hillbillies and regularly starred as guests on the show, usually being introduced as a cousin or uncle. By 1963, “Flatt and Scruggs” was as popular as Coca-Cola. In 1968, the movie Bonnie and Clyde was realeased in the US immortalizing the two criminals life and ironically the banjo. Earl Scruggs had written a score for the movie called Foggy Mountain Breakdown. This is the song that is considered epitome of banjo music. With a fast pace, difficult riffs, pinches, hammers, and pulls, Foggy Mountain Breakdown is known as the hardest tune to play on the banjo as well as on many other instruments. Today, any bluegrass band worth their snot can play this song.
From Joel Sweeney to Earl Scruggs, the banjo has had an amazing, but little known history. It has been slandered, beaten, and spat upon by people who don’t understand it’s interesting nature. It has travelled over seas and has camped in the desert. It is an instrument to which we owe many folk songs and country bands. In fact, the banjo dominated over a century of music. Where it will go next, no one knows.

Listeners

ListenersMy hands were dirty. I was playing in the mud with the Dolinger’s up the street when I heard the bell ringing faintly in the distance. It was time to go home. A sweet soft summer breeze pushed me down Delaware Av. to my house on the corner. This same warm fresh breath of air then gracefully passed through the windows of my living room and finally escaped my home overflowing with music.
I walked into a dark and cool living room, my sisters not far behind me. We were immediately greeted with the pleasantly pungent odor of cigar smoke and the powerful music of Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue. My dad was lying on the couch, his eyes closed, listening. Only the light above the kitchen stove was on.
He would invite and encourage us to listen with him. Since we were only 5 and 6 we would naturally prefer to mindlessly watch the Brady Bunch. But on occasion, I remember sitting and listening with him. I remember dancing around the room or lying on cool hardwood floors. I remember feeling the vibrations of the speakers through the floor, tickling my body, imprinting the notes on my soul. My dad provided an environment in which we might learn to appreciate the enriching sounds of various musical genius’s from Copland to the Grateful Dead. He gave me an amazing gift, the opportunity to learn how to simply listen.
Sweets sounds, melodies, rhythms and beats, have been changing and growing for as long as man has walked the earth. Music is not just a pastime or entertainment, but a method of communication, of identification, of bonding, and learning about other people and cultures around the world. As I grew older, I learned that music or rather the listeners of such enrapturing sounds, make up a very powerful and unique community.
Music has always been apart of my life. However, it did not begin to recognizably contribute to my own personal development until sixth grade when my then best friend of six years, Colleen, and I began to “travel down two different paths”. While I was beginning to seriously commit my time to dance, she was going to cheerleading. When she quit the band, I decided to continue on with the Orchestra. Our interests and tastes had begun to diversify with the most significant difference being what we enjoyed listening to. I was beginning to listen to the music of such performers as Hot Tuna and Prince while she was going to see the Spice Girls, Backstreet Boys, and N’SYNC. Moreover I was beginning to feel a strong preference to not listen to generic and formulated music.
By the time I entered high school I was beginning to listen to a lot of classic rock. I remember lying on my bed, looking up at the skylight, listening to the music of The Doors, Cream, Grateful Dead, Led Zeppelin, and Jimi Hendrix. I would often wear a big black clunky pair of headphones which were almost as comforting as the music itself, sealing of the outside world from the experience I was having with the music.
Now it is one thing to listen to music alone, but the true art of listening is achieved only when you learn the importance of sharing the sweet sounds with someone else. Moreover, this realization allowed me to begin to build relationships and friendships with people who also loved music. As I look back at my high school experience, I now realize that the majority of my close friendships were the product of shared listening. I also found that I was deeply attracted to individuals who were listening to something I had never known existed.
It was sophomore year, winter. I was standing outside the gym in my black spandex and a grey sweatshirt. I had just come in from running a warm up mile and was conversing with several other members of the indoor track team. And there he was. He was tall and had thick afro-ish curly blond hair, a quirky smile, a contagious laugh, and was wearing a most amusing beat up black shirt with the chest of a skeleton appropriately printed on. I was drawn to this friendly figure and approached him.
“What are you listening too?” I asked.
He looked down at me and smiled, “Jimi Hendrix man, Driving South for sure.” We introduced ourselves and the conversation evolved into an interesting conversation of music ranging from classical to psychedelic. By the time our coach had come gave us our workout for the day, Chris and I had agreed that we were going to have a radio show the following year. And that was that, I had just made a strong friendship that still remains today.
Chris and I did not necessarily listen to the same kind of music all the time. In fact, we both listened to a lot of different bands and musicians that we had each never heard of before we had shared the music with the other. Every Tuesday of that following spring we would come together after school, our arms filled with CD cases. We would dump all the music on the counter of a 10 × 6 room filled with sound equipment. We had an exceptionally long slot which begun at 2:30 and would last as long as five and a half hours. Our music lay strategically placed around us. He would take the switchboard and I would answer the calls.
And thus we would begin our ritual. We would listen. Sometimes we put on a full album, perhaps the Pink Floyd’s Dark Side of the Moon or Meddle or The Who’s Tommy and just go sit out on the sunken couches in the “living room” of the radio station and just talk. We would talk about what we wanted to play next, what happened in school that day, or enjoy the quiet silence of simply listening to some amazing music.
Chris and I and whatever was playing at the time made up a beautiful, magical, and extremely unique community. We would come together and share our thoughts, our music, and ourselves. Moreover, we actually had a “listening community”. We would often get calls from students or middle age men, all who identified with the music we were playing. We were friends who were friends of other listeners and we all knew that no matter what drama was going on that week we would always have music. We had our radio show, the method of meeting for our community to sit back and listen. We had a lot of favorite friends. Frank Zappa would visit on occasion with Sifl and Ollie, “the talking socks”. Coldplay would often follow in behind Ben Harper and then David Bowie would come in to wind up the show after Classic Kennedy. And then we would put Echoes on at the end of every show. Yes, the echoes run through my head.
So where is the music? Music lies in the background of everyone’s lives. When you are watching T.V., there is music in commercials and in the opening credits of your favorite show. There are even whole cable stations that devote their programming to music. When you are pushing your cart around Walmart or Superfresh, you are listening to some radio station projected through the speakers throughout the store. When you are driving in your car or riding on the bus, you are most likely listening to music. Even when you are walking to class or working out in the gym, you are listening to music. We are surrounded my music constantly.
Music is in all our lives. Those who truly listen, listen with others and are sharing similar experiences. Listening is a community that exists beyond culture, age, race or gender. Listening has no boundaries, no right, and no wrong. You need to feel it, accept it, and enjoy those sweet sounds. It is a community that everyone has the opportunity to be apart of in their own willingness to take the time to really embrace what this masterful art has to share with you. And it is this community of listeners that I know will always be there, no matter where I am, because they are always out there, the listeners. All you have to do is ask, “What kind of music do you listen to?”

