Music Essays

What OS To Choose

Everyday another person gets a new computer. It could be an HP or a Gateway or a Sony or a Dell but what they all have in common is one thing, the operating system. Of course I’m talking about Microsoft Windows. Who hasn’t heard of this great OS, specially the new one that came out a couple of months ago, Windows Vista? But just how great can this OS be? Should we just trust our new computers on a system which has just recently been published for the world?
Most people might think that in the great world or computers their only true choice is either a Mac or a PC. Chances are that they’ll be a part of the PC users and will always go for a Windows computer. With about 90% of the world’s population using windows you have to wonder that if they really knew what Microsoft products were all about, they would think twice before getting one.
Maybe not a lot of people know this but there have been over 100 bugs identified in the Windows Vista operating system since its release on January 30, 2007. Of course this is not a new thing for people who have been using Windows OS for a while. Most expert computer user knows that when the first operating system designed by Microsoft came out it was completely full of bugs. Why? Well the story is pretty simple, and it goes back to the 80’s with a young man called Bill Gates.
Bill Gates had made a deal with Apple where his company, Microsoft, would create programs for Apple’s new OS. However when Bill Gates got his hand on their operating system he reversed engineered it (which basically means opening it up and seeing what’s inside), named it Windows, and released it to the public before Apple even found out. This was how it all started and even though he released it first and his product was completely full of bugs, he was the one considered a genius and, thanks to Apple, he is now a multimillionaire.
Even though after Apple realized what had happened, suing them proved to be pretty useless, because when you reverse engineer electronics the source code is not exactly the same as the original one which was copyrighted, so this was perfectly legal. So by this we know that Apple always had the better hand from the start. But there was something even better out there which I’m sure most people haven’t even heard of. I’m talking about Linux.
Linux is a Unix-based operating system developed right here in Berkeley, CA. It was first created in 1987 but was released to the public in 1991. Not only is this operating system preferred by most expert computer users but it also beats Windows operating systems in everyway. There is of course one problem. Since this OS is open source, meaning that you could get it for free and modify it to your specifications, it doesn’t have a troubleshooting operator service where we can call if the system crashes.
Most people could argue that Linux is not only good because its free, but being open source makes it better to work with because instead of people hired to write the code for it, anyone can rewrite the code and make it better. So instead of having one thousand programmers fixing just one bug on windows you would have ten times more programmers making Linux better than it already is.
It is still implied in everything about Linux that if you compare the latest Windows operating system to the first Linux OS, Linux would easily be considered better than Windows. The only real problem with Linux is that since not a lot of people use it, companies don’t waste time on making more and more programs for this. Instead they just let whoever wants to write a program do it and publish it online with no financial profit whatsoever.
Another great thing about Linux is that it’s free. You can download it anywhere you want and install it on your computer. You could customize it and change it and share it. Windows on the other hand not only costs an obscene amount of money, but you are pretty much stuck with whatever they thought would look best and the most customization you could do in Windows would probably be to change the desktop wallpaper and the screensaver.
Although Windows does have quite some disadvantages, there are also the good things that come with it. I’m not really talking about the OS itself, but the programs you could get for it. Pretty much every game, every program and every piece of hardware is compatible with windows so in that case you can get whatever you want and would all work on your own computer. Also, since Windows is developed by a company with thousands of professionals working to try to make things perfect, they have a troubleshooting operator. So in any case something happens to your system and it crashes they would be able to fix it.
And well there is, of course, the one who started it all. Apple computers operating system, also known as Mac OS is by far the best GUI (Graphic User Interface) operating system out there. This is why Apple computers are preferred by anybody who’s into any kind of multimedia business. Whether its images, music or videos, Mac is the way to go.
Most recently Mac has become more popular thanks to their iPods. It is because of this that the number of Mac users has incremented. Of course they’re not even close to what Microsoft has, still a 3.4% is a huge number compared to the competition they have. But probably it’s true that now for Apple it hasn’t become much about computers. They’re taking it to the other level. With the iPods and the new Apple iPhones they have begun a new chapter in technology, something that Bill Gates wish he had come up with first. And even though they’re computer sales aren’t doing so well they make it up with their other products.
On the quest to find the best operating system there is only one real question. How do we define best? Does cheaper make it better? Or maybe more features or more programs to go with it? The truth is that we can’t compare things that are so much the same but at the same time so different. Microsoft will continue to rule the world of mainstream computers for as long as it can. Linux will continue to stay hidden underground with the geeks and Apple will continue to prove us wrong in more ways than one.
Of course Microsoft has become a household name since it first came out in the 80’s but you would think that after a while people would kind of grow up and go for a better option. The truth is that with a solid 90% of the worlds population behind them, Microsoft will probably be around for a long time, hopefully for the best. And maybe as time goes on, things will get better for the computer industry and we might look forward to a bug-free Windows operating system.


HomecomingCenter Parkway was transformed into a fantasy world during the parade after school. As a reminiscence of the closing century, clubs and organizations recreated the magic of mystical beings that have enchanted the world for years: a dragon, Mickey Mouse in Fantasia, an island, a magician, a genie in a bottle, and much more. Students marveled at the displays of familiar cartoon characters, superstitious symbols, and fearful beasts as they stood along the sidewalks and watched the floats pass by.Many students maintained their spirits as they cheered at the football game that evening at Cosumnes River College. Valley Vikings defeated Davis, 40-17. “It’s one small step for the athletes and one giant leap for Valley High,” said sophomore Manveer Singh.
During mid-time, the floats paraded around the tracks; first prizes were awarded to the Class of 2000 and Pride of Pacific. “It feels great knowing that we worked hard to earn the title of the Homecoming float,” said senior Elisheba Thordson. The night ended with the crowning of Homecoming king and queen, Kelvin Truit and Janelle Foronda.Fun, music, and laughter at the Homecoming dance followed. The theme was “This Magic Moment”, and the company “Feet First” hosted the dance. “The Homecoming dance was pretty fun. There were a lot of people showing their spirits and enjoying themselves,” said junior Fiona Tarn.Many students treasured this moment as the last Homecoming of the century.Bibliography:

How the Makers of Shrek Subvert the Usual Conventions of a Fairytale Using Presentational Devices

How the Makers of Shrek Subvert the Usual Conventions of a Fairytale Using Presentational DevicesIn this essay I am going to discuss how the makers of Shrek overturned
the expected characteristics of a fairytale. They do this by using
presentational devices such as lighting, music, camera angles and
visual effect. In my opinion if the film did not use these
presentational devices the way they did, it would not be as successful
and people would see it in a totally different way.
The producers of Shrek took conventional well-known fairytale
characters and changed them to make them humorous, for example the
three little pigs were given stereotypical homosexual voices. Other
characters in the film were Tinkerbell, Little Red Riding Hood, The
Three Bears and many more. They also added and changed well known
phrases from fairytale films. For example the Three Little Pigs don’t
say, ” He huffed and he puffed and blew the house down” they say, “He
huffed and he puffed and signed the eviction notice” When they do this
I think it adds a lot of humourto the film. With the phrases they
don’t change they put them into a different context. For example when
Donkey is trying to get out of trouble he says “oh! What big eyes you
have” and so on, which is from Little Red Riding Hood. When Donkey is
complementing Dragon she starts to fall for his charm, and their
relationship grows stronger throughout the film. We see this when
Donkey needs to help Shrek and he whistles for Dragon and she is there
willing to help. Also on the special features at the end of the film
they sing together looking at each other lovingly. I think it is very
humorous and Dragon turns into someone special for Donkey, as at the
beginning of the film neither Shrek nor Donkey have anybody unique for
them, until Shrek falls in love with Fiona.
I will now talk about how factors from the conventional fairytale is
used and changed in the film. From knowing how the conventional
fairytale goes Shrek knows he will find Princess Fiona in the “Highest
room in the tallest tower” However Shrek is not a conventional hero.
We see this when Shrek finds the princess and is supposed to wake her
with a kiss, however Shrek shakes her franticly. We all know you are
supposed to slay the dragon before you save the princess, whereas
Shrek doesn’t even do that. This is when Princess Fiona knows
something is wrong and says, “This isn’t right” and she later says,
“Should it not be a wonderful, romantic moment?” At this point in the
film we think Princess Fiona is a conventional princess and wants it
to go the way she has planned for many years.
Later on in the film we find out that Princess Fiona is not the
conventional princess we thought she was. As she was bad mannered,
fought Robin Hoods merry men and ate rats, which makes her very
different from other fairytale heroines, as they are very polite, very
pathetic and wouldn’t dream of touching a rat.
I will now analyse the presentational devices used in the film. The
Presentational devices are some of the things that subvert Shrek from
being a conventional fairytale and adds brilliant effects. A really
good example is when Shrek and Donkey are climbing the rocks up to the
castle. The first shot we see is of their hands and the dark
background, so we know they are approaching the evil castle. The next
shot is of their shocked faces, which builds tension, as the audience
wants to know what they are looking at. The rocks in this scene look
really realistic and the darkness adds a lot of tension. After that we
see the gloomy castle and bubbling larva also the rickety bridge. The
larva looks really hot and realistic as it is bubbling and is a bright
colour. The audience also wonders and fears about how they are going
to cross the bridge to get to the castle. There are also great camera
angles used in this scene, an example of this is when Donkey is
bravely crossing the bridge to the castle. To show the fact that
Donkey was scared and to add tension the producers used an over
shoulder shot, from Donkeys point of view. Using this shot enables the
audience to see how fast the bridge is swaying. Another advantage of
using this shot is that we see what donkey sees. An example of this is
when they’re crossing the bridge and a section breaks off so when
Donkey looks down, we also see the bubbling larva from his point of
view which adds tension and also makes the audience scared, as if that
was them on the bridge. That is why I think it is such a high-quality
shot to use and a great presentational device.
There is brilliant music throughout the film, especially at the
beginning and end as that is when it subverts the film. Right at the
beginning there is soft fairytale music until we see Shrek and realise
he is very unconventional, when the music becomes very upbeat. One of
the lyrics is “Only shooting stars break the mould”. This goes really
well with the film and Shrek, as they are both very unconventional and
break the mould just like it says in song. The music in the last scene
is also upbeat and you would also associate it with Shrek as one of
the lyrics is “I’m a believer!” and at the beginning of the film we
see Shrek pull out a page of a fairytale book and say ” yer like
that’s ever gonna happen!” and it does as at the end as he is the hero
and he gets the girl. The music subverts the film, as in conventional
fairytales the music is always soft and romantic.
Lighting is a big part in any film, and is a great presentational
device. It is also used really well in this film. An example of this
is when Princess Fiona turns permanently into an ogre in the chapel.
As Fiona turns into an ogre a bright white light comes beaming through
the chapel windows, just like in the film you want to cover your eyes
as it is so bright as do the people in the chapel. The bright light
has an effect that something magical is going to happen. There were
over thirty-four different locations in Shrek, which is a lot of
scenery and settings that have different effects on the audience. For
example the castle equals tension and the chapel equals magic and
fantasy. When watching the film you see that the swamp and all around
it has lightcolours, but when traveling to the castle the colours
would change to dark scarycolours as the villains are associated with
dark cold colours and the hero is associated with bright warm colours.
When we’re asked to think of a hero we don’t think of Shrek, we think
of conventional heroes from fairytales such as Sleeping Beauty and
Snow White and the seven dwarfs. The heroes in these fairytales are
tall handsome white men who are royalty or upper class and are usually
looking for love. Not green ugly ogres who live in swamps with no
manners and are nowhere near upper class. However, in Shrek you do. In
this film Shrek is described as a “freak” as he is so different.
Donkey also describes him as a “green mean fighting machine”. Shrek is
also a very private person, we see this when Shrek says, “I like my
privacy” I think this is because he feels that he is unacceptable
because of the way he looks and this is because of the community
around him. As a result of how the community treated him, I believe it
would be very weird for Shrek, if someone wanted to get to know him.
It isn’t just the way Shrek looks that overturns the film, its also
presentational devices such as lighting and visual effects, because
its these things that make someone look ugly, scary or even pretty.
At one point in the film Shrek tries to explain to Donkey that there
is more to him than what people think, “Onions have layers. Ogres have
layers.” I think he repeats the word “layers” so it emphasises to
Donkey and the audience that they are connected. When Shrek says this,
I think he is trying to say that if you look beneath the ugly exterior
you will find another side to Shrek that no one has stayed around long
enough to find, a kind caring side. However Donkey does not realise
what Shrek is trying to say and makes a humorous remark.
The heroes in fairytales don’t usually have sidekicks however Shrek
does, Donkey. When Donkey meets Shrek all he wants to do is make a new
friend however Shrek doesn’t, and tries to push him away. We see this
when Shrek says, “What am I?” When Shrek says this I think he is
trying to tell Donkey that he is an ogre and everyone is scared of
ogres so he should leave him alone. However Donkey doesn’t realise
this and says, “Your really tall” Donkey doesn’t care that Shrek is an
ogre, I think this is because he is also very different. Donkey’s
character is very funny and adds a lot of humour to the film. As well
as having many funny lines it helps that Donkey’s voice is played by
Eddie Murphy who has a very well known voice and who is very well
associated with humour. In the film Donkey is described as “The
valiant steed” This makes Donkey very proud as all he wants to do is
help Shrek. Donkeys humour and wit makes him different from other
conventional sidekicks.
I will now talk about the villain in the film Lord Farquaad. Lords
Farquaad’s appearance makes him different from other villains, as he
is very small. Conventional villains are tall dark and frightening
with pointy features and can sometimes be magical. However Lord
Farquaad is so short it makes you want to burst out laughing when you
see him, instead of hide behind the sofa. The producers used great
camera angles to exaggerate his height. We see this when we first meet
Lord Farquaad and the camera shows us different parts of his body,
using various camera angles such as close-ups, medium shot also medium
close-up. These shots gives the impression that he is very big and
important as he marches down the corridor, but when we find out how
small he actually is it is very funny. In my opinion the producers
chose brilliant shots as this scene has a lot of humour.
In conclusion the presentational devices subvert Shrek from the usual
conventions of a fairytale as they help create the characters. In my
opinion the makers have been triumphant in producing a fairytale with
a twist, as the film has been very successful worldwide.

Computers in Society

Analysis of the Opening Section of the Television Documentary Children of Crime

Analysis of the Opening Section of the Television Documentary Children of CrimeIn the television documentary ‘Children of Crime’, made by theBBC, it
shows us many of this country’s most vicious children being involved
in offences such as murder. ‘Children of Crime’ is a series of
programmes reporting on different children ranging from the 1960’s up
until modern day. It shows us that crime is not a new craze amongst
the children of today but has been around for many years. One of the
cases examined is Mary Bell, the focus of this assignment. Mary Bell
was just ten years old when she murdered two small boys: Martin Brown
aged 4 and Brian Howe aged 3. She came from a dysfunctional background
and her behaviour at home, playing in the streets and at school was
very strange and sometimes even disturbing. After murdering the boys,
she was convicted of manslaughter in December 1968. She was too young
for prison and mental institutes and so was sent to a high security,
all boys’ facility where she remained for some time. By analysing the
opening section of ‘Children of Crime’, a conclusion should be reached
of how successful the documentary was.
In the introduction to the programme the audience were presented with
several frames, which lead into the main documentary. The first two
frames are in monochrome, the first showing two young boys throwing
stones at the window of a derelict house with the face of Mary Bell
fading into the shot after a few seconds. The second frame shows gangs
of youths kicking another boy; there is also a lot of violence in the
background. The third and fourth frames are recentCCTVfootage
showing the boys that murdered Jamie Bulger; the two faces of these
boys fade into the corners of the screen. The fourth frame shows a boy
smashing a car window and stealing from the car, his picture also
appears into the corner of the screen. The fifth frame is a cell door
closing and someone locking it, once again a picture of a child fades
into the corner. The final frame in the introduction is that of the
title. There is a shot of a courtroom, the camera slowly moves around
the room to focus on where the judge would be; the title then fades
across the bottom of the screen.
In these frames all of the children have committed some kind of crime,
some are petty crime but others more serious. The first two frames are
in monochrome, the next two inCCTVfootage, and the last one in
colour footage. This shows us that crime amongst children is something
that has been happening for many years. Mary Bell’s face is the first
picture to appear, this is maybe because she was the first child
criminal that was in the media. In frame five we see a cell door, this
is associated with adults rather than children and therefore brings
the seriousness of the subject into perspective. It also shows us the
consequences of crime.
Throughout the introduction there is music in the background. The
music sounds haunting, slow and sad: sad which is linked to children
wasting lives involved in crime. There is also a very heavy drumbeat;
throughout the introduction there are only four drumbeats. The first
is when Mary’s face appears on the screen, the second when the picture
of the first boy involved with the Jamie Bulger case emerges, the
third when the boys face from frame four comes into sight and the
fourth when the title of the programme appears. The drumbeats are on
parts of the introduction that the director wants to emphasise the
most. Altogether, the music sounds like a Requiem mass; this can be
related to death and funerals, which can be linked to the tragedy of
children wasting their lives and often other people’s lives by
engaging in crime.
In the main body of the programme many techniques are used to bring
emphasis the message the director is trying to get to the viewers. One
technique, which is used, is music and sound effects. The first frame
is a very good example of this. There is a still photograph of Mary
Bell in the first frame, the camera focuses on this and slowly zooms
in to a close up of her eyes. People who knew Mary Bell make three
different comments: ‘oh she was wicked, oh she was. There was no doubt
about it’, ‘there was a feeling that the ordinary compassion or
emotions and warmth towards the rest of the world was not there’ and
‘Mary’s method was to massage the necks of the boys and tell them they
had a sore throat and she would make it better and her grip tightened
and tightened until she caused their death’. They tell us about Bell
and the murders that she committed. Whilst this happens, the music is
a very simple tune consisting of four notes only. This is appropriate
to children as it is the kind of tune a child would play at the piano.
The tune is also a simple one because the director wants us to focus
on the comments being said about Mary Bell.
The next frame is the skyline of Newcastle, it as set at dusk making
the area look more threatening. As the title appears on the screen
reading ‘The Mary Bell Case’ another note is played alongside the
previous tune making a chord, to emphasise the title. Around frame 14
there is also music. There are a series of different monochrome shots
of the Scotswood area. The music is still a simple tune as there is a
voiceover of the narrator and also of a woman in Bell’s class at
school, however this time the tune is in a different key to sound
mournful and sad. This is because the woman speaking is telling the
audience of the petty crimes that were committed at the time.
Another technique used is voiceovers and interviews. In frame one
whilst the picture of Bell is on the screen, there are three
voiceovers from different people connected to Bell in some way. Their
comments alongside the music and photograph are very effective. The
first person says ‘oh she was wicked, oh she was. There was no
question about it’. The second says ‘there was a feeling that the
ordinary compassion or emotions and warmth towards the rest of the
world was not there’. The third tells the audience how Bell murdered
the boys. In these three comments, all of the people are, in different
words, telling us that Bell was evil. Later in the documentary Brian
Roycroft was interviewed on screen. His name and job title appear at
the bottom of the screen along with the year telling the audience his
details. The interview is also an effective way to persuade the
audience that she was wicked. As his job title shows, he is an expert
and was in quite a high rank of the social services. The public tend
to believe what experts say more than ordinary people as e is very
experienced with children and so he easily persuades the audience.
However, later in the programme a woman is interviewed. She was in
Bell’s class at school but does not have a high ranking position and
so no job title appears on screen. The audience are still persuaded by
her because she was closely linked with Bell. Using this technique
makes the audience and viewers receive a runder picture of Bell.
Still Photographs are another technique used. The first frame in the
main body of the programme is a perfect example of this. The
photograph used is one of bell when she was a youngster. The picture
is very intimidating and creepy. As we watch the shot the camera
slowly zooms into a close up of her eyes while there are three
voiceovers. The picture, in total, is on the screen thirty seven
seconds; this is because the director wants the audience to hear those
particular voiceovers while looking at the picture. One of the
comments said is ‘there was a feeling that the ordinary compassion or
emotions and warmth towards the rest of the world was not there’. Her
eyes in the picture show no emotion. Without the speech, the picture
would not be as powerful.
Throughout the documentary a lot of monochrome or archive footage is
used. It shows the area of Scotswood, as it was when Bell was a child.
in frame nine it shows colour footage and when the shot changes it is
the same streets but in monochrome. The next seven frames are archive
footage and show what people were like in those days: it shows people
drinking alcohol, which seemed to be a typical pastime. The director
wants the audience to see what the area was like then and what
environment was around Bell as she was growing up. Later, around frame
fourteen, there is more archive footage shown also showing the area of
Scotswood. Whilst these shots are on the screen there is a voiceover
from a woman telling the audience what type of crimes were committed.
This technique is very effective as it puts the date into perspective
and gives the audience a chance to see Scotswood back then.
The final technique used is colour footage. This contrasts with the
archive footage and is very effective. In frame nine it shows a colour
shot of a terraced house in Scotswood. Straight after this shot is a
monochrome shot of the same street. This shows the audience what it is
like now compared to then. It is a very effective way of putting
things into perspective.
In conclusion I think this documentary was biased against Mary Bell.
The techniques used were also very helpful in persuading the audience.
The techniques used depended on each other if they were to have full
effect and the director put them together very well. In my opinion, it
was very successful in persuading the public to think Bell was wicked.

Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded – Sexuality and the Morally Didactic Novel

Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded – Sexuality and the Morally Didactic NovelMy analysis will take as central the moral issues in Pamela, but this is done with a cognizance that how we reflect on Pamela’s morality is also closely related to how we read the economic and social aspects of the novel. There have been many works written in response to Pamela, some attacking the eroticism of the novel and others the social deconstruction it implies; however, the most emphatic is likely to be the Marquis de Sade’s literary response in Justine (1791) and Juliette (1797). As we’ve already seen in “Fantomina,” the erotic novel is not something new to the 18th century, and examples such as John Cleland’s Fanny Hill (1748) provide explicit materials to demonstrate that the pornography and sadism of the day were as explicit as our own. As Shamela illustrates, this erotic aspect of Pamela cannot be overlooked, especially with the physicality of aspects of the letter writing and the reader’s ‘view’ of Pamela’s body through this. David Evans describes this asthe prurience of its pre-occupation with sex disguised as moral guidance, and the travesty of Christian morality involved in showing ‘virtue rewarded’ to mean materially rewarded in this life, not spiritually in the next one. (106)Moreover, as Northrup Frye points out,Readers of Pamela have become so fascinated by watching the sheets of Pamela’s manuscript spawning and secreting all over her master’s house, even into the recesses of her clothes, as she fends off assault with one hand and writes about it with the other, (Frye 324)so that our text is supposed to have been in intimate contact with its author. Even the first appearance of Pamela’s letters is with her hiding the texts we’re reading “in [her] bosom” from which Mr. B- “took it, without saying more” (Pamela 44).Sade reacts to this moral and erotic ambiguity in Pamela with vehemence comparable to Voltaire’s in writing Candide. His first version of Justine, or the Misfortunes of Virtue is far tamer than his later emphatic pornographic extensions. Justine, the virtuous sister, is punished throughout for her unrelenting morality, and is ultimately condemned to death by society, but after having been rescued from a cruel public execution is finally stuck by a bolt of lightning that “entered by her right breast, had blasted her thorax and come out again through her mouth, so disfiguring her face that she was hideous to look at” (Misfortunes 146). The sarcastic moral of this tale, in response to the worldly rewards of Pamela, is that “God allows goodness to be persecuted on earth… with no other end in view than to prepare us for a better reward in heaven” (Misfortunes 148). In Sade’s depiction, however, this is not a reward one can reasonably expect and within his atheistic view it is the ‘error’ of social constructions of moral prurience (of the Pamela-type) which affords torturers their triumphs and moralists their punishments. Without divine retribution in the afterlife, it is only the pressure of Society that prevents crime in opposition to the ‘pressure’ of Nature. Humanity is made with corrupt desires, but these are contained by the best interests of the collective or society; however, in this system the morality of divine retribution and ‘virtue,’ in the sense employed by Richardson, is not sensible and leads to the very corruption is tries to prevent.Reading Justine as an anti-Pamela leaves Richardson’s heroine corrupted in the first chapter and Mr. B- unpunished, but moreover leaves Pamela the eternal victim of her own self-imposed moral code. In a view where everything is natural, including vice, virtue is as good as self-punishment or masochism itself. Sade himself openly allows for the redeeming feature of social influence, claimingYes, I am a libertine, I admit if freely. I have dreamed of doing everything that it is possible to dream of in that line. But I most certainly have not done all the things I dreamt of and never shall. Libertine I may be, but I am not a criminal, I am not a murderer. (“Introduction” xvii)He extends this in his philosophical “Dialogue Between a Priest and a Dying Man,” where he again statesGod forbid that anyone should think that in saying this I seek to give encouragement [sic] to crime! Of course we must do everything we can to avoid criminal acts — but we must learn to shun them through reason and not out of unfounded fears which lead nowhere. (159)It is only in his later ‘deconstruction’ of the Enlightenment philosophy of individualism that the Sadistic pornography of his later rewritings of Justine appears, making explicit the place where Nature will lead us if we do not impose social controls when divine providence disappears. Perhaps more exactly I should say, he shows us the place where Nature will lead the virtuous who will be victimized by those who are above social controls. Even within the morality of Pamela, it must be admitted that Pamela’s pleasure is delivered through her ability to subject Mr. B- to her will, just as in a realistic situation Mr. B’s pleasure would lie in Pamela’s weakness and the subjection inherent in her status as a servant or subject. Pamela reminds us of this power struggles throughout the novel, and her parents even write that “what a sad hazard a poor maiden… stands against the temptations of this world and a designing young gentleman… who has so much power to oblige, and has a kind of authority to command” (Pamela 52; emphasis original). It is through the Protestant ethic that Pamela subverts Mr. B’s authority and gains power over him, recalling that she “must call him gentleman, though he has fallen from the merit of that title” (54; emphasis original) and that “well may [she] forget that [she] is [his] servant, when [he] forgot what belongs to a master” (55). The subversion is, of course, one of economic and social power which Mr. B- holds to religious and moral power which Pamela wields. She even reminds the reader that it is through a noblemans’s sexual desire within her moral systems that they “put it into the power of their inferiours to be greater than they!” (56). Rather than placing the prevention of exploitation in the virtue of the weak and the immorality of the strong (an equation equally absurd to class and economic structure in any century, and the central criticism of Pamela), Sade invokes social controls, lest we release the sadistic demons he presents in his later dungeons.Questions To AskGiven the introduction of Sade, is the power struggle in Pamela realistic? Can the reader reasonably accept Richardson’s presentation of the characters and depiction of the prevention of sexual exploitation through the virtue of the weak and the immorality of the strong, or must Mr. B- become Fielding’s Squire Booby? Can Mr. B- be a real villain if his strength and immorality is so effectively checked by Pamela’s virtue?O how poor and mean must those actions be, and how little must they make the best of gentlemen look, when they offer such things as are unworthy of themselves, and put it into the power of their inferiours to be greater than they! (Pamela 56)In addition, can Pamela be thought of as having gained freedom, or just a more rewarding prostitution? Even within the role of virtue that gains her power over Mr. B-, she is as much a prisoner as she is in the country estate.The Marquis de Sade… had ideas of his own on the subject of woman: he wanted her to be as free as man. Out of these ideas — they will come through some day — grew a dual novel, Justine and Juliette. It was not by accident the Marquis chose heroines and not heroes. Justine is woman as she has been hitherto, enslaved, miserable and less than human; her opposite, Juliette represents the woman whose advent he anticipated, a figure of whom minds have as yet no conception, who is arising out of mankind, who shall have wings and who shall renew the world. (“Foreword” ix)Misc. QuotesMany women, from Simone de Beauvoir via Kate Millett to Angela Carter have regarded him as the ultimate misogynist and the symbol of male contempt for women…. Yet his philosophical position was much less clear cut. If Justine is abused, it is for persisting with her policy of virtue, not for her gender. Her sister proved to have no such illusions when Sade told The History of Juliette in 1797. There she not only prospers in vice but becomes one of his greatest fiends. In Sade’s world, obscenity and cruelty are the prerogative of the strong, irrespective of gender. (“Introduction” xxvii; emphasis added)Is Sade a part of literature or the property of science, social psychology, and psychoanalysis? He himself is not a satisfactory case subject (there are always certain difficulties in psychoanalysing the dead), though his catalogue of psychopathological impulses is without equal. Nor is Sade a body of work, for, like Freud and Marx, the Great Unreadable is also the Great Unread. (“Introduction” vii; emphasis added)In [Justine’s] resistance to “things as they are,” in her incorrigible unwillingness or her inability to learn the lessons of the world, her mysterious absence in a world ruled by laws of wickedness, where only crime pays, where there are only weak and strong, only victims and tyrants, the latter always right and the former always wrong perforce — in this, the given and the possible world, Justine’s virtue is unreasonable and unreasoning: It is not miscalculation, it is aberration. (“Foreword” viii)Though written quickly, it was carefully planned around ten incidents which demonstrate that chastity, piety, charity, compassion, prudence, the refusal to do evil, and the love of goodness and truth — in a word, virtue — are punished while a succession of brutal and ruthless villains are seen to prosper in vice. (“Introduction” xxix)As a philosopher, he know that it was a matter of total indifference to nature whether an individual were alive or dead. (“Introduction” xi)The French eighteenth century may now seem a lost age of wit an elegance, a lavish production (decors by Watteau, music by Rameau) staged for our aesthetic pleasure. But in reality was quite different. In Paris, pimps and bawds bought and sold children. They procured shop-girls and country hopefuls who had little choice but to submit to sexual slavery and, not infrequently, to the perverted tastes of their clients. One in seven women was implicated in the vice trade. According to contemporary estimates, 150 million livres were spent annually on ‘the pleasures of Venus’, a figure which, if correct, was fifty times the sum spent on the relief of the poor, twice the trade shortfall for 1781, and half the size of the Royal debt in 1789. The lead was given by the King who kept a deer park at Versailles staffed by barely nubile girls. (“Introduction” xvi)Sade’s behaviour, however appalling it may now seem, was not much worse than that of many contemporary libertines, and when it is further set against the horrific tortures and brutal public executions which were a routine part of the legal system, he seems a very unadventurous sadist indeed. (“Introduction” xvii)Works Cited & Additional ReadingsAcra, Adrienne. “Two Textual Applications of Marxism.” Textual Applications of Marxism. Online. 14 Oct. 2000. <>
Cleland, John. Fanny Hill; Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1989.
Coward, David. “Introduction.” The Misfortunes of Virtue: and Other Early Tales. By Marquis de Sade. 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. vii-xxxvii.
Evans, David. The English Novel in the Eighteenth Century. Vancouver: UBC Access, 1994.
Frye, Northrup. “Towards Defining an Age of Sensibility.” Backgrounds to Eighteenth Century Literature. Ed. Kathleen Williams. Scranton, PA: Chandler Publishing Co., 1971.
LaCorte, John. “Marquis de Sade and the Aesthetics of Suffering.” Marquis de Sade. Online. 12 Oct. 2000. <>
McCracken, Susanne. “Pamela: Economy, The Novel, & Women.” Pamela. Online. 12 Oct. 2000. <>
Richardson, Samuel. Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded. 1980. Markham ON: Penguin Books Canada, Ltd., 1985.
Sade, Marquis de. The Misfortunes of Virtue and Other Early Tales. 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Wainhouse, Austryn. Foreword. Juliette. By Marquis de Sade. 1988. New York: Grove Press, 1988. vii-x. 

Shirley Valentine Extra Scene

Shirley Valentine Extra SceneJoe and Shirley are sitting by the sea sipping wine and the waves are
lapping at their feet. There is an uptight atmosphere as the sun
begins to set.
Joe I think you should come home strait away Shirley. I feel that you
are not the same woman you have your head up in the clouds.
Shirley I may have my head up in the clouds Joe but I’m happy high in
the sky, I’m no longer that boring woman who spent all day looking
after her husband I’m Shirley Valentine again.
As the sun begins to set the camera pulls up to reveal a shadowed
figure walking down Mykanos bay. As the shadowed figure gets closer,
we are able to see it is Costas.
Shirley looks up and tries to divert Joe.
Shirley Come on Joe let me show you the sites you know you and me
together. We could go see the windmills up on the hill or go see the
small bay on the other side of the island.
Joe You’re a bloody loon Shirley you aint changed one bit. It’s eight
o’ clock at night.
Shirley I know but wouldn’t it be romantic you and me under the stars
sipping a carafe of wine together.
Joe No it would not Shirley I have traveled all this way to find you
and it’s a Thursday so I want me tea now. Because its Thursday I want
me usual steak and chips, don’t think you have got away with it just
because your in some backwards country, don’t forget your vows Shirley
Bradshaw when you married me you agreed to look after me in sickness
and in health and if you don’t look after me I will be sick!
Costas comes into view and he begins to talk to Shirley.
Costas Err… Hello Shirley I is sorry I find out just now my aunt is
not sick in Athens she is very well in fact so I thought I should come
find you, to tell you the good news. I was so happy when I find out.
Oh, who is this Shirley?
Shirley Costas this is Joe my husband Joe this is Costas I work in his
Costas Well err nice to meet you I think; Shirley has told me so much
about you.
Joe well I haven’t heard one iota about you so you better begin
Costas well nothing really has happened, Shirley works in my bar she
needed a job that is all. She is a lovely woman and I have not ever
made foak with her.
Joe turns around and looks at Costas in a bemused fashion.
Costas says his good byes and hurries off up the winding road.
The camera then focuses on Joe and Shirley now holding hands walking
to the seashore.
Shirley isn’t it lovely here Joe, can you now see why I have stayed
can you Joe?
Joe it is lovely here Shirley I must admit, but you don’t belong here
you belong in England with me.
Shirley I can’t go back now Joe I belong here this is my life now but
I still want you to be part of my life, I really do.
We could start a new life together you and me hey how about it. We
would both be so happy. There would be no more worries no more
disappointments just excitement.
We could learn to love each other again you know how we used to back
then, I feel we have been drifting apart all these years.
Joe Well…
Shirley let me finish Joe would you not like to live out here care
free and with me. We could both get up in the mornings and think yes
another exciting day unlike before. You wouldn’t have to work I could
work in the bar and we could live off the land.
Joe it all sounds so lovely Shirley but im still not sure what about
the kids?
Shirley the kids are old enough now they don’t need looking after you
never know we might be doing them a favour. I know it sounds horrible
but there’s no one to miss us. Think about it we have no friends no
family it’s just us. We could make a new start; get new friends a new
life Joe can’t you see.
Joe it does sound nice Shirley but will it turn out like that you
don’t know it could all go wrong. How can we live off the land and on
basic pay? We can’t what will we eat? I don’t know Shirley I really
don’t know we will talk about it tomorrow. Where are you staying? We
might be able to decide after some shuteye come on!
The screen fades as we see Shirley and Joe holding hands walking away
we here the sea in the background. The next day Shirley and Joe get
out of bed and eat breakfast on the balcony. The sun is rising and the
sea is placid in the background
Shirley Well…
Joe I haven’t decided yet Shirley it’s a really big decision, perhaps
we could go for a walk and think things through.
Shirley OK
They set off down the steep windy road to the beach. They begin to
Joe I do love it here even though its not quite England.
Shirley I know I told you its so easy to fall in love with it here.
Joe well we could give it a trial period say one or two months. But
nothings got to change just because were in another place I still want
me dinner cooked.
However, we can cook it together.
The camera pulls out to reveal Joe and Shirley kissing passionately on
the sands of Mykanos bay and the ending music begins to fade in as the
picture fades out
The End

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William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet As a prologue to the play, the Chorus enters. In a fourteen-line
sonnet, the Chorus describes two noble households (called “houses”) in
the city of Verona. The houses hold an “ancient grudge” (Prologue.2)
against each other that remains a source of violent and bloody
conflict. The Chorus states that from these two houses, two
“star-crossed” lovers will appear (Prologue.6). These lovers will mend
the quarrel between their families by dying. The story of these two
lovers, and of the terrible strife between their families, will be the
topic of this play.Sampson and Gregory, two servants of the house of Capulet, stroll
through the streets of Verona. With bawdy banter, Sampson vents his
hatred of the house of Montague. The two exchange punning remarks
about physically conquering Montague men and sexually conquering
Montague women. Gregory sees two Montague servants approaching, and
discusses with Sampson the best way to provoke them into a fight
without breaking the law. Sampson bites his thumb at the Montagues—a
highly insulting gesture. A verbal confrontation quickly escalates
into a fight. Benvolio, a kinsman to Montague, enters and draws his
sword in an attempt to stop the confrontation. Tybalt, a kinsman to
Capulet, sees Benvolio’s drawn sword and draws his own. Benvolio
explains that he is merely trying to keep the peace, but Tybalt
professes a hatred for peace as strong as his hatred for Montagues,
and attacks. The brawl spreads. A group of citizens bearing clubs
attempts to restore the peace by beating down the combatants. Montague
and Capulet enter, and only their wives prevent them from attacking
one another. Prince Escalus arrives and commands the fighting stop on
penalty of torture. The Capulets and Montagues throw down their
weapons. The Prince declares the violence between the two families has
gone on for too long, and proclaims a death sentence upon anyone who
disturbs the civil peace again. He says that he will speak to Capulet
and Montague more directly on this matter; Capulet exits with him, the
brawlers disperse, and Benvolio is left alone with his uncle and aunt,
Montague and Lady Montague.
Benvolio describes to Montague how the brawl started. Lady Montague
asks whether Benvolio has seen her son, Romeo. Benvolio replies that
he earlier saw Romeo pacing through a grove of sycamores outside the
city; since Romeo seemed troubled, Benvolio did not speak to him.
Concerned about their son, the Montagues tell Benvolio that Romeo has
often been seen melancholy, walking alone among the sycamores. They
add that they have tried to discover what troubles him, but have had
no success. Benvolio sees Romeo approaching, and promises to find out
the reason for his melancholy. The Montagues quickly depart.
Benvolio approaches his cousin. With a touch of sadness, Romeo tells
Benvolio that he is in love with Rosaline, but that she does not
return his feelings and has in fact sworn to live a life of chastity.
Benvolio counsels Romeo to forget her by gazing on other beauties, but
Romeo contends that the woman he loves is the most beautiful of all.
Romeo departs, assuring Benvolio that he cannot teach him to forget
his love. Benvolio resolves to do just that.
On another street of Verona, Capulet walks with Paris, a noble kinsman
of the Prince. The two discuss Paris’s desire to marry Capulet’s
daughter, Juliet. Capulet is overjoyed, but also states that
Juliet—not yet fourteen—is too young to get married. He asks Paris
to wait two years. He assures Paris that he favors him as a suitor,
and invites Paris to the traditional masquerade feast he is holding
that very night so that Paris might begin to woo Juliet and win her
heart. Capulet dispatches a servant, Peter, to invite a list of people
to the feast. As Capulet and Paris walk away, Peter laments that he
cannot read and will therefore have difficulty accomplishing his task.
Romeo and Benvolio happen by, still arguing about whether Romeo will
be able to forget his love. Peter asks Romeo to read the list to him;
Rosaline’s name is one of those on the list. Before departing, Peter
invites Romeo and Benvolio to the party—assuming, he says, that they
are not Montagues. Benvolio tells Romeo that the feast will be the
perfect opportunity to compare Rosaline with the other beautiful women
of Verona. Romeo agrees to go with him, but only because Rosaline
herself will be there
In Capulet’s house, just before the feast is to begin, Lady Capulet
calls to the Nurse, needing help to find her daughter. Juliet enters,
and Lady Capulet dismisses the Nurse so that she might speak with her
daughter alone. She immediately changes her mind, however, and asks
the nurse to remain and add her counsel. Before Lady Capulet can begin
to speak, the Nurse launches into a long story about how, as a child,
an uncomprehending Juliet became an innocent accomplice to a sexual
joke. Lady Capulet tries unsuccessfully to stop the wildly amused
Nurse. An embarrassed Juliet forcefully commands that the Nurse stop.
Lady Capulet asks Juliet what she thinks about getting married. Juliet
replies that she has not given it any thought. Lady Capulet observes
that she gave birth to Juliet when she was almost Juliet’s current
age. She excitedly continues that Juliet must begin to think about
marriage because the “valiant Paris” has expressed an interest in her
(I.iii.76). Juliet dutifully replies that she will look upon Paris at
the feast to see if she might love him. A servingman enters to
announce the beginning of the feast.
Romeo, Benvolio, and their friend Mercutio, all wearing masks, have
gathered with a group of mask-wearing guests on their way to the
Capulet’s feast. Still melancholy, Romeo wonders how they will get
into the Capulet’s feast, since they are Montagues. When that concern
is brushed aside, he states that he will not dance at the feast.
Mercutio begins to gently mock Romeo, transforming all of Romeo’s
statements about love into blatantly sexual metaphors. Romeo refuses
to engage in this banter, explaining that in a dream he learned that
going to the feast was a bad idea. Mercutio responds with a long
speech about Queen Mab of the fairies, who visits people’s dreams. The
speech begins as a flight of fancy, but Mercutio becomes almost
entranced by it, and a bitter, fervent strain creeps in. Romeo steps
in to stop the speech and calm Mercutio down. Mercutio admits that he
has been talking of nothing, noting that dreams are but “the children
of an idle brain” (I.v.97).
Benvolio refocuses their attention on actually getting to the feast.
Romeo voices one last concern: he has a feeling that the night’s
activities will set in motion the action of fate, resulting in
untimely death. But, putting himself in the hands of “he who hath the
steerage of my course,” Romeo’s spirits rise, and he continues with
his friends toward the feast (I.v.112).
In the great hall of the Capulets, all is a-bustle. The servants work
feverishly to make sure all runs smoothly, and set aside some food to
make sure they have some enjoyment of the feast as well. Capulet makes
his rounds through groups of guests, joking with them and encouraging
all to dance.
From across the room, Romeo sees Juliet, and asks a servingman who she
is. The servingman does not know. Romeo is transfixed; Rosaline
vanishes from his mind and he declares that he has never been in love
until this moment. Moving through the crowd, Tybalt hears and
recognizes Romeo’s voice. Realizing that there is a Montague present,
Tybalt sends a servant to fetch his rapier. Capulet overhears Tybalt
and reprimands him, telling him that Romeo is well regarded in Verona,
and that he will not have the youth harmed at his feast. Tybalt
protests, but Capulet scolds him until he agrees to keep the peace. As
Capulet moves on, Tybalt vows that he will not let this indignity
Meanwhile, Romeo has approached Juliet and touched her hand. In a
dialogue laced with religious metaphors that figure Juliet as a saint
and Romeo as a pilgrim who wishes to erase his sin, he tries to
convince her to kiss him, since it is only through her kiss that he
might be absolved. Juliet agrees to remain still as Romeo kisses her.
Thus, in the terms of their conversation, she takes his sin from him.
Juliet then makes the logical leap that if she has taken Romeo’s sin
from him, his sin must now resides in her lips, and so they must kiss
Just as their second kiss ends, the Nurse arrives and tells Juliet
that her mother wants to speak with her. Romeo asks the Nurse who
Juliet’s mother is. The Nurse replies that Lady Capulet is her mother.
Romeo is devastated. As the crowd begins to disperse, Benvolio shows
up and leads Romeo from the feast. Juliet is just as struck with the
mysterious man she has kissed as Romeo is with her. She comments to
herself that if he is already married, she feels she will die
(I.v.131). In order to find out Romeo’s identity without raising any
suspicions, she asks the Nurse to identify a series of young men. The
Nurse goes off and returns with the news that the man’s name is Romeo,
and that he is a Montague. Overcome with anguish that she loves a
Montague, Juliet follows her nurse from the hall.
Act II, prologue
The Chorus delivers another short sonnet describing the new love
between Romeo and Juliet: the hatred between the lovers’ families
makes it difficult for them to find the time or place to meet and let
their passion grow; but the prospect of their love gives each of them
the power and determination to elude the obstacles placed in their
Act II, scene i
Having left the feast, Romeo decides that he cannot go home. He must
instead try to find Juliet. He climbs a wall bordering the Capulet
property and leaps down into the Capulet orchard. Benvolio and
Mercutio enter, calling out for Romeo. They are sure he is nearby, but
Romeo does not answer. Exasperated and amused, Mercutio mocks Romeo’s
feelings for Rosaline in an obscene speech. Mercutio and Benvolio exit
under the assumption that Romeo does not want to be found. In the
orchard, Romeo hears Mercutio’s teasing. He says to himself, “He jests
at scars that never felt a wound” (II.i.43).
Juliet suddenly appears at a window above the spot where Romeo is
standing. Romeo compares her to the morning sun, far more beautiful
than the moon it banishes. He nearly speaks to her, but thinks better
of it. Juliet, musing to herself and unaware that Romeo is in her
garden, asks why Romeo must be Romeo—a Montague, and therefore an
enemy to her family. She says that if he would refuse his Montague
name, she would give herself to him; or if he would simply swear that
he loved her, she would refuse her Capulet name. Romeo responds to her
plea, surprising Juliet, since she thought she was alone. She wonders
how he found her and he tells her that love that led him to her.
Juliet worries that Romeo will be murdered if he is found in the
garden, but Romeo refuses to budge, claiming that Juliet’s love would
make him immune to his enemies. Juliet admits she feels as strongly
about Romeo as he professes he loves her, but she worries that perhaps
Romeo will prove inconstant or false, or will think Juliet too easily
won. Romeo begins to swear to her, but she stops him, concerned that
everything is happening too quickly. He reassures her, and the two
confess their love again. The Nurse calls for Juliet, and Juliet goes
inside for a moment. When she reappears, she tells Romeo that she will
send someone to him the next day to see if his love is honorable and
if he intends to wed her. The Nurse calls again, and again Juliet
withdraws. She appears at the window once more to set a time when her
emissary should call on him: they settle on nine in the morning. They
exult in their love for another moment before saying good night.
Juliet goes back inside her chamber, and Romeo departs in search of a
monk to aid him in his cause.
Act II, scene ii
In the early morning, Friar Laurence enters, holding a basket. He
fills the basket with various weeds, herbs, and flowers. While musing
on the beneficence of the Earth, he demonstrates a deep knowledge of
the properties of the plants he collects. Romeo enters and Friar
Laurence intuits that Romeo has not slept the night before. The friar
fears that Romeo may have slept in sin with Rosaline. Romeo assures
him that did not happen, and describes his new love for Juliet, his
intent to marry her, and his desire that the friar consent to marry
them that very day. Friar Laurence is shocked at this sudden shift
from Rosaline to Juliet. He comments on the fickleness of young love,
Romeo’s in particular. Romeo defends himself, noting that Juliet
returns his love while Rosaline did not. In response, the friar
comments that Rosaline could see that Romeo’s love for her “did read
by rote, that could not spell.” Remaining skeptical at Romeo’s sudden
change of heart, Friar Laurence nonetheless agrees to marry the
couple. He expresses the hope that the marriage of Romeo and Juliet
might end the feud ravaging the Montagues and Capulets.
Act II, scene iii
Later that morning, just before nine, Mercutio and Benvolio wonder
what happened to Romeo the previous night. Benvolio has learned from a
Montague servant that Romeo did not return home; Mercutio spouts some
unkind words about Rosaline. Benvolio also relates that Tybalt has
sent a letter to Romeo challenging him to a duel. Mercutio responds
that Romeo is already dead, struck by Cupid’s arrow; he wonders aloud
whether Romeo is man enough to defeat Tybalt. When Benvolio comes to
Romeo’s defense, Mercutio launches into an extended description of
Tybalt. He describes Tybalt as a master swordsman, perfectly proper
and composed in style. According to Mercutio, however, Tybalt is also
a vain, affected “fashionmonger” (II.iii.29). Mercutio disdains all
that Tybalt stands for.
Romeo arrives. Mercutio immediately begins to ridicule him, claiming
that Romeo has been made weak by love. As a way of mocking what he
believes is Romeo’s overwrought love for Rosaline, Mercutio takes the
part of Romeo and compares Rosaline to all the most famous beauties of
antiquity, finding Rosaline far superior. Then Mercutio accuses Romeo
of abandoning his friends the previous night. Romeo does not deny the
charge, but claims his need was great, and so the offense is
forgivable. From this proceeds intricate, witty, and wildly sexual
verbal jousting.
The Nurse enters, trailed by the servant, Peter. The Nurse asks if any
of the three young men know Romeo, and Romeo identifies himself.
Mercutio teases the Nurse, insinuating that she is a harlot, thus
infuriating her. Benvolio and Mercutio take their leave to have dinner
at Montague’s house, and Romeo says he will follow shortly. The Nurse
warns Romeo that he had better not attempt to “deal double” with
Juliet, and Romeo assures her he is not. He asks the Nurse to tell
Juliet to find some way to attend confession at Friar Laurence’s cell
that afternoon; there they will be married. The Nurse agrees to
deliver the message. The Nurse also agrees to set up a cloth ladder so
that Romeo might ascend to Juliet’s room on their wedding night.
Act II, scene iv
In the Capulet orchard, Juliet impatiently waits for her Nurse, whom
she sent to meet Romeo three hours earlier. At last the Nurse returns,
and Juliet anxiously presses her for news. The Nurse claims to be too
tired, sore, and out of breath to tell Juliet what has happened.
Juliet grows frantic, and eventually the Nurse gives in and tells her
that Romeo is waiting at Friar Laurence’s cell to marry her. The Nurse
departs to wait in the alley for a servant to bring a ladder, which
Romeo will use to climb up to Juliet’s chamber that night in order to
consummate their marriage.
Act II, scene v
Romeo and Friar Laurence wait for Juliet to arrive at the cell. An
ecstatic Romeo brashly states that he does not care what misfortune
might come, as it will pale in comparison to the joy he feels right
now. Friar Laurence counsels Romeo to love moderately and not with too
much intensity, saying, “these violent delights have violent ends”
(II.v.9). Juliet enters and Romeo asks her to speak poetically of her
love. Juliet responds that those who can so easily describe their
“worth” are beggars, her love is far too great to be so easily
described. The lovers exit with Friar Laurence and are wed.
As they walk in the street under the boiling sun, Benvolio suggests to
Mercutio that they go indoors, fearing that a brawl will be
unavoidable should they encounter Capulet men. Mercutio replies that
Benvolio has as quick a temper as any man in Italy, and should not
criticize others for their short fuses. Tybalt enters with a group of
cronies. He approaches Benvolio and Mercutio and asks to speak with
one of them. Annoyed, Mercutio begins to taunt and provoke him. Romeo
enters. Tybalt turns his attention from Mercutio to Romeo, and calls
Romeo a villain. Romeo, now secretly married to Juliet and thus
Tybalt’s kinsman, refuses to be angered by Tybalt’s verbal attack.
Tybalt commands Romeo to draw his sword. Romeo protests that he has
good reason to love Tybalt, and does not wish to fight him. He asks
that until Tybalt knows the reason for this love, he put aside his
sword. Mercutio angrily draws his sword and declares with biting wit
that if Romeo will not fight Tybalt, he will. Mercutio and Tybalt
begin to fight. Romeo, attempting to restore peace, throws himself
between the combatants. Tybalt stabs Mercutio under Romeo’s arm, and
as Mercutio falls, Tybalt and his men hurry away. Mercutio dies,
cursing both the Montagues and the Capulets: “A plague o’ both your
houses” (III.i.87), and still pouring forth his wild witticisms: “Ask
for me tomorrow, and / you shall find me a grave man” (III.i.93-94).
Enraged, Romeo declares that his love for Juliet has made him
effeminate, and that he should have fought Tybalt in Mercutio’s place.
When Tybalt, still angry, storms back onto the scene, Romeo draws his
sword. They fight, and Romeo kills Tybalt. Benvolio urges Romeo to
run; a group of citizens outraged at the recurring street fights is
approaching. Romeo, shocked at what has happened, cries “O, I am
fortune’s fool!” and flees (III.i.131).
The Prince enters, accompanied by many citizens, and the Montagues and
Capulets. Benvolio tells the Prince the story of the brawl,
emphasizing Romeo’s attempt to keep the peace, but Lady Capulet,
Tybalt’s aunt, cries that Benvolio is lying to protect the Montagues.
She demands Romeo’s life. Prince Escalus chooses instead to exile
Romeo from Verona. He declares that should Romeo be found within the
city, he will be killed.
ActIII, scene ii
In Capulet’s house, Juliet longs for night to fall so that Romeo will
come to her “untalked of and unseen” (III.ii.7). Suddenly the Nurse
rushes in with news of the fight between Romeo and Tybalt. But the
Nurse is so distraught, she stumbles over the words, making it sound
as if Romeo is dead. Juliet assumes Romeo has killed himself, and she
resigns to die herself. The Nurse then begins to moan about Tybalt’s
death, and Juliet briefly fears that both Romeo and Tybalt are dead.
When the story is at last straight and Juliet understands that Romeo
has killed Tybalt and been sentenced to exile, she curses nature that
it should put “the spirit of a fiend” in Romeo’s “sweet flesh”
(III.ii.81-82). The Nurse echoes Juliet and curses Romeo’s name, but
Juliet denounces her for criticizing her husband, and adds that she
regrets faulting him herself. Juliet claims that Romeo’s banishment is
worse than ten thousand slain Tybalts. She laments that she will die
without a wedding night, a maiden-widow. The Nurse assures her,
however, that she knows where Romeo is hiding, and will see to it that
Romeo comes to her for their wedding night. Juliet gives the Nurse a
ring to give to Romeo as token of her love.
ActIII, scene iii
In Friar Laurence’s cell, Romeo is overcome with grief, and wonders
what sentence the Prince has decreed. Friar Laurence tells him he is
lucky: the Prince has only banished him. Romeo claims that banishment
is a penalty far worse than death, since he will have to live, but
without Juliet. The friar tries to counsel Romeo but the youth is so
unhappy that he will have none of it. Romeo falls to the floor. The
Nurse arrives, and Romeo desperately asks her for news of Juliet. He
assumes that Juliet now thinks of him as a murderer and threatens to
stab himself. Friar Laurence stops him and scolds him for being
unmanly. He explains that Romeo has much to be grateful for: he and
Juliet are both alive, and after matters have calmed down, Prince
Escalus might change his mind. The friar sets forth a plan: Romeo will
visit Juliet that night, but make sure to leave her chamber, and
Verona, before the morning. He will then reside in Mantua until news
of their marriage can be spread. The Nurse hands Romeo the ring from
Juliet, and this physical symbol of their love revives his spirits.
The Nurse departs, and Romeo bids Friar Laurence farewell. He must
prepare to visit Juliet and then flee to Mantua.
ActIII, scene iv
Capulet, Lady Capulet, and Paris walk together. Capulet says that
because of the terrible recent events, he has had no time to ask his
daughter about her feelings for Paris. Lady Capulet states that she
will know her daughter’s thoughts by the morning. Paris is about to
leave when Capulet calls him back and makes what he calls “a desperate
tender of my child’s love” (III.iv.12-13). Capulet says he thinks his
daughter will listen to him, then corrects himself and states that he
is sure Juliet will abide by his decision. He promises Paris that the
wedding will be held on Wednesday, then stops suddenly and asks what
day it is. Paris responds that it is Monday; Capulet decides that
Wednesday is too soon, and that the wedding should instead be held on
Just before dawn, Romeo prepares to lower himself from Juliet’s window
to begin his exile. Juliet tries to convince Romeo that the birdcalls
they hear are from the nightingale, a night bird, rather than from the
lark, a morning bird. Romeo cannot entertain her claims; he must leave
before the morning comes or be put to death. Juliet declares that the
light outside comes not from the sun, but from some meteor. Overcome
by love, Romeo responds that he will stay with Juliet, and that he
does not care whether the Prince’s men kill him. Faced with this
turnaround, Juliet declares that the bird they heard was the lark;
that it is dawn and he must flee. The Nurse enters to warn Juliet that
Lady Capulet is approaching. Romeo and Juliet tearfully part. Romeo
climbs out the window. Standing in the orchard below her window, Romeo
promises Juliet that they will see one another again, but Juliet
responds that he appears pale, as one dead in the bottom of a tomb.
Romeo answers that, to him, she appears the same way, and that it is
only sorrow that makes them both look pale. Romeo hurries away as
Juliet pulls in the ladder and begs fate to bring him back to her
Lady Capulet calls to her daughter. Juliet wonders why her mother
would come to speak to her so early in the morning. Unaware that her
daughter is married to Romeo, Lady Capulet enters the room and
mistakes Juliet’s tears as continued grief for Tybalt. Lady Capulet
tells Juliet of her deep desire to see “the villain Romeo” dead
(III.v.80). In a complicated bit of punning every bit as impressive as
the sexual punning of Mercutio and Romeo, Juliet leads her mother to
believe that she also wishes Romeo’s death, when in fact she is firmly
stating her love for him. Lady Capulet tells Juliet about Capulet’s
plan for her to marry Paris on Thursday, explaining that he wishes to
make her happy. Juliet is appalled. She rejects the match, saying “I
will not marry yet; and when I do, I swear / It shall be Romeo—whom
you know I hate— / Rather than Paris” (III.v.121-123). Capulet enters
the chamber. When he learns of Juliet’s determination to defy him he
becomes enraged and threatens to disown Juliet if she refuses to obey
him. When Juliet entreats her mother to intercede, her mother denies
her help.
After Capulet and Lady Capulet storm away, Juliet asks her Nurse how
she might escape her predicament. The Nurse advises her to go through
with the marriage to Paris—he is a better match, she says, and Romeo
is as good as dead anyhow. Though disgusted by her Nurse’s disloyalty,
Juliet pretends to agree, and tells her Nurse that she is going to
make confession at Friar Laurence’s. Juliet hurries to the friar,
vowing that she will never again trust the Nurse’s counsel. If the
friar is unable to help her, Juliet comments to herself, she still has
the power to take her own life.
Act IV, scene i
In his cell, Friar Laurence’s speaks with Paris about the latter’s
impending marriage to Juliet. Paris says that Juliet’s grief about
Tybalt’s death has made her unbalanced, and that Capulet, in his
wisdom, has determined they should marry soon so that Juliet can stop
crying and put an end to her period of mourning. The friar remarks to
himself that he wishes he were unaware of the reason that Paris’
marriage to Juliet should be delayed.
Juliet enters, and Paris speaks to her lovingly, if somewhat
arrogantly. Juliet responds indifferently, showing neither affection
nor dislike. She remarks that she has not married him yet. On the
pretense that he must hear Juliet’s confession, Friar Lawrence ushers
Paris away, though not before Paris kisses Juliet once. After Paris
leaves, Juliet asks Friar Laurence for help, brandishing a knife and
saying that she will kill herself rather than marry Paris. The Friar
proposes a plan: Juliet must consent to marry Paris; then, on the
night before the wedding, she must drink a sleeping potion that will
make her appear to be dead; she will be laid to rest in the Capulet
tomb, and the Friar will send word to Romeo in Mantua to help him
retrieve her when she wakes up. She will then return to Mantua with
Romeo, and be free to live with him away from their parents’ hatred.
Juliet consents to the plan wholeheartedly. Friar Laurence gives her
the sleeping potion.
Act IV, scene ii
Juliet returns home, where she finds Capulet and Lady Capulet
preparing for the wedding. She surprises her parents by repenting her
disobedience and cheerfully agreeing to marry Paris. Capulet is so
pleased that he insists on moving the marriage up a day, to
Wednesday—tomorrow. Juliet heads to her chambers to, ostensibly,
prepare for her wedding. Capulet heads off to tell Paris the news.
Act IV, scene iii
In her bedchamber, Juliet asks the Nurse to let her spend the night by
herself, and repeats the request to Lady Capulet when she arrives.
Alone, clutching the vial given to her by Friar Laurence, she wonders
what will happen when she drinks it. If the friar is untrustworthy and
seeks merely to hide his role in her marriage to Romeo, she might die;
or, if Romeo is late for some reason, she might awaken in the tomb and
go mad with fear. She has a vision in which she sees Tybalt’s ghost
searching for Romeo. She begs Tybalt’s ghost to quit its search for
Romeo, and toasting to Romeo, drinks the contents of the vial.
Act IV, scene iv
Early the next morning, the Capulet house is aflutter with
preparations for the wedding. Capulet sends the Nurse to go wake
Juliet. She finds Juliet dead and begins to wail, soon joined by both
Lady Capulet and Capulet. Paris arrives with Friar Laurence and a
group of musicians for the wedding. When he learns what has happened,
Paris joins in the lamentations. The Friar reminds them all that
Juliet has gone to a better place, and urges them to make ready for
her funeral. Sorrowfully, they comply, and exit.
Left behind, the musicians begin to pack up, their task cut short.
Peter, the Capulet servant, enters and asks the musicians to play a
happy tune to ease his sorrowful heart. The musicians refuse, arguing
that to play such music would be inappropriate. Angered, Peter insults
the musicians, who respond in kind. After singing a final insult at
the musicians, Peter leaves. The musicians decide to wait for the
mourners to return so that they might get to eat the lunch that will
be served.
On Wednesday morning, on a street in Mantua, a cheerful Romeo
describes a wonderful dream he had the night before: Juliet found him
lying dead, but she kissed him, and breathed new life into his body.
Just then, Balthasar enters, and Romeo greets him happily, saying that
Balthasar must have come from Verona with news of Juliet and his
father. Romeo comments that nothing can be ill in the world if Juliet
is well. Balthasar replies that nothing can be ill, then, for Juliet
is well: she is in heaven, found dead that morning at her home.
Thunderstruck, Romeo cries out “Then I defy you, stars” (V.i.24).
He tells Balthasar to get him pen and paper (with which he writes a
letter for Balthasar to give to Montague) and to hire horses, and says
that he will return to Verona that night. Balthasar says that Romeo
seems so distraught that he is afraid to leave him, but Romeo insists.
Romeo suddenly stops and asks if Balthasar is carrying a letter from
Friar Laurence. Balthasar says he is not, and Romeo sends his servant
on his way. Once Balthasar is gone, Romeo says that he will lie with
Juliet that night. He goes to find an Apothecary, a seller of drugs.
After telling the man in the shop that he looks poor, Romeo offers to
pay him well for a vial of poison. The Apothecary says that he has
just such a thing, but that selling poison in Mantua carries the death
sentence. Romeo replies that the Apothecary is too poor to refuse the
sale. The Apothecary finally relents and sells Romeo the poison. Once
alone, Romeo speaks to the vial, declaring that he will go to Juliet’s
tomb and kill himself.
Act V, scene ii
At his cell, Friar Laurence speaks with Friar John, whom he had
earlier sent to Mantua with a letter for Romeo. He asks John how Romeo
responded to his letter (which described the plan involving Juliet’s
false death). Friar John replies that he was unable to deliver the
letter because he was shut up in a quarantined house due to an
outbreak of plague. Friar Laurence becomes upset, realizing that if
Romeo does not know about Juliet’s false death, there will be no one
to retrieve her from the tomb when she awakes. (He does not know that
Romeo has learned of Juliet’s death and believes it to be real.)
Sending for a crowbar, Friar Laurence declares that he will have to
rescue Juliet from the tomb on his own. He sends another letter to
Romeo to warn him about what has happened, and plans to keep Juliet in
his cell until Romeo arrives.
In the churchyard that night, Paris enters with a torch-bearing
servant. He orders the page to withdraw, then begins scattering
flowers on Juliet’s grave. He hears a whistle—the servant’s warning
that someone is approaching. He withdraws into the darkness. Romeo,
carrying a crowbar, enters with Balthasar. He tells Balthasar that he
has come to open the Capulet tomb in order to take back a valuable
ring he had given to Juliet. Then he orders Balthasar to leave, and,
in the morning, to deliver to Montague the letter Romeo had given him.
Balthasar withdraws, but, mistrusting his master’s intentions, lingers
to watch.
From his hiding place, Paris recognizes Romeo as the man who murdered
Tybalt, and thus as the man who indirectly murdered Juliet, since it
is her grief for her cousin that is supposed to have killed her. As
Romeo has been exiled from the city on penalty of death, Paris thinks
that Romeo must hate the Capulets so much that he has returned to the
tomb to do some dishonor to the corpse of either Tybalt or Juliet. In
a rage, Paris accosts Romeo. Romeo pleads with him to leave, but Paris
refuses. They draw their swords and fight. Paris’s page runs off to
get the civil watch. Romeo kills Paris. As he dies, Paris asks to be
laid near Juliet in the tomb, and Romeo consents.
Romeo descends into the tomb carrying Paris’ body. He finds Juliet
lying peacefully, and wonders how she can still look so beautiful—as
if she were not dead at all. Romeo speaks to Juliet of his intention
to spend eternity with her, describing himself as shaking “the yoke of
inauspicious stars / From this world-wearied flesh” (V.iii.111-112).
He kisses Juliet, drinks the poison, kisses Juliet again, and dies.
Just then, Friar Laurence enters the churchyard. He encounters
Balthasar, who tells him that Romeo is in the tomb. Balthasar says
that he fell asleep and dreamed that Romeo fought with and killed
someone. Troubled, the friar enters the tomb, where he finds Paris’
body and then Romeo’s. As the friar takes in the bloody scene, Juliet
Juliet asks the friar where her husband is. Hearing a noise that he
believes is the coming of the watch, the friar quickly replies that
both Romeo and Paris are dead, and that she must leave with him.
Juliet refuses to leave, and the friar, fearful that the watch is
imminent, exits without her. Juliet sees Romeo dead beside her, and
surmises from the empty vial that he has drunk poison. Hoping she
might die by the same poison, Juliet kisses his lips, but to no avail.
Hearing the approaching watch, Juliet unsheathes Romeo’s dagger and,
saying, “O happy dagger, / This is thy sheath,” stabs herself
(V.iii.171). She dies upon Romeo’s body.
Chaos reigns in the churchyard, where Paris’s page has brought the
watch. The watchmen discover bloodstains near the tomb; they hold
Balthasar and Friar Laurence, who they discovered loitering nearby.
The Prince and the Capulets enter. Romeo, Juliet, and Paris are
discovered in the tomb. Montague arrives, declaring that Lady Montague
has died of grief for Romeo’s exile. The Prince shows Montague his
son’s body. Upon the Prince’s request, Friar Laurence succinctly tells
the story of Romeo and Juliet’s secret marriage and its consequences.
Balthasar gives the Prince the letter Romeo had previously written to
his father. The prince says that it confirms the friar’s story. He
scolds the Capulets and Montagues, calling the tragedy a consequence
of their feud and reminding them that he himself has lost two close
kinsmen: Mercutio and Paris. Capulet and Montague clasp hands and
agree to put their vendetta behind them. Montague says that he will
build a golden statue of Juliet, and Capulet insists that he will
raise Romeo’s likeness in gold beside hers. The Prince takes the group
away to discuss these events, pronouncing that there has never been “a
story of more woe / Than this of Juliet and her Romeo” (v.iii.309).

The Differences Between the Methods of the Suffragists and the Suffragettes

The Differences Between the Methods of the Suffragists and the SuffragettesFor women to campaign for being able to vote they were two main
organisations involved in trying to make this successful for women.
Their names were first theNUWSSwere the suffragists group. TheNUWSSwere formed in 1897. Mrs Millicent Garret Fawcett was its president.
Suffragists meant that they preferred to take action by moral force.
The name of the other group was theWSPUthey were known as the
suffragettes. They were members of the Women’s Social and Political
Union (WSPU). Founded in Manchester in 1903 by the Pankhurst family,
the approach was very different from theNUWSS. The suffragettes liked
to take action with physical force as well as moral force.
Both groupsWSPUandNUWSStried to get succeed in able to vote in
different ways. These groups had some legal and illegal methods to get
their own way. The legal methods were meetings, demonstrations and
pilgrimages in which both parties took part. Some illegal activities
that they tried to do were Tax evasion and census methods, propaganda
techniques and persuading the parliament. In both these legal and
illegal activities both parties took part. TheNUWSSorganised its
first London procession for 9th February 1907. It was to show
politicians and the general public the demand for women’s suffrage.
Due to bad weather the demonstration became known as the “Mud March”.
Over 3000 women marched from Hyde Park to Exeter Hall, in the Strand,
accompanied by bands playing music. The banners they carried
represented over 40 different women’s organisations. The founder of
the Labour party, Keir Hardie, and well-known writers like H.G. Wells
made speeches in support of votes for women. At the time there was a
sense of shock at the sight if women marching in this kind of public
Most of the illegal activities were participated by theWSPU. They
committed such illegal activities such as Arson attacks. The main
reason for doing arson attacks was a response to the window smashing
attacks but more severe. These arson attacks mainly started in the
year 1914. When at least four major acts of arson were committed.
These arson attacks caused the arrest of Emmeline Pankhurst. All of
the women to act in a physical manner. This helped women because if
the government did not listen to there demands these women may have
carried on more and could have caused more and more damage.
Another illegal activity done by theWSPUwas that they had done a lot
of window smashing to try to expand the right to vote. They first of
all started the window smashing because the women received very bad
treatment outside the House of Commons. Emmeline Pankhurst encouraged
a lot of women to this by when she gave the speech at The Albert Hall
in October 1912. That was when she said things like “Those who can
break windows break them. Those of you who can still further attack
the secret idol of property so as to make the government realise that
property is a greatly endangered by women suffrage”. So this had
triggered of the women to react in such a violent manner. Another
purpose for women smashing windows was because they were refused to
receive a deputation of suffragettes. When Emmeline Pankhurst and a
group of elderly suffragists were turned out from the House of Commons
and arrested this was costly. As they were arrested this prompted
women to break windows at the privacy council, the Treasury and the
Home Office. This act soon became an official policy of the party.
Women went around destroying windows of many very important places in
Britain trying to get their view across. As they did this most of the
important people in their party had been arrested so they would get
revenge by smashing more windows. Most of the attacks were done in the
year 1913. Asquith introduced the franchisee and registration bill in
June 12th. He promised to bring in amendments that would make women be
able to vote when the House of Commons discussed the Bill. They were
four amendments; all of the four amendments offered women suffrage in
diverse forms. A speaker announced that giving women the vote would
change the bill so much that it would be withdrawn. It had come to an
end in January 1913. The Prime Minister Asquith was left in disbelief
and was in shock to solve the problem he provided time for a private
member Bill in favour of votes for women.
One more illegal activity that the suffragettes did was that they went
out on hunger strikes to give them the right to vote. Marion
Wallace-Dunlop was imprisoned when for stencilling a quotation from
the bill of rights on a wall of the House of Commons. As a result of
her being arrested she went on a hunger strike. Then this sort of act
became a policy in theWSPU. TheWSPUused the hunger strikes to get
the sympathy vote from around the world. Many women were informed
about when working class women were forcibly fed and they were not
given and medical aid or were not examined to see if they were healthy
or not. Upper class women were shown much more greater contemplation
then the working class women. A woman called Lady Constance Lytton in
1911 disguised herself as a working class woman called Jane Wharton to
commit a criminal act to end up facing imprisonment. She received no
confection she was fed brutally seven times. This attracted much more
media hype, as theWSPUwere able to class division that existed
equally in prison and the society. So this really helped women to get
more support from around the world. So they became much stronger and
were prepared to face any test. So the party became more popular and
they were much closer to gaining the right to vote. Suffragette
prisoners continued to go on hunger strikes and demand political
status. There was public outcry at the government’s force- feeding. In
April 1913 authorities rushed through the prisoners temporary
discharge for ill health act. The way this act was operated theWSPUcalled it the ” Cat and Mouse Act”. Under the terms of the act hunger
strikes or mice were released on special licence by authorities or cat
for a precise period of time. However they could then be re-arrested
and returned to prison to complete sentences whenever the authorities
or cat wished.
Harassing authority was another important illegal activity that women
used to be able to be given the right to vote. TheWSPUalso took part
in this illegal activity aswell. This activity was mainly aimed at the
Church and the state. They had singled out the Church because it was
seen strangely enough both as the “Lackey” of government and as a
symbol of resistance against power. The Church was blamed for its
“Shameful” and disrespectfully complaint attitude. The Church was
speaking out against the make suffer of imprisoned suffragette
martyrs. It was also targeted because the Church policy of equality by
not giving their complete support to votes for women. They were trying
to imply this because Jesus Christ was regarded as a great person who
spoke out against unfairness; the Church was thought to need reminding
of its past very important role. So there was a widespread protest to
pray in support of votes for women. In 1913 at St Mary’s Baptist
Chapel in Norwich a woman rose during the service to say “Oh lord
Jesus who dost, at all times show tender compassion to women hear now
our petitions for our sisters who are being tortured in prison by men
calling themselves Christians”. Annie Kenney who gave this speech was
soon arrested after. It was in the hands of the parliament who could
give the vote to the women. Annie Kenney asked Churchill “If you are
elected will you do your best to make women suffrage a Governments
measure? No reply was given then Christabel Pankhurst held up a banner
sayin “Votes for women”. Both Annie and Christabel were arrested
outside the hall when they tried to protest again.
After a lot of women interrupted a lot of government leaders and then
received what was in essence free publicity and as a consequence
increased membership. TheWSPUeven interrupted political speeches
given by the liberal party who supported women suffrage. They done
this because they believed that the politicians were dishonest. Then
the government responded by banning women from political meeting this
made theWSPUvery furious. TheWSPUwere given competition by the
Liberal Government. They would have embarrassed them easily.
The Conservative party favoured some of the view which women had about
voting. Women suffrage resolutions were passed at Conservative party
annual conferences. Most members of the Conservative party were
willing to do all they can towards vote for women. Prime minister
Disraeli, Salisbury and Balfour spoke in support of votes for women.
There was not much great evidence of any great commitment by the
Conservative leaders to execute women suffrage. John Stuart Mill
proposed a woman’s suffrage improvement but Disraeli disagreed because
he wanted to extend his permit to working class men only. Lord
Salisbury did little to further the cause of women’s suffrage and
voted a second reading of a women’s suffrage bill in 1891. Lord Curzon
was against the votes for women all together and most members of the
Conservative party shared the same view as him.
The Liberal party were much different to the Conservative party. In
the early twentieth century Campbell Bannerman privately spoke about
the approval of votes for women but publicly blocked its progress in
the House of Commons. In 1892 Asquith gave a speech on suffrage in
which he talked about four main reasons why he was against women
suffrage. First he said vast majority of women did not want the vote,
women were not fit for the partnership. Third he said women operated
by personal influence, if the had the vote would disturb the natural
order of things. A lot of individual men gave kindly of their time and
money and energies to encourage votes for women.
Labour party was founded in the year 1906. 60 per cent of working
class men were barred from the contract as the right to vote was still
based upon the ownership or occupation of property. The key members of
the Labour party were MPs, Keir Hardie, George Lansbury and Phillip
Snowden. These men argued that it was decisive to fight one step at a
time and favoured to campaign for votes for women. In 1912 George
Lansbury MP for Bromley and Bow, also dedicated much of his political
life to women suffrage. One time he rushed across the House of Commons
floor shook his fist at Asquith and shouted, ” You’ll go down to
history as the man who tortured innocent women”. He demanded that all
Labour MPs vote against all Liberal Government proposals until the
women were given the vote. In 1912 he resigned his place and
re-election as an independent MP as a protest against the Labour party
not being fully committed to women suffrage.
1860 was when the story begins only the peaceful methods were used but
gradually changed from the year 1914 suffragette violence was at its
peak. Both groups did not give up at all they still carried on
fighting to try to get women to be able to vote. Up until 1914 theWSPUceased it’s campaigning many ministers were in danger.