music history

An orchestra is an organized body of bowed string instruments, with more than one player to a part, to which may be added wind and percussion instruments.In the Greek theater the term denoted the semi-circular space in front of the stage where the chorus sang and danced; in the Roman theater is was reserved for the Senators’ seats,Throughout the years the size and strength of orchestras across the world have varied. In the mid-18th century the orchestra of the Berlin Opera had 12 violins, 4 violas, 4 cellos, and 3 double basses; 4 flutes, 4 oboes, and pairs of bassoons and horns. Such instruments as trumpets and drums were engaged as needed. A century later in Dresden the court orchestra employed 16 violins—4 each of violas, cellos, and double basses; 4 each of flutes, oboes, and clarinets and 3 bassoons; 5 horns, 4 trumpets, 3 trombones, and timpani. During the same time the London Philharmonic seemed to strive for a far richer sound, engaging 16 first violins, 16 second violins, 10 violas, 8 cellos, and 7 double basses; 3 flutes and pairs of oboes, clarinets, and bassoons; 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, and timpani.
Between Beethoven’s first and ninth symphonies (1800 and 1823) and Schubert’s first and ninth (1813 and 1828), the concept of the symphony orchestra was expanded and enlarged. Over the course of the three decades, the orchestra became a vehicle for expressing a composer’s most serious thoughts and not simply an instrument heard in secondary role in the church, the theater, and at festive entertainment’s. But in the later 19th century such symphonic composers as Anton Bruckner (1824—96) and Gustav Mahler (1860—1911) significantly expanded the orchestra’s size.
Orchestra sizes reached its highest in the early 20th century with such works as Arnold Schoenberg’s ‘Gurrelieder’ (1901), scored for massive orchestra, and Gustav Mahler’s ’ Symphony No. 8 ‘, the “Symphony of a Thousand.” The American composer Roger Sessions wrote his ’Symphony No. 2’ (1946) for the 100-plus members of the New York Philharmonic, and the spirit of this lush, romantic work was carried on in the 1960s and 1970s by such composers as David del Tredici and Jacob Druckman, whose works are said to belong to the “new romanticism.”
Because wind parts are performed by a single musician apiece, the number of wind players has remained minimal since the 19th century, but the size of the string section has fluctuated widely among orchestras. In the symphony engaged by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), there are 20 first violins, 18 seconds, 14 violas, 12 cellos, and 8 double basses. In a great American ensemble such as the Philadelphia Orchestra, there are 17 first violins, 16 seconds, 12 violas, 12 cellos, and 8 double basses, providing a rich and forceful sound. A reason for these expanded contemporary string sections can be found both in the larger size of today’s concert halls—auditoriums regularly seat more than 3,000 people.

The Uses of Design and Language in the Creation of DVD Covers

The Uses of Design and Language in the Creation of DVD Covers- Around the character on the front cover we can see names of all the
stars that are in this film, the title of the film, any awards the
film has won, and there are also warning on the front cover because of
the amount of language, violence and nudity within the film.
- The back cover carries a blurb of the film, stills from the film and
lists any and all special features theDVDhas.
- There are also a lot of promotions for Eminem’s songs and music
videos, which will further promote both his rap and film careers.
Setting:
- Eminem sitting down by himself writing on his hand, he is most
probably writing song lyrics, as he is a rap icon and this film is
based around rap battles
Props:
- The only visible prop in the shot is the pen that Eminem is writing
on his hand with. This is representational of the characters lifestyle
in the film as an up and coming rapper
Non-verbal-communication:
- Eminem has a very determined, concentrated look on his face, this
may have to do with the fact he is writing song lyrics on his hand and
is concentrating on them.
- The dark tone of theDVDcover is also representative of the dark
tone of the film, which highlights Eminem’s characters hardships and
his poor quality of life.
Dress Codes:
- Eminem is dressed all in black, which is quite representative of the
black culture in which Eminem’s character and Eminem himself lives in.
- The dark clothes that Eminem wears on theDVDcover accurately
reflects the dark tone of the film
Audience:
It is clearly stated on theDVDcover that this film is intended for a
more mature audience (ages 15+) due to the amount of language, nudity
and violence contained within the film.
This particular film will appeal to fans of Eminem and his music, and
fans of rap culture in general. Also the film deals with a lot of
black culture, which will appeal to a more ethnically diverse
audience.
Narrative:
The blurb on the back of theDVDcover clearly describes the narrative
of the film, yet only gives us a taster in order to hook the audience
into wanting to watch the whole film.
Genre:
The genre of the film is anchored in the image on the front cover.
Eminem is a famous rap star and the front cover clearly depicts him
writing on his hand, strongly suggesting to us that this film will be
rap orientated, which is incidentally described to us on the back of
theDVDcover.
Construction:
Mise-en-scene:
- The front cover of theDVDis taken up with a close up shot of Cate
Blanchett’s character in the film, Charlotte Gray.
- Text underneath the image on the front cover tells us the title of
the film, the actors starring in the film, the film company that
produced the film, and the tagline for the film “She put her life on
the line to find the man she loved”
- The back cover of theDVDgives us a synopsis of the film, tells us
the special features on theDVD, and it has endorsements for the novel
“Charlotte Gray” and another novel by the same author.
- There is a silhouette on the back of theDVDof a man and a woman
hugging each other.
Setting:
- The film itself is set in 1943 during world war two, this is stated
on the back of theDVD- We can see the couple on the back of theDVDcover hugging on a
desolate dirt road with bare trees nearby, suggesting its autumn.
- The war theme of the film is emphasised by the fighter planes in the
image with spotlights below them.
Props:
- There are no props to speak of on thisDVDcover
Non-verbal-communication:
- The couple hugging in the background suggests that this film will be
a love story
- The soft colours don’t suggest an action film, which is typical of
the World War 2 genre.
- The determined look on Cate Blanchett’s face is very representative
of the struggle she will undergo in the film.
Dress Codes:
- There are no real visible dress codes to speak of except that the
clothing worn looks typical of the time in which the film is set
Audience:
This film will appeal to all fans of the Charlotte Gray book and any
fans of the books author. A largely female audience will be interested
in this film because of the strong female representation within the
film.
Also, this film will appeal to a largely British audience because of
both the British film company that produced this film (film four) and
the strong British roots within the film.
Narrative:
The synopsis on the back of theDVDcover clearly describes the
narrative of the film, yet only gives us a taster in order to hook the
audience into wanting to watch the whole film.
Genre:
The genre of the film is anchored in the images seen on theDVDcover.
We can see a close up image of the protagonist of the film on the
front cover, the tag line strongly suggests that this film will be a
love story, this is backed up by the image of the couple hugging on
the back on theDVDcover.
The fighter planes and spotlights on the back of theDVDcover enforce
the World War 2 aspect of the film.

College: Time To Finally “shed My Skin”

College is the greatest opportunity in the world. Where else would I be able to study what I want to study, rather than what I am made to study? Nothing sounds better to me than going to school everyday and learning about subjects and issues than I am realy interested in.In college I intend to major in psychology and minor in music. I have chosen psychology because I am interested in studying the human mind and why people behave and act the way they do. I am interested in working with children and adolescent at risk. I am almost certain that this will be a profession I will love and feel good about. I wish to minor in music because I love music and have a need to learn more about it. If possible, I plan to combine these two areas of study in my future career. Perhaps in the field of music therapy.