Kenneth Branagh’s Love’s Labour’s Lost

Kenneth Branagh’s Love’s Labour’s LostWhere Shakespeare on film had once been expected to retain the traits of ‘high’ theatre and art, complete with ‘authentic’ period costumes,4 recent adaptations have become more adventurous, liberally adopting popular idioms and surprising expectations of ‘Shakespeare’ by visual styles drawn from contemporary entertainment.5 Kenneth Branagh’s Love’s Labour’s Lost (2000), the focus of this paper, adapts Shakespeare’s play to the American movie musical, but it depends less on creating a contemporary visual track that runs parallel to the text than on interpolating an aural one which intercepts and weaves another lyric and melodic text into it. Samuel Crowl argues that the musical is a ‘very American’ genre, which he surmises accounts for the relative lack of success of the film (40).In our analysis, we will discuss the conversion of Shakespeare’s poetic form into the musical form, and explore how the engagement of the spectator’s aural experience (i.e. through the music and songs) is as important as the visual, if not more so, in negotiating the transfer of Shakespeare to the screen. We have identified three strategies of adaptation which we will discuss in the three sections of this essay firstly, the exchange of poetry with popular song; secondly, the construction of spectatorship and listenership as recovery and recollection; and finally, the performativity that mediates between the poetic and musical forms.Poetry as Song: ’I’d Rather Charleston’The most significant alteration Branagh has made to Shakespeare’s play is to excise a large proportion of the text (only 25-30% is retained) and replace it with popular and familiar songs from Hollywood’s Golden Era musicals, from the era of Irving Berlin, Jerome Kern, George and Ira Gershwin, among others. These musicals of the 1930s, 40s and 50s are characterised by the artifice of their setting combined with the artlessness of their delivery; they offered contemporary audiences a fantasy world of opulence and elegance, a fantasy that was in stark counterpoint to an era of economic depression and war. In Branagh’s own words: ‘I liked the idea of setting the film at the end of that idyll between wars when everyone was trying to make some sense of a rather chaotic world in which everything seems about to change’ (Studio production notes). However, the adaptation, or ‘updating’, of Love’s Labour’s Lost is not achieved merely through a substitution of text by image, but through a matching of Shakespeare’s verbal wit to the wit of the songs’ tunes and lyrics. The songs in the film replace the Shakespearean dialogue in a way that dissolves the image-dialogue dialectic by matching one form of verbal and aural play (and playfulness) with another.Although the replacement of central speeches and scenes in Love’s Labour’s Lost by musical numbers appears to depart radically from Branagh’s previous films, which demonstrated that the verse could be successfully wedded with contemporary Hollywood idioms and genres without losing its authentic ring,6 it takes his strategy a step further by persuading us that there is a tonal similarity, even interchangeability, between the musical numbers and Shakespeare’s dialogue, and hence the re-imaging of the play can take place through the re-articulation of its ‘music’. Branagh says he[decided] to cut, for the modern ear and audience, excessively difficult language (which I think many people would concede about this play), replacing what it does thematically with music and with the wit and the invention of those twentieth-century writers in the musical world – Cole Porter, Irving Berlin – who have discussed all the essential subjects of love’ (Wray and Burnett, 173).In other words, rather than Shakespeare forming a framework for the musical or the musical forming a framework for Shakespeare’s dialogue, the two forms become interdependent, or conjunctive rather than disjunctive, through the songs which bind them.The matching of Shakespeare to the musical is achieved by formally mirroring the pattern of word-play evident in the verse of Love’s Labour’s Lost. As H. R. Woudhuysen, the editor of the Arden edition of the play, notes:Love’s Labour’s Lost is a play that [is f]ull of parallels and patterns in which arrangement and ornament are ends in themselves. Its characteristic style shows a pleasure not just in carefully worked-out and formal structural devices or in playful punning, rhyming and metrical experimentation and linguistic dexterity, but in the verbal texture of repetition and allusion. (47-48)The play revels in word-games of many sorts, including repetitions, inversions, neologisms, and parallelisms. In the first meeting between Navarre and the Princess, the latter deftly turns the former’s gallant greetingÑ’Fair Princess, welcome to the court of Navarre’ (2.1.90)Ñon its head: ‘Fair’ I give you back again, and welcome’ I have not yet’ (2.1.91).7 Navarre follows with ‘You shall be welcome, madam, to my court’ (2.1.95), and the Princess counters again with ‘I will be welcome then’ (2.1.96). In this brief exchange, ‘welcome’ is uttered four times, each picking up a thread where the previous left off. The repetitions build up a richness of the text, as opposed to the richness of imagery, which produces an allusiveness that Woudhuysen notes ‘works from within, not from outside, the play’ (48). This helps ‘create its own self-absorbed world in which it constantly turns its attention in upon itself’ (48). It is this quality of self-absorption and enclosure that Branagh takes up in the songs, whose rhythm and repetition of tune and lyrics match and mirror the word-play in the text.However, the film does not simply replace one form of word-play with another: the words of the play are not simply substituted for songs, but are interwoven into the musical through a similar matching of words. This takes place a number of times in the film. In the first encounter between Berowne and Rosaline, their mutual question ‘Did I not dance with you in Brabant once?’ (2.1.114-115) becomes the pretext to jumpstart the energetic Jerome Kern number ‘I Won’t Dance’. In another instance, when Berowne makes his big speech on love in the library and reflects on the men’s inconstancy towards their vows of abstinence, the opening lines (4.3.286-289) are recited in iambic pentameter, but because he also taps out the iambic rhythm with his feet, the conflation of the Shakespearean verse with the rhythm of the musical form cannot be overlooked. At the climax of that speechÑ’And when Love speaks, the voice of all the gods/ Make heaven drowsy with the harmony’ (4.3.337-338) the word ‘heaven’ forms a thread or cue to lead into the opening lines ‘Heaven, I’m in heaven’ of Irving Berlin’s classic ‘Cheek to Cheek’. In the words of the film’s musical director, Patrick Doyle: ‘[The songs] become singing soliloquies, almost like arias in the dramaÉ’ (Brawley and Thompson), providing a different take on Stephen Banfield’s theory of ‘melopoetics’, which is cited and explained by Geoffrey Block as a condition where ‘by the end of the songwriting process, and usually at the beginning, the music and words form a symbiotic, if not always inseparable, union’ (89).Branagh’s Love’s Labour’s Lost uses the conventions of the musical8 to re-visualize Shakespeare’s scenes by emphasizing the re-creation of performance tone and style over any social re-contextualization of plot or character.9 The musical form in Love’s Labour’s Lost re-orders the dramatic structure, firstly by pacing the development of the action around the high points of the song-and-dance sequences. For instance, in the second part of 1.1, Don Armado is introduced in person instead of through his letter, which makes his exaggerated physical appearance and manner part of his verbal display, his eccentrically angled moustache complementing his florid presentation of the law-breakers to the King. Shakespeare’s introduction of Don Armado in 1.1-2 parodies the learning versus love theme very early in the play, but Branagh’s musical shifts the emphasis from Armado’s hilarious erudition to its physical counterpart in his performance of his self-image. Instead of unfolding his banter with Moth, his melancholy in 1.2 swiftly develops into an energetic burlesque of ‘I Get a Kick Out of You’. Set initially in a picturesque inner courtyard with a flame-orange creeper on its walls, the scene of the song moves through several scenarios for Armado’s gentlemanly pretensions: the scene in the park where he first caught sight of Jaquenetta, a fireside study, a drawing room, and a two-seater airplane, each with appropriate costumes and props and capped by a slapstick moment for Moth. Armado’s performance of ‘I Get a Kick Out of You’ thus physicalizes and images the satiric function of his verbal ostentation in the play.This sequence also illustrates, secondly, how the interplay of main plot and sub-plot used by Shakespeare in all his comedies is re-formulated in terms of the variation and modulation of song-and-dance styles. Armado’s self-display in love is a comic variation of the sweeping glamour of the main lovers’ sequences; his clumsy enactment of regular dance movements is picked up later with a gentler humour in the ensemble balletic number led by Holofernia (a school-marm version of Holofernes), ‘The Way You Look Tonight’. In both sub-plot numbers, the familiarity of the song juxtaposes with the physical humour of its enactment to generate a surprising relationship between character stereotypes from different performance cultures. This form of inter-textuality can be more accurately termed inter-performative, where the performance of Shakespearean and Hollywood roles mutually re-stage the scene and the actor of song and play.Although the songs in the film stand out as the most memorable instances of Branagh’s playing of Shakespeare as Hollywood musical, the effect of the musical style on the play is extended and pervasive, both in how the dialogue is acted and how it is seen. Explaining the cuts he made during the post-production process to sequences they had already filmed, Branagh says, ‘There seemed to be a point at which a song needed to emerge. You could feel it rhythmically. So much of how the film was edited was a virtue of having to adopt some musical sensitivity, not just to the language, but to the rhythm and structure of this new creation, which was a film musical based on a Shakespeare play’ (Director’s commentary). Besides re-ordering dramatic structure, a dominant effect of musical conventions on the play is to strengthen the functions of rhythm in its performance. Commenting on the comedy of repetition when the three courtiers each surreptitiously approaches Boyet with a gift (not in the text) to elicit information about his lady (first a glass of wine given by Dumaine, then a loaf of bread by Longaville, and last a cigarette put into his mouth by Berowne) Branagh reveals that ‘the physical comedy almost needed to be choreographed, there was something rhythmical required for it’ (Director’s commentary).Technically speaking, the characters’ physical moves in and out of shot and the interaction between them in one sequence can be counted out the way one counts out a dance routine. Here the acting correlates to the rhyme structure of the repartee between Boyet and the men in the play, but creates its comedy through a cumulative visual effect. Berowne’s removal of the cigarette after he has achieved his objective of obtaining Rosaline’s name is a joke precisely in the vein of the musical genre’s deft fun with physical gestures, and it changes the tone of Shakespeare’s exchange here and throughout the film.The formal repetition, which can seem contrived and laborious in the text, is naturalized when presented as musical choreography.10 The four pairs of lovers are a prime instance of the transformation of repetition through a re-formulation of how it is performed. Their complementarity is imaged in the colour coding of their costumes, and embodied in the variation of their individual performance personalities and movements. Thus what otherwise reads as a multiplication of characters without the individuation that would represent a social group is made sense of through our enjoyment of visual pattern, dynamic contrast and symmetry in the spectacle staged by the musical. As Branagh also points out, the more subsidiary couples in the play, Dumaine and Katherine, and Longaville and Maria, have much more prominent roles here as dancers and singers who make up the rhythm and variation of the ensemble performance (Director’s commentary). This symbiosis of play and musical becomes one way of meeting critical reservations that the play’s slight, fanciful plot is overbalanced by elaborate verbal conceits that do not appear to perform a more significant function than their own game. 11 Whereas the word-games of the male enclosure of Navarre are often treated sternly by critics of the play as an immaturity on both their part and Shakespeare’s to be corrected later,12 in Branagh’s musical the songs’ charming lightness of tone acts as an entirely enjoyable display of the charming silliness of love. As such, they quite possibly recuperate the charm of that dazzling verbal inventiveness which centuries of change in our idioms – and of expecting a particular kind of serious meaning in Shakespeare’s language – has dulled.Spectatorship as Recollection: ‘They Can’t Take That Away From Me’The second strategy of adaptation in Love’s Labour’s Lost involves the role of the spectator and his knowledge of the songs as well as the feeling of memory and nostalgia they evoke. Relegated to the status of ‘minor Shakespeare’,13 Love’s Labour’s Lost appears an unexpected choice for a director famed for making Shakespeare accessible to the modern masses. And yet, its relative obscurity is what allows the songs ‘to work its magic’, to use the popular expression. In an interview with the Belfast Telegraph, Branagh acknowledges the creative freedom that the play allows, since he had ‘the added advantage of knowing that the audience would NOT be sitting and waiting for the balcony scene or for Hamlet to start talking to the skull of Yorick’ (‘Trust’). Whereas in other film adaptations, the spectator’s knowledge of Shakespeare is often crucial to the negotiation of Shakespeare and the popular, 14 in Love’s Labour’s Lost it is the spectator’s recognition of the musical form (and crucially, the songs) that performs this function. The sense of expectation the film draws on is not the anticipation of famous speeches or scenes from the Shakespearean play but rather the recollection of the experience of old musicals from that bygone era. However, the spectatorial experience in Love’s Labour’s Lost is constructed not through explicit visual memory but through a more subtle process of what is known in the field of psychology as ‘implicit memory’. 15Samuel Crowl, writing on the film, notes that ‘[t]he songs of the 1930s that I inherited from my parents have not survived to swirl through the imaginations of the rock generation. They just didn’t get the film’s daft and deft musical jokes’ (40). However, Love’s Labour’s Lost recalls not so much a specific musical from the 1930s or 40s but rather the feel of one. It is dependent on what can only be expressed as a trace of memory, a palimpsest, rather than a re-enactment of an actual scene or flashback.Branagh reveals:I looked at a lot of the films of that era and hoped that something of the feel and the mood comes through in the design rather than specifically borrowing a particular effect from any one film (Studio production notes).In the same way, the set is designed to evoke a feel of ‘fantasy Oxbridge’, and the costumes to ‘capture the feel of the period without copying it’ (Studio production notes), and so the mise-en-scene combines the privileged tone of Oxbridge culture in the 30s with the glamour of Hollywood musicals. The film draws its originality from the way expected scenes emerge. Branagh has this to say about the ‘top hat and tails’ number that the cast performs after Berowne sings ‘Cheek to Cheek’, which was originally performed as a top hat and tails number by Fred Astaire in Top Hat (Mark Sandrich, 1935) 16:The top hat and tails in a movie that’s set in the thirties is a delicious and expected kind of image, but we wanted to surprise people with the way in which it emerged. É It’s a bit campy and a bit silly, but it’s sort of saying I bet you were expecting a top hat and tails number, weren’t you? Well, we’re giving it to you now!’ (Studio production notes)Similarly, Nathan Lane’s rendition of the famous ’There’s No Business Like Show Business’ as a slow balladic number at first thwarts our expectations, but proceeds to fulfil them minutes later when the scene bursts into a riot of colour and showmanship that closes the pageant. This sort of elbow-nudging from the film invites the spectator to participate in its antics, to complete and close the circuit of meaning in the marriage of Shakespeare with the musical form.The spectator is called upon to recall, and perhaps recover, an earlier memory of watching Fred and Ginger, Esther Williams and Gene Kelly dance, swim and sing their way to stardom. What is drawn to the surface is a memory of the sense of having seen these films, without really needing to recall any of the films in specific detail; and a large part of that memory is aural. When the tunes appear in Love’s Labour’s Lost, we feel as if we have heard them somewhere before, even if we cannot identify the original source.This is in part due to the fact that these songs, as ‘classics’, are continually fed back into the cultural stream and reappear in other films and performances. Astaire’s performance of ‘Cheek to Cheek’ for instance made a memorable appearance in Woody Allen’s Purple Rose of Cairo (1985). Also, this effect is enhanced in the age of television, where films, and clips of films, are re-played continually to each succeeding generation, forming a part of the cultural capital that we continually draw on.In addition, Branagh’s film capitalises on the fact that the songs were themselves composed specifically to be remembered apart from the films they appeared in. Richard Crawford notes that ‘Broadway songs were composed to contribute to a show and to appeal outside it, even to listeners and performers who knew nothing of their original context’ (669); in fact, Crawford notes that composers like Jerome Kern ‘wrote the songs so that they could circulate independently, in sheet-music form’ (669). As such, ‘the central legacy of musical theatre of all types [in the 1920s and 1930s] remain the songs’:Every successful show and the majority of those otherwise forgotten, offered one or more songs that continued with a life of its own. The Broadway and film songs of Berlin, Gershwin, Kern, Porter and Rodgers, among others are still with us, frequently sung and increasingly revered. Even when heard in instrumental versions in shopping malls, elevators and lounges, they still retain a close association with their original verbal messages. (Block 86)This is part of what Stephen Banfield identifies as the songs’ ‘apotheosis’, that ‘one era’s generic sufficiencyÉcan become the next generation’s background material for a new layer of allure’ (317).The ‘new layer of allure’ in Branagh’s film is the layering of the songs and the dance numbers with Shakespeare’s text. Although critics consider the cast’s less-than-professional execution of the choreography the main weakness of the film,17 Branagh has openly acknowledged that he had aimed for a film that was ‘actor-led as opposed to dancer-led’ because ‘he wanted to invest the singing and dancing with the kind of particular understanding of character which an actor can bring’ (Studio production notes). He asserts that he was ‘happy to accept a certain rawness in the singing and dancing provided it came from a very clear sense of who the people were’ (Studio production notes). In this sense, the film claims its lineage from a very long history of Shakespeare performance where it is the actor who defines the role and character that he plays. And yet, through the numerous allusions to musicals over time – Branagh calls them all his ‘favourite bites from musicals of the past, across 30’s, 40’s and 50’s and even 60’s with Bob Fosse in there as well’ (Studio production notes) – the film also claims its lineage from a shorter but no less distinguished history of the stage/film musical.Thus, through the merging of two formal and, in their own ways, great traditions, the symbiosis of text and performance, of music and image, raises the film above the narrative level where Shakespeare’s love story might be simply interspersed with familiar songs. Branagh’s deft manipulation of spectator recollection allows the film to take ownership of the songs and make them part of Shakespeare’s play inasmuch as the play is made part of the American musical, the sum of which two add up to Branagh’s own film as a performance of its own time.Re-enactment as Performativity: ’There’s No Business Like Show Business’A film that draws attention to its status as a re-enactment is always performative, in that it presents its own act of re-making something else, rather than transparently representing the fiction. The term performativity derives from J. L. Austin’s definition of the performative speech act as one that performs what it names (such as ‘I do take this woman to be my lawful wedded wife’), in contrast to the constative speech act that describes; as such, the act of speaking points to itself, not to a referent (6-7).18 While we take for granted that the performative is an attribute (an adjective) of all performance, which creates what it presents, adaptations depend on a heightened performativity to the extent that the performance does not merely dramatise or interpret a script, but absorbs those functions into the interests, motives, and activity of re-performing it.The performativity of an adaptation engages us not at the level of what it means, but what it does. All film adaptation of Shakespeare in this sense performs itself – a relation to Shakespeare and is necessarily self-reflexive about the cinematic medium and its culture(s), which stage Shakespeare in our own image. Branagh’s Love’s Labour’s Lost, however, can be said to engage a dual performativity of re-enactment. The doubling of Elizabethan play and Hollywood musical foregrounds the pleasures of re-playing and re-staging each, through the rhythm of transitions and switches between them, and the consequent framing of one with the other. In this section we conclude by looking at how the spectator is made to watch and participate in the simultaneous performance of this double re-enactment.A recognition of how Branagh’s deployment of musical form enhances the formal patterning in Love’s Labour’s Lost and allows one to distinguish a performative dimension in both the musical and Shakespeare’s handling of action in this play, which is a-fictional in its attraction. The fluid transition of Berowne’s eulogy to love into the performance of ‘Cheek to Cheek’ demonstrates how the songs share the quality of ‘set speeches’ in Shakespeare which can be extracted and anthologized. Both are great evocative moments that crystallize an experience, a feeling, or attitude in the performance of it; they arise out of the narrative and at the same time stand away from it, in that they attract and encapsulate many more situations than this one, and are thus abstract in their lyric vitality. The personification of Love in the speech supports this removal of feeling from its fictional context, and almost invites the production of another, imaginary scene that then appears to fulfil it visually as the rapturous dance performance of the song. Threading speech into song doubles and extends the climax of this scene, prolonging the spectator’s absorption in the performance of romance.Thus the poetry, song and dance only nominally refer to the lovers, for they aspire as nearly as possible to the pure performative act. Austin’s performative speech act is usually tied to a situation to which it refers: ‘I do’ (take this woman to be my lawful wedded wife), as uttered in the course of a marriage ceremony’ (13-14)19 and Shakespeare and musical performances represent a fiction. The attraction of this compound moment, however, consists not in leaving the plot behind altogether but in mobilising it towards a distillation of its occasionÑthis occasion is in part the characters falling in love, but in greater part the desire to experience romance through its ideal, poetic performance. We can see the performative re-enacting itself and exercising a compelling effect on its audience even at one remove when Branagh explains how he performed this speech: ‘And in the very doing of it, of the description of the way love transforms you, you actually see him be transformed by the words themselves, you actually see the actor succumb to the power of the poetry to the point where, in fact, words are not enough, and he’s got to sing’ (Director’s commentary).The performativity of the film is that of reprise, where the mixed genres enable familiar songs and dance routines to stand out as a new act of showcasing old favourites, and appeal to the old-fashioned glamour of movie stars to theatricalise Shakespeare’s characters. The enjoyment of the enterprise of staging Shakespeare through the musical and vice versa is what constitutes its energy: because the songs and the many visual allusions to movies are pieced together from different sources in a Shakespeare play from which, correspondingly, most of the lines have been removed to leave the bare essentials of the plot, neither form asserts full presence. Instead, it is the moment-by-moment re-capture and re-staging of both Shakespeare and the Hollywood musical through their relationship to one another that is engaged. The performativity of re-enactment is visible in the way details stand out for their own sake. Branagh stresses the degree of care exercised by the design team in evoking the tone of Hollywood’s Golden Era musicals: from the costumes to the colour and even the red satin backdrop that the opening titles are ‘written’ onto; every detail performs what he calls the opposite of realism – or ‘a sort of unrealism’’ (Studio production notes).We are prompted to recognise and participate in the re-creation of both play and musical by the transitions between them that sustain the actor’s presence in the act of embodying character, and of turning character into dancer. The audience shifts between watching Branagh perform Berowne perform tap dance, where an interchangeability between Shakespearean character and musical performer promotes throughout an awareness of his act of re-staging both. If anything, because the song-and-dance routines are enjoyable as showmanship, they heighten the possibility of stepping out of the narrative into the present performance occasion, that of imaginative invention. Similarly, the costumes function at once as period style and as dance costume.The production of the artifice is what we are repeatedly enjoined to admire and share; for instance, the introduction of the Princess and her ladies in four perfectly aligned punts floating slowly down the river at twilight, each glowing in a different coloured dress and lit by two large oval lanterns reflected on the water. The cinematography and editing of the scenes not only contribute greatly to their effect of glamour, beauty, and formal harmony, but position the spectator in the point of view that constructs it. Here the frontal shot of the girls proffers an idealised image of romantic idyll composed by a privileged but unrealistic spectator position directly facing them in the river; in the swimming number ‘Fancy Free’ and ’There’s No Business Like Show Business’ the overhead shots20 place the spectator in an even more impossible position, where we are made conscious that the figure formations are special arrangements for our benefit and delight. The spectator’s view of the mise-en-scene is regularly composed in formal symmetry, and our point of view participates in the dance sequences through rapid mobile framing at acute angles and rhythmic editing. In this particular scene the frontal shot of the girls is followed by a racking foreshot from the bank where Boyet is riding his bicycle alongside them, emphasizing the delicate composition of the image in motion. Branagh states that he wanted everything ‘to look effortless and yet somehow neat’ (Director’s commentary).Branagh’s Love’s Labour’s Lost performs an unabashed re-creation of what it acknowledges and indeed celebrates as fantasy. But the film also takes care throughout to align itself with the view that Shakespeare incorporated a judgement on its insubstantial world of wit, erudition and courtship as the play’s self-critique: firstly through the women’s mockery of the men, and, more harshly, by averting the expected happy ending with the news of the King of France’s death. This abrupt shift in direction and tone at the end is always something of a shock, which forces an audience to re-assess their experience of the romantic comedy through the sensation of the playwright’s hand intruding as a viewpoint on it. The film’s strategy for incorporating a viewpoint that distances and ironises the fantasy it celebrates takes the form of black-and-white newsreel montages and newspapers. These introduce the imminence of World War Two as the context of reality against which the momentary idyll in Navarre is set. Whilst the newsreels serve an expository function of filling in (or fast-forwarding) the story, they also set the tone of good-humoured mockery with which its progress is regarded, and repeatedly require us to step out of the fantasy and re-focus it from the distance of ‘the real world’.The film thus prepares the viewer much more than Shakespeare did to recognise the status of the romantic comedy as incomplete, if not illusory, and to accept its puncture at the end. And yet it adds another ending, or epilogue, that reverses the judgement of history on the musicals of that period, as well as Shakespeare’s on his romantic comedy, by restoring a comic resolution after the war in the reunion of not only the four pairs of lovers but the whole community of characters, with the sole exception of Boyet who has been killed in action.A lost play called Love’s Labour’s Won is known to have existed, which some think may have been Shakespeare’s sequel to Love’s Labour’s Lost (and a response to the audience’s dissatisfaction at being cheated of the comic resolution). To understand what this film’s ending does with that wish fulfilment, one needs to re-consider the device of framing the musical with the newsreel. As a framework for the reality that will disrupt the musical fantasy, the black-and-white newsreel montage narrated by a voiceover is as much a reprise of a certain cinematic style as the glamour it forms a contrast to, and belongs to a long convention for signifying but also manipulating the value of an external, public viewpoint. Here it fulfils the structural function of an opposition to the absorption of Shakespeare’s Navarre and the musical in their own performances, as a rupture that needs to happen. But its performance of the narrative of World War Two (the fall and recovery of Europe) re-enacts a larger collective and historical sense of loss into which Love’s Labour’s Lost is gathered, and upon which is predicated the necessity of a happy ending that will not only reward the men for their faithfulness, but performers and audience for their belief in re-enacting it. Thomas Greene writes thatLove’s Labour’s Lost is distinguished by a certain slenderness of feeling, a delicate insubstantiality. One source of that impression may be the play’s lack, unique in Shakespeare, of any firm social underpinning. Not only is there missing any incarnation of responsible authority É but there is equally missing any representative of a stable and dependable citizenry. There is nobody here who, however quirky or foolish or provincial, can be counted on, when he is multiplied enough times, to keep society functioning. (225)This view is worth quoting at length because it clarifies the difference between the play and what its re-enactment performs in this film. In place of a society in Navarre, the film supplies two contexts for reality, that of the war, and that of our memory of it now, both of which raise the stakes on the capacity for performing idealism, romance, glamour and fun (in a word, lightness) as an affirmation of life. In the same measure that it represents the real world, the newsreel’s ultimate function is to vindicate the endurance of the romance (and the endurance of our desire to re-perform it) by absorbing the characters into ‘reality’ and showing that their loves survive the outer world, and time.The last newsreel that follows the ending of the play inserts snapshot moments of all the characters in their war-time roles into typical footage of the war, and brings them back together in a moving series of eye-line matches as they look for and spot each other amidst an enormously crowded victory celebration. Because we, too, search for their faces in the crowd, we are spliced into the moment of recovering them and their reunion, like that of old friends. Our participation is in fact what produces their community, which is lacking in the play, but created here as a collective inheritance of Shakespeare, Hollywood musicals and history, and it is this community that is enacted by the merging of the camera’s viewpoint with the photograph that Dull takes of them. In a slow-motion image that gradually turns into full colour as it freezes, they are all about to be captured in a group photograph. The stretching out of these final moments takes Shakespeare and the Hollywood musical out of their historical placements, to form an imprint in our remembering of the central crisis of the twentieth century. Branagh’s last lines are spoken in voiceover by the actor (and director), not the character. The repetition of the lines upon which he had broken into the song ‘Cheek to Cheek’ invoke the musical we have watched as a trace, and the lines he had then left out perform the resonance of that lightness in the present.And when Love speaks, the voice of all the gods
Make heaven drowsy with the harmony.
From women’s eyes this doctrine I derive:
They are the books, the arts, the academes,
That show, contain and nourish all the world.
4.3.318-327In place of the ambivalence of the play’s original ending, Branagh closes the film with lines taken from the moment in the play where the men are celebrating the height of their innocence. The disruption of that moment in the narrative is mitigated by the instrumental rendition of ‘You Can’t Take That Away From Me’. Where the rupture in the narrative is signified by the shift in film style to the newsreel, the music in fact continues seamlessly from the farewell scene,21 through the entire black-and-white montage, overlaying the grittiness of the newsreel with a sentimentality and nostalgia that confirms for the viewer the presence of his own time.Before the final scene freezes into an actual photograph, the film cuts directly to the closing credits that re-play the duets from ‘Cheek to Cheek’ in reverse whilst the music fades into a rousing instrumental reprise of ’There’s No Business Like Show Business’. Consequently, although the fantasy is framed and punctured by the proffered reality of the ‘real world’ and the war, in essence, the audience never fully leaves the resplendent world of the movie musical; or as Nathan Lane sings, ’you’re brokenhearted, but you go on’. Thus, Branagh’s Love’s Labour’s Lost adds itself on to Shakespeare’s list of ‘books, arts and academes’, inter-performatively, as an enduring source of emotional and spiritual nourishment for the new audience.Works CitedAltman, Rick. The American Film Musical. Bloomington : Indiana UP, 1987.Austin, J. L. How to Do Things with Words. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard UP, 1962.Aylesworth, Thomas G. History of Movie Musicals. London: Hamlyn, 1984.Block, Geoffrey. ‘The melody (and the words) linger on: American musical comedies of the 1920s and 1930s’. The Cambridge Companion to the Musical. Eds. William A. Everett and Paul R. Laird. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. 77-97.Brawley, Vance and Nathaniel Thompson. ‘A True Love’s Labour: Patrick Doyle’. Interview [online]. 7 September 2003.Crawford, Richard. A History of America’s Musical Life. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001.Crowl, Samuel. Shakespeare at the Cineplex: The Kenneth Branagh Era. Athens: Ohio UP, 2003.Director’s commentary. Love’s Labour’s Lost. Dir. Kenneth Branagh. 2000. Digital video disc [DVD]. Miramax, 2001.Ebert, Roger. ’Love’s Labour’s Lost’. Review. Chicago Sun-Times [online], n.d. 5 January 2004.Feuer, Jane. The Hollywood Musical. Bloomington : Indiana UP, 1993.Greene, Thomas M. ’Love’s Labour’s Lost: The Grace of Society’. Love’s Labour’s Lost: Critical Essays. Ed. Felicia Hardison Londre. New York and London: Routledge, 1997. 225Ð242.LaSalle, Mick. ’Branagh’s Labored Musical: Bad singing, dancing sink 30s-style Love’s Labor’s Lost.’’ San Francisco Chronicle [online], 16 June 2000. 6 January 2004.Londre, Felicia Hardison. Love’s Labour’s Lost: Critical Essays. New York and London: Routledge, 1997.Maslin, Janet. ‘Soft! What Light? It’s Flash, Romeo’. Review. New York Times, 1 November 1996: n.p.Schacter, Daniel L. Searching for Memory: The Brain, the Mind and the Past. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.Studio production notes [of Love’s Labour’s Lost]. Reprinted in The Daily Telegiraffe [online]. DailyTelegiraffe/ loveslaboursloststudionotes.html. 7 September 2003.‘Trust Kenneth Branagh’. Interview. The Belfast Telegraph, 22 March 2000. Reprinted in The Daily Telegiraffe [online]. ~DailyTelegiraffe/loveslabourslostbelfast.html. 7 September 2003.Wilson, John Dover. ’Love’s Labour’s Lost: The Story of a Conversion’. Love’s Labour’s Lost: Critical Essays. Ed. Felicia Hardison Londre. New York and London: Routledge, 1997. 175-191.Woudhuysen, H. R. ‘Introduction’. Love’s Labour’s Lost. By William Shakespeare. Ed. H. R. Woudhuysen. Arden Shakespeare, 3rd series. Walton-on-Thames, Surrey: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1998.Wray, Ramona and Mark Thornton Burnett. ‘From the Horse’s Mouth: Branagh on the Bard’. Shakespeare, Film, Fin De Siecle. Eds. Mark Thornton Burnett and Ramona Wray. London: Macmillan & New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.165-178.Endnotes:1 A number of essays in recent book collections deal with both the formal and cultural dimensions of the visuality of Shakespeare on film. See Anthony Davies and Stanley Wells, eds., Shakespeare and the Moving Image (Cambridge University Press, 1994); Lynda E. Boose and Richard Burt, eds., Shakespeare the Movie: Popularizing the Plays on Film, TV, and Video (Routledge, 1997); Mark Thornton Burnett and Ramona Wray, eds., Shakespeare, Film, Fin De Siecle (St. Martin’s Press, 2000).2 Janet Maslin of the New York Times called it ‘an attempt to reinvent Romeo and Juliet’ in the hyperkinetic vocabulary of post-modern kitsch’ and ‘headache Shakespeare’.3 Branagh released two versions of his Hamlet: a condensed 2½-hour version for popular consumption, and the 4-hour version using a ‘complete’ text which is generally accepted to be collated from several variants, and not ‘originally’ performed in entirety as a single play. In doing so he confronted the accepted practice of film adaptations of sacrificing some text to visual and narrative continuity. Branagh says, ‘there was the sense of futility, if you like, of a four-hour film (that was obviously language-based) possibly finding an audience at the end of the twentieth century … [but also] the love of the endeavour, the sort of, and not wishing to be immodest, mad heroism of the endeavour … I thought that was a sort of Hamletian thing to do.’ (Wray and Burnett, 171)4 For example, Laurence Olivier’s screen Shakespeare (e.g. Hamlet, 1948, and Richard III, 1955). For an account of the development of Shakespeare in the cinema, see Kenneth Rothwell, A History of Shakespeare on Screen (Cambridge University Press, 1999).5 Luhrmann’s MTV-style Romeo + Juliet, or the Hollywood-style action adventure scenes in Branagh’s Hamlet, are two cases in point, as is Gil Junger’s adaptation of The Taming of the Shrew into 10 Things I Hate About You (1999), set in an American high school.6 Examples are Much Ado About Nothing (1993) and Hamlet (1996).7 All quotations from Love’s Labour’s Lost are taken from the Arden edition, ed. H. R. Woudhuysen (Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1998).8 See, for instance, Rick Altman’s The American Film Musical, or Jane Feuer’s The Hollywood Musical.9 Cf. Gil Junger’s re-contextualizing of The Taming of the Shrew into a teenage movie, or Richard Loncraine’s re-contextualizing of Richard III (1995) into an imaginary 1930s fascist Britain.10 Branagh’s choreographing of the play echoes John Dover Wilson, who counters H. B. Charlton’s criticism that the eight lovers ‘resemble each other in a wooden conformity’ and ‘have all to do the same sort of thing’ by pointing out that ’they constitute of course the most striking feature of the design and they do so the more effectively in that they provide the main element of the colour scheme… the scenes are so arranged that the colour-scheme is constantly changing: the King and his lords are outblazoned by Armado and Moth, who after being contrasted with the simplicity of Dull, Costard, and Jaquenetta, are in their turn followed by the dapper Boyet and his bevy of dainty ladies. Next, the two main groups are brought together for the splendour of Navarre to confront the grace of France (188-189).11 Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times has this to say: ‘All is light and winning, and yet somehow empty. It’s no excuse that the starting point was probably the weakest of Shakespeare’s plays. “Love’s Labour’s Lost” is hardly ever performed on the stage and has never been previous filmed, and there is a reason for that: It’s not about anything. In its original form, instead of the songs and dances we have dialogue that’s like an idle exercise in easy banter for Shakespeare.’12 See, for instance, Peter B. Erickson, ‘The Failure of Relationship between Men and Women in Love’s Labor’s Lost’, Love’s Labour’s Lost: Critical Essays, 243-256. The accepted dating of the play as one of Shakespeare’s earliest (1589-90, or even earlier) has directed both criticisms and defences of what Harley Granville-Barker generously saw as ’Shakespeare’s dramatic innocence’ (qtd in Copeau, 119), which contains the seeds of his more mature comedies. See Jacques Copeau, ’Love’s Labour’s Lost: One of Shakespeare’s First Bows’ and Alfred Harbage, ’Love’s Labor’s Lost and the Early Shakespeare’, both in Love’s Labour’s Lost: Critical Essays, 117-123; 193-211.13 Since Hazlitt’s statement in 1817, ‘If we were to part with any of the author’s comedies, it should be this’ (repr. in Love’s Labour’s Lost: Critical Essays, 61), the play has often been regarded as an inferior or flawed work in Shakespeare’s canon. Thomas Greene states that ‘The qualities of Love’s Labour’s Lost determine its limitations. The arabesques of wit, the elaborations of courtly artifice, the coolness of tone – these sources of its charm contribute to that brittleness and thinness and faded superficiality for which some critics of several generations have reproached it’ (225).14 See for instance the discussion of the endings of Baz Luhrmann’s Romeo + Juliet, Branagh’s Hamlet, John Madden’s Shakespeare in Love (1998) and Peter Greenaway’s Prospero’s Books (1991) in Yong Li Lan, ‘Returning to Naples: Seeing the End in Shakespeare Film Adaptation’, Literature/Film Quarterly 29:2 (2001), 128-134.15 Daniel Schacter defines implicit memory as ‘the idea that memory can be manifested without [the] awareness of remembering’ (162) and cites the success of commercial advertising as an instance of how this works, ‘that people tend to prefer products featured in ads they barely glanced at several minutes earlierÑeven when they have no explicit memory for having seen the ad’ (190).16 Ironically, Aylesworth has this to say about Top Hat: ‘With its plot of mistaken identity and accidental confusion, RKO [the studio] might have resurrected William Shakespeare to write the story line’ (46).17 Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle is particularly caustic, calling it ‘a stink bomb of a movie’, citing two ‘obvious’ problems: ‘This is a Shakespeare play featuring actors who can’t talk. And it’s a musical featuring people who can’t sing.’18 Citing the examples ‘I do (sc. take this woman to be my lawful wedded wife)’ as uttered in the course of the marriage ceremony’ and ‘I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth’ as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stem’, Austin says, ‘In these examples it seems clear that to utter the sentence (in, of course, the appropriate circumstances) is not to describe my doing of what I should be said in so uttering to be doing or to state that I am doing it: it is to do it’ (6-7) .19 Austin gives six rules which spell out the conditions for ‘the smooth or happy functioning of the performative’, any of which being contravened will cause the performative utterance to be ‘unhappy’ or ‘infelicitous’ (14-15).20 The overhead shot is characteristic of the lavish Busby Berkeley musicals of the 1930s; see Crawford.21 It is a scene which quotes the well-known Casablanca (Michael Curtiz, 1942).