The Elements of Writing

Elements of writting2. Writer’s Goal By art to attain simplicity.3. A good style is simple and powerful, like a wave breaking on a beach.4. Simplicity La Bruyère, knowing that many writers make the mistake of expressing simple things in a complex way, gave this advice to writers: “if you want to say that it is raining, say: ‘It is raining’.” Simplicity is the mark of good prose, and it’s also a virtue in other branches of culture, such as architecture. The chief virtue of Greek architecture is simplicity.The Greeks regarded simplicity as both a cultural virtue and a moral virtue. “Beauty of style,” wrote Plato, “and harmony and grace and good rhythm depend on simplicity—I mean the true simplicity of a rightly and nobly ordered mind and character.”(1) If there is one quality that is lacking in modern art, in modern architecture, and in the modern soul, it is simplicity.5. Clarity Serious writers strive to be understood, strive for clarity. Bad writers, on the other hand, aren’t afraid of being obscure as long as they can make the reader think, “What an extensive vocabulary! What learning! What talent!” The surest sign of bad prose is the use of uncommon words where common words would suffice.Clarity can be achieved by the repetition of certain words. Repetition is more comprehensible for the reader than variety. As Anatole France said, “You will find in my paragraphs a word that comes over and over again. That is the leit-motiv of the symphony. Be careful not to delete and replace it by a synonym.”(2) One of the most common stylistic mistakes is avoiding repetition, and replacing a previously-used word with a synonym.
But clarity alone doesn’t make good prose; clarity must be combined with brevity. Good prose is so concise that every word has the importance of an italicized word.6. Five Techniques A good writer makes skillful use of five techniques: he addresses someone, gives orders, asks questions, makes exclamations, and repeats certain words. Addressing someone is sometimes described as the vocative case, while ordering someone, telling someone what to do, is sometimes described as the imperative case.Shakespeare uses the vocative case, followed by the imperative case, when he makes Juliet say, “Romeo, doff thy name.” Melville gives us an example of exclamation when he writes, “Nantucket! Take out your map and look at it.” This passage also uses the imperative case. Thoreau gives us an example of the repetition of certain words when he writes, “Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity! I say, let your affairs be as two or three, and not a hundred or a thousand.” This passage also uses exclamation. In one line of poetry, Virgil uses three techniques: he repeats a word, he addresses someone, and he asks a question: “Ah, Corydon, Corydon, what madness seized you?”(3) In a passage in his novel, The Castle, Kafka uses four techniques: he addresses someone, asks a question, makes an exclamation, and repeats certain words: “Do you hear that, Frieda? It’s about you that he, he, wants to speak to Klamm, to Klamm!”7. Best Style Though it’s possible to lay down rules for style, though it’s possible to describe the ideal style, it’s impossible to teach someone to write great prose. Style is an expression of personality. Great prose writers don’t follow rules, they follow their taste. Great prose writers are born, not made.Style and content are of equal importance; literature is a combination of style and content. Only a philistine would overlook style, and only a pedant would overlook content. If style is pursued for its own sake, it becomes artificial; style should be the vehicle of thought. In order to write well, one must have something to say. If one has something to say, if one has profound ideas and strong convictions, style comes naturally. Great thinkers are great stylists, and great stylists are great thinkers. Plato, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche are considered models of Greek style, Danish style and German style respectively, and they’re also the deepest thinkers that those three nations have produced. Emerson is the deepest thinker that America has produced, and also America’s best prose writer.8. Nicknames, store names, and advertising are the poetry of everyday life, and one finds in them many of the techniques that one finds in poetry.9. Reader and Writer Reading is often a kind of friendship. The reader gets to know the author, and if he likes him, if he feels akin to him, a kind of friendship develops. (The saying “opposites attract” may apply to love, but it doesn’t apply to friendship; friendship is based on kinship, on similarity of character.) Sometimes reading leads to actual friendship, friendship between living people; Emerson and Carlyle, for example, became friends after Emerson read Carlyle’s writings. More often, however, reading leads to friendship at a distance—a distance in space or a distance in time.The writer is sometimes a father figure rather than a friend. Shakespeare was a father figure to Goethe, and Schopenhauer was a father figure to Nietzsche. When a young reader idolizes a writer, he often wants to imitate the writer, to model his whole life after the writer. The young Victor Hugo, for example, said that he wanted to be “Chateaubriand or nothing.” The young reader envies the accomplishments of the writer he admires, he wants to accomplish as much himself, and he’s discouraged when he thinks of the great distance that separates him from the writer he admires. Like a hiker setting out to climb Mt. Everest, he feels that he must work hard, and strain himself to the breaking point, in order to reach his goal.
The sons of today are the fathers of tomorrow, and the youth who reveres a writer may someday become a revered writer himself. Nietzsche realized that he would someday be an idolized and envied father figure, just as Schopenhauer had been a father figure to him. Thus, Nietzsche makes the young man say to Zarathustra, “it is envy of you which has destroyed me.”(4) While self-satisfaction makes life easy and pleasant, envy makes life difficult and painful. Greatness is forged in suffering. Dissatisfaction with oneself, coupled with reverence for someone else, spurs one to great accomplishments. Envy has positive effects when it aims not to lower someone else to your level, but rather to raise yourself to someone else’s level. Every great man was once a youth who envied someone else, was dissatisfied with himself, and was spurred to great accomplishments by his envy and dissatisfaction. Every great man was once a youth who revered greatness.10. What is the purpose of literature? The purpose of literature, like the purpose of art in general, is to make life more palatable to people, more interesting, richer. Art provides pleasure, stimulation, inspiration. Art doesn’t have to teach, it doesn’t have to be moral or religious or political or philosophical. There are great imaginative writers who don’t teach us anything, just as a composer of music doesn’t teach us anything.11. Is Beauty Universal? Beauty is neither universal nor timeless, it fades with distance and time. An imaginative writer from ancient Greece has little appeal for most modern readers; ancient Greek writers appeal only to scholars. Likewise, Shakespeare will someday appeal only to scholars. Westerners find little enjoyment in Eastern culture; the poets of China and Japan are enjoyed only by a few Western scholars.Eastern painting is more enjoyable to Westerners than Eastern literature. The beauty of fine art reaches further, and lasts longer, than the beauty of literature. And the beauty of music lasts longer than the beauty of fine art. Music is the most universal, the most timeless, of the arts.12. Educated Laymen A culture of scholars isn’t a healthy culture. A culture that is preoccupied with recapturing the faded beauty of old classics isn’t a healthy culture. But a popular culture that appeals chiefly to uneducated people is also unhealthy. The best culture is a culture that appeals to educated laymen. The best culture respects the old classics, but it also respects the pleasure that contemporary artists provide. The best culture avoids the sterility of scholar culture, and also avoids the barbarism of popular culture. Modern culture isn’t healthy, it isn’t a culture of educated laymen. Modern culture is divided between sterile scholar culture and barbaric popular culture.13. Goethe Goethe’s novels have little interest for modern readers. Gide described one of Goethe’s novels as “unbelievably silly”; Gide said that Goethe “could not have written it at present.”