Comparison Between The Others and The Sixth Sense

Comparison Between The Others and The Sixth SenseThe blockbuster movies ‘The Sixth Sense’ and ‘The Others’ are two of
the best examples of supernatural thrillers you will ever see. Both
storylines are gripping and compelling and there are many unsuspected
twists and turns along the way.
‘The Sixth Sense’ and ‘The Others’ have comparable storylines because
they are both based on the idea of a parallel universe in which
supernatural and human beings are closer than anyone realises. Both
movies have an ability to keep you guessing throughout and
unexpectedly surprising you.
‘The Sixth Sense’ is about a distinguished child psychologist, Dr
Malcolm Crowe who is haunted by the painful memory of a disturbed
young patient he was unable to help, so when he meets Cole Sear, a
frightened, confused eight-year-old boy with a similar condition, he
seeks to redeem himself by doing everything he can to help him. But
Malcolm discovers more than he thought he would when the boy reveals
he can see dead people. The movie is very emotional and ends when
Malcolm himself discovers that he is also dead.
‘The Others’ is about a woman named Grace and her two children Anne
and Nicholas. They live behind the locked doors and drawn curtains of
a huge secluded mansion. Out of nowhere, three mysterious servants
arrive and it becomes clear that there is far more to their house and
family that can be seen. Grace finds herself in a horrifying fight to
save her children and keep her sanity. This movie also ends when Grace
finds out that she, along with her children and the three servants are
Firstly I am going to compare the opening credits in ‘The Others’ and
‘The Sixth Sense’. The credits in any movie are very important because
they are the deciding factor to whether you will want to carry on
watching the film or not. If they do not catch your attention and
generate anticipation, it is likely that you will not enjoy the movie.
From the opening credits, with their white-on-black minimalism and the
stealthy, suggestive music, it’s clear that ‘The Sixth Sense’ is going
to have you on the edge of your seat the whole way through. The black
of the background symbolises darkness and the feeling of unawareness
and the contrasting glowing white writing stands out against it. As
the scrolling credits fade into the background followed by shadows; it
sets an eerie atmosphere, which prepares you for the rest of the
movie. The haunting music gets more intense as the credits roll on,
which builds tension towards the opening scene, as it starts with
complementary near silence to add impact.
The opening credits in ‘The Others’ also create a similar ghostly
setting as in ‘The Sixth Sense’ although I feel that the credits in
‘The Others’ are more chilling and quite shocking. They start
relatively harmless, however we are still tense and edgy because we
know there is irony behind this and that the story will not turn out
to be so innocent. This is proved as the credits roll on and the
images become more disturbing and terrifying. The gentle voice over is
also ironic because it leaves the audience wondering why such a kind
voice, talking about such a saintly subject, is introducing a
contradictory thriller. The credits vaguely tell the story of ’The
Others’ although this is quite effective as it makes you want to carry
on watching the movie because the ending is not clear. Also, some of
the images are rather intriguing and unsettling and leave you wanting
to know the meaning behind them. You realise that the story in the
credits is reality when the final image in the storybook of a large
haunting mansion surrounded by mist turns into a full colour,
real-life version. The clever use of light and dark is also present in
the opening credits of ‘The Others’ and is especially significant
since the two young children in the movie are photosensitive and
cannot be subjected to any sort of bright light. The credits are as
though their mother is reading a story addressed to them by
candlelight. This is effective because as the ball of soft light moves
from page to page, into and out of the darkness, the audience are
unaware what the flame of the candle is going to uncover next.
Another technique used to mount tension is the use of the camera,
unusual angles and close ups. The most successful example of this was
in ‘The Others’ when you first see Grace. After a short silence and
blackout you are forced to jump when you see Grace lay on her bed
screaming. The camera is quite close up so you can catch the emotion
and genuine hysteria and distress on her face. The camera is also at a
slant but slowly pans up to a horizontal position. This shows that
when Grace first wakes, everything is out of sync and as she slowly
realises that it is just a dream, the camera angle become straighter.
This is effective because it makes you to feel as confused and dazed
as Grace feels when she first wakes up from the nightmare and as the
camera angle gets straighter we feel more in control like Grace does.
A successful use of the camera in ‘The Sixth Sense’ is at the very
beginning when Anna goes down into the cellar to get a bottle of wine.
The first shot is being filmed from behind the wine rack, which gives
you the sense that someone is secretly watching Anna. Again, it is a
close up so you can see the fear on her face. Another shot in this
sequence is when the camera is on the floor next to the stairs and
Anna is on the other side of the room. This is very effective because
it makes Anna look very small and vulnerable and she longs a very long
way from the stairs to get out. It is as if someone is hiding near the
stairs waiting to pounce on Anna as she tries to leave the cellar. The
camera was also in this position when she went into the cellar so it
was as though somebody was already waiting there. The wary look on her
face also adds to the anticipation because it is as though she can
feel a presence in the room just as you think there is one there too.
It makes you feel scared because you, like Anna, think there is
something there but cannot see it.
Grace in ‘The Others’ is portrayed as a hard-hearted, cold and stiff
woman who has a strict idea of life. She is very organised and likes
to know what is going on at all times. She is strong willed and is
quite intimidating. This is all shown with the use of the camera
because when the camera is on Grace it is always pointed upwards as if
she is really tall. When the camera is showing Grace looking at
someone else it is pointing down.
Overall I think the movie that I preferred the most was ‘The Others’
because it was very unpredictable and it captivated my attention
because there was always a new twist or turn to be discovered. I was
forced to watch very carefully because I did not want to miss
anything. The film was very mysterious and I think the ending lived up
to the rest of the movie. It had me on the edge of my seat the whole
way through.

in cold blood

In the novel In Cold Blood written by Truman Capote, Nancy Clutter was murdered along other members of her family. This novel is based on the murders of this family. Nancy was the “town darling”, (Page 7, Capote) she was intelligent, talented, helpful with her family, and was truly devoted to her boy friend Bobby. Little did she know that her life was coming to an end. She was murdered with the town left in tears and her boyfriend left for questioning. Nancy was a student in high school who earned straight “A’s” and was awarded prom queen. She was the youngest female in the Clutter family and gave her family her all. She helped with cooking dinner and house cores daily. Nancy was the daughter that everyone wished to have.
     Nancy had a boyfriend named Bobby who was in love with Nancy but only one thing was holding them both back. “Mr. Clutter like Bobby and considered him, for a boy his age which was seventeen years old, most dependable and gentlemanly; however, in the three years she had been permitted “dates,” Nancy, popular and pretty as she was, had never gone with out anyone else, and while Mr. Clutter understood that it was the present nation adolescent custom to form couples, to “go steady” and wear “engagement rings,” he disapproved, particularly since he had not long ago by accident surprised his daughter and the Rupp boy kissing. (Page 8, Capote) Nancy put into great consideration that her dad disapproved of her and Bobby’s relationship. Nancy took Bobby seriously and loved him with all her heart. However, she considered breaking up with Bobby to please her father.
     Nancy was the class president at her high school; she was the girl that every other girl wanted to be. She often helped out with everyone and everything she could possibly do. She felt that it was her duty to help when other girls came to her for help with cooking, sewing, music lessons, or as often willing to confide with others. She enjoyed helping out with the household cores however, she sometimes felt over whelmed. Nancy’s mother was unfortunately ill and was often in bed. Nancy’s mother Bonnie “Suffered “little spells”- such were the sheltering expressions used by those close to her.” (Page 7, Capote) Nancy still keeps up her grades having a 4.0 grade point average.

Gang Violence

Gang Violence     Nowadays gangs are big issues in America. People who are in gang feel like they belong some where and people care about them. There are various reasons people join gangs, and almost all age group between ages 12-40 are involved in gangs. One of the big reasons people join gangs is because of their needs, protection, and also they want attention from people around them. Gang’s should be taken seriously because today’s gangs are more violent and brutal then they were in 60’s. Gangs do more violent act every day and if police don’t do anything about gangs then it will be hard to control the gangs in the future.
     Today gang is a big issue when it comes to steeling and money. Usually young kids ages between 13-18 steel more then the older gang member who are eighteen and older. Once the kids start steeling they want more and more things like CD players, walkman, clothes, school supply, games, music, movies and whatever the kids could get their hands on. Also money is the biggest problem in the world because even if people have enough money they want more. But money problem was different for Luis because his family didn’t have much money and they lived in a poor neighborhood. So Luis’s mom told Luis to start working somewhere when Luis was only nine year old. Later Luis started to work with his mother and helped out the family bit. Then Luis met Yuk Yuk who was older then him. Yuk Yuk taught Luis and his friends to steel small things. Furthermore, Luis and his friends started to steel big things like bikes, TV, stereo, etc. and made more then $100 dollars a week. Because of money Luis and his friends joined a gang in which they made good money illegally and became more violent.
     If you live in a neighborhood where there are lots of gangs, then you need to be in a gang or move to a better neighborhood. If you have gangs in your neighborhood you will need protection from someone like police or join another gang. If you don’t have protection you will get beaten down. For example, when Luis and his brother Rano went to a store to get some grocery, few gang members beat Rano up and tried to rob him. So if Luis joins a gang he get protection from his member friends. Also in a tough neighborhood like Luis’s its not hard to join a gang because there are gangs all over the area and somehow you will end up in a gang just like Luis and his friends. In addition, violence has increased a lot more then before. Before gangs used to fight with their fist and knives, but today almost every gang member has a gun. Also there are fights almost every day between gangs whether you are in school, work, or on the street.
     As well, there are many people who lack attention. Attention is a big role in life. For example, to get more attention from parents, friends, and peers an adolescent joins a gang to get respected. Gangs do different things to get people’s attention. For example, teens who are in gangs try to do crazy things like take guns to school, act tough, and talk back to teachers. They also don’t listen nor care about anyone but themselves, and other gang members. Also to get attention a gang member will commit some kind of criminal act. By joining a gang you will get attention from the public. Gang members help you out once you can be trusted by them. A majority of the time a gang leader will ask you to beat someone up, or steal to gain trust by the gang. If you are not respected by another gang member there is bound to be a fight. At a young age some kids are not respected by adults. According to Ann Miller author of “Crack Down Juvenile Offenders” kids learn violence at a very young age. That is true because if kids don’t get enough attention they take it out on other children. For example after my friend’s sister was born she got most of the attention from her parents. So now he always tries to get his sister in trouble, or tries to take his anger out on her.
     To prevent the majority of gang violence we need to help each other out. We must stop gangs they are a menace to society, they are recruiting kids into gangs to steal and kill. The families should spend at least some time with each other and talk about their days. They should always work out their problems before the problem gets worse. Most important of all people should have high self-esteem and be confident about what they can accomplish.

F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby – Gatsby’s Money

Gatsby’s Money      When Gatsby and Daisy first met, Gatsby was in the war and was very poor.  He came from a middle-class family from the Midwestern United States.  Daisy came from a wealthy family and because of the views of society, these two were not able to pursue their feelings for one another.  Gatsby then dedicated his life to becoming wealthy so that one day he could possibly have Daisy to himself.  He bought a gigantic house that appeared to be an imitation of the Hotel de Ville in Normandy. When Nick invited Daisy over for tea so that Gatsby would be able to meet her, Gatsby had Nick’s yard mowed, he sent over a fine silver tea set, and tulips to make Nick’s house look more ritzy. Every weekend, he threw huge parties hoping, that by some odd chance, Daisy might show up at a one of the parties.  At these parties, he had the best of everything.  He had bands that played music of the time, he brought in crates upon crates of fresh vegetables and other foods, and he had a large number of crates of wine and other alcoholic beverages. He also had the finest in automobiles for the time.  He had a yellow Rolls-Royce limo that was extremely expensive and rare. All of this was to impress Daisy and evidence existed of this in that he never went out of his house during the parties.  He let the people who wondered in party and have a good time while he watched from a room in the house.    Gatsby’s money is what is known as “new money.”  This is shown by the location of his house which is in West Egg.  The “new money” was money that was earned through an occupation or some operation, whether legal or illegal.  Gatsby earned his money through illegal actions with the mob.  People who had “old money” received their money through their family as it was passed from generation to generation.  These people came from East Egg and included in this group was Daisy Buchanan.    Gatsby tried to hide the source of his wealth so that people will not know the real source.  He wanted to keep it secret so that Daisy would not find out and stay away from him.  He wanted her to get to know him again first, before she found out the real source of his wealth.  He told people that his parents were wealthy and that when they died, they left a large some of money to him.  He actually gained his wealth through bootlegging alcohol and other mob activities.    Gatsby wanted to use his money so that he could impress Daisy and have things back to the way when they first met.  In the end, he didn’t end up getting Daisy because too many things had changed.