(5) Like Goethe’s novels, Scott’s novels strike modern readers as dull, though they were once considered immortal classics. There is a certain progression in the history of the novel, a progression that has relegated many early novelists, including Scott and Goethe, to obscurity. The history of the novel casts doubt on the old theory that art, unlike science, is timeless and never progresses.Goethe’s poetry, like most poetry, holds little attraction for those who read it in translation. (As Robert Frost said, “poetry is what gets lost in translation.”) Goethe’s best works, for those who read him in translation, are his autobiography and his conversations, as recorded by Eckermann. His autobiography is as pleasurable to read as Rousseau’s autobiography, and his conversations with Eckermann are more interesting than Boswell’s Life of Johnson.14. Letters During the early 1500’s, collections of Erasmus’ letters were in greater demand than any other book. Voltaire’s letters from Ferney were so lively and witty that they were handed around Paris. It is said that Voltaire’s writing is at its best in his letters. Letter-writing affords writers a freedom that they aren’t afforded by any other type of writing.15. The most interesting literature is the most personal literature: biographies, autobiographies, diaries, letters and conversations.16. One of the most valuable services that a writer can perform for a reader is to call his attention to good writers.17. Maturing Taste Psychologists often say that the individual repeats, in his own development, the development of the human race as a whole. The individual repeats the religious history of mankind by beginning life with the earliest forms of religion, animism and totemism; that is, he begins life by believing that inanimate objects and animals have feelings and thoughts similar to his own. The individual repeats the literary history of mankind by beginning life with the earliest forms of literature, fairy tales and animal fables. By age ten, we’ve graduated from fairy tales to myths, just as mankind once graduated from fairy tales to myths. At fifteen, we’re able to read early novelists like Defoe and Dumas. At twenty, we’re able to read later novelists like Dostoyevsky and Tolstoy. Not until twenty-five are we able to read twentieth-century novelists like Proust and Joyce.18. Chekhov depicts people whose romantic visions are shattered by day-to-day living. No matter what they’re doing, they always wish that they were doing something else, and no matter where they are, they always wish that they were somewhere else. They remind one of Socrates’ comment about marriage: if you get married you’ll regret it, and if you don’t get married you’ll regret that, too. Chekhov’s characters also remind one of Flaubert’s character, Madame Bovary, who found that reality never lived up to her expectations; Chekhov must have been influenced by Flaubert. Layevsky, a character in Chekhov’s story, “The Duel,” is typical of Chekhov’s characters. “Two years ago,” Chekhov writes, “when [Layevsky] fell in love with Nadyezhda Fyodorovna, it seemed to him that he had only to join his life to hers, go to the Caucasus, and he would be saved from the vulgarity and emptiness of his life; now he was just as certain that he had only to forsake Nadyezhda Fyodorovna and go to Petersburg to have everything he wanted.”Like many modern writers and painters, Chekhov doesn’t depict reality as it is, but reality as it is perceived. Instead of describing a woman’s personality, Chekhov describes the impression that she made on people; he says of one of his characters that since she was always seen with her dog, people thought of her as “the lady with the dog.”
Chekhov believed that art should be realistic and true to life; in this respect, he’s similar to other late-nineteenth-century writers, such as Ibsen, Flaubert and Zola. Chekhov’s specialty is detail; in Chekhov’s stories, the parts are more important than the whole.
Chekhov depicts the absurdity of life, as Kafka does. But Chekhov is more realistic and less imaginative than Kafka. Chekhov composed his works from notes that he jotted down during the course of his daily life, while Kafka composed his works during inspired periods, periods in which he surrendered himself to his unconscious.19. Kafka Philosophers often have one central idea around which their entire philosophy revolves. Likewise, imaginative writers often have one central theme that is expressed in all their work.In the case of Kafka, this central theme is the overwhelming of the individual by huge institutions, by huge inanimate objects, by huge crowds, and by the absurdity of the world. This theme is especially evident in The Trialand The Castle. In Kafka’s Amerika, and in some of Kafka’s short stories, this theme, although it isn’t as pervasive as it is in The Trial and The Castle, recurs again and again. Examples of huge institutions in Amerika are the Hotel Occidental and the Theatre of Oklahoma, which has “almost no limits.” An example of a huge inanimate object is the ocean liner, with its “endlessly recurring stairs” and its “corridors with countless turnings.”
While Joyce’s prose is innovative and eccentric, and Proust’s is precious, Kafka’s prose is simple, pure and classical. Hence Kafka is more readable and popular than Joyce or Proust.
While most modern writers stay close to reality, and draw on their own lives, Kafka created worlds that were far removed from the real world; Kafka’s work has rare imaginative power. A book of aphorisms could be compiled from Shakespeare’s philosophical comments, from Tolstoy’s psychological observations, and from Proust’s remarks on art. Kafka’s work, however, doesn’t contain any such comments or observations; Kafka is impossible to quote. Kafka doesn’t try to understand reality, he creates fantasies that contain psychological truth.
One factor that shaped Kafka’s work was the development, in recent times, of large institutions and bureaucracies; Kafka himself was a government bureaucrat. Another factor that shaped Kafka’s work was Gogol’s stories, which often begin with the protagonist finding himself in a strange and absurd situation, just as some of Kafka’s stories—“The Metamorphosis,” for example, and The Trial—begin with the protagonist finding himself in a strange and absurd situation. A third factor that shaped Kafka’s work was that his father was an aggressive, dominating personality who instilled in him a feeling of guilt, inferiority and powerlessness. A fourth factor was that Kafka was Jewish; being Jewish increased Kafka’s feeling of powerlessness.
Kafka found relief for his sufferings, his guilt and his powerlessness in humor. Kafka is an extraordinary writer because he had an extraordinary sense of humor. As Freud said, “It is not everyone who is capable of the humorous attitude: it is a rare and precious gift.”(6)20. Flaubert While the dominant note in Kafka’s personality was humor, the dominant note in Flaubert’s personality was pride. Flaubert was proud of his devotion to art, regardless of whether his books were acclaimed or not: “As for the outcome, or for success, who cares? The main thing in this world is to keep one’s soul on the heights, out of the bourgeois noise and the democratic mire. The pursuit of Art makes one proud, and one can never have too much pride. That is my philosophy.”(7)Flaubert despised the materialistic values of the middle class; he satirized the middle class in his Dictionary of Platitudes, and also in the character of M. Homais. Like Ibsen, Flaubert rebelled against the democratic trend of his time. Flaubert had little regard for universal suffrage or for equality: “I am grateful,” he told Renan, “for your protest against ‘democratic equality’; which is, to my mind, a seed of death in the world.”
Like other great writers, Flaubert studied the classics and scorned journalism. His scorn for journalism prompted him to wish that printing were banned: “If the Emperor were to abolish printing tomorrow, I’d crawl to Paris on my hands and knees and kiss his behind in gratitude.”(9) Flaubert anticipated that democracy and the mass media would put the future of culture in doubt.
For Flaubert, as for Proust, literature was a religion, and was treated with the seriousness of a religion. Literature made Flaubert’s life meaningful and challenging. Literature gave Flaubert something to respect, and something to be proud of. It elevated him above the trivial, the material and the mundane. It helped him to cope with life, and it helped him to face death. The example of Flaubert shows that modern man can use literature to help in developing a new religion, a religion that will fill the void created by the decline of Christianity, a religion based on philosophy, psychology and art, not based on God, sacred texts, and divine commandments.21. Objective or Subjective? Flaubert believed that literature should be impersonal, that literature shouldn’t be a vehicle for the author’s feelings and experiences. This was a widespread view in the late nineteenth century; it was a reaction against Romanticism, against the Romantic tendency to write in a personal, subjective way. Since Flaubert’s time, the view that literature should be objective has been embraced by many writers and critics.In support of the objective theory of literature, one could argue that some of the best literary works are objective; Homer’s works, for example, don’t express their author’s feelings, or describe their author’s experiences. In opposition to the objective theory of literature, one could argue that some of the best literary works are personal and subjective. Most of the outstanding Western writers since the Middle Ages have been subjective. Ibsen, for example, was subjective; Ibsen said, “If you want objectivity, then go to the objects. Read me so as to get to know me!”(10) Great literature can be objective or subjective, just as great literature can be realistic or unrealistic.22. Dostoyevsky wrote in a subjective way; many of his characters are based on facets of his own personality. The main characters in The Brothers Karamazov, for example, are based on facets of Dostoyevsky’s own personality: Dmitri is a losing gambler (like Dostoyevsky), Ivan a journalist tormented by religious doubts (like Dostoyevsky), Smerdyakov an epileptic (like Dostoyevsky), etc.(11) Many of Dostoyevsky’s characters possess the sadistic and masochistic tendencies that Dostoyevsky himself possessed. The protagonist of “A Gentle Creature,” for example, says, “I tormented myself and everybody else.”Masochism leads many of Dostoyevsky’s male characters to love crippled women. The severe super-ego of these characters prevents them from loving normal women. Masochism also leads many of Dostoyevsky’s characters to be buffoons, to make fools of themselves; such characters derive a certain pleasure from publicly humiliating themselves. One can compare Dostoyevsky with Johnson’s biographer, Boswell: both had tyrannical fathers, both developed defective super-ego’s, both experienced bouts of masochistic severity toward themselves, and both had tendencies to make fools of themselves.
Dostoyevsky’s greatest fault is that he carries his psychological analysis to an excessive and morbid point. This fault is particularly evident when Dostoyevsky is compared with Tolstoy. Tolstoy has Dostoyevsky’s profundity and keen insight and, in addition, Tolstoy has a simplicity and serenity that Dostoyevsky lacks.23. Tolstoy While Dostoyevsky is famous for his psychological insights, Tolstoy’s greatness as a psychologist is sometimes overlooked. Dostoyevsky could understand others because he probed his own complex, neurotic personality. Tolstoy was less neurotic than Dostoyevsky, but he lived with exceptional intensity, energy and animal vitality. Tolstoy experienced many things, and was familiar with his own rich personality, hence Tolstoy understood others as few people ever have. Understanding of others comes from understanding of oneself; psychological insight comes from self-consciousness.If one compares Tolstoy’s observations on human nature with Freud’s, one finds a striking agreement between them. Tolstoy said, “[Levin’s] conception of [his mother] was for him a sacred memory, and his future wife was bound to be in his imagination a repetition of that exquisite, holy ideal of a woman that his mother had been.” Likewise, Freud said, “A man…looks for someone who can represent his picture of his mother, as it has dominated his mind from his earliest childhood.”
Tolstoy spoke of “the vindictive fury which can only exist where a man loves,” and Tolstoy said, “where love ends, hate begins.” Likewise, Freud said, “Love is with unexpected regularity accompanied by hate [and] in a number of circumstances hate changes into love and love into hate.”
In his case history of Dora, Freud said, “the usual sexual attraction had drawn together the father and daughter on the one side and the mother and son on the other.” Tolstoy discusses this “usual sexual attraction” in the following passage: “The little girl, her father’s favorite, ran up boldly [and] embraced him….’Good morning’, he said, smiling to the boy….He was conscious that he loved the boy less, and always tried to be fair; but the boy felt it, and did not respond with a smile to his father’s chilly smile.”
Great thinkers often reach the same conclusions independently of each other. A thinker’s ideas usually come from his own experiences, or from his observations of other people. Since human nature remains much the same in different times and places, the experiences and observations of different thinkers are often similar. Truth agrees with itself and confirms itself.
Just as great thinkers often agree with each other, so too one’s own experience often agrees with the observations of great thinkers. Here again, truth agrees with itself and confirms itself. An idea drawn from experience is confirmed when one finds the same idea in a book. Likewise, the ideas in a book are confirmed when one finds that they agree with one’s own experience.24. Joyce While the novels of Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky express ideas and reflect their authors’ struggles for spiritual peace, the novels of Joyce have a different purpose. Joyce said, “Ulysses is fundamentally a humorous work,” and Joyce said that Finnegans Wake was “meant to make you laugh.”(16) Ulysses andFinnegans Wake belong in the comic tradition of Petronius, Rabelais and Sterne. Joyce’s short stories, on the other hand, remind one, by their simplicity and by their realism, of Chekhov’s short stories.Joyce had no interest in politics and little interest in philosophy. He disliked Shaw’s plays, which set forth ideas. When World War II was breaking out, and his brother asked him what he thought about the political situation, Joyce said, “I’m not interested in politics. The only thing that interests me is style.”
Like many imaginative writers, including Ibsen, Tolstoy and Proust, Joyce observed and wrote about parapsychological phenomena. In A Portrait of the Artist, for example, Stephen Dedalus is lying in bed, thinking of his girlfriend, and he wonders what his girlfriend is doing: “Might it be, in the mysterious ways of spiritual life, that her soul at those same moments had been conscious of his homage?….Conscious of his desire she was waking from odorous sleep.” Joyce’s interest in parapsychology sets him apart from Kafka; Kafka never discusses parapsychology or aesthetics or religion. Kafka stays in the world of fantasy, and never leaves it for a moment.