Investigation of McDonald’s

Investigation of McDonald’sIntroduction
The company I am investigation is McDonald’s: the founder of
McDonald’s is Raymond Albert Kroc.
The organisation that I have chosen is McDonald’s because it is the
number one world’s most familiar fast food restaurant; it has stores
all over the world.
Their headquarters is in Chicago it approximately has 2,800 workers to
provide a wide Varity of support function to 30,000 McDonald’s
restaurants in 119 countries around the globe through a network of
divisional, regional and local-country offices.
They serve 46 million customers each day McDonalds is one of the
worlds most known companies and holds leading shares in the globe.
Some of their fairer foods are French fries, big Mac, quarter pounder,
and chicken, mcnuggets and egg muffin.
The McDonald’s History
Raymond Albert Kroc 1902-1984, a Salesman
Ray Kroc mortgaged his home and invested his entire life savings to
become the exclusive distributor of a five-spindled milk shake maker
called the Multimixer. Hearing about the McDonald’s hamburger stand in
California running eight Multimixers at a time, he packed up his car
and headed west. It was 1954 and He was 52 years old.
Where it all began, Des Plaines, Illinois
Ray Kroc opened the Des Plaines restaurant in 1955. First day’s
revenues-$366.12! No longer is a functioning restaurant, the Des
Plaines building now a museum containing McDonald’s memorabilia and
artefacts, including the Multimixer!
McDonald’s has been recognized for its many contributions in the
following areas:Top 25 Companies for People with Disabilities
Best Employer for Asians
Top 50 Places for Hispanic Women to Work
Fortune Magazine – Top Places for Minorities to Work
Working Mother Magazine – Top 10 Diversity Champions
Hispanic Magazine – Top 50 Corporate Women in America
McDonald’s is committed to recognizing the talents and job performance
of all employees and values the contributions that come from people
with different backgrounds and perspectives.
McDonalds has been known for its successful advertising since it open
its doors in 1955. If you ask people on the street what the
advertising slogan for McDonald is, nine out of ten people wound
respond, “We love to see you smile.” McDonalds has become a part of
our culture it’s famous throughout cities around the world. McDonald’s
is a great resource for a fast, cheap, good quality meal.
More than 2.5 million people in this country place their trust in
McDonald every day –trusting the company to provide them with food of
a high standard, quick service and value for money. There are more
than 1,000 McDonald restaurants around throughout the u.k.
McDonald’s is proud to be a sponsor of so many of America’s top
sporting events. And once again McDonald’s is proud to sponsorNASCARRacing as the Official Drive-Thru ofNASCARApproximately 70% of McDonald’s worldwide restaurant businesses are
owned and operated by independent businessmen and women; it also has
the number one position in franchising.
Interview with a employer at McDonalds
I went to my local McDonalds in east ham.
I spoke to a worker at McDonalds and interviewed him and these are the
questions I asked him:
1) How do you use it in your business?ICTplays a very big role in our company withoutICTwe would not know
what we are doing and therefore be losing millions of pounds. I give
an example of not having a computer in a McDonald store you would not
know when to take the chips, burgers and how much you need and in a
couple of day run out of supplies because our system shows how much
stock we got and if we are in our last 10 the computer automatically
sends a message to the suppliers telling them we are short.
2) How do you advertise your company?
Marketing plays a big part in how our product reaches our customers
for example:
Ø Posters ( including newspapers, magazine and a bill board )
Ø Radio spreads our slogan around the world and they say 9/10 people
would say we love to see you smile
Ø TV one of our main type of advertisement
Ø Our website;
3) When contacting your customer what communication methods do you
Ø Leaflet posters
Ø Advertising and promotion (all media)
Ø Special offers
Four main function areas in McDonalds
All organisations usually provide a product or service for their
clients or customers. Profit-seeking organisations, will try to sell
their products to customers in exchange for money. Keep up to data
records of there customers they can also find out how much they are
going to sell in the future using spreadsheets and also plan future
seasons periods such as charismas and new year to make sure they got
the right products at the right time A sale is important to McDonalds
because that’s what McDonalds is all about.ICTis used in the sales
department to advertise their products through poster and televisions.
To store there stock well so customers don’t go else were. To find out
what customers like, through the Internet and questionnaires.-—————————————————————————————————-
Excellence Selling Time
We aim to give all of our customer’s great service all the time and
should always be on the look out for those customers who may need
help. The quality selling time vary from store to store. The only
focus during this time is on the customer.
Discount is given when you are buying in meals or when there is a
special offer, some times to promote there company they had a prize in
blue straws which where given when you buy a meal, which would give
you something free e.g. free fries. There is also discount given to
some companies e.g. my sister works for the police and see gets
discount if she shows her ID.
All staff is required to keep hair capes and to have clean hands while
working behind the counter. They do have staff just making the store
clean by cleaning the toilets time to time, cleaning tables, clean up
dirty floor when customers have a accident for e.g. drink dropped on
the floor and must keep caution sign for other customers.
Activities in the sales department-———————————————-
The sales department offers day to day communication to their
customers. This service offers customer to find there local store or
any information needed e.g. to book parties, complaints and etc.-————————————————————————————————-
[IMAGE] The sales department keeps in contact with other department to check
carious thing e.g. price changes, new products.-————————————————————————————————-
Customer product completion
[IMAGE] Customers are informed about the progress of there product through the
customers preferred choice: check on the screen to see how long the
food is going to take to be made e.g. if a customer asked for quarter
pounder and there was none left then it would be listed on the screen
telling the staff how long it will take to be made.-—————————————————————————————————-
Sales inICT-————-
The sales department in McDonalds processes transactions involving the
sale of good or services provided by the organisation. It markets the
goods and services by preparing posters, mail shot, and sale
presentations. It also deals with customer orders. They have to
organise ways of advertising and how it will be made e.g. vouchers,
billboards, adverts on TV, website
Sale department is mainly in charged of the following activities:
Ø Acknowledge every customer and engage in conversations where
Ø Taking customers order in stores and online at
Ø Keeping customers in contact of the progress of their order towards
Ø Account sales must be recorded in the correct way before the goods
leave the store
Ø Always open another till when a lot of customers are waiting to pay.
Ø Rectify problems quickly and efficiently and keep customer informed.
Ø Provide good customer service when food is satisfactory and offer a
refund or exchange.
Ø Provide customers with active selling like always ask customer if
they require anything else or do they want large.
Ø Always end the transaction with a friendly goodbye, thank you or
hope you enjoy your meal.
Electronic point of sales system
In the sales department they use the electric point of sale system to
be in command of stock levels and also prove of purchase for the
customer if he has an accusation. The customer normally does not get
the receipt but if you ask the staff for a receipt they will print it
out for you. In the receipt it shows what you have brought, how much
you paid for it and how change receive , details of branch, staff that
served you and the date of purchase.
Stock control:
Ø To encourage and motivate our people at all levels of this business:
By giving background knowledge of this business on the process ofICTsystem by memos leaflets, website and adverts.
Ø constantly increase standards of service in all areas of this
business: -
By producing the needs of the new technologies introduced to this
Ø To pursue new revenue streams without adversely distributing our
core offer: -
Making customers have quick service as it is a fast food restaurant.
Ø To be performing wholesaler for both publishers & retailers: -
By working with the technology to carry out both Publishers and
All organisations need to bring in the goods and services that they
need in order to carry out their operations. They can use stock
control software and also use spreadsheets to store data. McDonalds
can use the stock control software to get their product and know how
much they need or how much demand there is. They can also send their
suppliers order and payment resources using Edi and also to keep
control of how long they have had their machines for and how long has
it been for their last service. Track down orders for items they want.
Identify possible suppliers.-—————————————————————————————————-
When McDonalds require any stock they are told by there Stock Control
and then they can be purchased through the Purchasing department. Then
the relevant suppliers are contacted for the stocks and the money is
handled by the finance department to pay of for the supplies or there
are given credit from the company they are buying form. This is a type
of loan given to cover the money in the time there credit is due.
Activities in the purchasing department
Stock Control
[IMAGE] Managing stock control is essential if they want to be successful in
their line of business, so they make sure they keep records of their
stocks and if they require anything. If they have too little stock
then they will run out of what they have too quickly and then the
orders will have to wait whilst more stocks are brought in, but on the
other hand too much stock would also be bad for them as it will be
more money in the short term and it is lethal in the fast food
industry, so McDonalds would keep there stock for a few days this is
because it saves them a lot of money and the food stays fresh.
Key features of the stock control include
Ø Alternative/ superceded products
Ø Automatic link from purchase ordering
Ø Free stock calculated incorporating outstanding sales and purchase
Ø General report facilities
Ø Stock valuation
Ø Stock turnover
Ø Price lists
Ø Stock inactivity
Ø plan
Purchasing inICT-———————
Processing transactions involving the purchase of good or services
required by the organisation (manufacturing or non-manufacturing) will
need to buy stationery, equipment used in the organisation.
To order on –line 24 hours a day, customers have to visit at They should now use the special catalogue search box
on the left hand or the search box on top to quickly search the
Customer requirements
Ø Be available to help customers always give them your full attention
Ø Customer might want their product as soon as possible and a long
wait would make less satisfied customers.
Ø Answer customer product queries confidently by explaining to them
what you got on the menu
Ø If any item does not meet customer satisfaction they must be
exchanged for a new on or be given generosity and give a little more
for e.g. for medium fries they should get large instead.
E procurement
E procurement means buying stuff from other business or selling stuff
to another business. McDonald’s useICTthrough the internet to buy
products to sustain their company’s local needs, such as pen, paper,
An organisation needs to make sure that it has enough money available
to pay for its purchases and other expenses. If there is not enough
money available from sale of its own products then the organisation
needs to find the money from elsewhere. If McDonalds did not keep
records of all there operation work the company could go bankrupt.ICTis used in the finance department to control money, payroll for staff
and bills. This information is vital because the company would know
what they have brought and how much profit they have made.
Activities in the finance department
[IMAGE] The finance department issues a budget to every department and aspects
of the company. Each would get a budget that they would need to use
efficiently and profitably. For example the operation department would
use their money to buy raw materials for the company and if they go
over there budget set then they are in financial decline
Income and out going-————————-
[IMAGE] The finance department need to account for all the income they
receiving and also the finance department needs to account for all the
money going out of the company. This could include possible loans
taken out by the company from the bank.
Finance inICT-—————-
This department is responsible for managing the flow of money in and
out of the organisation. It is also called the accounts department and
handles the payment of wages and national insurance collections. The
finance department also sets other department’s budget and make sure
that department managers do no overspend.
· Spreadsheet software, stock control
· Communication, using internet for emails, own web page
· Microsoft office, calculating payment, payroll, profits
· To pay their staff, the company uses a payroll system, which
calculates the employee’s total wage. The money is then transferred
into the account.
· Designing reports for meeting outlining company sales, and
monitoring areas where the company is improving and where improvements
need to be made. Word processing, multimedia and spreadsheet software
is used.
To pay the staff of McDonalds they calculate how much money the worker
earns. This is done by theICTsystem used in McDonalds.
Conveniently for the workers this system also figures out how much tax
and national insurance is owed to the bank, so it deducted from the
pay as the money is transferred to the link.
Spreadsheets are used by the finance department to produce cash flows
and forecasts. These forecasts will allow Boots to predict how much
money they are most likely to make in the near future. It will give al
the information about McDonalds for e.g. how much money their making.
They can see how much money will go in and out of the company in the
future as well.
Financial record
The manager or staff or an accountant needs to be in good position of
keeping the accurate detailed information, which is kept for the
income and outcome of this business. There are some methods for this
to happen.
Ø Chief executive is to know what has happened to their appropriate
income profit and how much outcome is going out of the business.
Ø To reduce the money that they spend on wasted product, food,
Ø To allow the government to workout the tax that is needed to be paid
by the company (which is every 3 months).
Finance record in transaction
It is important to record all the transaction of the business
correctly. The record must take place at the time the transaction
takes place. The transaction should be marked at the correct prices on
the goods that are listed in the official price list.
An organisations needs to be able to carry out the activities that it
has to perform. The organisation may need to carry out its operations
by observing certain laws, for example, health and safety, and food
hygiene laws. Operation is used for prosper and growth of McDonalds.
Some activates operation department the best way for producing the
products, schedule for making the food on time, to check the quality
of products.
Activities in the operation department
[IMAGE] McDonald’s has improved its market by being on the headline as often
as they can. This is a key thing in business advertising.
Production of products
[IMAGE] The manufacturing of products has to be inspected quiet often to see
the best method of production; they must be produced the cheapest way
with the best quality.
Quality check
[IMAGE] The quality of products is monitored as well because of competition
from other fast food companies. If there quality of product meets the
needs of customer then there will be no stopping them coming back.
Operations inICT-———————
Responsible for carrying out the main functions of the organisation.
An organisation can either produce a good or a service. The day-to-day
task of providing the service is usually referred to as the operations
function. For example banks, airlines, travel agents have large
operations departments.
Quality control
To deliver the standards required protecting & enhancing the brand of
McDonald’s product. We have a quality policy & supporting processes &
controls that ensures all McDonald’s Company; we sell & meet standards
of legal, hygiene and safety requirements.
Quality control
With regard our suppliers; all of our own brand suppliers are audited
to ensure they meet our quality, legal, environmental & ethical
trading requirements. Our quality team & the agents visit factories in
the UK & overseas to ensure minimum standards are met & suppliers
strive towards continuous improvement of the McDonald’s product with
quality as well as the product being manufactured with the use ofICTsystem.
Mobile pos station
TheMPSis a McDonald’s certified mobilePOSstation. Using theMPS,
a crew person walks the drive-thru line taking customer orders that
are automatically entered into theCCUand immediately displayed on
theKVS. This lets the assembly team see the order sooner and speeds
up the order delivery process.
The Order Taker Solution incorporates McDonald’s MobilePOSSoftware
and Via II-B wearable computers. With the InfoLogix Wearable PC Order
Taking System, McDonald’s acquires a comprehensive integrated solution
- equipment, installation, warranty and support.
BenefitsIncrease sales by serving more drive-through customers —
Increases sales by serving more customers per hour
Improve order accuracy because of direct link between the MPS and
the CCU and KVS
Perform tandem activities — Can be used outdoors and indoors as a
remote order-taker or backup POS
Eliminate site modifications
Simplify warranty and support
Significantly reduce customer wait time — Fast food customers
today demand quick service. Long drive-thru lines may push
customers to your competition.
Hardware and software general section
Input device
[IMAGE] Mouse which is an input device that is used in all departments of
McDonalds, this is because they use the mouse to control what commands
they are making on the computer and this is on the screen.
[IMAGE] A keyboard is used to input data in to software. The workers in every
department will use this to type up work. It is much quicker and less
human errors.
Touch screen
[IMAGE] A touch is a display screen; it is covered with sensitive touch panel.
The user can control the things happening inside the computer by using
the fingers. It is faster and easier to use it is ideal to use it in a
place like McDonalds as they’re always busy and makes it easier for
Digital camera:
[IMAGE] Digital camera enables you take pictures and to store it in the
computer system this is used McDonalds when they are making adverts
and etc.
Magnetic strip reader:
[IMAGE] Magnetic strip reader reads information that is stored on a
magnetically black strip. If you have a bank account some people have
cards that contain a magnetic strip. When you insert you’re card there
is a (atm) automatic strip reader that reads the data stored. Magnetic
strip readers are widely used in conjunction with electronic point of
sale (epos). This can be used to pay for food in McDonald by a
customer and also can be used for the business to pay off suppliers.
Output device:
[IMAGE] Monitor is one of the main output devices needed and is used in all
the departments this is because if there was not monitor the staff can
not see anything .they can adjust the length of the screen form short
to long and they can also change the contrast to.
[IMAGE] An output device prints out the data that the user is working on and
it can be used in the all the departments to print out work, leaflets,
sales presentation and etc.
[IMAGE] This organisation can use a photocopier for many reason e.g. to photo
copies questionnaires to had out to customer and to create leaflets
and other documents to.
[IMAGE] In McDonalds you always need speaker’s jus in case the computer
system causes an error, it will give a sound or to listen adverts that
have music in it.
Central Processing Unit
[IMAGE] ACPUhas 3 main parts to it which is a control unit; they are
arithmetic and logic unit, and immediate access store. In each
department the staff will need to use this because a computer can not
work without it.
[IMAGE] In each department they have this motherboard on their computer
system, because it contains most of the other process device, which is
connected on the motherboard for other functional uses of the computer
system, this is used in the entire department because the computer can
not function with out.
Graphic Card
[IMAGE] The Graphic card is one of the important parts of this Organisation’s
computer system. This is because with the Graphic card in their
computer system it will give better quality 3d performance when using
such software’s like Microsoft word, Microsoft excel, Microsoft access
and etc .high quality graphic cards are used for games in most
circumstances but can also be used in varies other thing like creating
a advert for McDonalds.
Network card
[IMAGE] Network card is used in this organisation to install the software in
the network that they using in. This used in the entire department as
they all need to install software.
Storage device:
[IMAGE] A cd-rom stores data. Cd-rom stand for compact disk read only memory.
A cd-rom is where several people play games and install some software
e.g. Microsoft word, excel, publisher. It store up to 700mb. In
McDonalds they have a CD-ROMDrive, which just reads only the memory
of a CD, picks up valuable information, so the staff can install the
licensed software in their computer system and have information about
the company e.g. a presentation that the manger needed to show the
Floppy drive:
[IMAGE] A floppy disk stores up to 1.44 mega bytes, which is approximately 3oo
a4 pages of straightforward text. In McDonalds they have a floppy
drive in their computer system for to use their floppy disks with the
capacity of 1.44 MB and insert in the a: drive to save their work
files, so the staff can use the floppy disks to transfer the work in
their own computer system to continue with their progress files and to
move work from there work department to there home computer and also
to make back up disks.DVDdrive:
[IMAGE]DVDROMstands for digital versatile disk or digital videodisk read
only memory.
It holds 10 times more memory than a cd. It can hold up to 4.7 GB.
You can still use it for your CD-ROMSso basically this can be used
McDonalds when someone want to store more work that 700mb. This can
also be used in every department.
Hard Disk
[IMAGE] In McDonalds you will need a decent fast speed hard disk with lots of
memory space to store large number of files. A hard disk is a high
capacity storage device. McDonalds uses a hard disk to increase the
speed. This is also used to store data that can be accessed very
Ports and cable:USB(universal serial bus)
Just about any computer that you can buy today it comes with one or
moreUSBconnectors on the back. TheseUSBconnectors let you attach
everything from mouse to keyboard to your computer fast and with no
trouble. The operation system supportsUSBas well, so the
installation of the device drives is quick and simple, too.
Compared to other ways of connecting devices to your computer
(including parallel ports, serial ports and special cards that you
install inside the computers case)USBdevice are incredibly
straightforward! This is also used in the entire department to link
everything together.
[IMAGE] This is called aUSBhub this like a floppy but can store up to 2 GB
(depending on which one you get). Instead of having a floppy drive you
just put this hub into theUSBport and the information well come up
this can be used in all the departments but I think generally the
manager will have good use of this.
Serial port
[IMAGE] Serial port is a general-purpose personal computer communications port
in which 1 bit of information is transferred at a time. In the past,
most digital cameras were connected to a computer’s serial port in
order to transfer images to the computer. Recently, however, the
serial port is being replaced by the much fasterUSBport.
Parallel port
[IMAGE] An interface on a computer that supports transmission of multiple bits
at the same time; almost exclusively used for connecting a printer. OnIBMor compatible computers, the parallel port uses a 25-pin
connector. Macintoshes have anSCSIport that is parallel, but more
flexible in the type of devices it can support.
Without computer software there is no computer this is because the
computer is commanded by the software that you have installed, it uses
the software to command the hardware, so therefore one of the key
thing in business computering is software.
System software’s
The staff of McDonalds would be using windows xp home professional/
home edition or windows 2003. (If they are using an old system
software it would be windows 98), but I think for there requirements
they would be using windows xp professional. Without system software
there would be no where to go and you can not see anything on your
screens, so where would the staff be doing there work, so a system
software is essential.
[IMAGE] Application software
Word processing
Go to fullsize image
The staff of McDonalds use word processing to create business letter
and to store there own information that they require. They can also
use word processing to make questionnaires, to open work up and etc.
Utility Software
This is an important software to McDonalds because there confidential
information on the computer stay safe. Sygate Personal Firewall
Professional to keep out hackers and Trojan attacks and DoS (Denial of
Service) attacks from their systems. This keeps their systems secure
from any outsider intruders.
Ø Norton anti virus searches for viruses on the computer and shows you
any files and folder with viruses. Here is an example of how it works.
This software was very useful for this organization because the staff
of McDonalds used this utility software to protect there computer from
viruses, the viruses could come from the usage of floppy disk, hard
drive, cd and when using the internet.
[IMAGE] Disk Defragmenter
[IMAGE] This program allows you to make your computer slightly faster. It
sorts out the information in the computer and optimises the
information so the computer can access the information more quickly.
[IMAGE] This program allows you to compress large files or folders of
information and also allows you to unzip files and folders in their
compressed state.
Security Device
[IMAGE] Cctv is used in every department of McDonalds because they can keep an
eye on everyone from thieves and there own staff this is because there
is a lot of frauds going on in businesses e.g. people taking money out
of the till and managers of the store as they got keys can come and
raid there own store or office which would have computers and other
expensive things.
The staffs of this organization have a password nearly on every
private place e.g. When going to the back of the restaurant where the
food is made and the staff only rooms there would be a keypad to press
the password for you to go in. and in the department that you need to
go on the computer they would have a username and password so they can
monitor you if you are doing anything that you are not suppose to be
Fire exist is used to escort everyone out of the building if there was
a fire or any other dangers thing that might of occurred, basically
there would be a second exit for the building because the first exist
could be on fire. In the sales department you would need to take extra
precautions because of all the hazards around so there would be fire
blanket and fire extinguishers.
Smoke alarm
[IMAGE] Smoke alarm is to detect any fire around this would be used all the
departments incase of a fire.
Security alarm
This is used in all the departments because of burglaries, there would
be a four digit number that you have to press to stop it beeping and
in a certain amount of time the security people would send the police
to the building to see how the alarm went off.
Security guards
[IMAGE] Security guards are used in the sales department to guard the
restaurants from thieves, vandalism and trouble makers. They are
highly train professionals that can handle any situation.
Finance supervisor
These are people who have been hired to watch over the people who are
involved in the transaction of money belonging to McDonalds. So if a
worker is seen to be trying to steel some of the company’s money, then
the supervisor would report the criminal for arrest/
Specific hardware in the sales department
Input device:
Touch screen
When you are ordering they press the screen that adds up your money
and tells the staff how much you want and then you get the total and
then you pay the staff, the till also tells you the change that
customer gets back.
Electronic Point of Sales System
This organisation usesEPOSto control the level of stock, and also
being much more in command of Sales figure for contrasting the profit
gained and loss each month in the financial department.
Keypad is very essential to this organisation: this is because all the
members of staff can use their password to input the data on the
keypad, to enter to other departments of the company this is because
the company might want to keep thing private and confidential.
Output device
Receipt printer
[IMAGE] These printer prints out the item that was purchased and includes
other details such as the date it was purchased. These receipts are
very useful as they allow customer to return good if it is not
McDonald’s will not give you a receipt unless requested
Specific software in the sales department
Application software used in the sales department
Go to fullsize image
This software is very handy for McDonalds in the sales department to
store information and to keep everything organized; it also kept in
the main computer system so the staff can get all the information
about product from the software. It also keeps the information about
how much product got sold on that day.
[IMAGE] This program allows the sales department to produce a database on
their computers. They can find out what customer like and dislike.
[IMAGE] This program allows the sale department to create market products,
poster, leaflets and etc.
Specific Hardware used in the purchase department
Refer to general section
Specific Software used in the purchase department
Ordering software
This software is used to buy products from different manufactures.
Whenever the company is low on a product he ordering software would
purchase more of that product to restock.
Go to fullsize image
Database is also used in the purchase department to create order form
to send to there suppliers. Also used for checking if everything is in
stock daily.
Specific Hardware used in the finance department
Refer to general section
Specific software used in the finance department
Application Software
Go to fullsize image
Spreadsheets software is essential because the staff or an accountant
of this organisation can calculate the total receipts for each month,
when the customers bought the products from McDonalds followed buy the
monthly bills, which will be deducted from the total receipts to show
the monthly profit of this organisation.
Also to calculate how much tax they have to pay or receive if they
paid too much.
Also use spreadsheet software to calculate the salary for the members
of staff who works for part-time or full time for this branch for each
month which is called Payroll Processing.
Specified hardware in the operation department
Refer to general section
Specified software in the operation department
Cad (computer aided manufacturing)
This software allows McDonalds to test there designs of new products
without having to actually manufacture it. It also predicts problems
that may occurred with the tested product.
Cam (computer aided designs)
This software allows McDonalds to input their designs and allow them
to figure out the best way to manufacture their product. Information
about the dimensions and materials are inputted into the manufacturing
hardware and it would manufacture the product exactly the way it was
General Hardware & Software Summary
In all of these departmentsICTis used extensively; and it is relied
upon for a variety of tasks. For example the following departments useICTin the following ways:
§ Finance Department
Spreadsheets software is essential because the staff or an accountant
of this organisation can calculate the total receipts for each month,
when the customers bought the products from McDonalds followed buy the
monthly bills, which will be deducted from the total receipts to show
the monthly profit of this organisation. Also to calculate how much
tax they have to pay or receive if they paid too much. Also use
spreadsheet software to calculate the salary for the members of staff
who works for part-time or full time for this branch for each month
which is called Payroll Processing.
§ Purchasing Department
Ordering software
This software is used to buy products from different manufactures.
Whenever the company is low on a product he ordering software would
purchase more of that product to restock.
Database is also used in the purchase department to create order form
to send to there suppliers. Also used for checking if everything is in
stock daily.
§ Sales Department
This software is very handy for McDonalds in the sales department to
store information and to keep everything organized; it also kept in
the main computer system so the staff can get all the information
about product from the software. It also keeps the information about
how much product got sold on that day
§ Operations Department
Cad (computer aided manufacturing)
This software allows McDonalds to test there designs of new products
without having to actually manufacture it. It also predicts problems
that may occurred with the tested product.
Cam (computer aided designs)
This software allows McDonalds to input their designs and allow them
to figure out the best way to manufacture their product. Information
about the dimensions and materials are inputted into the manufacturing
hardware and it would manufacture the product exactly the way it was
General System Specifictions
As there are many different uses for many different computer
workstations; there are lots of different combinations of computer
systems specifications to choose from. So I have compiled a generic
system specification for a generic multipurpose computer. This would
be used for all kinds of tasks and it averages out the processing
power of all the other types of workstations; thus making it an
average specifications workstation.
For the explanations of the different parts; please refer to the
General Hardware & Software Section.
Input Devices:
PS/2 Keyboard
PS/2 Mouse
Output Devices:
Inkjet Printer
Stereo Speakers
40-60GB Hard disk drive
CD-RW Drive
Floppy Disk Drive
Computer Parts:
Network Card
Built-In SoundCard
Built-In Graphics Card
2.6 Ghz Processor
Average Specification Motherboard
Lakhani and Desai
The company is a consultancy firm. They do basic accounts for
cliental. They also do budgeting. Cash flow and profit forecast. I
recommend that they use 1 or 2 computers because the company uses a
calculator and a pen to work out payroll, tax, vat return, tax rebates
and national insurance and asked frequently to do budgeting, cash flow
and profit forecast for there clients this is a manual system. If they
use 1 or 2 computers they can do much more work more space because
there would be no need for there file cabinets, quicker, less human
errors, no need to work hard the computer can do all the working and
you would not lose or damage any files it would all be on the computer
and if there is anything wrong with the computer You could have back
up copies.
Types of processing:
Ø Spreadsheets can be made on Microsoft excel where formulas and
calculation can be done.
Ø Calculation can be done automatically. Once a new bit of information
is entered the numbers are updated automatically to.
Ø Databases work similar to when the information needs updating it
does it automatically.
Ø Most of the date is stored in the hard drive
Ø You can transfer date to floppy disk, Cds, zip drive andUSBhub.
Ø You can have back up copies of your work in a floppy disks and Cds
and etc.
Ø Date can be found easier because when ever you save a piece of work
it has a name or title and you can search the data and it will appear
Ø What time people want there order
Ø Sorting out orders in categorise and size
Ø How much a customer owes the company
Word processing
Ø you can store customers information in Microsoft word and note pad
Ø you can create adverts in Microsoft processors
Input requirements
Wages: wages is money someone earns by working they get paid weekly or
monthly: pizza palace gives £2500 a month on wages to there staff.
Loan repayment:
A loan is money given to an organisation or company that must repay
the money with sometimes an increased debt due to interest. The
purpose of having a loan in the first place was to help it to
establish itself. The loan repayment for every month is -£300.
To rent something is to pay regularly to the owner for using his
property, pizza palace have rented there property, they pay -£250 per
a month.
Electricity and gas:
Just like any other business pizza palace need electricity to run the
company, they pay there bill quarterly in may they pay -£500 and
august they pay -£400.
Business rates: if you use a building or part of a building for
business, you will properly have to pay business rates pizza palace
pay £400 every 3 months they pay business rates in June and September.
Advertisement: advertisement is to make sales people would know about
your company because you advertised it for example TV, magazine,
leaflets and etc. pizza palace pays £2000 every 6 months they paid
there’s in May.
Business rates
All business pay there rates so in this case pizza palace have to pay
there rates to of -£400 in June and -£400 in September.
Opening bank balance: opening bank balance is the budget that you are
aloud to spend pizza palaces opening bank balance is -£1000.
Pizza palace need to buy supplies to produce their products and the
supplies are half of the predicted sales, which would be for the first
month (April) £ 6,000 so the money for the supplies for that month
would be £3,000.
Formulas: a formula is used to make calculation such as adding (+)
subtracting (-) pizza palace use formulas to calculate the money spent
on e.g. net cash flow would be = total receipts – total payments and
for supplies would be = total receipts/2.
What if queries: what if queries are to predict or change the future
in pizza palace what if queries are used to change the amount of money
spent e.g. on advertisement =if (b8= “yes”, depreciated advert,
original advert).
Conditional formulas: for a result that is true or false pizza palace
use conditional formulas to find out if they made a profit or lose
each month. The if function of the conditional formula will be “=IF
(B14<0,”CRISIS”,”OK”)”, this balance check formula will be used in the
cash flow model.
Output requirements;
Closing bank balance: a closing bank balance is the new opening bank
balance for the next month e.g. June closing bank balance is £2000 and
the opening bank balance for July is £2000.
Net cash flow: total receipt minus total payment is the net cash flow
for pizza palace.
Net Cash flow
Net cash flow is the results of the total receipts take away the total
payment of bills for each month.
Total: all the cost that is going out (out going money) e.g.
electricity +business rates + rent + wages + supplies and etc.
Balance check: balance check is the answer to the conditional formula
which is under purpose it will till you if it is true or false.
Balance check
You can Use Balance check to see whether the pizza palace company have
certain amount of profit or they have a negative balance amount for
each month, so in B15 to G15 it will automatically calculate whether
the balance is a “CRISIS” or “OK” using the balance check formula.
Information sources:
Lakhani and Desai: Lakhani and Desai is a consultancy firm. Lakani is
a chattered account and Desai is a manager ‘whiz kid’. Their clients
are shops, cleaning firms and restaurants. They do basic accounts for
them like payroll, tax, national insurance and frequently asked to do
cash flow budgeting profit forecast and etc.
Manager of Pizza palace: pizza palace is a restaurant that is in debt
and has asked lakhani and Desai to design a cash flow budgeting profit
Case study: a case study is all the information that is provide by
lakhani and Desai and pizza palace to design system a cash flow
Hardware and software
Input device
[IMAGE] Mouse which is an input device that is used for every computer which
lakani and Desia need, this is because they use the mouse to control
what commands they are making on the computer and this is on the
[IMAGE] A keyboard is used to input data in to software. The workers in this
company will use this to type up work. It is much quicker and has less
human errors.
[IMAGE] This device might be needed for this company because the scanner can
read the work of the printed page and turn it to better colour in dark
or light features, you can also erase the bits and pieces that you
don’t want, by copying the whole scanned information that you did and
paste it into another software and there you will be able take away
the unwanted things or you can crop the information that you just need
and fully scan it again the things you need from it.
Output device:
[IMAGE] Monitor is one of the main output devices needed and is used in every
computer this is because if there was not monitor the staff can not
see anything .they can adjust the length of the screen from short to
long and they can also change the contrast to.
[IMAGE] An output device prints out the data that the user is working 0n and
this company needs this to print out work, leaflets, sales
presentation and invoices.
Storage device:
Storage device: when you load and save.
[IMAGE] A cd-rom stores data. Cd-rom stand for compact disk read only memory.
A cd-rom is where several people play games and install some software
e.g. Microsoft word, excel, publisher. It store up to 700mb. In this
organisation they have a CD-ROMDrive, which just reads only the
memory of a CD, they create back up copies of there work and they can
store there clients data too.
Floppy drive:
[IMAGE] A floppy disk stores up to 1.44 mega bytes, which is approximately 3oo
a4 pages of straightforward text. In this organisation they have a
floppy drive in their computer system for to use their floppy disks
with the capacity of 1.44 MB and insert in the a: drive to save their
work files, so the staff can use the floppy disks to transfer the work
in their own computer system to continue with their progress files and
to move work from there work department to there home computer and
also to make back up disks.DVDdrive:
[IMAGE]DVDROMstands for digital versatile disk or digital videodisk read
only memory.
It holds 10 times more memory than a cd. It can hold up to 4.7 GB.
You can still use it for your CD-ROMSso basically this can be used in
this organisation when someone want to store more work that 700mb.
This can also be used in every department.
Hard disk drive
[IMAGE] This is the computers main storage device. It is located in the
computer itself and boasts a profuse amount of space. E.g. 40 GB, 60
GB, 80 gb, 120 gb, 160 gb and etc.
[IMAGE] 2.4 GHz Pentium 4 Processor with Hyper-Threading
The processor is the “brain” of the computer, it can run tasks and
application, it without it the computer would not work, and it needs
no user interaction. I chose a Pentium 4 2.4 GHz processor,
since 2.4 GHz is a good speed for its price in the market now and
since it has Hyper-Threading it can run applications more efficiently
and, I chose the Intel brand for their good prices and easy guides and
overclocking ability, I think that this would be a good solution.
Without computer software there is no computer this is because the
computer is commanded by the software that you have installed, it uses
the software to command the hardware, so therefore one of the key
thing in business computering is software.
System software’s
The workers of this organisation would be using windows xp home
professional/ home edition or windows 2003. (If they are using an old
system software it would be windows 98), but I think for there
requirements they would be using windows xp professional. Without
system software there would be no where to go and you can not see
anything on your screens, so where would the staff be doing there
work, so a system software is essential.
[IMAGE] Application software
Word processing
Go to fullsize image
The staff of this organisation use word processing to create business
letter and to store there own information that they require. They can
also use word processing to open work up and etc.
Excel processing
Go to fullsize image
Microsoft excel is essential in this organisation to create spread
sheet, to make what if queries.
Utility Software
This is an important software to this organisation because there
confidential information on the computer stay safe. Sygate Personal
Firewall Professional to keep out hackers and Trojan attacks and DoS
(Denial of Service) attacks from their systems. This keeps their
systems secure from any outsider intruders.
Anti virus
Ø Norton anti virus searches for viruses on the computer and shows you
any files and folder with viruses. Here is an example of how it works.
This software would be very useful for this organization because the
staff need used this utility software to protect there computer from
viruses, the viruses could come from the usage of floppy disk, hard
drive, cd and when using the internet.
[IMAGE] Pizza palace
Problem Identification
1a) The owner of pizza palace is going to use the computer system.
pizza palace is a restaurant that has been running for 2 years, it
made a small profit years before but thing are not picking up for them
this year. The owner of this restaurant has no experience in computer
modelling. The old system which is the manual system doing thing by
hand which requires more time and hard work and could also include
human errors, this time round there is going to be new system which is
easier and is more quicker.
1b) the main problem is that there is more money going out than there
is coming in also there is a new Italian restaurant opening a cross
the road which would make them lose more money and drive them into
I have been hired to fix there problem by changing there method
working by the manual way into a computer.
Pizza Palace Current Situation
Predicted sales figures for the next 6 months:April £6,000
May £7,000
June £8,000
July £7,000
August £5,000
September £6,000
I have been asked to produce a cash flow forecast for the next six
months and suggest ways in which cash flow could be improved using a
computer model. I will do this by doing the below.Consider different types of computer models
Produce a draft cash flow forecast
Improve presentation of the model
Identify types of calculation
Conduct two “what if queries”
Advise the restaurant owner about how to improve cash flow
1c) the alternative solution would be:
· Set up a manual cash flow in the format of spreadsheet
· Set up a spreadsheet ‘computer model’ using a choice of software
· Alternatives include
· Lotus 123
· Final
· Get accountant to do your work.
· Selling the company
· Installing Microsoft money
1d) the objective of the new system would be:
§ Plan and predict how much income and outcome for the next month
§ Transfer all the data on to the new system
§ Make it more secure
§ Take a loan until the business is up and running again.
2A) a predictive system is a system where by we can look in to the
future e.g.
Weather forecasting:
Is a predictive model that predict the weather and to provide weather
forecasts on the temperatures in each town by updating automatically
and receive the signals to progress onwards.
Flight simulator
Is a predictive model, but before the pilot actually has experience to
go on the actual plane, they might have to have a basic training of
how to use the controls and instrument panel to simulate the movements
of the actual plane.
2b) Refer to task 1c
2c) software is all the thing you can not touch but can see for e.g.
Microsoft word you can see but cannot touch. The software that I need
that makes it suitable for the project are:
System software
Windows XP
[IMAGE] I recommend the user to use windows XP professional which is the most
advance operating system currently out. It has a lot of advance
features e.g. able monover around the computer more easily.
Application software
Ms Word
[IMAGE] Ms Word -this can be used to produce reports type letters and also
commercialise the business. This software is used to make fax, memo,
letters and etc. But on the other hand it is Not specifically
designed to create and manage spreadsheets. The other key features
are: Easy to use, Small range of types of charts, updated
automatically (if you got internet)
Ms excel
[IMAGE] Ms excel -A spreadsheet database that can be used to perform
calculation, database, tables, and graphs and to predict your future
income and outcome. This software is used to make queries.
Utility software
[IMAGE] The utility software that I can use in the computer system is McAfee
Virus scan; it includes advanced detection technology that
consistently finds new viruses. It also provides instant updating via
the Internet to ensure that your computer has the latest virus
protection. McAfee stop viruses at all entry points to the computer
system- including e-mail, internet downloads shared disks, and
synchronization with yourPDA. It consistently monitors and stop virus
– like activity on your computer to prevent any new threats from
spreading. The other utility software such as Scan disk where it scans
for errors and try to fix the problem that has occurred in the floppy
disk or in the hard drive.
Input device
[IMAGE] The advent of the mouse and the graphical user interface, which links
a pointer on the computer display to the movement of a mouse, which
allows the user to use the mouse to go through two different stages.
[IMAGE] Keyboards are used to insert data into a computer system by typing on
individual keys that the user presses. A good keyboard will also have
extended function keys, such as keys to check email, start a media
player, change the volume, and eject CD drives and much more.
[IMAGE] Scanner, a computer input device that uses light-sensing equipment to
scan paper or another medium, translating the pattern of light and
dark (or colour) into a digital signal that can be manipulated by
Microsoft editor software. This will allow the user to scan their
paper of written work and save in there hard drive, which is kind of
like back-up security measure.
Processor Device
This type of device is needed for the Pizza Palace because to
manipulate the data into the software that the user is using in the
computer system.
[IMAGE] This type of processor device is required for the user of Pizza Palace,
because the motherboard is the main circuitry board, where most of
other processor device is fixed into the motherboard, like Central
Processing Unit and other processor device, so this is a main
processor device that the user needs in order to use the computer
system.CPU[IMAGE] The processor is the “brain” of the computer, it can run tasks and
application, it without it the computer would not work, and it needs
no user interaction. All the hardware that is connected to the
computer is run by theCPU(Central Processing Unit) and applications
are run from this also. The CPU’s speed is a key factor in the final
speed of the computer and the higher theFSB(Front Side Bus) width is
the speed is much better. ACPUalso has a cache, this is used to
store commands and the like temporarily whilst theCPUis working;
this cache is emptied on power-down of theCPU. High-EndCPUwill have
a larger cache, a fasterFSB, a good clock speed (this is the speed u
see on the processors and is measured in MHz and GHz; MHz being
Megahertz and GHz being Gigahertz) and will also have extra functions
such as Hyper-threading which allows theCPUto run more applications
easier and faster. Dell use an averageCPUon their work machine,
between the speeds of 1.6GHz and 2GHz.
Output deviceTFTMonitor
[IMAGE] A 15”TFTMonitor would be recommended since it would not take up a
lot of space since it is a flat screenTFT(Thin Film Transister) so
it would take up less space and would be visible from lots of angles,
and 15” would be good since it is a good size, and it should support
High Resolutions such as 1600 × 1200, which would show up whole spread
sheets and large desktops on one page.
[IMAGE] This type of Output device is required for the user of Pizza Palace,
because printer allows the user to print their work from any software
that they were using to solve their problem, print how many pages they
like to print, can print in black and white or colour in best, normal,
draft or custom.
[IMAGE] This is emits sound from the program you are running. Sound is only
heard if the sound is incorporated with the program.
Storage Device
This type of device is required for the user of Pizza Palace, because
these devices store data as charges on a magnetically sensitive medium
such as a magnetic tape or, more commonly, on a disk coated with a
fine layer of metallic particles, this will be useful for the user of
Pizza Palace to make back – up copies using the storage devices.
Floppy Drive
[IMAGE] This type of Storage device is required for the user of Pizza Palace,
because if they have a floppy drive in their computer system, so they
can use their 3½ inch floppy disk and put it into their floppy drive
to save their work, with a capacity of 1.44 megabyte of a floppy disk.
CD – RW Drive
[IMAGE] This type of Storage device is valuable for the user of Pizza Palace,
because the user can use the CD – RW Drive to have a back – up copy of
their work from their computer system on to a CD – Rewritable disk.
Hard Drive
[IMAGE] This type of Storage device will be very handy when it comes saving
the work or making back – up copies on their hard drive of the Hard
disk. The user of Pizza Palace can now save their work from Microsoft
Excel (Spreadsheets) into their hard drive, when they have a Hard disk
to their Computer system. You can also have a external hardrive to.
2e) Data capture
April May
June July
Opening balance
Wage bill
Loan repayment
Total payment
Closing balance
I will collect the data by designing a data capture form to collect
the data required: bills, payments, and receivables.
Opening bank balance
Total Receipts
Wages Bill
Loan Repayment
Electricity & gas bills
Business Rate
Local Advertisement
2f) appropriate backup measures include:
Floppy drive:
[IMAGE] A floppy disk stores up to 1.44 mega bytes, which is approximately 3oo
a4 pages of straightforward text. Floppy discs are to save important
files on.
Floppy drive
Zip drive:
[IMAGE] On a zip drive more data can be stored rather than on a floppy.
Cd drive:
[IMAGE] A cd can hold up to 700 mb space
[IMAGE] PortableUSBStorage will be a suitable backup measure for the user
because it works like a hard drive, ideal for storing and sharing
digital images, text files, spreadsheets and presentations.
Scan disk
Scan disk – scans the hard drive for any errors and also repairs them
or deletes them.
Antivirus software
Antivirus software –searches for any viruses and deletes them from the
system or either quarantines them. (Norton system)
Username and password
Protect system by using passwords (Using Alpha-Numeric passwords for
added security)
[IMAGE] Start
[IMAGE] [IMAGE] Problem Identification
[IMAGE] [IMAGE] Analysis
[IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE] [IMAGE] System flow chart,
[IMAGE] Produce a user guide
[IMAGE] For pizza palace users.
[IMAGE] [IMAGE] Flowchart:

There Was One Guitar

The lights dim and the audience stands up and starts screaming! All they can see is the single spotlight circling the stage floor. The screaming begins to become monstrously loud. You can feel the floor shaking as the bass player slowly enters the side of the stage. The single spotlight rests on him as he slowly starts up the band’s most famous song. A second spotlight illuminates the drum player who has stealthy sneaked to the center back of the stage. He starts pumping out the most incredible drum solo he has ever played. The crowd is going insane; screaming like a pack of hyenas, when they hear the rumble from the lead guitar. The next thing they see is another spotlight this time resting on me!Once I saw Joe Satriani play I knew guitar was my true love. I enrolled in an after school guitar class with my mother’s old acoustic. I learned as fast as I could; I was like a sponge soaking up every bit of guitar knowledge I could get my hands on. I would play every night after school till my fingers bled. For my fifteenth birthday my mother bought me my own electric guitar, my first guitar was a used Fender from the 80’s, but it did the job for me. From when I started playing guitar I have changed my view of the world around me I am constantly coming up with short lines that would sound good on my 6 string, and I have a song going through my head at every second of every day. There is a tugging on my heart to play, it is an addiction. I am addicted to music, and I’ve got to have my fix of guitar. Music to me is my release. If I have a bad day or I am feeling down, then I will play songs that release some of that stress and worry. I play to express myself. I write songs that display how I feel. Since I have started playing guitar I am noticeably more in touch with myself, it seems I have found the way to express myself finally. As a guitarist I have started to look at the world around me a little differently, I notice things that I might not have otherwise; I perceive life in a different tone, a better tone. When I am playing guitar nothing else exists I am in my own universe, people have told me when they watch me play I’m not there, I’m in the room but not there. There is a place in my mind I go to as much as possible; the easiest way for me to get there is to play the guitar. In this place I am for more creative than I am usually. Every time I pick up a guitar I am the lead guitarist in the band, and the crowd is screaming my name, and there is that lone spotlight, on me.“Let me explain something about guitar playing. Everyone’s got their own character, and that’s the thing that’s amazed me about guitar playing since the day I first picked it up. Everyone’s approach to what can come out of six strings is different from another person, but it’s all valid.”Jimmy PageBeing a guitar player is the best thing in the world. We all live and breathe guitar; there is a community. If you know someone who plays guitar and you play too. You automatically have something in common and you understand the other person, on that level at least. Being a part of that community, that family of musicians is what makes me a better person.


GalileoGalileo was born in Pisa in 1564, the son of Vincenzo Galilei, well known for his studies of music. He studied at Pisa, where he later held the chair in mathematics from 1589 – 1592. He was then appointed to the chair of mathematics at the University of Padua, where he remained until 1610. During these years he carried out studies and experiments in mechanics, and also built a thermoscope. He devised and constructed a geometrical and military compass, and wrote a handbook, which describes how to use this instrument. In 1594 he obtained the patent for a machine to raise water levels. He invented the microscope, and built a telescope with which he made celestial observations, the most spectacular of which was his discovery of the satellites of Jupiter. In 1610 he was nominated the foremost Mathematician of the University of Pisa and given the title of mathematician to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. He studied Saturn and observed the phases of Venus. In 1611 he went to Rome. He became a member of the Academia dei Lincei and observed the sunspots. In 1612 he began to encounter serious opposition to his theory of the motion of the earth that he taught after Copernicus. In 1614, Father Tommaso Caccini denounced the opinions of Galileo on the motion of the Earth from the pulpit of Santa Maria Novella, judging them to be erroneous. Galileo therefore went to Rome, where he defended himself against charges that had been made against him but in 1616, he was admonished by Cardinal Bellarmino and told that he could not defend Copernican astronomy because it went against the doctrine of the Church. In 1622 he wrote the Saggiatore (The Assayer), which was approved and published in 1623. In 1630 he returned to Rome to obtain the right to publish his Dialogue on the two chief world systems, which was eventually published in Florence in 1632. In October of 1632 the Holy Office to Rome summoned him. The tribunal passed a sentence condemning him and compelled Galileo to solemnly abjure his theory. He was sent to exile in Siena and finally, in December of 1633, he was allowed to retire to his villa in Arcetri, the Gioiello. His health condition was steadily declining, – by 1638 he was completely blind, and also by now bereft of the support of his daughter, Sister Maria Celeste, who died in 1634. Galileo died in Arcetri on 8 January 1642. For the family of Galileo, see the genealogical tree. Within the Museo, Sala IV is entirely dedicated to Galileo and his studies; among other things are preserved the lenses, the inclined plane, the lodestone, the model of the application of the pendulum to the clock, several portraits and a relic.This instrument, which should not be confused with the reduction compass, is a sophisticated and versatile calculating device. It renders possible several geometrical and arithmetical operations by comparing the sides of similar triangles.This instrument is the result of the combination of two lenses, one plane-concave and the other plane-convex inside a tube. The lenses are placed with one close to the eye (ocular) and the other at the other end of the tube (objective). The invention can be imputed to artisans from Holland, but it was Galileo who improved the instrument, increasing its enlarging power and transforming it into a formidable instrument for astronomical research.

Alcatraz Is Not An Island

After centuries of the United States Government ignoring and mistreating the Indigenous people of this land, the Alcatraz occupation in 1969 led by righteous college students, became the longest Indian occupation of federal ground in the history of the United States and a landmark for Indian self-determination. The documentary, Alcatraz is Not an Island, describes the occupation that made Alcatraz a symbol for Indigenous people as motivation to stand up against the cruelty that they have experienced since the arrival of the Europeans. Hence the name of the film, Alcatraz can be seen as an inspiration for Indigenous people rather than an island.
The first attempt to occupy Alcatraz took place in 1964 when a group of four Native Americans landed on the island and claimed it for four hours before the coast guard removed them. This became the inspiration for a group of San Francisco State students to attempt an occupation of their own in 1969. When attempting to make it to the island, only one boat agreed to assist the Native American’s in their occupation. They were not able to dock on the island, but, Richard Oaks became the leader of the group when he jumped off the boat and swam to the island. After this brief occupation Richard Oaks returned to San Francisco and began to recruit people to join the movement. Oaks went to UCLA where eighty students agreed to join the movement. On November 20, 1969 a group of one-hundred Native Americans set sail from Sausalito and landed on Alcatraz Island, beginning the occupation that would last for nineteen more months.
The goal of the occupiers was for the United States Government to allow the Indigenous people to create a culture center, museum, and a Native American University on the island. The United States government repeatedly refused to negotiate, however the inspired occupiers refused to back down. The film showed how the Indians worked together to demand justice from the government. Over the nineteen month span hundreds of Native Americans as well as some non-native citizens lived on the island. The occupation ran into leadership issues when Richard Oaks stepped down as the leader due to the death of his daughter, which took place on the island. Just before the occupation ended, the United States government turned off the electricity and water supply to the island. Three days later several historic buildings on the island burned down causing the occupiers to be blamed for the damages. Problems continued to occur and support for the occupation began to diminish after this incident. On June 11, 1971 the occupation ended when the coast guard removed the small group of Native Americans that remained on the island.
The occupation may be seen as a failure due to the tragic ending, however, it was a huge success in that it raised the spirits of Native Americans across the nation and made a point to the United States government that the indigenous people deserve better treatment. The political movement that began with a small groups of college students eager to take over Alcatraz still exists today. Native Americans express themselves through poetry and speak out about injustice through music as I saw during the culture day in the Memorial Union.
Growing up in San Francisco, I have toured Alcatraz on three different occasions. I remember seeing the sign on the very front of Alcatraz island that reads, “Indian Land”. The tour guides may have briefly mentioned why it was painted to the Island, but they never expressed the importance of the occupation. Rather, the main things that always stick out about visiting the island are the stories of the prisoners that attempted to escape and the “Birdman” that lived on the island. It is very disappointing to me that the occupation isn’t more widely spoken of to the visitors of Alcatraz island, as it is a very important event in Native American history. The Alcatraz occupation is a significant part of Native American Studies because it is a symbol for the current activism. Additionally, it shows that Native Americans are still around today and still are not being treated the way they should be.

Comparing Two Film Trailers

Comparing Two Film TrailersThe two film trailers I will be comparing are ‘Free Willy’ and ’Dead
Again’. These two film trailers are totally different, ‘Free Willy’ is
adventure/magical trailer whereas ‘Dead Again’ is horror/mystery
trailer. The purpose of these two film trailers is to engage the
audience’s attention, to make them want to see the film and to leave
them wondering what will happen next. In ‘Free Willy’ the target
audience is young children; this encourages pester-power, which is one
of the most effective methods of advertising and is used by most U
rated or PG rated films. Pester-power means the children ‘pester’
their mum and dad to take them to see the film. The majority of the
‘Free Willy’ trailer is quite slow paced through-out the film, this is
to show its magical and dreamy style and a slow pace suits this well.
However when the trailer gets to dramatic scene’s the pace of the
trailer gets faster. This is to give the audience the sense of
anticipation, of expectance the fast pace keeps up with the furious
and fast paced scene. The film ‘Free Willy’ is generally a slow paced
film tralier, it makes it easier for the young children to understand.
In the ‘Free Willy’ film trailer it also show the beginning, middle
and ending of the plot giving a good idea of the story line but also
leaving agonizing parts of the story out, this is a very good method
of making people eager to see the film. The trailer by showing the
start, middle and finish shows the parents know that it is suitable
for their children, this is important because it puts a positive image
instantly into the adults mind rather than a film they may consider
unsuitable for their children The basic story line of ‘Free Willy’ is
about a young boy who befriends a whale, the whale is caught and put
intocaptivity resulting in the boy is trying to free Willy and put the
whale back from where he came. This is quite a dramatic story line
with lots of action.
In ‘Dead Again’ however, in contrast the target audience is
adult/teenagers. ‘Dead Again’ is quite fast paced through-out the film
trailer, but gets even faster at more dramatic scenes this can be
compared with ‘Free Willy’. ‘Dead Again’ is about a woman and a man
and a pair of barber’s scissors. The women dreams that she had in a
previous life been murdered by some barber scissors, and now its
really happening. This film trailer has lots of twists and turns in it
and at times can be hard to follow.
One of the contrasts in the two film trailers are the different shot
types that they both use. ‘Free Willy’ uses a low angle up shot while
the whale is in the air over the young boys head, which adds more
drama and excitement, the trailer also uses dolly shots which add more
pace to the film and makes it more tense and they use over the
shoulder shots so you can see who he is talking to this is so you can
understand who is talking and so you can see both the people as well
as just one of them. ‘Dead Again’ uses close ups which emphasis the
man coming out of the darkness, to show he is malicious, symbolized by
the coming out of the darkness just as evil would. They also use close
up views of newspapers from the past which shows that the future and
past are interlocked. This helps give the viewer bits of the story and
makes them want to go and see the film to fill in the gaps.
Another contrast that is clear from both trailers is the editing,
‘Dead Again’ is a fast paced trailer which means dramatic, tense film
with twists and turns in it. ‘Free Willy’ is slow paced; it allows the
children to absorb the information from the film trailer. The editing
in ‘Dead Again’ is fast and used wisely. In ‘Free Willy’ the editing
is used at quite a slow pace for the children to understand the film ,
but at more dramatic scenes the editing gets faster it is alos used
Lighting is an important part of any film production and we can make
several comments about the lighting from both these trailers. In ’Free
Willy’ at the beginning the sun is reflecting on the sea, it all looks
happy and tranquil, but when the whale gets caught and put in
captivity the lighting is quite dark to reflect how the whale is
feeling and the general mood of the film. When however the young boy
comes along the lighting brightens up because the whale is happy and
not alone any more and the whale knows that the young boy understands
how he is feeling and that the young boy is trying to help him. At the
beginning of ‘Dead Again’ the lighting is dark and mysterious it
creates the feeling that it is going to be full of twists and turns
and that it’s a mysterious film. So much darkness emphasizes the fear
of the unknown. People generally want the unknown to be explored this
is used here as a good advertising technique people are scared of the
unknown so want to explore it so they know what is there by going to
see the film they can do this.
Dialogue is considered by some as the most important part of the In
‘Free Willy’ the young boy’s voice is gentle and soothing, he also
talks slowly and clearly so the young children watching the film can
understand what he is saying. In ‘Dead Again’ the tone of voice used
is threatening, the actors voice is very sinister and makes you think
that he’s the killer; the voice adds more mystery and evilness. Alomst
scaring the viewers into seeing this film.
Voice-over’s also play a part in these trailers. In ‘Free Willy’ a
mans deep, but clear voice is the voice-over the voice has to be clear
for the children understand, it also adds more detail to the film
trailer. In ‘Dead Again’ the voice-over adds more detail and makes the
film trailer more mysterious and scary, this is shown in the voice
which is threatening , frightening and bold.In ‘Dead Again’ the use of
a voice over is used to add that extra dimension to the trailer the
film would still be there without it but it adds that little bit
The Sound effects in these two trailers also help to add to their
effect. In ‘Dead Again’ they use heavy breathing, screaming,
lightening and scissors slashing for a jumpy nervous effect imposed on
the audience this helps capture and keep their attention. All the way
through the trailer they maintain a mysterious background, they also
use thunder at more dramatic scenes and the music also gets louder. In
‘Free Willy’ they use natural sounds e.g. of the ocean and the whales
voice. It makes the beginning tranquil and peaceful, but when the
whale gets caught the sound effects go away because music comes on, it
adds more drama and excitement than just sound effects. In ’Dead
Again’ the scissors slashing at the end adds more drama and tension as
it finishes with a question as to what did the scissors just slash,
what happened, leaving the viewer questioning and wanting to go see
the film for answers.
The location of the two pieces also contrasts strongly ‘Free Willy’ is
set in the hills near the sea and a marina because of the whale it has
to be set near these places and also because the main focus is the
whale. ‘Dead Again’ is set in the city, but most of the scenes are
inside ; this is because it reflects the way the woman feels, she
feels boxed in because she feels she can trust no one.
Music is a key part in the trailers, in ‘Free Willy’ the music is
smoothing, calm and relaxing it creates a tranquil environment, the
music builds up at more dramatic scenes, the music used is classical,
it reflects the gentle friendship that builds between the young boy
and the whale. At dramatic scenes the tempo gets faster and louder,
major scales make things sound happy and minor scales makes thing
sound sad both of these techniques are used in the film trailer. At
the end the music builds up to a climax as the plot develops. In ’Dead
Again’ they use drums, symbols, organs and violins, the music gets
louder at more dramatic scenes. As each drum beat is heard the tension
grows, as the drama unfolds the music gets louder and also adds more
instruments in to it, this makes the atmosphere eerie. The plucking of
the double base adds even more eeriness. There is a drum roll at the
end and drum rolls always leads up to something exciting this leaves
the viewer in suspense.
Visual effects in the trailers are fairly straight forward. In ’Free
Willy’ there are not really any visual effects, as it is a children’s
film. ‘Dead Again’ uses lighting, black and white to reflect the past
events and that the film is not just straight forward one of the
visual effects used is spinning newspapers to the setting of the past.
The costumes in the trailers vary greatly ‘Free Willy’ uses solely
1990’s causal clothing (American clothing). This is for a naturalistic
feeling as that is the feeling wanted to be represented by the
‘Dead Again’ uses 1940s and 1990s clothing the 1940s clothing is for
the past events.
Overall both trailers use different effects to great use. ‘Dead again’
using the chilling music and sound effects to really set up the horror
genre and make the viewer want to see the rest of the film. ’Free
Willy’ however is more concerned with the feel good factor and
pester-power of the trailer making seeing the full film a necessity.