Sound is as important in Joyce’s prose as it is in the work of modern poets. It isn’t surprising that Joyce himself wrote poetry. Joyce erased, or at least blurred, the distinction between poetry and prose. Just as poetry is impossible to translate, so too Joyce’s prose is impossible to translate. Just as poetry can be read over and over, so too Joyce’s prose can be read over and over.
While Proust reminds one of a painter (he called one of his chapters, “a seascape”), Joyce reminds one of a musician. Joyce often alludes to other writers and to his own work, just as musical compositions often allude to earlier motifs. Joyce is like ancient poets, who often alluded to earlier poets, and to earlier lines in their own work.25. Proust One might describe Kafka as humorous, Joyce as comic, and Proust as nostalgic. Kafka’s humor conceals suffering and seriousness; one cannot imagine Kafka telling the bawdy jokes that Joyce tells. Joyce’s comic sense expresses not suffering but joy; Joyce said that literature “should express the ‘holy spirit of joy’.”(18)Proust’s nostalgia has two sources: his detachment from the present, and his attachment to his mother. Proust wrote his magnum opus while he was entombed in his cork-lined Paris apartment, isolated from the world. Such a detachment from the present has the effect of awakening memories of the past. Proust had an unusually strong attachment to his mother. After his mother had died, Proust told his maid that, “if I were sure to meet my mother again, in the Valley of Jehosaphat or anywhere else, I would want to die at once.”(19) Proust’s attachment to his mother, and his detachment from the present, combined to form the nostalgic tone of his work.
One prominent theme in Proust’s work is idealism, that is, the notion that the world is one’s idea of the world. Proust isn’t as concerned with depicting Balbec and the Duchesse de Guermantes as he is with depicting how the narrator perceives Balbec and the Duchesse de Guermantes. Proust’s main subject is the narrator’s mind, the narrator’s thoughts and feelings. Thus, he’s akin to Cervantes, whose main subject was not the world as it is, but the world as it is perceived by Don Quixote.
But while Don Quixote is always the same, Proust’s narrator changes over time. The narrator’s attitude toward Albertine, for example, changes over time; though the narrator is obsessed with Albertine, and is crushed by Albertine’s flight, he eventually puts Albertine out of his mind and becomes indifferent to her. Proust depicts how time changes one’s idea of the world, and also how time changes the world itself.
Proust’s work contains much character analysis and little plot. His narrative ambles along at a leisurely pace, and often stands still; it reminds one of two people who go for a walk, and then become so involved in their conversation that they come to a stop.
Proust’s peculiar style is related to his peculiar personality; the style marks the man. Proust’s prose is precious, convoluted and obscure.
Of all imaginative writers, Proust is one of the most religious. Proust created his own personal religion, a religion based on literature and art. Like all religions, Proust’s religion justifies life, makes it possible to accept death, and holds out the hope of life after death, of immortality.
Proust is a profound thinker, and can teach one much about life, about the passage of time, and about death. Proust’s work contains more philosophical wisdom than the work of any twentieth-century philosopher. But Proust isn’t the sort of thinker that Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky were, and his work doesn’t contain discussions about the existence of God. Proust’s thinking isn’t speculative, like a philosopher’s thinking; Proust’s thinking is based on sensation and feeling.26. The Desire to Die Tragedy depicts suffering, suffering that drives the tragic hero to desire death. Why do we derive pleasure from tragedy? Why do we derive pleasure from the depiction of suffering?Suffering is a universal human experience; it is impossible to live without suffering. When suffering reaches a certain degree, one wants to die, one wants to commit suicide. Almost everyone, at one time or another, has thought of committing suicide. Suffering, and longing for death, deepen and strengthen one’s character. “No man is educated,” said William James, “who has never dallied with the thought of suicide.” If one never suffered, and never longed for death, one would never attain maturity or strength of character, and one couldn’t accomplish anything. As the result of suffering and of longing for death, one resolves to act decisively. Suffering and the desire to die make one fearless, and this fearlessness translates into decisive action. As Johnson said, “after a man has taken the resolution to kill himself…he has nothing to fear.”
One decisive action that is often preceded by suffering and by the desire to die is a religious conversion. Tolstoy’s religious conversion, for example, was preceded by suffering and by the desire to die; Tolstoy described his pre-conversion state thus: “Behold me…hiding the rope in order not to hang myself.”
Crime is another decisive action that is often preceded by suffering and by the desire to die. The criminal often resolves to commit a crime after suffering has driven him to ask, ‘what have I got to lose? Since I no longer want to live, why don’t I fulfill my criminal desire at the same time as I end my life?’ Mass murderers often end their killing sprees by killing themselves. When Stendhal was contemplating suicide, he thought of assassinating LouisXVIII, in order to “make something of your misery,” instead of dying to no purpose.
Sex is a third decisive action that is preceded by suffering and by the desire to die. Sex is closely related to death; people often fear sex, just as people often fear death. Lower animals, such as insects, often die during the sexual act. Orgasm is sometimes called, “a little death.” Rank said, “the compulsive neurotic…abstains from sexual intercourse in order not to die.”(21) According to the Book of Genesis, sex brought death into the world. If one never suffered, and never longed for death, one wouldn’t have the courage and the strength of character that are needed for sex. In addition to religious conversion, crime and sex, many other decisive actions are preceded by suffering and by the desire to die. Suffering makes one fearless, and thus prompts one to act decisively.
Tragedy depicts suffering, suffering that drives the tragic hero to desire death. The tragic hero’s suffering and his desire to die instill in him courage for decisive action. The spectator, empathizing with the tragic hero, vicariously suffers and desires to die. The spectator’s suffering and desire to die, though they are vicarious, instill in him courage for decisive action, and an appetite for living.27. Flabby Just as suffering strengthens the moral fiber of an individual, so too suffering, war and poverty strengthen the moral fiber of a nation. The moral fiber of modern man has become flabby through comfort, peace and prosperity.28. Heroes There is a close kinship between tragic drama and epic poetry. Tragic drama and epic poetry both depict characters who are superior to real people. The author of an epic poem or a tragic drama must have an ideal man, a hero, in his imagination. Modern imaginative writers don’t have a high conception of man, hence they don’t write in a tragic or epic vein. They tend to write in a morbid or comic vein, and to depict people in a disparaging way. While modern literature shuns the heroic for the morbid and the comic, modern visual art shuns the heroic for the nihilistic, and modern music shuns the heroic for the hedonistic.