Coparison Between Two Guitars: Ibanez 453 Rvc And The Gibson Les Paul

Coparison Between Two Guitars: Ibanez 453RVCand the Gibson Les Paul     The paper I have written and know alot about is a contrast on two really
well known and popular guitars. One which is the Gibson Les Paul, and the other
which is the Ibanez 453 RVC. Both guitars may look alike to some, and to some
they may sound alike as well, but are they really alike?     Going further up the guitar, you have what are called the pickups. A
pickup is a really sensative box that is attached to the body in between the
bottom of the neck and the bottom of the bridge. The purpose of a pickup is to
“pick up” the sounds of the notes or chords that are being strummed. There are
many different types of pickups; for instance, the Gibson Les Paul has pickups
that are called Humbuckers, which are much higher and of a better quality than
the pickups on an Ibanez. The Ibanez comes with regular music store pickups
that are not bad but do not have the quality of the Humbuckers. So having
better quality means that the pickups are more sensative; being more sensative
means that the guitar can put out clearer and higher quality sound.Moving to the
lower part of the guitar, both guitars have knobs. The purpose of these knobs
are to control the different types of sounds that you want to produce. The
Gibson has four controls, but the Ibanez only has two; having only two knobs
instead of four means that the Ibanenz has less of a selection or variety on the
sound that you want opposed to the Gibson having more control over the sound
that you like and the sound that you need. The Gibson having volume and tone
for each pickup allows you to adjust the sound to the way you like it, while the
Ibanez has volume and tone for only the one pickup, which controls the sound.     The next piece that is connected to every guitar is the neck. Many
guitars have many different types of necks varying from length, width, thickness,
and different types of wood. The wood on the neck of the Ibanez is poplar wood,
which makes a rougher and more rugged neck. The Gibson, on the other hand, is
made of mahogany wood which produces a smoother neck and has a comfortable feel
to it. Having a better feel allows the guitar player to increase his or her
speed when just practicing or maybe even accidentally when performing live. The
radius of the neck on a Gibson is much smaller than the neck of the Ibanez:
having a smaller neck also lets the musician have more control of what they are
playing.     The fret board is located on the neck of the guitar. The fret board on
an Ibanez is made of rosewood as opposed to the ebony fret board on the Gibson.
Having an ebony fret board, the frets are a lot stronger, more precise (tighter),
and better quality. The Ibanez, having rosewood, is not as strong, and from too
much playing of the guitar wears the frets down and are dead in a couple of
years. So, when the frets are so worn out, you can’t just buy a new fret board,
you have to buy a whole new guitar.
          Then we have the head of the guitar which is located at the very
top of the guitar. On the top of the guitar, we have what are called tuning
pegs, used, obviously to tune our guitars. The tuning pegs on the Gibson are
much stronger and they won’t go out of tune as easy as the Ibanez would. The
reason the Ibanez goes out of tune is because the pegs are a different type of
metal, and the metal that the Ibanez has is much weaker than the Gibsons. So
having the Gibson makes it much easier on the musician from constantly having to
tune the guitar.     Then we have the bridge which is at the bottom of the guitar to hold the
strings in place. You connect the string from the tuning peg down along the fret
board till you fit them into the bridge. The bridge on the Gibson has better
intanation, which means that the strings will last longer, as the Ibanez has the
Floyd Rose tremel bridge which won’t stay in tune as long as the Gibson would.
The strings have a tendancy to wear out a lot quicker from constantly having to
tune them. The reason the strings wear out is because, everytime you tune a
guitar the strings stretch. From too much stretching, the strings end up either
popping or not being able to tune to the key you want them in.     Some well known musicians that use the guitars are: Jimmy Page from Led
Zepplin, and Slash from Guns-n-Roses, both prefer the Legendary Gibson Les Paul
over any other guitar. And then we have Joe Santriani, and well Known Steve Via
who prefer the Ibanez.     The prices between these two guitars vary in a big price range. The
Iast time I checked up on the GibsonLes Pual was listed for $3199. which
drastically overtowers the Ibanez 453 RVC listed at $599.

The 1960′s In America

Were the Sixties Good….or Bad for America?
There are two different positions taken about the 1960’s in America. One side says that the sixties were good for America and changed the way Americans live for the better. The other side says that the sixties were bad for America and gave Americans new freedoms and ideas that changed their lives for the worse. Both positions have evidence to support their arguments and make the sixties look like a time of social and economic freedom and reform or make the sixties look like a time of ignorant rebellion and youthful playfulness that is not acceptable in the real world. This essay is going to touch on most of the important reforms of the sixties but concentrate mostly on the Vietnam War in the sixties and its impact on the American people back home and in the war. The essay will also concentrate on the popularization of drug use in the sixties and its effect on the society and America’s view on drug use.
The position that is in favor of the sixties being a good time in America has many supporters. The sixties were the age of youth, as 70 million children from the post-war baby boom became teenagers and young adults. These people are known today as the baby boomers and they are people like my parents and teachers. The movement away from the conservative fifties continued and eventually resulted in revolutionary ways of thinking and real change in the cultural fabric of American life. No longer were people content to be images of the generation ahead of them, young people wanted change. The changes affected education, values, lifestyles, laws, entertainment, and public thinking as a whole. Many of the revolutionary ideas which began in the sixties are continuing to evolve today and help improve the way Americans live.
Two of the more important events to come out of the sixties were the Vietnam War and the popularization of drug use. The Vietnam War was probably the most unpopular war in the history of American wars but there were still many positives that came out of the war. The war was fought to contain communism and keep Vietnam from becoming another China. Many Americans fought and died in Vietnam and the most important thing that America should have learned for the war was that we cannot just go into a country and bully them around, resistance will be fierce and support back home is needed to win wars.
Unfortunately there are probably more negatives to come out of Vietnam than there are positives. The problem with Vietnam was the enemy was not quite clear, unlike in previous wars in which we knew what we were fighting against. During wars like WWII, nationalism grew and we expected to win. However, where Vietnam was concerned, many people did not even know why we were fighting, including the soldiers. Something else that made Vietnam different from other wars was the huge presence of the media on the battlegrounds. Every night, American civilians were faced with the harsh realities of a war we could not win on their television sets. Vietnam was the first televised war, and many say that the media is what made people think so negatively of the whole conflict. Others say that the media is what made us lose the war, although that opinion is not shared by the majority. There was also growing social tension at the time. The sixties were very tumultuous years, because of the war and the social rebellion that took place in this country. The younger generation and their parents were separated by their ideals, culture, and opinions. These young people led many antiwar protests, as well as the civil rights movement and a fight for the environment.
Drug use is another issue to come out of the sixties that has mixed opinions, although most people have a negative view on drug use, the sixties is the first time that drugs were really popularized and have some positive attitudes. Marijuana use soared and became one of the most popular drugs used in America during the sixties along with LSD, mushrooms, and cocaine. Respected figures such as Timothy Leary, a Harvard researcher, encouraged the use of LSD as a mind-opening drug because he believed that psychedelic drugs altered our consciousness and allowed us to explore “other areas of being”. The hippie movement endorsed drugs, rock music, mystic religions and sexual freedom while opposing violence at the same time. The Woodstock Festival, at which 400,000 young people gathered in a spirit of love, sharing, and wide spread drug use represents the pinnacle of the hippie movement and legal drug use.
Although drug use was popular in the sixties it does not mean it had a positive effect on society, in fact, it has many more negative affects than positive effects on the human body. Many people have become addicted to drugs and lost their jobs, homes, and families because of it. There are many negative affects of drugs on the human body and mind. Drugs can have many effects on your behavior and your ability to make decisions. As a result, drug usage can compromise your personal safety by: Putting you at increased risk for unwanted and unintended experiences, slowing your reactions to potentially risky situations, disabling your sound judgment, making you less aware of your surroundings, making it hard for you to recognize someone else’s level of intoxication, inhibiting your ability to communicate what you do and don’t want, and limit your ability to practice safer sex. These are just some of the negative effects of drugs on people. In the sixties these negative side effects were overlooked while people concentrated on the “high” one got from indulging in drugs.
In my opinion I think that the culture revolutions of the sixties had some good aspects and the social reforms were needed to bring America into the modern world, but in the area of the Vietnam War and drug use I think that the sixties were bad for America. The sixties were a free-for-all in which the young generation had an anything goes attitude toward life and no respect for authority. This caused many people to protest the American government, it is good to protest against government to an extent, but when the protests end violently that is when the situation gets out of hand. During the Vietnam War there were many protests against the war in which the outcome was violence and this is not good for America. The incident at Kent State University in Ohio is an example of a protest getting out of hand. Some rocks were thrown, some windows were broken, and an attempt was made to burn the ROTC building. Governor James Rhodes sent in the National Guard and four people were killed. I think that this particular protest shows the extremism of the sixties against the Vietnam War and how it can be bad for America.
The sixties brought heavy duty drug use into the mainstream and I think that this is extremely bad for America. Drugs have ruined some people’s lives, and kill people at a higher rate than cancer. The sixties brought with them the idea that drug usage was liberating and expanded the mind to see things never experienced before. But the popular drugs used in the sixties have been shown in later years to have more negative effects on the body and mind than first realized. The “high” feeling the person gets when on drugs is the drug offsetting chemicals in the brain making the person have weird sensations and hallucinations depending on what drug was taken and what part of the brain it effects. The bad part about drugs is that they can become addictive and too much of them can kill a person. The sixties proved to be a time of great experimentation with drugs but the outcome is bad for America because the government has spent billions of dollars every year trying to fight drug usage that became popular during the sixties.
Although I personally side with the position that says the sixties are bad for America, particularly the Vietnam War and drug use, I can see how they can also be good for America. During the sixties there were many reforms and improvements on the way people lived their everyday life and how they looked at the way the government ran the country. The sixties could be good for America during the Vietnam War because the media brought the war back home and for the first time Americans could see the harsh realities of war from their living rooms. This would make the American people more involved in foreign wars which I think is a positive. Also, Americans used the protest in many different forms all over the country which I think can be a positive so the American people remember that their opinions count too. But the protest and the media coverage of the war can also be bad for America if the protests get out of hand like I stated earlier and if the media gets so involved in the war that they interfere with the military procedures that have to go on then I think that the media can be negative. The media can also put a negative spin on the war for the people back home which can cause even more protests to become violent and to lose support from home that is desperately needed during any war.
I can also see where drug use can be good for America although I think that it is bad. The drug use in the sixties brought about a culture of more open minded thinking that can be liberating to a society. If people all think the same than that is not good for a society because they will not know if someone is oppressing them. The drugs also helped people get away from the pain of the Vietnam War and the stress of their jobs. But on the other hand I can see why people would say that drugs are bad for America. All of the scientific facts showing the dangers of drugs to the human body prove that drugs are not good for us. Also drugs have a negative impact on the society as a whole because the government has to spend time and money trying to stop drug use because of the violence and crime it brings with it. The violence and crime brought on by drug use hurts our culture and makes our streets unsafe to walk. In the end I can see where both positions are correct and the sixties can be both good and bad for America.

Comparing the Ways in Which a Tabloid Newspaper and a Broadsheet Newspaper Treat the Same News Story

Comparing the Ways in Which a Tabloid Newspaper and a Broadsheet
Newspaper Treat the Same News StoryThe death of John Thaw was announced in national newspapers on the
Friday 22nd of February 2002. In my essay I am going to compare the
story of John Thaws death from two newspapers. These newspapers are
the Mirror, which is a tabloid and the Times which is a broadsheet.
Tabloid newspapers include the Sun, Star, and Mirror. Broadsheet
newspapers include the Gaurdian, Times, and the Daily Telegraph.
The differences between a broadsheet and a tabloid are the size, a
tabloid newspaper is half the size of a broadsheet. You need a lower
reading age to read a tabloid because there are shorter articles, and
more pictures. Whereas to read a broadsheet you need a higher reading
age, this is because they use longer words, they tend to go into more
depth and detail in their articles, and they have less pictures than a
tabloid. The news articles in a tabloid focus on personal stories and
stories about gossip. They love to talk about the private lives of
television, film and sports personalities, they like to stir up
trouble about secrets and affairs, these stories tend to be
sensational. News coverage in a broadsheet is focused on hard news
like politics, world and national affairs, economics, trade, and
finance. The articles in a broadsheet are factual and they don’t talk
about gossip. Entertainment coverage in a tabloid is good, they cover
television, films, and music, it’s mainly popular music and concerts.
Entertainment in a broadsheet focuses mainly on the arts, music
theatre and book reviews. They cover jazz, opera and classical music,
also there is good coverage of ballet and concerts. Both newspapers
have excellent coverage of sport, they both cover sports such as
football, rugby and tennis. However the broadsheet also covers
minority sports, like polo and archery.
In the times newspapers the article about John Thaws death is at the
bottom of the page. It’s not very noticible, it’s not the lead story,
the lead story is about politics. Also the article doesn’t contain any
pictures. It consists of six, two inch columns. In the Mirror the
article is the lead story. They dedicate almost half the front page to
John Thaw plus the whole of page seven, also there are seven photos of
John Thaw throughout his life.
The headline in the Times is small and doesn’t stand out, it gives the
main details and it’s factual, the headline is also present tense
‘John Thaw dies’, this is present tense so that readers think they are
getting the latest news. The headline in the Mirror is huge, black and
bold, it’s also short and stark, and not a complete sentence. The
headline is emotive ‘Morse star John dead’, this stirs the emotions of
the readers. The headline contains all one syllable words and it is
also in the present tense.
In the opening paragraph of a newspaper article the journalist usually
uses the four w’s which are who, what, where, and when. This is the
key information of the article, readers usually make the decision
whether to read ahead if they want more detail, based on the
photographs, headlines, and the first paragraph. In the first
paragraph of the times all four w’s are used, however in the Mirror
they only use three. They use who, what, where, and when, but they
don’t mention where John Thaw died. They only use the three because
they are not bothered about the statistics, just the gossip side.
The article in the Times is quite formal, it’s small and doesn’t go
into much depth. It can be split into four sections, each is dealt
with briefly. The first section of the article is about John Thaws
cause of death, he died of cancer of the oesophagus, this section also
deals with the treatment he recieved. The second section is a
statement from Shelia Hancock who is John Thaws wife, she thanks
everybody for there support. The third section deals with John Thaws
family history it tells us of how his family have been touched with
the disease before. His wife had fought back from breast cancer, his
six year old grandson was diagnosed with a brain tumor, and Shelia
Hancocks first husband Alec Ross died due to cancer in 1971. The final
section is about John Thaws career, it gives the names of television
programmes that he has appeared in. This section also contains a
statement from ITV’s director of channels, David Liddiment. In the
Times article it gives you the name of the novelist that wrote the
novels that the television programme Inspector Moorse is based on,
this would not be found in the Mirrors article. To read this article
you need a higher reading age, this can be seen in the sentence ’he
was offered the part of the grumpy, beer loving, cerebal, oxford based
detective in Inspector Moorse’ this is four adjectives proceeding a
noun and this is not in the Mirrors article. This tells you four
things about him in one sentence, they are condensing the article
because they have less space than the Mirror does. In the Mirror it
tells you the same thing, but it takes them a page to do so.
The Mirrors article deals with the same issues as the Times but goes
into greater depth and it contains gossip. The article in the Mirror
tells a more personal story. It describes John Thaw as we knew him
with his craggy features, this is so that we can get a picture of him
in our minds while reading. The article contains gossip such as he had
to survive on mainly fish, chips and beans during his struggle as a
child. There are other gossip elements such as he nearly turned down
the part in Kavanagh QC because he didn’t like the idea of wearing a
wig. The article gives details of how he met his wife Sheila Hancock,
and it tells you about his family life. The Mirror article has a lower
reading age for example in both articles they tell you John Thaw went
toRADA. The Mirror tells you whatRADAstands for ’the Royal Academy
of Dramatic Arts’, but in the Times it doesn’t give you this
information, because they expect their readers to know whatRADAis.
The language used in both articles denotes reading age, and you need a
higher reading age for the Times.
The Times article doesn’t contain any photographs. In the Mirror there
are seven photographs, one on the front page and six on page seven.
The photo on the front page is of John Thaw and it’s in an oval shape.
The oval shape gives the idea that it’s been taken out of a family
photo album. On page seven there is a small photo of John Thaw and his
wife Sheila Hancock in a circle shape, this also gives the idea of it
coming out of a family photo album. Next to the small photo there is a
huge photo of John Thaw. The photo is four colums wide, and it’s how
people remember him, his eyes are looking directly at the camera, this
was his acting technique. At the bottom of page seven there is a
further four photos. They are joined together like a reel of film,
these photos are of him acting in some of the popular television
programmes he starred in. The photographs in the article make it seem
more personal.
The article I like the best is the one in the Mirror. I like it best
because it contains photographs. It was more interesting because it
gave a more personal and detailed story, it gives a more personal
story by using photographs and telling you about his family history.
The Times article wasn’t interesting, and it didn’t grab your
attention, in my opinion it was boring.

How Peter Medak Gains the Viewer’s Sympathy for Derek Bentley

How Peter Medak Gains the Viewer’s Sympathy for Derek BentleyPeter Medak made this film to show what he thinks happened in the
case. He also made this film to show what happens from Derek
Bentley’s point of view.
The film that Medak made is biased in favour of Derek Bentley. Medak
made the film in such a way that the viewer feels sympathy for
The film is about Derek Bentley who is mentally challenged. He meets
a gangster called Chris Craig. They both try to break into the
warehouse, but they are caught by the police. Derek & Chris are both
found guilty. Derek Bentley the older of the two was hanged and Chris
was sent to prison.
The film that Medak had created started with Derek under a pile of
rubble and people taking the rubble off him. The camera zooms into
his face and the frame is filled with his face. The scene where Derek
is in the approved school is very effective at gaining the viewer’s
sympathy. The lighting is low key which makes the mood of the
approved school sombre. The camera zooms into Derek sitting with his
head down, which shows that he is sad and the school is very scary.
While Derek is sitting outside headmaster’s office, he can hear his
father and the headmaster talking about him which in turn makes the
viewers feel in sympathy for him. When Derek and his father leave the
school, Derek is in front of the big door which makes him look small
and insignificant.
Derek and his sister Iris have a very close relationship. They both
dance together and talk together. Iris is not only sister to Derek
but acts as a mother to Derek as well. This shows us that Derek is a
calm and loving person and does not look like a law offender.
Derek loves the song “Wheel of Fortune”. We see Derek to the music
shop to buy the song. This shows to us that he is not violent and he
is a kind hearted person. At the shop the assistance Stella flirts
with Derek. Derek is uncomfortable and looks down to the floor which
is childish. This also makes the viewer’s feel sympathy for him.
Derek stays inside the house for a year, his sister eventually
convinces him to go out. When he goes out for the first time we see a
close up of his parents showing their happiness.
When Derek is walking his dog at the railway tracks he meets Chris
Craig. This shows that he is an animal lover and is not a kind of a
person who would harm anyone. This makes the viewer feel compassion
for him.
As Derek is epileptic, he has to go and sign on for not going to the
war. To prove he is epileptic he has to have a test. The test makes
him have a fit; this arouses the viewer’s sympathy.
We first see Chris Craig when Derek is walking his dog. Derek looks
scared when he first meets Craig and he wants to be left alone as he
does not want to get into any trouble. Chris carries guns on him, he
swears and is rude to people. This shows that he is not a nice person
and can get him into trouble. Chris’s brother is also a gangster and
gets put into jail. This show to us that Derek is getting involved
with the wrong kind people.
Derek is shown to be the total opposite of Chris Craig. Derek is shy,
loves his family, loves music and he is scared of going out.
Derek goes to the butchers shop to get some food; when the shopkeeper
asks for the coupon, Derek gives him the wrong one. This scene
indicates to us that Derek is not really capable of operating
effectively in the world at large. He cannot execute simple tasks
correctly without help. This makes us feel sorry for Bentley. When he
leaves the shop he takes the key from the door. Derek taking the keys
is shown to us in close so we can his face when he takes the keys.
Derek says to Craig that they should go back, but Craig convinces him.
This shows that Derek did not want to go ahead with the robbery. As
they are climbing the side of the building Derek and Craig are spotted
by a little girl, who is in her bedroom. We zoom in on the little girl
who tells her mother. When Derek hears the siren of the police car, we
see a close up of his face. Derek says “My dads gonna kill me,” this
is a childish phrase. This makes us feel sympathy for him.
Derek throws the key he is holding in a panic because he hears the
police siren. His action is hurried and uncalculated, almost like a
child getting rid of something in fear. The lighting on the roof is
low key, this adds to the tension. We see a number of cars pull up
below as if we ourselves are on the roof. The policeman gets out of
the car, climbs a gate and then goes to the warehouse and start the
climb to get on the roof. This sequence is shot form below. Medak cuts
to Bentley and Craig on the roof. Both of them look frightened,
especially Bentley. They scuffle and shout at each other. They speak
quickly and their voices are high pitched.
The policeman appears, climbing over the parapet. Craig pushes Bentley
aside. We now see the policeman come into full view and at this point
Craig draws his gun. We see it from front view so it appears to be
pointing at us.
The police man grabs Bentley and shoves him behind him. Bentley
appears scared and offers no resistance to the policeman. His
attention is focused on Craig and the gun.
Bentley shouts “Let him have it Chris” meaning give the gun to the
policeman but Chris thinks he means shot at him. Chris then shots the
policeman on the shoulder. The policeman runs for cover with Bentley
behind a small hut, where the policeman holds Bentley against the
building and searches for a weapon. This is all shown to us in close
up so we can see their facial expressions.
We have a jump shot back to Chris; we see him shooting at everyone and
he looks really manic. This shows that he is not afraid and he is
enjoying it.
Another policeman comes up on the roof and goes to find Chris Craig.
We see an eye level extreme long shot of the policeman and Chris.
Chris panics and shoots the policeman twice in the chest. Bentley then
comes out from behind the roof stairwell entrance and goes over to the
policeman who is lying on the floor and tries to help but is pulled
away by other policeman. He is then taken down the stairs roughly and
verbally abused by other policeman. All of this creates sympathy for
Derek Bentley.
We see a long shot of Chris jumping backwards, off the roof in slow
motion and the camera follows his fall down onto a glass roof which
The camera does a slow pan of the court room. The court room is shown
as a very serious and formal place. We see a close up of Bentley’s
bruised face which indicates that he has been maltreated in the
prison. This makes the viewer feel sympathy for Bentley.
We see Derek Bentley’s face in focus and Iris his sister behind him
not in focus, both their heads fill the frame, this emphasises
closeness between them both. The camera then focuses on Iris and Derek
is out of focus. This shows that his sister is there for him which
creates sympathy for him.
When Derek is in the dock his head is looking down to the floor, this
shows that he is unsure and nervous. We see a close-up on Derek’s
face and then we see a shot of the jury shaking their heads in
When Derek is found guilty we have a jump shot to the family to see
their reaction. Derek says nothing and just keeps looking to the
We have a low angle shot of Derek being taken down to his cell. This
shows that he is strong. When Chris is taken down he is smiling and
this shows to us that he is not afraid.
After the trial the family visit Derek in the prison. Knowing that
Derek is going to be hanged, his mother starts crying. This adds to
the sympathy for Derek.
Derek’s family try to appeal to the verdict. They get all the
public’s support but are unsuccessful. We see an ariel view of Derek’s
father waiting at the House of Commons for the outcome. When he hears
the result he faints.
Bentley dictates a letter for his family to a police officer who
writes it form him. The letter is very childish. Derek signs the
letter himself and this shows that his writing is very childish as
Derek is executed at nine o’clock in the morning. At this time we see
a lot of his family. At exactly nine o’clock the family is all cuddled
up and crying at the loss of Derek. The hanging process is very
quick. Derek is seen in his room praying and then he is quickly
rushed to the hanging room. Here he has a black hat put on him and a
rope around his neck. Suddenly a trap door is released and Derek is
dropped down to his death. His shoes fall off and this shows that
part off Derek has gone. We then see a long shot of Derek hanging.
I think the film is very effective at gaining the viewers sympathy for
Derek. The film reveals the inhuman and humane nature of the people.
The film brings out the sympathy of the audience for Derek in the way
he was treated due to his incapability’s. The director has captured
the sympathy for Derek in such a successful way.

Abbey Road

“Abbey Road”
By The BeatlesThe third track is “Maxwell’s Silver Hammer”. This song is a humorous tune about a boy who enjoys attacking people with a silver hammer. It is a playful piano jingle that reflects on Paul’s influence on the album. Paul McCartney’s songs usually presented the lighter, more friendly side of the Beatles. Paul was known for writing soft songs in which he would sing about his own fictional characters. In this case the boy named Maxwell, always went “Bang! Bang! Maxwell’s silver hammer came down upon her head” followed by “Clang! Clang! Maxwell’s silver hammer made sure that she was dead.”     “Octopus’s Garden” is another standout track on the album. The song has developed into one of the best-known Beatles’ songs ever. This song was without a doubt, Ringo’s best song writing effort ever. Anyone who can write a song about being in the garden of an eight-legged sea creature should win an award. George’s flawless solo provided excellent cover over the background voices of gurgling water. This is also in the form of a love song. “We would sing and dance around because we know we can’t be found” is quoted from the song, which details that he would like to be alone with this person. To finish the song off, Ringo’s quote “We would be so happy you and me, No one there to tell us what to do, I’d like to be under the sea In an octopus’ garden with you” makes it clear that he is sending a message out to someone who he would like to be with undisturbed.     The second-to-last track is appropriately titled “The End”. It is not very well known, but it is an amazing example of rock ‘n roll. Without a doubt, the best part of the song is Ringo’s amazing drum solo. George follows the drum solo with a solo of his own. “And in the end,
The love you take Is equal to the love you make” is the ending quote to the song “The End” which leaves the listeners with a quote about love. Just when the listener thinks the album has ended, though, Paul sings a little tune called “Her Majesty” with a guitar. This song is a nice finishing touch to the album. It properly closes the album by ending on a slightly slower pace. Her majesty is a song where it seems as though Paul is sending a message to a woman, but is kind of embarrassed to talk to her. He quotes “I want to tell her that I love her a lot, but I gotta get a bellyful of wine”. He is saying he needs a little bit of liquid courage to talk to her.Abbey Road is a staple of music in the 20th century. The album is a masterpiece and includes music of all styles. It took a great band such as the Beatles to accomplish such a grand piece that was years ahead of anyone. Many distinguished critics have recognized this album many times for its genius. Every single aspect of it has been carefully analyzed. In fact, there was such close analysis of the cover art, which it led to a rumor that Paul McCartney had died. This rumor was made on the basis of a car’s license plate in the picture. The license plate read “28IF”. Many interpreted this to mean that IF McCartney were still alive, he would be 28. This rumor was eventually discovered to be false. It is just one of many things that makes this album so interesting. Every intricate part of this album is important and makes it a masterpiece.

Sole Proprietor

Sole ProprietorsA sole proprietor needs these qualities to be successful dedication,
hardworking, good basic, trading idea and willing to take risk and to
overcome problems.2) What kinds of businesses usually have to have a licence?Certain businesses usually need a licence to trade mobile shops,
street traders, mini-cabs, super market’s, corner shops and scrap
metal dealers.3) What types of businesses usually have trouble with the local
council if they were run from a person’s home?Certain type of businesses might have trouble running businesses from
home garages, electricians, music store, bakery and pet shops.4) How could you find out before you started whether or not you would
have trouble?To find out before you start a business you would need to contact the
local council.5) If you went to a bank manager for a business loan, what would he
like you to bring with you?If you were going to a bank to apply for a bank loan it would be a
good idea to bring along a cash flow-plan and a profit and loss budget
must be drawn up to make sure that the business will be profitable.6) What are the main advantages and disadvantages of running your own
business?AdvantagesFlexibility. The small business is very flexible. If one kind of
activity is not profitable, the owner can quickly switch to
something else.
Small start-up cost. It is simple and inexpensive to set up as a
sole proprietor.
Profits are all kept. The owner keeps all the profits, though he
must save enough money to pay tax, interest charges on loans andVAT.
Offset of losses. Losses made in the first year may be offset, or
balanced, against tax paid earlier in the same financial year.
DisadvantagesUnlimited liability. This means that owners are personally
responsible for all the debts of the business.
Difficulties in raising the money. It is often difficult to raise
capital, though government schemes have made this somewhere else.
Slow growth. The firm’s growth is often slow as one person can do
only a limited amount of the work.
High risks. The risks of failure are high as there is usually
great competition.
Lack of continuity. The businesses stop with the owner’s death.
7) State six kinds of businesses which might run by sole proprietors.There are many businesses which might be run by sole proprietors such
as restaurants, barber shops, corner shops, garages, mobile shops,
window cleaners, plumbers, electricians and milk men.

Comparing the American Dream of the Transcendentalists with that of The Great Gatsby

Comparing the American Dream of 19th Century Transcendentalists with that of The Great GatsbyThe American Dream of the Transcendentalists centers on being all that one is meant to be. First of all, the ideas of the Transcendentalists did not revolve around society and materialistic possessions. Transcendentalists felt that “society everywhere is in conspiracy against the manhood of everyone of its members”(from Self-Reliance 194). Also, Transcendentalists believed that “The nation itself, with all its so-called internal improvements, which, by the way, are all external and superficial, is just such an unwieldy and overgrown establishment, cluttered with furniture and tripped up by its own traps, ruined by luxury and heedless expense” (from Where I Lived and What I Lived For 212) and for which the only cure is simplicity. In addition, Transcendentalists believed that man should live life to the fullest by seeking to reach their potential. Thoreau “did not wish to take a cabin passage, but rather to go before the mast and on the deck of the world, for there I [Thoreau] could best see the moonlight amid the mountains” (from Conclusion 217). Seeking to reach one’s potential means that one must “Absolve you to yourself, and you should have the suffrage of the world” (from Self-Reliance 194). Furthermore, the Transcendentalists sought self-knowledge through the study of nature. “Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood” (from Nature 191). “The life in us is like the water in the river” (from Conclusion 217) because some days one rises like the river and drowns out all of ones problems. Most importantly, the ideas of nonconformity and individualism illustrate the Transcendentalist beliefs. “Whoso would be a man must be a nonconformist” (from Self-Reliance 194) shows that every man should have a unique quality that separates him from other men. If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears , however measured or far away” (from Conclusion 217).
Although the Transcendentalists believed in honesty and working hard to reach their goals, Gatsby acquired his money as quickly and as wrongfully as possible without working. Initially, Gatsby felt that society and materialistic possessions made the better person. Owning a mansion, many cars, a pool, a hydroplane, and many servants, Gatsby viewed his materialistic wealth as the means by which he would be accepted by society. In addition, Gatsby did not live his life to the fullest in order to reach his potential. Gatsby could have been more than a boot-legger and a gambler, but he chose the way that would bring him wealth and what he thought was happiness. Moreover, he did not seek knowledge through nature, but through money. Money bought Gatsby everything he needed to know. The closest Gatsby came to nature was going for a ride in his hydroplane which he seldom did. Most importantly, the ideas of nonconformity and individualism in The Great Gatsby directly contrast from those values of Transcendentalism. Everyone in this book feels that they must act a certain way to be accepted by society. Gatsby’s use of “old sport” illustrates his perception of a rich man. Gatsby also feels that possessing the finest of everything remains the reason why society accepts him.The American Dreams of the Transcendentalists and of Gatsby directly contrast one another. The Transcendentalists do not believe in materialistic possession whereas the key to Gatsby’s success is his materialistic wealth. While the Transcendentalists strive to reach their potential, Gatsby accepts a free ride to the top of society. Undoubtedly, as time changes, the American Dreams are bound to change; however, one aspect will always remain the same, and that is obtaining the satisfaction of success.The American DreamRobert Brown
Bell 2

Partytime Equals a Lifetime – Original Writing

Partytime Equals a Lifetime – Original Writing
Tears roll down my cheeks as I lay staring at my bedroom ceiling.
Memories of the previous week, still haunting me. The distorted image
of his face appearing everytime I close my eyes, the smell of his
breath still tickles my nose, the thumping of the base still bangs in
my head as I can feel the weight of his body pressing against me. Even
the hairs on my arms stand to attention as I remember my 17th birthday
The alcohol concoction that my best friend Kelly handed to me from my
dad’s overtowering cupboard; burnt my throat as I swallowed! The taste
of the sharp, acidic solution that created this burning sensation,
that I know believe was whisky; passed my lips more times than I
remember. Everything then turned hazy! My stomach began to churn.
Colours blurred. The room began to spin. The music became one
humongous buzz. I stumbled to the stairs.
Slumped on the stairs, head in my hands I struggled to breathe. A tall
dark shadow was then cast over me. Confused, I slowly raised my head.
Twinkling in the light the figures belt buckle stung my eyes. Blinking
to refocus, a bright white shirt caught my eye, blending perfectly
with the figures pale skin. Two dark brown eyes stared right at me
like needles piercing my skin. Immediately I became agitated and rose
to my feet.
The room began to spin again! My breathing shuddering as the contents
of my stomach was churning like a boiling cauldron. Loosing my balance
I fell forward. The figure reached out and prevented me from hitting
the floor, at the time I was so appreciative; I just wish I had fallen
now. A couple of bruises would be nothing compared to the torture I’m
suffering from now!
After not receiving any bruises but still in the stranger’s arms, my
feet left the floor. Quite relieved to not have to try and balance
anymore I didn’t think to complain. I just gently floated upstairs and
was laid on my parent’s double bed. The music from downstairs became
fainter as the door clicked shut. The lock flicked! Becoming anxious,
I tried to ask what was happening, but before the words had chance to
leave my mouth the stranger leaned over me and pressed his lips to
I turned my head to try and escape from the pressure that was been
forced upon me. I shut my eyes tight, hoping and praying that this was
all just a nightmare. I opened them again. Only to see the individuals
eyes burning into mine. He then began to roll towards me. The weight
of his body then became apparent. He was laid on top of me. I tried so
hard to push him off me. He was too heavy. I was too weak. He just
took hold of both my wrists and held them against the pillow, like I
was a irritating torment that could easily be removed.
His coarse fingers scratched my skin as he lowered his hands down my
arms. I held my arms in place, tensing them to block out the feeling.
His hands kept on lowering down my body, touching places that were
obnoxious. I couldn’t move. I tried to scream. No sound was made. I
began to panic. Tears flooded down my cheeks, leaving a thick trail of
mascara that I had applied so carefully, so I looked my best! What a
Suddenly everything went darker. My eyes slowly closed, even
matchsticks would not have been able to keep my eyelids apart. It was
like I wasn’t in this world. I’ve got no memories of what happened
after that!
I awoke early Saturday morning with a striking pain in my head.
Shivering, I wrapped my arms around my temperamental body. Skin to
skin, I realised I wasn’t wearing any clothes. I did not know why!
Disgraced at myself I took hold of my mum’s dressing gown, quickly put
it on and tied it tightly. I then ventured out of the room.
Rubbish covered the floor, like a multicoloured carpet! People I
didn’t even know were scattered, randomly around the house. All was
silent! Carefully I stepped over a sleeping body that was sprawled on
the stairs. Heading straight for the kitchen cupboard for some
aspirin, I was distracted. I heard a noise in the living room. It was
Kelly, with a black bag in her hand that she was filling with the
empty bottles and cans.
“K…Kelly!” I stuttered as I spoke. Looking up Kelly replied
“Oh hiya! Are you okay darling? I heard you officially became a woman
last night!” I just stared at her as she childishly laughed. Noticing
something was wrong she stopped!
“What’s wrong sweetie?” She said immediately
“What did you mean when you said I officially became a woman last
night? And how do you know? Who’s been saying stuff?” The tone of my
voice changed. I was angry, ashamed and extremely confused!
“Dan said earlier, he walked into yourMUMANDDAD’SROOMand you and
a mysterious stranger were laid there, with nothing on!! Don’t worry
he promised he wouldn’t say anything and anyway you’ve got nothing to
be ashamed of! Your legal and everyone was doing it last night!” Kelly
picked up her dustbin bag and carried on.
I entered the kitchen unable to think of anything except what Kelly
had said. What if she was right? That’s all I kept asking myself. But
now I know. Since this very morning! I was sick! I’d normally have
just assumed it was a bug, that was going around college but with my
suspicions I decided to go to boots.
I returned home tucking the bag containing a home pregnancy kit into
my coat pocket to avoid my mum and dad seeing it. Slamming the front
door I ran straight upstairs. My steps got slower as I approached the
bathroom. The door safely locked I apprehensively followed the
Waiting for the results took forever! I really wanted to know but at
the same time I didn’t! I eventually persuaded myself it would be best
to know and it may help explain what had happened on the night of my
party. I stared hard. A blue line appeared. I was devastated. I was
pregnant. Katie Johnson pregnant at 17!!! What was everyone going to
say? How could I tell my mum and dad? I couldn’t! That’s all I could
think then and now I still am asking myself the same questions.
I can’t just get rid of it! I couldn’t do that I would fell so guilty
and I couldn’t go through something that major alone but I can’t tell
anyone, not even Kelly, I’m so ashamed! I’m just going around in
circles. I just want the problem to disappear, but I couldn’t live
with myself if I had an abortion or if anybody found out. I just want
a hole in the floor to open and swallow me up, ending my life and the
babies would solve the problem. No one would have to know then,
That’s it! That’s what I’ll do! End both of our lives. Now I’ve got to
think of how and when. I want it over as quick as possible, so no one
knows and soon. I’ll do it in the morning! I’ll just say I’m going to
college! So it needs to be something I can do on the way. Where will I
pass? There’s Morrisons, the car park in castle square…that’s it! I’ll
jump of the top, I won’t survive that!
The alarm clock on my mobile phone beeped and buzzed disturbing me
from my sleep. Normally I have great difficulty in a morning as I try
to be ready for college, not today though! Today was different, very
different. In an hours time I would be free. Knowing this I was
thrilled. My stomach somersaulting with excitement as I dressed. My
head pounding as I ran down the road. My hands trembling as I was on
the roof!

Miscellaneous Critics on Waiting for Godot

Miscellaneous Critics on Waiting for Godot“Accordingly, any interpretation that purports to know who Godot is (or is not), whether he exists whether he will ever come, whether he has ever come, or even whether he may have come without being recognized (or possibly in disguise) is, if not demonstrably wrong, at least not demonstrably right” (Hutchings 27).“Although works of the theater of the absurd, particularly Beckett’s, are often comical, their underlying premises are wholly serious: the epistemological principle of uncertainty and the inability in the modern age to find a coherent system of meaning, order, or purpose by which to understand our existence and by which to live” (Hutchings 28).Godot’s characters do not despair in the face of their situation, and this “perseverance remains constant throughout a body of work that, in the words of the citation awarding Beckett the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1969 had ‘transmuted the destitution of modern man into his exaltation’ (qtd. in Bair 606)” (Hutchings 30).“Many relate the play to existentialism…:God is dead, life is absurd, existence precedes essence, ennui is endemic to the human condition…In many ways, such a reading is an evasion of the play’s complexity, a way of putting to rest the uncertainty of one’s response to it” (Collins 33).The reader, like modern man, must not give into “the arrogant presumption of certitude or the debilitating despair of skepticism,” but instead must “live in uncertainty, poised, by the conditions of our humanity and of the world in which we live, between certitude and skepticism, between presumption and despair “(Collins 36).Tragicomedy is life enhancing because it tries to “remind the audience of the real need to face existence ‘knowing the worst,’ which ultimately is liberation, with courage and humility of not taking oneself or one’s own pain too seriously, and to bear all life’s mysteries and uncertainties; and thus to make the most of what we have rather than to hanker after illusory certainties and rewards” (Esslin, Theater 47).“Act II. The next day. But is it really the next day? Or after? Or before?” (Esslin, Presence 109).Many details point out the absence of (meaninglessness of) traditional time, which is just one of many ways that the play resists interpretation and meaning:“People misunderstand it on all sides, just as everyone does his own sorrow. Explanations flow in from all quarters, each more pointless than the last” (Esslin, Presence 110).Some of the many attempts to impose meaning on the play includeGodot is God; 2.) Godot is “the earthly ideal of a better social order”; 3.) Godot is death; 4.) Godot is silence; 5.) Godot is the inaccessible self (Esslin, Presence 110).The play is, in fact, less than nothing—suggests REGRESSION: “But here less than nothing happens. It is as if we were watching a sort of regression beyond nothing. As always in Beckett, that little we are given to begin with, and which we thought so meager at the time, soon decays under our very eyes—disintegrates like Pozzo, who comes back bereft of sight, dragged by a Lucky, bereft of speech; like the carrot, which as if by mockery has dwindled by the second act to a radish” (Esslin Presence 111).“A character in a play usually does no more than play a part, as all those about us do who are trying to shirk their own existence.” But in Beckett’s play, the two tramps are on a stage with no part to play. “They must invent. They are free.” (Esslin Presence 113).The play does not tell a story; it examines a static situationNearly one quarter of the play’s text is presented in the form of questions.The play starts in medias res; begins in the midst of circular and pointless repetition.Bert O. States applies to Beckett’s work the words Roland Bartes uses to describe Kafka’s works:The work “authorizes thousands of equally plausible keys—which is to say, it validates none” (States 82).“There are no more significant solvable problems left unsolved; success in art is paid for by insignificance, not to say outright plagiarism of earlier solutions. The artist-as-failure, if he is to exist at all, is thus condemned to tread a narrow line between inauthentic success and truly irremediable failure to produce anything at all” The artist must fail to express—and he must fail to express his failure to express (States 96).LanguageThe characters talk to each other but fail to communicate. Language (notably in the form of cliches) is a form of reassurance – but not real connection occurs; instead, language is “noise to fill the void created by the absence of meaningful human contact” (Esslin, Theater 45).“Hence the presence of cliches in the discourse of the characters point toward the fact that in ‘real life’ most verbal exchanges are equally devoid of real communication” (Esslin, Theater 45).Repeated phrases, lines, and words and the fact that the second act repeats the first act are used to “signify the senseless repetition and relentless flow of time inherent to human existence” (Esslin, Theater 46).“Their talk is not so much anti-intellectual as it is counterintellectual; in the course of the play they mock or demolish all of our myths of meaning, using language against itself so as to prevent it from disguising their radical vulnerability.” (Gilman 75).Biblical AllusionsAlso ask me about mythic parallels (Sisyphus and Tantalus); Chaplin, music hall, comic theaterReaders must guard against overanalyzing, and thereby overemphasizing, the Biblical allusions; Beckett’s audience knew the Bible much better than do modern audiences—connections and associations were immediate and automatic for Beckett’s first audiences (Morrison 56).Biblical allusions usually create humor by rapid shifts from divine to secular. “The irreverence implied by this quick shift from divine to secular shocks and surprises an informed audience, eliciting a response of uneasy humor and so this sequence continues throughout” (Morrison 57).“…the juxtapositions and the rapidity of their presentation, not the subject, provide thehumor “ (Morrison 57).The Biblical allusions accomplish 2 things: 1.) introduce the play’s central theme: life is full of hellish suffering; 2.) establishes a tone of cynical humor which is heard throughout the play—much of the cynical humor is based on seeing the Christian “good news” of salvation (the crucifixion) as “bad news” (“Only one thief was saved). The joke is on those who believe the “good news” (Morrison 58).“’Hope deferred maketh the something sick, Vladimir says (8a), groping for Poverbs 13.12: ‘Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life.’ Waiting for what does not come indeed makes the heart (and feet and other body appendages) sick, and yet by a withered tree, he and Estragon continue to wait” (Morrison 58).“Didi and Gogo wait for a nonexistent hope and thus miss ‘the real thing’ (the possibility of such a real thing being suggested by the leaves appearing on the tree in act 2) “ (Morrison 58).“Beckett’s placement of the [50-50 chance of salvation motif through the two thieves] story early in the play indicates his authorial concern with establishing immediately the theme of blighted hope, the tone of grieving despair. The comic mode of delivery underscores the tragicomedy nature of the play” (Morrison 59).Other crucifixion references noted by Morrison (59)Estragon’s crucifixion posture in the yoga exercise“Do you think God sees me?”The wind is in the reeds” (John the Baptist preparing the way for Christ, Matt. 11.7-10)Repetition of skull in Lucky’s monologue. Golgotha (the place of skulls, Matt. 27.33) is the location where Christ and 2 thieves diedAt end of Act I, the boy says he minds the goats but his brother minds the sheep. Godot beats only his brother—this situation is an ironic reversal of Matt.25.31-46—in which the sheep go to the right and are saved, while the goats go to the left and are damned (Morrison 61).The psychological equivalents of salvation and damnation are hope and despair (Morrison 63).CharactersIn Act I, Didi usually speaks as mind, and Gogo speaks as body. “Gogo “eats, sleeps, and faces beating while onstage, whereas Didi ponders spiritual salvation. Didi is the more eloquent of the two, with Gogo sitting, leaning, limping, falling, i.e., seeking nearness to the ground. Gogo relies on pantomime, while Didi leans toward rhetoric. Gogo wants Lucky to dance; Didi wants him to think. Gogo stinks from his feet, Didi from his mouth. By act 2, the distinctions are blurred. Both Gogo and Didi engage in mental and physical exercises to pass interminable time, and Didi seems to be more agile in each domain. At the end of Act I, it is the active Gogo who asks, ‘Well, shall we go?’ and the meditative Didi who assents, ‘Yes, let’s go.’ Act 2 closes with the same lines, but the speakers are reversed” (Cohn 171).“Vladimir and Estragon are complimentary characters, as are Lucky and Pozzo. “Lucky taught Pozzo all the higher values of life (“beauty, grace, truth”); Lucky is mind and spirit—Pozzo is body and material; “Intellect is subordinate to the appetites of the body,” but they are tied together” (Esslin, Search 28).Are Estragon and Vladimir superior to Pozzo and Lucky because the former have companionship, compassion, and because the former have faith and hope?—or are the two couples equally absurd and foolish? (Esslin, Search 30).Lucky and Pozzo both benefit from the S & M, slave and master relationship because the relationship gives them identity and purpose.Works CitedBair, Deirdre. Samuel Beckett. A Biography. New York: Harcourt, 1978.Cohn, Ruby. “Philosophical Fragments in the Works of Samuel Beckett.” Approaches to Teaching Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. Ed. Jane Schlueter and Enoch Brater. New York: MLA, 1991. 169-177.Collins, Michael J. “Let’s Contradict Each Other.” Approaches to Teaching Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. Ed. Jane Schlueter and Enoch Brater. New York: MLA, 1991. 31-36.Esslin, Martin. “Beckett and the Theater of the Absurd.” Approaches to Teaching Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. Ed. Jane Schleuter and Enoch Brater. New York: MLA, 1991. 42-47.. “Samuel Beckett, or ‘Presence’ in the Theater.” Approaches to Teaching Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. Ed. Jane Schlueter and Enoch Brater. New York: MLA, 1991. 108-116.-. “The Search for the Self.” Modern Critical Interpretations of Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1987. 23-40.Gans, Eric. “Beckett and the Problem of Modern Culture.” Modern Critical Interpretations of Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1987. 95- 110.Gilman, Richard. “The Waiting Since.” Modern Critical Interpretations of Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1987. 67-78.Hutchings, William. “Waiting for Godot and Principles of Uncertainty.” Approaches to Teaching Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. Ed. Jane Schlueter and Enoch Brater. New York: MLA, 26-30.Morrison, Kristin. “Biblical Allusions in Waiting for Godot.” Approaches to Teaching Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. Ed. Jane Schlueter and Enoch Brater. New York: MLA, 1991. 56-64.States, Bret O. “The Language of Myth.” Modern Critical Interpretations of Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1987. 79-94.

How the Media Techniques of Peter Lord and Nick Park Convey the Idea that Ginger is Good and Mrs Tweedy is Evil

How the Media Techniques of Peter Lord and Nick Park Convey the Idea that Ginger is Good and Mrs Tweedy is EvilThe media use lots of different techniques to give the audience clues
about characters and action in the film “chicken run”. Using the
characters Ginger and Mrs tweedy I am going to investigate how the
media have used camera angles, costume, lighting, setting, music,
sound effects and character interaction to create more meaning for the
audience. I am specifically going to look at how Ginger is portrayed
as a good character and Mrs tweedy as an evil character.
Life isn’t good for the chickens in on Mrs Tweedy’s farm, but ginger
has a vision of what life might be like if she and the other could
escape the tyrannical regime under which Mrs Tweedy. If they could
only get through, under or over the wire fence, Ginger is sure they
will find a better way of living. From the first moment we see Mrs
Tweedy we know she is wicked and ginger is pleasant. The first thing
we notice about the two characters are the appearance, Mrs Tweedy is
tall and skinny this shows she has authority because she towers over
every one and always wearing a very old Victorian head master type
dress and her hair in a bun which makes her looks very strict and
stern, also her eye brows are always facing downwards together to make
her look menacing, she has her teeth clenched to show when she is
angry. Other things such and her tensed fist and her boots show us she
is powerful and intimidating. She is very masculine and she usually
has hand by her side to show she is displeased or incensed. But ginger
on the other hand is made more human like than a chicken, she has
hand, eyebrows, nose, mouth and big eyes on the font of the face close
together which are usually lit up by the light to make her look
innocent and make us feel sorry for her. But real chicken have
feathers, wings, no eye brows and have there eyes at the side of there
heads and have a beak not a nose and mouth. The make her more human
like so we would think they are not dumb and so it would be
interesting and catch the viewer’s attention.
Ginger and Mrs Tweedy are given two totally different voices. Gingers
voice has a welcoming British accent which is a bit posh as a contrast
Mrs Tweedy has a very clipped and harsh voice. She speaks with an
aggressive tone as a result we can tell that Mrs Tweedy is dominant
and wicked and ginger is nice.
The music which is used in chicken run is a kaleidoscope of many
styles which work well with the animation such as: Scottish, country
and western. There is a lot of military music with heroic brass, drum
flourishes and jazz. Most tracks are taken at hectic pace with only
one or two pauses. The starting music is heroic and adventurous; the
producers use the violin to build up tension so we know some things
going to happen. The music constantly suits the movements of the
characters. Realistic sound like fences and owl sounds are use to make
it more believable. The use of music has a major affect on the
audience’s perception of both ginger and Mrs Tweedy. The music which
is usually used by ginger is joyous nice but when it is around Mrs
Tweedy it is the notes are deep and long. This makes the audience
think ginger is nice and Mrs tweedy is threatening.
In the first main scene where the chickens plan to escape the farm by
going under the fence, Ginger is positioned in the shadows but with a
small light facing on her. This makes her seem small and meek and
defenceless in what seems to be like a prisoner of war camp. The
prison of war camp feeling is created with the fast, exciting and
triumphant music that is taken from the movie The Great Escape a movie
about war. The lighting after when Mrs Tweedy opens the front door,
the light floods into ginger’s face and shows she is scared. This use
of light gives emphasis onto the facial expressions of ginger and
feelings of ginger. Mrs Tweedy’s costume and all of her
characteristics are gloomy greys, blacks and browns showing the
watcher that she is foul. When ever ginger finds out bad news the
weather changes from sunny and warm to dark and gloomy the chicken’s
expressions change at the same time when they find out the bad news
e.g. when they find out Rocky can’t fly. This shows the mood and how
they feel.
The camera angles when we see Mrs Tweedy is a low angle shot to show
that she is powerful and that she is dominant. This is very different
to the way Ginger is presented on screen. She is usually featured in
long shots that show many other chickens as well as her, reflecting
her selfless and caring personality. Eye-level shots are also used
predominantly when presenting Ginger; this draws the audience towards
the character. Some times the shot is high angle to show she is small
and weak so we feel sad for her. The camera men also use close ups on
gingers face to show her innocent look on her face and Mrs tweedy
mischievous face. When she is lining up the chickens the camera
emphasises on the boots and the whip which shows she is like
commandant in a military. In the scene where Edwina is getting killed
for not laying any eggs the death is made even more gruesome by the
use of the silhouette that is shown to represent the death of Edwina.
This is a typical horror film technique.
The producer has made sure that when she is in shot, Mrs Tweedy fills
the whole screen. This deliberate technique creates the impression
that Mrs Tweedy is a very dominant and aggressive individual who
doesn’t need or want anyone else in her life for love or for
The setting which is used around Mrs Tweedy is bad the house which is
used is based on the famous psycho house which is used in many films.
Mrs tweedy is always associated with money, charts and she is usually
doing accounts. But Ginger’s a little chicken hut which is well lit,
warm and cosy, places were they can have laughs.
Mrs Tweedy’s always nasty to the other character such as her husband
who she formally calls Mrs Tweedy as if they are work colleagues; she
is always bossing him around treating him like dirt. Ginger on the
other hand is always polite and nice, she is always trying to help
every one out, and she is selfless Ginger is always thinking of other
people. Mrs Tweedy is alone but Ginger has everyone.
The machines associated with Mrs Tweedy are cold, rusted and it
symbolises fear and death. On the other hand the chicken’s machines
are simple, fun and it leads to escape. In one scene it shows a
reflection of Mrs Tweedy in a saw so we associate her with pain and
In conclusion I think that the media technique’s contributed a great
deal in making this film great. These techniques help the viewer
understand about the role of the characters. The music helps build up
the tension and lets us know if something’s going to happen. The
Camera angles make the characters look powerful or weak, big or small.
The setting and character interactions helps us understand the types
of people they are. All these techniques show us that Mrs Tweedy is
evil and Ginger is good.

The Opening Sequence of Sleepy Hollow

The Opening Sequence of Sleepy HollowThe very first thing the audience sees when watching this film is a
thick red liquid dripping onto a parchment. Because the audience
expects the film to be a horror film, they automatically think the
liquid is blood. Seeing this image makes the audience assume someone
has been murdered or at least injured. This one picture spurs
questions in a person’s mind like, ‘who does the blood belong to?’ and
‘Has someone been killed?’ The audience will want these questions
answered, so they will continue to watch. A little later, the audience
sees that the ‘dripping blood’ is nothing more than sealing wax
dripping onto a page. This surprises them because they did not expect
it to be something as innocent as wax. This theme of blood is
continued throughout film and represents a marker for the next victims
of the Headless Horseman.
Next, images of people’s hands are shown, but no faces. This keeps an
air of mystery and makes the audience ask questions again. To whom do
the hands belong? The opening sequence of this film is full of parts
of images. There are less camera angles showing a whole image than
there are showing fragments of images. This makes the audience fill in
the gaps so they can understand what is happening, but what they
imagine is not always correct, so there are lots of opportunities for
them to be taken by surprise.
Behind the hands is a flickering fire that provides the only light and
the only colour other than the sealing wax. The darkness and grey
quality to the scenes makes the film look even more sinister. This
means it lives up the expectations of the audience that know this is a
horror film. Making the blood-like wax the most colourful object in
the opening sequence emphasises its importance to the plot of
the film.
The actual parchment that the wax is dripping onto is someone’s Last
Will and Testament. This instantly tells the viewer that someone has
died, or perhaps is about to die since the same person that signed the
document as a witness, signs it as the man
that was supposed to have written the will. There is a huge close-up
of the will with the camera sweeping down from the top of the page to
the middle. As the camera moves down, so do the viewers’ eyes as they
read what is written on the page. There is a sort of sweeping sound
effect mimicking the camera’s movement. After the will has been
signed, it goes back to the dripping sealing wax and then a seal is
pressed down into it. There is, again, a close-up of the seal being
used and the sound effect is repeated. Since these sound effects would
not occur in real life, they emphasis to the audience that the
particular event they are heard with must be very important. Emphasis
is given on an audio level as well as a visual level. The seal is
lifted away to reveal the name of the family regarding the will.
The next shot is of galloping horses, but only their legs are shown.
There is a sense of urgency in this scene because of the speed of the
horses and their grunts of exertion. It is as if they are running away
from something. Again, this is happening in the darkness and at night,
while the horses themselves are black. These things are always
associated with evil and death. Black horses are always used in
funerals of important people, so perhaps this symbolises a coming
death. After the shot of the horses, the camera moves up to the crest
on the carriage door. The name on the crest is the same as that on the
seal of the will. This means who ever is in the carriage must have
been earmarked to die.
When we see the man inside the carriage, he looks very grey and
pale. It is obvious that this man is going to die because he already
looks like a ghost. The carriage itself is being driven through a
misty field in the dark just before a thunderstorm. After various
shots of the carriage, the camera stays where it is while it drives
away and focuses on a scare crow with a pumpkin for its head. At this
moment, the music in the background calms leaving singing voices.
These voices are continually heard in the opening sequence, while the
theme of pumpkins continues throughout the whole film. The whole of
the audience will know that pumpkins represent Halloween, which is
about witches and ghosts. This reference also reminds the viewers that
the genre is horror.
The man inside the carriage is shown again, then an unnatural sound,
the drawing and slashing of a sword, and the horses braying can be
heard. The audience knows that it must be the
Headless Horseman outside, but all that can actually be seen is the
man inside the carriage that is starting to look very scared. The
unnatural sound is a little like a horse, but it sounds more like a
When man then looks outside the carriage window, he sees the driver’s
head has been chopped off. Although the audience never saw this, they
could predict that this would happen because of the sound effects that
could be heard.

The Middle Ages

Sonny’s Blues

James Baldwin’s short story, “Sonny’s Blues”, tells the tale of two brothers, as they come to an understanding of each other. The use of imagery and figurative language can help the reader grasp a deeper meaning of what the narrator is focusing on. In “Sonny’s Blues”, the predominant imageries throughout the narrative are the reoccurring contrasting images of light and darkness, symbolizing hope and despair.Sonny’s life is filled with different possibilities for the choices he has to make, he can follow either a life of suffering or find of salvation. While Sonny was in jail, he had time to think about his life and everything leading up to his current state. “But now I feel like a man who’s been trying to climb up out of some deep, real deep and funky hole and just saw the sun up there, outside. I got to get out” (Baldwin 488). Sonny arrived to the conclusion that the “deep and funky hole”, was the circumstances in which, he has placed himself. The darkness represented his present situation and the road he was going down. He believed that the path he followed was sending him to dark future with no likelihood for a better life and it would be filled with despair. If he kept peddling drugs, his potential would be restricted. Sonny felt like a bird in cage. The “hole” he was in symbolize how trap he was feeling. Sonny’s life was closing in on him and he was being constrained as he followed a life of crime. Only he has the control to take charge of his life and turn it around. The “sun” symbolized the light at the end of the “hole.” It signified his freedom because notice how the sun was outside of the hole; it represented a hope for a better future. In order for him to follow his dreams, he has to get out of jail and free him self from the “hole.” Sonny’s light at the end of the “hole” was his music and in his music held his salvation. His self-determination was emphasize when he uttered, “I got to get out” because there was still a chance for him to find salvation. At this point in the short story, Sonny arrived at the conclusion that he has to make a drastic change in his life to follow the light at the end of the “hole” and avoid temptations.Life is filled with different possibilities and as people develop, it is up to them to pursue their goals and fight the distractions that might injure their dreams. Sonny’s suffering made him stronger and inspired him to acquire a better life style. His music was his savior. With the darkness surrounding Sonny, his music shined through and redeemed him.

Technology is Good

Technology is scientific developments that aid in problem solving and extend human capabilities. Its purpose is to help mankind, but often it has a negative effect.
Guns were developed as a tool to protect oneself by killing the enemy. However, they?re often used for murder and on innocent people. Many more people die from the gun than are protected by it. Is the gun something that is harming the human race? Many argue that it is ?people who kill people?, not guns. Even if there weren?t guns, people would kill each other with different means. Although, the invention of something decidedly a weapon cannot be viewed as positive.
Leaps and bounds have been made in the medicinal area of technology. Inventions of differing medicines and drugs have promoted the health of millions of people and even saved many of our lives. We no longer fear that influenza will be the death of us, nor any epidemics like the bubonic plague. This does not include third-world countries, which have been neglected and left behind. Not to mention that not all drugs turned out to be good. Many have horrible side effects and have been labeled ?bad? such as marijuana, cocaine, and LSD. Thousands of people are hooked to the stuff in ever downward-spiraling addictions.
The internet is a wonderful communication network that connects the world and gives anyone access to billions of faucets of information anytime! With no effort at all you can talk to someone on the other side of the globe or buy something quite easily from an online store. The negative side, however, is that it can be dangerous, too. With lurking viruses and spy ware, are people out to steal your identity always looming. A great trafficker of porn and tons of false information, the internet can be highly addictive. The piracy rates have soared with free music downloads and software and such.
Finally, one inarguably good invention is the refrigerator. It stores food like a cabinet and cools it to keep it from rotting days after it normally would. So, it saves food and garbage and money. It doesn?t use too much electricity and it promotes convenience.
Technology is benefiting the human race and the environment. I does its function and helps in what ways it can. Anything negative coming from it is due to the fact that people abuse their power over technology and use to with negative intent. Also, to counter that, thousands of people are working to fix those past mistakes that others have caused with technology, such as pollution control and helping to feed starving people worldwide.

Fickle Feminism

Fickle FeminismThe goal of this article is to try and understand the role of females
in our media-crazed society today. The author is trying to convey the
serious problem dealing with the image of women by using sarcasm and humor.
Timson describes her encounter with a stereotypical joke her adolescent
daughter picks up from school. She uses this to grab the attention of the
reader because not only does it make the reader (hopefully) angry due to
the outdated joke, it considers what has happened to the years of struggle
that women have faced to secure equal rights and a positive and strong
image in society.To appeal to an audience consisting mainly of women who play many
roles, Timson shares her own personal experiences as a working mother and
wife. She also uses societal friendly examples such as discussing issues
with Playboy, actresses such as Jennifer Lopez, and influences such as
Cosmopolitan Magazine. These issues keep the reader tied to the article
while raising the important concern of what kind of messages these are for
the quickly maturing girls of our time. As our youth are becoming more
mature at an earlier age, the internet, television, music, and magazines
are playing a key role of guiding their way into our not so-modest
society. Timson argues that these medias are giving the wrong idea to the
young girls of our “culture-driven times”. Are big breasts, tiny waists,
and strong sexual ambition the type of messages we want to send to females
young and old?Not being afraid to bring up the current obsession with breasts and
mini-mini skirts in our sex -crazed society today, Timson addresses
subjects that need to be discussed if we want to create a positive image
for women. She argues that choice is both a reward and challenge. If a
woman is a strong executive, she has the reward of a stable income and some
luxury but can be perceived as a headstrong “bitch”. How is it possible to
be an emotionally strong female when you live in a challenging, changing
community of negativity? Timson argues that since feminism has arrived, it
hasn’t been taken as seriously as expected despite its equalityaccomplishments for women. She brings up a good point that women today
are not surprised by women seeking new heights in our world. Her style of
witty writing helps the reader effectively appreciate and recognize what is
happening to the positive image of women that has taken so long to achieve.By appealing to the general public of women, Timson specifically
draws attention from mothers who have daughters. She uses her own
experiences as a mother as well as her role as a feminist. She is a well-
rounded individual who is also a credited columnist for the Canadian
magazine, Chatelaine. Making it clear that she is not only a well educated
writer but an up-to-date woman in society, she attracts both sophisticated
and contemporary women alike. Timson also uses examples of present day
feminist writers such as Michele Landsberg and Sharlene Azam. These
journalists argue that girl-empowerment has been passed up for “How sexy
are you?” quizzes”. In a time where the choices are endless, women still
seem to being choosing the sometimes degrading “sex bomb, bitch-on-wheels”
stereotypes. Clearly Landsberg, Azam, and Timson are not saying that these
are the images that all women have chosen; they are instead saying that
this is the image the media has chosen for them.So why, after so many years of bra-burning and protesting, have women
lagged behind on their upkeep of a positive image in society? Judith
Timson’s article is a prime argument for the media’s influence on the image
of women. Her argument that women are stuck in a stereotypical limbo of
who and what to be in our world today is credible and intelligent, while
funny and intriguing. Timson’s experience as a growing woman in the 21st
century is reflected in her questions and opinions on the mixed-messages
women are facing.Works CitedTimson, Judith. “What’s a Girl to do?”. Macleans’s. 114 (2001): 44-
50. Academic Search Premier, University of Dayton, Roesch Library.>.

Investigations of Residential Areas Within an Urban Area

Investigations of Residential Areas Within an Urban Area“There are marked differences between residential areas within an
urban area”

The locations of study are Lodge Moor and Crookes in Sheffield. Lodge
Moor situated approximately 4 miles southwest from the Central
Business District (CBD). It is located on the hills that overlook
Sheffield from the West. Lodge Moor is bordered to the north by River
Rivelin and to the south by River Porter Brook. In comparison to Lodge
Moor a suburban area, Crookes is more an inner city area. It is
located approximately 2 miles west of theCBD. Crookes borders
Broomhill to the south Walkley to the east and River Rivelin is to the
These areas have been chosen because they are contrasting areas to
which I have easy access.
It is sometimes perceived that there are marked differences between
residential areas within an urban area. This study will attempt to see
if these perceptions have any basis in relation to the areas chosen
for this study. However, there are limitations to the study as it is
only on a small scale. The focus of the information and data will be
on the type, age, cost and tenure of housing. Secondly, the
environment will be studied which will address aspects such as the
amount of open space available, any industries in the area, traffic
volume and the amount of litter or graffiti. Finally it will look at
what amenities are available and how accessible they are.
[IMAGE] ‘Spider’ park in Lodge Moor
Information and data will be collected using a number of primary and
secondary sources. These will be through visual observations,
government statistics, use of maps, graphs, tables, annotated sketches
and digital photographs and a questionnaire. The use of a range of
sources to collect data allows the study to be objective.
Primary Data-————-
What I Did-———-
Why I Did It-————-
How It Could Be improved
Photographed houses, shops, parks using a digital camera
To highlight any similarities and/or differences
Photographs had to be taken after school hours when it was dark or at
weekends when it was sometimes raining and dull –not ideal conditions
for clear photographs
Asked local residents to complete
Obtain opinions of local residents of each area
Had to be done after school when most people appeared to be in a
Only certain people who appeared approachable were asked. Older people
who may have felt intimidated were not approached. Therefore views
were of limited age range group.
Approach a wider selection of people
Carried out a traffic count, litter count, convenience survey,
analysis of typical roads and houses in each area
Demonstrate any similarities and contrasts
Traffic count could have been done for a longer period of time
Secondary Data
What I Did-———-
Why I Did It-————-
Problems/Difficulties Encountered
How It Could Be Improved
Used government statistics to find out demography of the areas and
information about housing such as tenure
To highlight the differences or similarities in the areas
Downloaded maps of each area from the internet.
Drew maps to show location of the 2 areas in relation to the rest of
Demonstrate the location and land use of the study areas
The Environment
There are obvious differences in the environment of Lodge Moor and
Crookes. The residents of Crookes report considerably more public
rowdiness than the locals of Lodge Moor. The reasons for this maybe
because Crookes has exceptionally large number of young adults aged
15-24 as it is home to the University Of Sheffield’s department of
Music and halls of residence, Tapton. There are also a larger number
of public houses than in Lodge Moor.
Volume of traffic is also greater in Crookes for several reasons.
Firstly, It is a more inner city area than Lodge Moor and it is a
thoroughfare for traffic going into Walkley, Hillsborough Broomhill
and Crosspool. Crookes is a vibrant shopping area with a wide variety
of shops. This has resulted in an increased amount of traffic which
means increased air pollution from car exhaust emissions and increased
noise pollution. There is very little traffic in Lodge Moor as it is
situated in the suburbia. Pollution from heavy industry is not a
factor in either area as most of this is found in theCBD.
Lodge Moor has little evidence of litter even around the few local
shops. This is in sharp contrast to parts of Crookes, especially
outside the many food takeaways and restaurants where discarded food
and cartons are clearly visible.
Lodge Moor is next to the countryside and there is easy access to many
parks unlike in Crookes where there are none. The parks in and around
Lodge Moor area are well maintained and free of litter. There is also
an excellent golf course in the area.
The streets in Lodge Moor are tree lined which contrasts greatly with
Crookes where very little greenery can be seen.