An Inspector Calls by J.B. Priestley

An Inspector Calls by J.B. PriestleyAn Inspector Calls was written in 1945 and was set in 1912 in a house
owned by a high class family and is about what they have done wrong.
The play was by J.B Priestly.
The time that the play was set was set in is important, as world war
one was going to start in a few years and the Titanic was just about
to set sail.
In the play Mr Birling says that we will never go to war with Germany.
“The Germans don’t want war. Nobody wants war”, and he also says that
the titanic is unsinkable “Why, a friend of mine went over this new
liner last week – the Titanic – she sails next week – forty-six
thousand eight hundred tonnes – New York in five days – and ever
luxury – and unsinkable.”, he is wrong about both of these.
J.B Priestly was born in Bradford, Yorkshire on 13th September 1894 he
was a playwright. Before becoming a playwright he wrote two novels.
His first novel was the bestselling The Good Companions (1929) and his
second novel was Angel Pavement (1930).
In 1932 he wrote his first play called Dangerous Corner and he also
wrote several other plays before An Inspector Calls.
Priestley’s last play was A Severed Head (1963)
Priestley was into politics, he speaks a lot of politics in An
Inspector Calls as Mr Birling speaks of socialism.
J.B Priestley died in1984 aged eighty nine.
I will now write about each of the characters in the order that they
met Eva Smith.
Mr Birling:
Mr Birling is Sheila’s and Eric’s Father. He is the owner of a
business and he is quite well off, he also was once the mayor of the
town and he mentions that he might be getting a knighted, “there’s a
fair chance that I might find my way onto the next Honours List. Just
a knighthood, of course”.
Mr Birling thinks that everyone should fend for themselves and not
look after other people, “a man has to make his own way – has to look
after himself”. He also mentions he thinks community is nonsense, “But
the way some of these cranks talk and write now, you’d think everybody
has to look after everybody else, as if we were all mixed up together
like bees in a hive – community and all that nonsense”.
Mr Birling’s involvement with Eva Smith is he employed her in his
works, when she asked for a pay rise he sacked her.
Mr Birling does not feel guilty or responsible at all he says “Still,
I can’t accept any responsibility. If we were all responsible for
everything that happened to everybody we’d had anything to do with, it
would be very awkward, wouldn’t it?”
He has this attitude all the way through the play.
I think that Mr Birling is the second most responsible character in
the play for Eva Smith’s death as he started off the chain of events.
Sheila:
Shelia is the daughter of Mr Birling, she is just about to get married
to Gerald and they are having their engagement party when the
inspector arrives.
Shelia’s was involved with Eva Smith when she got Eva fired from her
job at Milwards which is a large department store.
Eva was fired because Shelia complained to the manager of the store
after she saw Eva smiling at the assistant, “I went to the manager at
Milwards and I told him that if they didn’t get rid of that girl, I’d
never go near the place again and I’d persuade mother to close our
account with them.”
Shelia regrets these events as she says she feels guilty all of the
way through the play, and even after the inspector leaves.
I think that Shelia is the third most responsible for Eva’s death
because she got Eva fired from “her last stable job.” as the inspector
says, if she didn’t get Eva fired then she wouldn’t have met any of
the other characters apart from Mr Birling in bad circumstances.
Gerald:
Gerald is engaged to Sheila which is his connection to the Birling
family.
Gerald’s Involvement withEva Smith is when he met her at the palace
music hall in the bar, a man was harassing her and Gerald stopped her,
“The girl saw me looking at her then gave me a glance that was nothing
less than a cry for help. So I went across and told Joe Meggarty some
nonsense – that the manager has a message for him or something like
that – got him out of the way – and then told the girl that if she
didn’t want anymore of that sort of thing she’d better let me take her
out of there. She agreed at once.”
He started to use her as his mistress, but he was kind to her because
he helped her out by letting her stay in some rooms he was looking
after for a friend, “It happened that a friend of mine, Charlie
Brunswick, had gone off to Canada for six months and had let me have
the key of a nice little set of rooms he had – in Morgan Terrace – and
had asked me to keep and eye on them for him and use them if I wanted
to. So I insisted on Daisy moving into one of these rooms and I made
her take some money to keep her going there.”
I think that Gerald is the least responsible for Eva Smith’s death
because he helped her to survive and gave her something to live for,
he says, “I want you to understand that I didn’t install her there so
that I could make love to her. I made her go there because I was sorry
for her, and didn’t like the idea of her going back to the palace bar.
I didn’t ask for anything in return.”
Mrs Birling:
Mrs. Birling is the wife of Mr Birling. Mrs Birling doesn’t’t say much
until she is interviewed by the inspector.
Mrs Birling’s Involvement with Eva Smith Is she went to her charity
for help.
When the Eva Smith asks for help she says her name is Mrs Birling, and
because of this she was rejected help from the charity.
“Yes I think it was simply a piece of gross impertinence – quite
deliberate and naturally that was one of the things that prejudiced me
against her case.”
When Mrs. Burling was asked if it was due to her influence that Eva
was refused help she replied, “Yes it was I didn’t like her manner she
impertinently made use of our name, though she pretended afterwards it
just happened to be the first name she thought of. She had to admit,
after I began questioning her, that she had no claim to the name, that
she wasn’t married, and that story she told at first – about s husband
who deserted her – was quite false. It didn’t take me long to get the
truth – or some of the truth out of her.
Mrs Birling doesn’t’t feel guilty at all about what she has done as
she says “I did nothing that I’m ashamed of or that won’t bear
investigation.”
I think that Mrs Birling is the most responsible for this is because
she didn’t help Eva when she was in need.
Eric:
Eric is the son of Mr Birling He is often getting drunk and doesn’t
have much part in the play.
Eric’s involvement with Eva is that He met her at the Palace Music
hall in the bar he was drunk and he went with Eva back to Her lodgings
She didn’t want him to go in But he threatened to make a row. “I was
in that state when a chap easily turns nasty – and I threatened to
make a row.”
He then met her a fortnight afterwards when he happened to see her
again at the Palace bar.
This time they talked a bit about themselves.
The next time they met she told him that she thought she was going to
have a baby.
He then stole fifty pounds from his Mr Birling’s office to keep Eva
going.
In conclusion I think that Mrs Birling is most responsible for Eva’s
death because she refused to help Eva when she most needed it.
Even though I think that Mrs Birling is the most responsible for Eva’s
death I also think that everyone else apart from Gerald are still
highly responsible for her death. I think that Gerald is not
responsible for her death because he was the only person who helped
her.

Flowers For Algernon by Daniel Keyes

This is the fifteenth in a series of reviews of those pieces of written science fiction and fantasy which have won both the Hugo and Nebula awards. I had some reservations about including “Flowers for Algernon” in this series. It is an unusual case in that different versions of the story won different awards; the original short story, published in Fantasy and Science Fiction in 1959, won a 1960 Hugo, while the novel length expansion jointly won a 1966 Nebula. So to do it justice I would have to review two separately published versions of the story in one web page.
However it is pretty clear to me that the story must be the best known of any Hugo or Nebula winner, partly because it is on many junior high school reading lists in the United States and Canada, but also because it is quite simply of outstanding quality. I also had to acknowledge that I had personal reasons for not wanting to write about “Flowers for Algernon”, which I will come to at the end, and perhaps doing this article is a kind of useful therapy. I am going to assume that you have also read “Flowers for Algernon” and there will be no attempt to conceal plot details below. If you have not read it, you should go somewhere else now.But in the novella category, there was a very clear winner: of 842 votes cast (the most votes cast for any category), “Flowers for Algernon” received 201 first preferences – more than the next three stories added together – 100 second preferences and 71 third preferences. (The next three stories were Anne McCaffrey’s “Weyr Search”, which of course was the start of her Dragonriders of Pern series; “Enemy Mine”, by Barry B Longyear; and “Ill Met In Lankhmar”, by Fritz Leiber.) It seems pretty likely that if the poll had been a single ballot for all works of fiction which have won Hugos, the short version of “Flowers for Algernon” would have easily beaten all comers.The novel version is slightly less celebrated, but only slightly. SFWA members were asked to rank all Nebula winners from 1965 to 1985 in the summer of 1987, and while Ben Bova does not give awfully full details in the resulting “Best of the Nebulas” anthology, it seems a reasonable deduction that Flowers for Algernon came second or third in the novel category, definitely behind Dune and possibly behind either The Dispossessed or The Left Hand of Darkness.The success of “Flowers for Algernon” is really due to three things: the beginning of the story, the middle and the end. To start with the beginning: “progris riport 1: martch 5, 1965. Dr. Strauss says I shud rite down what I think and evrey thing that happins to me from now on.” There are not a lot of sf stories written in diary format (apart from Dracula, the vastly inferior Podkayne of Mars is the only one that occurs to me right now) but immediately one wants to find out what happins, er, happens. And the first paragraph established our narrator, 37 years old, with considerable learning difficulties, and keen to “be smart”. The details of the scientific procedure are not at all clear but don’t need to be; the experiment, the bakery, and the adult literacy classes, are all simply and clearly laid out.The middle of the story includes two crucial scenes. The first of these is the moment when Charlie realises that his colleagues from the bakery have been mocking him rather than being friendly; a fact that we the readers have known for some time. It’s the crucial (and cruel) demonstration that Charlie’s new intelligence puts him completely out of phase with his previous life. The second is the point when Charlie realises that his new intelligence puts him far ahead of the scientists who have created it as well. In both short story and novel this is crystallised in the moment when he is astonished to learn that Professor Nemur doesn’t understand Hindi. It’s well done, because we the readers are unaware until then that Charlie has learnt the language in a matter of weeks, but it’s perfectly credible that he has forgotten to mention this in his diary. The novel version of the story embeds this incident in the middle of the conference in Chicago episode.But it’s the end of the story that really sticks in your mind. Charlie’s realisation that his new intelligence is only temporary, Algernon’s death, and Charlie’s subsequent regression back to the point where we first met him, all add up to perhaps the most poignant climax of any sf story, ending with one of the most memorable final sentences, “Please if you get a chance put some flowrs on Algernons grave in the bak yard.” Keith Kushner comments on rasfw that in most diary-style stories, the narrator ends up dead, but singles out Flowers for Algernon as an exception; I don’t think it is, though I notice that a number of the on-line reviews listed below assume that Charlie has left New York to find a new life. For me this reading best supported by the text is that Charlie has ended his diary because he still knows, at some level, that very soon he is going to die, and he is going off to find himself a quiet place where his life can end.Some find “Flowers for Algernon” manipulative; I think that Keyes steers the right side of what is a very fine line. Some find his treatment of people with learning disabilities outdated and unrealistic. He can hardly be blamed for the first (I admit the use of the word “moron” does startle one); on the second point, of course Charlie has some rather unusual attitudes for someone with his level of disability, but I don’t think it’s completely off the spectrum, and in any case great novels are often about rather unusual people. Some find the novel far too slow moving and padded compared with the short story. I have a little sympathy for this viewpoint, and would probably have thinned some of the second half, but I feel that the extended portrayal of Charlie’s psychosexual development does add depth (admittedly to a story which was already quite profound). In my 0-3 stars ranking system for these reviews, I am in no doubt that both versions of “Flowers for Algernon” deserve all three stars; the only question is whether I could give an exceptional fourth star to the shorter version.I find this a particularly difficult story to write about because I have witnessed a regression including complete loss of speech in a young member of my immediate family. As a callous and callow teenager I found the story exceptionally moving; now I find it almost unbearable. (For similar reasons I find that Dan Simmons’ Hyperion and Mary Doria Russell’s Children of God stick in my mind but I will not rush to reread either book.) I hope that you reading this do not ever experience such an event, either first hand or in a loved one.

Mental Health Issues and the Psychodynamic Approach

Mental Health Issues and the Psychodynamic ApproachThe psychodynamic approach highlights the importance of the
unconscious mind and early childhood experiences, therefore
practitioners of this approach will attempt to deal with the mental
health issues of their patients by incorporating these ideas and
creating ‘therapies’ using these bases. The basic concept behind
psychoanalysis is that a patient that suffers from mental health
problems such as depression can address any regressed feelings thus,
the patient gains insight of and can learn to work through their
emotional ‘baggage’. It is a generalised notion that if the cause of
the symptoms were tackled it would only be logical that the symptoms
would desist.
The psychodynamic approach is mainly comprised of ideas and notions
suggested by Sigmund Freud, based partly on his psychosexual
development theory. In essence, the child passes through stages such
as oral and the anal. Major conflicts or excessive gratification at
any of these stages can lead to fixation, therefore if an adult
experiences great personal problems, he or she will tend to show
regression (going back through the stages of the psychosexual
development) to the stage at which he or she had previously been
fixated. Thus because conflicts cause anxiety, and the ego defends
itself against anxiety by using several defence mechanisms to prevent
traumatic thoughts and feelings reaching consciousness, mental
disorders can arise when an individual has unresolved conflicts and
traumas from childhood. Defence mechanisms may be used to reduce the
anxiety caused by such unresolved conflicts, but they act more as
sticking plaster than as a way of ‘sorting out’ an individuals
problems.
Psychodynamic therapy is based on psychoanalysis, and was introduced
by sigmund Freud at the start of the twentieth century. Freud and
other psychoanalysts used various methods to uncover repressed ideas,
and to permit the client to gain insight into his or her unresolved
problems. As a form of therapy the approach uses hypnosis, Freud and
Breuer treated a twenty one-year-old women called Anna O, who suffered
from several neurotic symptoms such as nervous coughs and paralysis.
Hypnosis uncovered a repressed memory of Anna O hearing the sound of
dance music coming from a nearby house as she was nursing her dying
father, and her guilty feeling that she would rather be dancing than
looking after her father. Her nervous coughing stopped after that
repressed memory came to light. However, patients are either hard or
impossible to hypnotise and people under hypnosis become very
suggestible.
This approach has shown different ways in treating mental disorders,
and in doing so have shown inadequacies and ethical implications that
are both positive and negative in their therapeutic perspectives. The
psychodynamic model also suggests that the individuals are not really
responsible for their own mental disorders, this is because these
disorders depend on unconscious processes which individuals have no
control. However with both of these approaches suggesting that the
individual has no responsibility may carry the undesirable effect of
encouraging individuals with mental disorders to hand over complete
responsibility for their recover to other people. Also with the
psychodynamic approach there is the notion that adult mental disorders
have their basis in childhood experiences suggests that parents or
other caregivers are at least partially to blame and this can lead to
distress within the family. Although it can be argued that at least
with the psychodynamics’ therapeutic approach, nevertheless the
psychodynamic approach has encountered serious problems, with the
numerous recent cases of false memory syndrome. In these cases,
patients undergoing psychotherapy have made allegations about
childhood physical or sexual abuse that have turned out to have no
basis in fact.
However, the psychodynamic approach though positive in many ways is
limited because it tends to ignore genetic factors unlike the medical
approach and cultural and subcultural differences between societies in
diagnosing and giving therapy to those with mental disorders. In its
original form, the patients current concerns and interpersonal
relationships were de-emphasised and there was undue focus on
childhood experiences and sexual problems.

Creating Situational Irony in Poetry

Creating Situational Irony in PoetryBibliography:
Works Cited
“Collards.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989
“Disclaim.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989
Holman, M. Carl “Mr. Z.” Perrine’s Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense, 8th ed.
Ed. Thomas R. Arp and Greg Johnson. Fort Worth: Harcourt, 2002. 1037.
“Jazz.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989
“Spirituals.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989