Examples of Differences in University Education

Examples of Differences in University EducationYou know, there is not all that much I would actually change about this university. Sure we could use some better facilities and the more diversity the better, but those changes have to take place over time, sometimes a long time. For now I am content with the prospect of throwing out ideas used by other universities to either increase student recruitment or enhance the image surrounding our college, that has without doubt been tarnished in past years.
One example of how we could increase the ease on the perspective student milling around our website is to take a note or two from the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma. The university of Oklahoma is seen as a highly academic institution along with having an advanced sports program. The Oklahoma Sooners went undefeated this past year. The good thing about their website is that it is very easily navigational, which is a plus because prospective students aren’t in the mood to have to siphon through presents addresses and alumni paraphernalia to get to what dorms they will be living in. The website also has a clearly defined area for the different colleges that are found with the walls of the University. One thing I myself had a problem distinguishing when I first started to look at Washington State University.So that is it for my compare contrast tour of other campuses throughout the United States. I still think Washington State has some of the fetter facilities and academic programs for students. Hey, I was hard sell to start out with and now I could think of going anywhere else.Bibliography:University of Oklahoma Web page: University Web page:

The Types of Drugs in the World

The Types of Drugs in the WorldIntroduction
There are many types of drugs in the World today. Some are Legal and
others are Illegal. A drug is a substance which can affect the way
your mind and body works.
There are a lot of illegal drugs which are highly addictive e.g.
cannabis, cocaine, speeds,LSDand heroin. These types of drugs are
very dangerous and can kill.
Legal drugs can be prescribed by your doctor if necessary. These drugs
can be can be used to cure illnesses. Most of the drugs which are
legal are mild and might give you some drowsiness.
All types of drugs come from chemicals in the roots, seeds, bark,
leaves and juices of a plant.
Antibiotics are drugs which can kill the bacteria from your body.
Bacteria are the largest germs.
[IMAGE] Alcohol.
What it looks like/How it’s takenIt is illegal to sell alcohol to under-18s (unless they’re 16 or
17 and having a meal in a restaurant).
Police will soon have legal powers to confiscate alcohol from
under-18s drinking in public. Where there’s a local bye-law, they
can already do this.
Alcoholic drinks come in different strengths, measured as a
percentage (%) by volume. The higher the percentage marked on the
label the stronger the drink will be.
Alcopops often contain more alcohol than many beers, lager or
The Effects
[IMAGE]Many people enjoy drinking alcohol. In small amounts it can help
them to relax and feel more sociable.
Some people use alcohol to escape from their problems.
The effect depends on the strength of the drink and how fast it is
It also varies according to when a person last ate, and their
weight, mood and surroundings.
Speech can become slurred, co-ordination affected and emotions
A hangover (the after-effects of alcohol) can leave you feeling
ill for a day or so.
The RisksAlcohol is a depressant drug. Users can end up feeling very down.
Women get drunk than men on the same amount of alcohol. They can
also develop drink-related health problems earlier.
Overdose (drinking far too much) can lead to loss of
consciousness. Users then risk choking on their own vomit. This
can kill.
Overdose can also cause alcoholic poisoning, which can be fatal.
Long-term over-use can lead to serious liver, heart and stomach
More than 25,000 deaths in the UK each year are alcohol-related.
Mixing alcohol with other drugs is SERIOUSLY DANGEROUS.
[IMAGE] These are names which are used for Cannabis marijuana, draw, blow,
weed, puff, shit, hash, and ganja.
What it looks like/How it’s takenCannabis is derived from a plant called cannabis sativa.
It comes in a solid, dark lump known as ‘resin’ or as leaves,
stalks and seeds called ‘grass’, or as a sticky oil.
It can be rolled with tobacco in a spiff or joint, smoked on its
own in a special pipe, or eaten.
There are different strengths of cannabis – some (e.g. skunk) are
very strong.
Cannabis is a Class B drug (but Class A penalties can apply to
cannabis oil).
The EffectsGetting ‘stoned’ on cannabis makes most users relaxed and
It heightens the senses, especially when it comes to colors, taste
and music.
Cooking and eating hash makes the effects more intense and harder
to control.
It can leave people feeling tired and lacking energy.
Hash may bring on cravings for certain foods.
The RisksAffects short term memory and ability to concentrate.
Getting stoned affects co-ordination, increasing the risk of
It impairs driving skills, so never get in a car with someone who
is stoned.
It can make users paranoid and anxious, depending on their mood
and situation.
Smoking joints with tobacco can lead to getting hooked on
Smoking cannabis over a long period of tine may increase the risk
of respiratory orders, including lung cancer.
Many users find cannabis hard to quit.
Cocaine is normally classified as coke, Charlie, snow or C. [IMAGE] What it looks like/How it’s takenCocaine is a white powder that can be snorted up the nose. Some
users inject it.
It is a Class A drug.
The EffectsCocaine is a powerful stimulant.
The buzz creates a sense of well-being, making users feel alert
and confident.
The effects last roughly 30 minutes.
Users are often left craving more.
People may also take more to delay the comedown (tiredness and
The RisksCocaine can cause heart problems and chest pain.
Heavy use of cocaine can cause convulsions.
Large or frequent doses over a short period can leave users
restless, confused and paranoid.
Snorting cocaine may permanently damage the inside of the nose.
Users may find their habit expensive and hard to control.
Users have died from overdose.
[IMAGE] Other names for Ecstasy are E,XTC, doves, disco biscuits, echoes, hug
drug. Eccse, burgers, Fantasy (chemical name:MDMA)
What it looks like/How it’s takenEcstasy usually comes in tablets of different shapes, size and
color (but often white).
The effects of MDMA are unpredictable.
A tablet might not contain MDMA. Other drugs which might be sold
as MDMA can have very different effects.
Ecstasy is a Class A drug.
The EffectsUsers can feel alert and in tune with their surroundings and with
other people too.
Sound, color and emotions can seem much more intense.
The energy buzz from ecstasy means users may dance for hours.
The effects last anything from 3 to 6 hours.
The RisksAs ecstasy starts working (known as ‘coming up’) users may feel a
tightening of the jaw, nausea, sweating and an increase in heart
The comedown can leave users feeling tired and depressed, often
for days.
Use has been linked to liver and kidney problems.
Studies into the effects of ecstasy are still at an early stage.
However, research shows that MDMA dramatically affects the brain
chemistry of animals.
There have been about 60 ecstasy-related deaths in the UK.
Heroin is normally named as smack, brown, horse, gear, H, junk, skag,
What it looks like/How it’s takenHeroin is a painkilling drug made from morphine which is derived
from the opium poppy.
It comes as a white powder when pure. Street heroin is usually
It is snorted, smoked or injected.
Heroin is a Class A drug.
The EffectsIn small doses, heroin gives the user a sense of warmth and
Higher doses can make them drowsy and relaxed.
Excessive amounts can result in overdose, coma, and in some cases
First-time use often leads to side-effects like dizziness and
The Risks [IMAGE]Heroin is very addictive. Getting the next fix can dominate a
user’s life.
Tolerance develops, which means the user needs more heroin to get
the same effect.
Users who form a habit may end up taking the drug just to feel
Those who start by smoking or snorting heroin sometimes switch to
injection to maximize the high.
Injecting can damage veins and lead to gangrene.
Sharing needles or syringes puts users at risk of dangerous
infections like hepatitis and HIV.
Withdrawing from heroin can be very hard.
Many people manage to kick the drug, but mentally it may take
years to be free.
[IMAGE]LSDcan be named as acid, trips, tabs, blotters, microdots, dots,
(chemical name: Lysergic acid diethylamide)
What it looks Like/how it’s takenLSD usually comes in tiny squares of paper, often with a picture
on one side.
The picture says nothing about the likely effect or strength of
the drug.
LSD is a Class A drug.
The EffectsLSD is a hallucinogenic drug. It has a powerful effect on the
The effects of LSD are known as a ‘trip’ and can last as long as 8
to 12 hours. While a user is tripping they will experience their
surroundings in very different way.
The effects depend on the user’s mood, where they are and who
they’re with.
Sense of movement and time may speed up or slow down Objects color
and sound may become distorted.
Users experience trips differently every time.
The RisksOnce the trip starts, there’s no way of stopping it.
A bad trip can be terrifying. Users may feel very threatened and
can even forget that the drug is responsible.
It’s impossible to predict a ‘bad’ trip, but it’s more likely to
happen if the user is feeling anxious, nervous or uncomfortable.
Feeling paranoid or out of control can leave users shaken for a
long time afterwards.
Accidents may happen while users are hallucinating.
Users may experience flashbacks, where parts of a trip are briefly
re-lived some time after the event.
LSD can complicate mental problems such as depression, anxiety and
[IMAGE]LSDblotter tabs
Gases, Glues and Aerosols
[IMAGE] These are found in:lighter gas refills and fuel canisters
aerosols containing products such as hairspray, deodorants and air
tins or tubes of glue
Some paints, thinners and correcting fluids.
What it looks like/How it’s takenThey are sniffed or breathed into the lungs.
It is illegal for shopkeepers to sell to under-18s, or to people
acting for them, if they suspect the product is intended for
The EffectsUsers feel thick-headed, dizzy, giggly and dreamy.
They may also hallucinate (see or hear things which aren’t real).
The effects disappear after 15 to 45 minutes.
Afterwards, users feel drowsy and may suffer a headache.
The RisksUse of gases, glues or aerosols can cause instant death – even on
the first go.
Squirting the stuff down the throat may cause the body to produce
fluid that floods the lungs. This can be fatal.
Abusing gases, glues or aerosols can lead to nausea, vomiting,
black-outs and fatal heart problems.
Accidents can happen when the user is high because their senses
are affected.
There is a risk of suffocation if the substance is inhaled from a
plastic hag over the head.
Long term abuse can damage the brain, liver and kidneys.
Sniffing gases, glues or aerosolsKILLSone person every week
Magic Mushrooms
What it looks like/How it’s takenSeveral types of magic mushroom grow wild in the UK. The main type
is the Liberty Cap mushroom (Psilocybe Semilanceata}.
There are also species that look similar to magic mushrooms but
which are poisonous.
Magic mushrooms are eaten raw, dried, cooked in food or stewed
into a tea.
While it isn’t illegal to possess raw magic mushrooms, it is an
offence to possess any preparation of them (e.g. when they’re
dried or stewed).
Magic mushrooms, when prepared, are Class A drugs.
The EffectsMagic mushrooms have a similar effect to LSD, but the trip is
often milder and shorter.
Magic mushrooms can make users feel very relaxed and ‘spaced-out’.
The effects depend on the user’s mood where they are and who
they’re with.
Magic mushrooms may cause hallucinations – objects, color and
sound become distorted.
A trip tends to last about 4 hours.
[IMAGE] The RisksMagic mushrooms often cause stomach pains, sickness and diarrhea.
Eating the wrong kind of mushroom can also cause serious illness
and even fatal poisoning.
If users feel sick they should go straight to hospital with a
sample of the mushroom and explain what’s happened.
Bad trips can happen and can be very frightening. Once the trip
has started, there’s no going back.
Like any hallucinogen, magic mushrooms can complicate mental
[IMAGE]Magic Mushroom
SmokingSmoking is the largest preventable cause of death in the UK. On
average, smokers lose more than one day of life every week.
Young people who start to smoke will live about eight years less
than those who do not smoke. Tobacco smoke contains over 4,000
Breathing in other people’s smoke (known as ‘passive smoking’) can
damage your health.
The Effects
Any amount of smoking will make your breath, hair and clothes smell.
Smoking kills about six times more people in the UK than all of the
following put togetherroad deaths (3647)
other accidents (9974)
murder and manslaughter(448)
suicide (4175)
poisoning and overdoses (1071)
and HIV infection (577).
The above figures give a total of 19,892, compared to about 120,000
deaths from smoking every year. That’s about 300 every day or one
death every 4.5 minutes).
About half of all regular smokers will eventually be killed by the
Some harmful effects of smoking are:cancer (lung, cervical, kidney, bladder, stomach, mouth, lip and
heart disease
dental hygiene problems
facial wrinkles at an earlier age
and a higher chance of suffering from asthma and other respiratory
Passive smoking can also cause harmit can cause cot deaths (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)
lung cancer in non-smokers
glue ear, chronic coughs, phlegm and wheezing in babies
eye, nose and throat irritation
More than 17,000 children under the age of five are admitted to
hospital every year due to passive smoking.
People who stop smoking will have some immediate benefits:more money in their pocket (buying 20 cigarettes a day costs
around £1,000 every year)
senses of taste and smell are improved after two days
walking and running much easier within 2-12 weeks
reduced risk of heart disease after one year
no smelly breath, hair or clothes.
Over 10 million people in Britainhave stopped smoking in the last 15
years and have stayed stopped… that’s about 1,000 every day!
Why People do it?All my friends do it.
It helps me to relax.
It gets me going in the morning and helps me to concentrate.
It gets me friends when I ‘crash the ash’.
I enjoy it.
It helps me to cope.
I need a cigarette to get me through the day.
I have a right to smoke, it’s a free world.
Young PeopleIn Great Britain about 450 children start smoking every day.
Under-16-year-olds now spend about £135 million every year on
Some children as young as five are regular smokers.
In England in 1996, about 33%of girls and 28% of boys aged 15 were
regular smokers.
About 17 million cigarettes are consumed every week in England by
About 29% of adult smokers start regular smoking as 14- to
The younger a person starts to smoke, the more likely it is that
they will suffer from some smoking related illness.
Smoking can reduce the chances of success in games, sports and
other leisure activities.
It’s far easier to stop starting than it is to start stopping!
The LawIt is against the law to sell cigarettes to anyone under the age
of 16 (but over 70% of young smokers report having no difficulty
in buying cigarettes from local shops).
It is not against the law for under-16-year-olds to buy, possess
or smoke cigarettes.
The advertising of tobacco products on television is banned (but
many sports events such as Formula One motor racing and snooker
clearly display cigarette brands).
Tobacco products must carry the general warning “Tobacco seriously
damages health”, and cigarette packets must carry a second warning
on the back of the pack selected from a list of 15, such as
“Smoking when pregnant harms your baby” and “Protect children:
don’t make them breathe your smoke”.
Paracetamol relieves pain and fever in adults and children, and is the
most widely accepted medicine in the UK for this purpose. It is used
mainly for its pain relief properties either as a medicine prescribed
by a doctor or it can be purchased as an over-the-counter (OTC)
medicine both in retail pharmacies or grocers’ shops. When sold in
pharmacies pack sizes are limited to a maximum of 32 tablets, and in
shops other than pharmacies pack sizes are limited to a maximum of 16
tablets. Multiple packs can be purchased provided the total does not
exceed 100 tablets. For quantities of more than 100 tablets a doctor’s
prescription is necessary. These limitations do not apply to products
in the form of liquids, tablets or powders.
In addition to these statutory requirements, the Royal Pharmaceutical
Society of Great Britain (RPSGB) has advised pharmacists that they
should restrict sales of paracetamol to one pack of 32 tablets per
sale unless there are ‘justifiable circumstances’ for selling more
than one pack. TheRPSGBhas not defined what constitutes ’justifiable
There are virtually no groups of people who should not take
paracetamol, and interactions with other treatments are rarely a
When taken at the recommended dosage, there are virtually no
[IMAGE] Barbiturate
What it fells like
Relaxation, peacefulness, sleepiness, pleasurable intoxication,
dizziness, inactivity, withdrawal, interrupted thought process, mood
swing, excitement, increased pain, hostility, depression, anxiety,
confusion, changed vision, intense emotions, hangover.
What it does
Depresses central nervous system.
Progressive decline in blood pressure, heart rate and breathing.
Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain. Alternate pupil constriction and
dilation. Loss of reflex response. Low body temperature and blood
temperature. Weak pulse.
Effects cause ever increasing depression of respiratory control
centers of the brain. Medical application is based on the durations of
action of the many and various barbiturates: ultra short, short and
intermediate, long acting. Tolerance leads to increased doses, risk of
life-threatening complications, and severe withdrawal symptoms.
When isolated in pure form, caffeine is a white crystalline powder
that tastes very bitter. The chief source of pure caffeine is the
process of decaffeinating coffee and tea.
Medically, caffeine is useful as a cardiac stimulant and also as a
mild diuretic (it increases urine production). It is used to provide a
“boost of energy” or a feeling of heightened alertness. It’s often
used to stay awake longer – college students and drivers use it to
stay awake late into the night. Many people feel as though they
“cannot function” in the morning without a cup of coffee to provide
caffeine and the boost it gives them.
Caffeine is an addictive drug. Among its many actions, it operates
using the same mechanisms that cocaine and heroin use to stimulate the
brain. On a spectrum, caffeine’s effects are milder than cocaine and
heroin, but it is manipulating the same channels and that is one of
the things that give caffeine its addictive qualities. If you feel
like you cannot function without it and must consume it every day,
then you are addicted to caffeine.
Caffeine occurs naturally in many plants, including coffee beans, tea
leaves and cocoa nuts. It is therefore found in a wide range of food
products. Caffeine is added artificially to many others, including a
variety of beverages.
It is clear that where drugs are prescribed for medical reasons then
people cannot help their use and must take them according to doctor’s
instructions. However, the uses of illegal drugs are extremely harmful
and even those that are legal such as smoking and the inhalation of
glues for example.
While many believe that some drugs should be made illegal so that they
cannot be sold illegally and the ‘novelty’ wares off, others believe
they should be banned. The argument is a long and difficult one and
has clearly been drawn out.
One cannot deter from the fact that all things in excess are harmful,
however drugs have the added danger of making its users addicted.
People on drugs almost always react differently, perhaps even
dangerously and clearly in a manner that is different to their
‘normal’ behavior.
The essential point must be for Government and other organizations to
make society aware of the harmful effects of drugs and the lasting
effects they can have on all those taking them and therefore society
as a whole. There must be clear and concise knowledge of the
implications of taking drugs.

Effects Of World War I On American Society

     My report is on how the first world war effected the American people, and how the war helped shape the country we know today.     The war started when Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie were touring the city of Sarajevo in the newly aquired country of Serbia. The Serbian Nationalistic group the “Black Hand” plotted to assainate him, so, Gavrillo Princip shot Franz Ferdinand in June of 1914. Anyway this led to a big conflict in Europe, and all the major powers took their sides. This war was a big excuse, mostly because most of the war was fought without the Austrians or the Serbians. The war had it’s devastating toll on the population of Europe, with most of the casulties suffered by Russia. With the loss of the Russians, the Allies needed the United States help. The Britains had reconized the potential strength of the Americans, but the Americans wanted neutrality. But with the sinking of many merchant and luxury ships that belonged to America, or the sinking of foriehn ships with Americans on them, helped persway the Americans to join the fight.     The great deal of veterns coming home began to change the lifestyle of many Americans. Many people found it hard to demobilize, and people began fighting for their jobs back, but, many of these soldiers began living away from home and started living a life of success and luxury, this is where the jazz age begins.     Many people saw what had happened in Russia with the Bolshevik Revolution, and many people had become suspicious with the labor unions, which is were most laborors work from. The activities that eveybody was so suspicious about finally ended into the Palmer raids. The Palmer raids were established to find so called communists, and most of the people found guilty were actully innocent.     In 1915, the Ku Klux Klan had been re organized at Stone Mountain on Georiga, and the new klan was more powerful than it had been before. The Klan was electing many people into Congress, even though the Klan was still anti-black, the Klan began to speak out against forieghn radicals and the Communists. The Klan waged massive rallies against the “reds”, and even was able to control some communism in North America, the Klan eventully died out because of the economy, and because of embarassment of the group.     
     But in the times that followed the Great War, many good things were also happening, the economy was beginning to boom, people were becoming more and more less frugle with their money, and the whole country was enjoying a rich country. With the soldiers coming home, some found new jobs in places such as the Ford Company, which began the first assembly line. The nation’s buisness were now working with new machines and technology. People were now also finding new ways to enjoy themselves, such as going to speakeasies were they would drink illegal alcohol, or they would listin to the radio.     People were also beginning to try new things, for example women began to bob their hair, and were short and tight revealing clothes. Also another thing that troubled the American Public was the growing number of STD’s among american soldiers. Young people were also conflicting with the censorship at the time. The censors tried to ban the new movies that at the time were supposivley conflicting with the morals of the time. People were also trying new ideas, such as the Scopes-Monkey trial, which was a conflict of the ideas of creation and evoultion.     The minorities also began to become a player in the American game. Blacks had begun to move north to the cities to escape the poverty of the south. There, they began to live in large communities such as Harlem, and begin to form their own ideas on social issues, music, and the arts.     Basiclly, what I have tried to write in my report was what happened after the Great War. The age was basically a trying of new things that people had never begun to do before, and how the people were treated for this. Because the war whipped the people into a new sence of reality, people were beginning to see things in a new light. Even though some of these practices did not lead to much for today’s society, the fact that the people were beginning to try to do new things because of a harsh reality of the war, shows what one war can do to a generation of people, and that generation of people can shape the way of how we do things now.          

Analysis of Steven Spielberg’s Film Saving Private Ryan

Analysis of Steven Spielberg’s Film Saving Private RyanThe opening credits is music pictures and font which tells us the film
is going to be sad, depressing and makes you feel sorry for the people
who lost there life at war.
At the beginning of the film you see an American flag and it
represents the nations embalm and makes the people of America proud to
be American but the flag is see through as if the flag has worn away
with time.
Spielberg prepares us for the film with a scene set in modern day
France, in the war memorial garden. Where there were rows and rows of
war graves. This is an effective way of showing us the effect of war
because it shows just how many people died at war fighting in France
Next we see a man who we see being followed by his family. This man is
looking for the grave of Private Ryan. This man is the man who saved
Private Ryan. The scene ends with endless pictures of graves and then
the camera zooms in on the man’s eyes.
After this close up the film flashes back to the war. It takes us to
the scene where the soldiers who are on the boat are ready to get off
then you see the soldiers are afraid, you can see this because they
are throwing up and shaking. At the end of this scene the director
builds up the moment by slowly opening the doors on the boat and you
get to watch the soldiers being killed by the Germans.
Then the director shows some excellent underwater footage of men being
shot and killed. This is supposed to make you feel shocked and feel
sorry for the families of the men who died.
The scene on the beach reveals horrific images of men getting their
arms and legs blown off and there guts coming out and others getting
shot in the head.
The director then changes the action by making everything slow motion
and making the sound and colour dull and when the sound is dull it has
an echo affect shaky which looks like the camera is shaking. This
gives us Tom Hanks perspective as he goes into shock.
We occasionally see things from the Germans point of view, when they
are looking through their telescope or from behind German guns.
The effect of the opening scenes on the audience is shocking,
sickening and worrying. It is very realistic and had a dramatic
The film is made even more realistic by the shells and bullets. The
screams of the men how have been shot and the blood of men how died.
In conclusion, I think that the film was very realistic and Spielberg
knows how to make a film so effective by showing the real affects of

Charlie Parker

Review: Pulp Fiction

Movie Review: Pulp Fiction     Quentin Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction is one of the most daring, puzzling, and ultimately exciting pieces of cinema to hit the screen in years. As wholly original as it is a copy of hundreds of films before it about tales of hit-men and criminals, it dares you to step out of the dull and enter a colorful, exhilarating world that could only be Los Angeles. The intensity level of the movie is off the scale. People are laughing like crazy in the theater to the intelligent dialog and other scenes that have the audience gasping for air in shock over what just happened. Although one might say that Pulp Fiction is overly violent and disturbing, it is in fact, one of the greatest movies ever produced. Quentin Tarantino’s incredible screenplay, the intensity of the actors, and music to set the mood, created movie worthy five stars.
     Pulp Fiction is rebellious in the way that it manipulates all usual plot structures by twisting time to satisfy its own system. The film tells a series of interlocking stories involving; two hit-men, a boxer and his French girlfriend, a crime boss and his mischievous wife, a small time drug dealer, two lovebird robbers, and two hillbilly rapists. However, all these stories revolve around three main plots; Vincent (John Travolta) taking the crime boss’s wife out (Umma Thurman), the crime boss asks the boxer (Bruce Willis) to throw out the boxing match, and the two lovebirds decision and outcome about robbing a restaurant. All of these stories added to the mixture of comical violence and the fascinatingly vulgar dialogue create the elements for one of the most shamelessly entertaining film of all time. Part of the genius of this film is the way Tarantino manipulates the conventional plot structure to make the impossible possible. It is an odd phenomenon how he could alter time so intentionally, yet finish with a product that is not only easily understood, but flows more smoothly than it would have it he had told it in a linear fashion.
     The intense acting in the movie Pulp Fiction, as well as the narration, is another aspect that made the movie as great as it was. The two hit-men, Vincent Vega (John Travolta) and Jules Winnfield (Samuel L. Jackson), make the best screen pair. Travolta and Jackson play off each other with perfect timing and relaxed ease, carrying on intriguing conversations about the slight differences between Europe and America, “In Paris, you can buy a beer in McDonalds,” the nature of miracles, and the relative importance of foot-messages. In a way Travolta and Jackson deliver the defined dialogue written by Tarantino, which makes even the most ordinary people both hilarious and fascinating. Travolta is, indeed, very good as Vincent, but the fact that he has perhaps the most screen time of the whole cast also helps. The standout, however, is Samuel L. Jackson. His Biblical quoting, profanity- filled speeches are, by turn, magnetic and hilarious. Jules is a no-nonsense hit-man whose life is on the line every day, but a moment of shock makes him question his profession. His manner of swearing has almost become state-of-the-art, if one is allowed to highlight such a thing. There probably are not many actors who can deliver the “F” word as compellingly as Samuel.
     Although the acting in Pulp Fiction is memorable, the music impacted the movie equally as much. The collection of songs and instruments are perfectly suited to the scenes, style and mood of the film as to almost become part of the seduction. A particular stand out is when Vincent arrives to pick up Mia for their night out. The music is so clam and puts the audience right in to the mood of the film that you cannot help but feel the intensity and passion that the characters are feeling. Tarantino has chosen just the right songs for this and makes a great film even better.
     Pulp Fiction is a movie that may not have won any Academy awards for its excellence; but, one cannot help but remember the incredible narration and be in awe by how it is presented in a way like no other before it. The screen writes are original, the ensembles of actors for each role, from Samuel L. Jackson to Umma Thurman, is outstanding and the music that presents the feeling to the audience is compelling. There is no question about how this film keeps you on your toes, thinking about what is going to happen next. Pulp fiction is a movie, in my opinion, that will withstand the test of time; it is for this reason I gave it 5 stars.

Reasons Why the United States Should Not be a Significant Contributor in the Reconstruction of Iraq

In March 2003, our nation was led into war by our president George Bush. Our goal: to topple the regime of Saddam Hussein and destroy terrorist groups, namely Al Qaeda. Deep down in their hearts, these politicians also knew that most suppliers of oil are in that region. If they could occupy the area near some of these wells, they would not have to depend on many other nations for their fuel supply. Once more, this is a case of “mind your own business”. Our country may have delivered Iraq from its evil dictator, but certainly, is that not enough?? Some may argue that this is the classic case of the US government being the bully on the block, but haven’t we helped them already? Is it also not true that we have a monstrous national debt? Why burn more money? I believe that neither the US government nor military should play a large role in the reconstruction of Iraq.
First, the US government has already spent enough money on war since 2001. Including Afghanistan, costs are nearly at one trillion (National Priorities Project). Our national debt is over ten times this. Taxpayers in florida alone would have to pay 48 billion dollars to eliminate this. This could mean 35,007,737 Homes with Renewable Electricity for One Year, 795,176 Music and Arts Teachers for One Year, or 15,526,509 Scholarships for University Students for One Year. To play a bigger role, the US would have to spend more taxpayer money and as a result, our economy would plummet even more. Sure, it would be nice of us if we did put this money to Iraq, but we have to think of our own country too. However, I do not mean that we shouldn’t give money at all. This would anger other countries and Iraq. I am just saying we shouldn’t put that much in.
Second, many sources say that Iraq will soon be able to afford to take care of itself. Paul Wolfowitz says, “We’re dealing with a country that can really finance its ownreconstruction relatively soon.” (Caron, David) Iraq has much less debt than our country. In fact, their national debt is less than our spending there. Like China did, the US could help Iraq by cancelling some of their debt to us. However, we cannot afford to be too generous, because once more, we are in very dire straits.
Finally, will entering Iraq improve relations with them?? Their government feeds them images of a tyrannical US, coming in to destroy everyone. Some of these reports are true. Recently, 50 financial scams have taken place in the desert country. According to the New York Times, “…some of the transactions involved people suspected of mailing tens of thousands of dollars from Iraq to themselves, or just having stuffed the money into luggage when leaving the country. Others involved millions in wire transfers, with suspects allegedly using the money to buy cars, jewelry or pay off massive casino debts.” This taints Americans as greedy fools, and we might not even be allowed to enter the country because of this. Entering Iraq to help with the reconstruction would be futile to improve relations.
To conclude this essay, I have a quote from George Will that sums up everything I believe in bout this war. “Civilization depends on, and civility often requires, the willingness to say, ‘What you are doing is none of my business’ and ‘What I am doing is none of your business.’” People, especially our government, should do this more often.National Priorities Project’s “Cost of War Clock”, Electronic.David D. Caron. “The Reconstruction of Iraq: Dealing with Debt” U.C. DAVISJOURNAL INTERNATIONAL LAW & POLICY 11 (2004): 123.Glanz, James “New Fraud Cases Point to Lapses in Iraq Projects.” New York Times. 14
March, 2010. Print.

Violation of Rights in the Film Guilty by Suspicion

America is the land of the free. America is the land in which “Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech or the right of the people peaceably to assemble.” (Amendment I to the US Constitution.) This means that Americans can say whatever they believe, and be part of any club, group, or political affiliation they choose. The Bill of Rights also declares in the Fifth Amendment that ?No Person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.” This means that in court, a person may remain silent, and cannot be forced to incriminate themselves. An American also may not be deprived of their life, freedom, or belongings without a trial.
Guilty by Suspicion is about how the violation of these rights affected normal, innocent, Americans. Many, many lives were ruined by the unjust accusations and the insistence on confessing that others were Communists. In Guilty by Suspicion, I really understood how the characters felt. The one standout actor was Patricia Wettig, as Dorothy. She was heartbreaking as the actress who commits suicide after she is accused of being a Communist by her husband, she cannot find work, and her child is taken away from her. Joe Lesser was a small but memorable character played by Martin Scorsese. Joe was memorable because his hyper, obnoxious, Chihuahua-like acting style really took away from the solemnity of the rest of the movie.
The filming was not especially notable, but there were other nice effects. The period music was great, with motifs such as Louis Armstrong. The continuing music and film from the classic Gentlemen Prefer Blondes was wonderful. It was ironic that when David id being told to get a lawyer, so he won?t have to stop making movies, the music is Bye Bye Baby from Gentlemen Prefer Blondes.
These rights are some of the most important in America. These rights separate us from other countries, and make us the land of the free. It’s incredibly surprising that only fifty years ago, these rights were being grossly violated. In Guilty by Suspicion, one begins to understand the impact that the violation of these rights had on innocent people.

Life Without N Sync – A Satirical Essay

Life without N’Sync: A soon-to-be reality, or a teenaged girl’s worst nightmare?I would hate to even suggest that we might soon exist in a world without N’Sync. Their songs inspire us, as well as being very morally sound. Their creative and innovative fashions and tunes gives us the much needed variety that keeps us interested about the next aptly-titled CD they put out. They are great role models for every aspiring ‘teen dream’, and give teenaged boys something to aspire to. N’Sync is a positive contributor to our society.It’s a definite relief to know that Justin Timberlake is having a good hair day, and that Chris Kirkpatrick had a good photo shoot. I am glad to know that their latest CD has gone multi-platinum and they have made lots of money, because their happiness is very important to me. One can never get tired of their adorable puppy-dog faces and their cute plays on words that have been carefully scripted. Their intelligence, ingenuity and creativity has led me to believe that they are very positive role models for their fans, and they are who every teenaged boy should strive to be.The things I like most about N’Sync are the fact that they went from having no talent and no money to having no talent and lots of money. It’s good that magazine publishers have made entire series of magazines all about them. I enjoy reading the countless articles and interviews about them, because I say “The more, the better!!” Without N’Sync, many teenaged girls wouldn’t have music to listen to, or any pictures to put on their walls. They wouldn’t have hopes and dreams such as “I want to marry J.C. when I grow up!” The lack of another baby-boy pop band would have a devastating effect on Hollywood and the record industry, because their records are best sellers and they are also a standout group with a unique sound.‘Variety is the spice of life’. This statement applies to N’Sync in countless ways, some of which include: their beats and tunes, lyrics, song titles, and hairstyles. N’Sync is a positive influence on our modern society and a great contributor to the United States’ economy. Without N’Sync, our world as we know it would cease to exist.

Disadvantages Of Internet Use

Disadvantages of the Internet There are certain cons and dangers relating to the use of Internet that can be summarized as: Personal Information: If you use the Internet, your personal information such as your name, address, etc. can be accessed by other people. If you use a credit card to shop online, then your credit card information can also be ‘stolen’ which could be akin to giving someone a blank check. Pornography: This is a very serious issue concerning the Internet, especially when it comes to young children. There are thousands of pornographic sites on the Internet that can be easily found and can be a detriment to letting children use the Internet. Spamming: This refers to sending unsolicited e-mails in bulk, which serve no purpose and unnecessarily clog up the entire system. If you come across any illegal activity on the Internet, such as child pornography or even spammers, then you should report these people and their activities so that they can be controlled and other people deterred from carrying them out. Child pornography can be reported to: Your Internet service provider Local police station Cyber Angels (program to report cyber crime) Such illegal activities are frustrating for all Internet users, and so instead of just ignoring it, we should make an effort to try and stop these activities so that using the Internet can become that much safer. That said, the advantages of the Internet far outweigh the disadvantages, and millions of people each day benefit from using the Internet for work and for pleasure. 2°) The disadvantages of internet Marketing You can leave the businessman feeling isolated. We can say that the information is Overloaded. We can also talk about the flexibility of the internet marketing with the promotion companies on the Internet who can easily change and get the right direction as soon as the company starts working. If you wanted to get information any other way from these countries, you may end up having to go there. They want more security in their purchases. In effect all the olds computers who doesn’t have internet are cut of this market and if they want to get into this market they have to invest in computers and it cost a lot of money at the company. With all these new systems of security, it is more and more difficult to find qualified consultants who ensures the maintenance of the material and which regulates the majority of the technics problems. For example “Make money fast by doing NOTHING”, sound familiar? You have certainly received emails saying something similar
Visualization and modeling
2- and 3-dimensional graphics, static and animated, and what-if modeling are enabled by computer use One of the greatest downfalls of the Internet in education is the time and ability required by instructors to effectively develop content online. As Inglis, Ling and Joosten (2002:164) highlight, ‘It is unfortunately the case that many educational multimedia programmes do not conform to sound pedagogical principles. Many do little more than present large volumes of information – much of it textual.’ This approach is unlikely to increase learning potential, and is insufficient compared to conventional teaching practices.Applications that have been thought to assist students with assessment often do just the opposite. The Internet’s huge compilation of information may seem a valuable resource for research in theory, but the excessive amount of documents make it increasingly difficult to locate relevant information. The ability for anyone with Internet access and know-how to publish in the medium poses another problem, as information is not necessarily relevant, and does not pass through extensive gatekeepers as with other media. Word-processing may hinder rather then assist students, as spelling and grammar checks do not look at the context used and make mistakes, along with causing some to grow lazy with their editing skills.Many courses are simply too involved and complex to be effectively integrated with the Internet. ‘For mathematics, chemistry and music students in particular, the web causes major problems. How do we ‘represent’ a natural logarithm or phrase of music through email?’ (Brabazon, 2002:139) These students may be subsequently disadvantaged in the future workforce for not acquiring the same computer skills as other university students.As progressive as this new media technology is, it is vital that universities are aware of the disadvantages the Internet can bring to their sector, and how further integration with it will affect fundamental education values. First of disadvantages is that people who spend too much time sitting in the front of computer can easily gets ill. Radiation emitted by computer’s screen is harmful to eyes. People who spend too much time at their homes (because they needn’t go anywhere, they can do everything using Internet) are getting weaker. Sitting a for long time is also harmful to the spine.
Second disadvantage is that Internet can by addictive. Some people just can’t live without it. They have no real friends and when Internet is down they are getting furious.
Internet has some opponents but more and more people treats Internet like telephone, or radio. They use it for fun and work, and I think at present living without internet would be quite difficult. you can get addicted to internet
-you can met bad people
-you may be robbed
-the net is harmful to your eyesight and spine
-the net is full of violence and pornography
-children spend to much time in front of instead to it
-viruses can destroyed your computer

Modern Film Interpretation of William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

Modern Film Interpretation of William Shakespeare’s Romeo and JulietRomeo and Juliet is a play, which has withstood the test of time and
still continues to be relevant to today’s society and a modern
audience. Many versions have been made, modernised versions and
historical ones but they still stay true to the plot. In this essay I
intend to look at the original and modern version and analyse them.
In the scene that we have been studying, many key points that are in
the story occur. It begins with Romeo arriving at the Capulet mansion
for the ball. He is in fancy dress so nobody knows his identity. Romeo
soon sees Juliet and is struck by her beauty, for both of them it is
love at first sight. Juliet is forced to dance with Paris, the man her
family want her to marry and Romeo watches. Eventually he manages to
take Juliet away from Paris and they kiss behind a pillar. The nurse
interrupts and explains to Juliet Romeo is the son of the Capulet’s
enemy, but none of this matters to Juliet or Romeo, they don’t care
about anyone else just that they are in love and want to be together.
From reading the original text I had my own interpretation or the
play. To begin with preparations for a masquerade ball are taking
place. I get the impression that the servants are rushing around
trying to get everything ready while the master of the house Capulet
is greeting his guests calmly assured that everything is under
The very first impression I got of Capulet was that he was a calm man
who just wanted his party to go well with no interruptions and had a
sense of humour. However after further consideration I realised that
he seems to think he is better than other people and has more power.
He embarrasses the women right from the beginning making a joke about
how they must dance and if they don’t they must have corns. This must
have been quite intimidating as many women may feel embarrassed to
dance but worse if people thought they had corns, so didn’t have much
of a choice. Right from the beginning Capulet has taken over and uses
his power to his advantage.
The mood at the party is happy and everyone is having a good time and
having fun. However Romeo and the cousin alter the mood. As Romeo is a
Montague some people are unhappy to see him there and the happy,
cheery atmosphere suddenly sees a twist.
I think Tybalt thinks he is better than the Montagues. He doesn’t
respect his uncle’s decision and thinks he knows better. Tybalt seems
to think he has more power than his uncle as he says “I will not
tolerate him” to which his uncle replies “He is to be tolerated” This
puts Tybalt in his place and almost takes away his sense of power,
Tybalt has found someone who he has no power over which makes him
Romeo and Juliet are both young characters, Juliet is strong but Romeo
more weak and vulnerable. Romeo is suffering from depression over a
lost love, which soon disappears as soon as he sees Juliet. They
instantly fall in love. It is obvious they like each other and
understand each other on an intellectual level as they play around
with each other with words and speeches. For example Juliet says “For
saints have hands that pilgrims’ hands do touch, And palm to palm is
holy palmers’ kiss.” To which Romeo replies “Have not saints lips, and
holy palmers too?” After more conversation, Romeo says to Juliet “O,
then, dear saint, let lips do what hands do”. Juliet and Romeo kiss,
proving that both want to or else they would of refused. After their
first kiss Romeo claims that it was a sin, so Juliet asks for another
kiss so that she can take the sin back from him. This proves that they
like each other and are just looking for excuses to kiss.
The modern film version of Romeo and Juliet is very different to the
original. At the beginning of the Capulet ball we see Romeo taking
drugs. Drugs would obviously not have been around at that time and
nobody would have used them. In the original text the servants are
preparing for the party this section is not in the film. There is a
lot of loud music, dancing, colourful fancy dress and fast images.
Everyone is in elaborate fancy dress, which reflects his or her
personality. We see Romeo as a knight, which could symbolise him as
Juliet’s knight in shining armour who has come along to save her from
Paris, and Capulet as a Greek god to represent his high status. After
a lot of wild dancing and spinning around we suddenly find Romeo in
the bathroom with his mask removed and his head in the water. The mask
is floating away representing that his identity has been revealed. A
large colourful fish tank is then shown. As Romeo peers into the fish
tank so does Juliet on the other side. The two can’t reach each other
as the fish tank is there. The tank represents the barrier between the
When we first see Juliet she is dressed as an angel in white to show
her innocence, purity and perfection. The nurse interrupts and Juliet
is taken away to dance with Paris the man she is to marry. Paris is
shown as an astronaut, which could show that he is somebody who will
never be in Juliet’s world. Romeo is forced to watch. The camera acts
as Romeo’s eyes in this part and Juliet is constantly looking at the
camera, therefore looking into Romeo’s eyes.
Romeo eventually manages to then grab Juliet away from Paris and pulls
her behind a pillar to talk. The speech here stays true to the
original script. They then get in a lift together and kiss. The nurse
interrupts once again and takes Juliet away. The nurse explains to
Juliet that Romeo is a Montague and that they are enemies, but this
doesn’t matter to Juliet. We then see Tyblat, dressed as a devil to
represent his fiery temper and his evil nature, promising to get Romeo
back for turning up at the party.
Although the play has been modernised and altered some things have
stayed the same. The main element that stays the same is the plot and
the language, also the arranged marriage between Juliet and Paris.
Everything else has been modernised. They drive cars, take drugs,
carry guns and wear up to date clothes. In the party scene we see that
the clothes represent the characters personality. Some lines have been
left out or moved around so it is easier to understand the film. All
the important lines and speeches have been kept the same, such as the
‘pillar’ speech. The filmmakers have also used objects to replace
unspoken words so we understand more easily. An example of this is the
fish tank, which represents the barrier between Romeo and Juliet that
can’t be broken down.
The music has changed to represent the moods at particular moments so
we know how people are feeling and what is going on. The characters
also use facial expressions to help us known what is going on if we
don’t understand what is going on in the scene.
Overall I think the film has been modernised so we understand the
story more easily and so we are more interested. The filmmakers used
good costumes and props to attract our attention and keep us
interested in the film. Some people wouldn’t have been able to
understand the language used so the objects, props, music and facial
expressions help them to know what is happening in the film.

Consumerism as Indicator of Identity

What is the Identity Between These Six Objects?
The second to last week of sociology class, Mr. told us that we are going to learn about the construction of identity. According to his lecture and the book, Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life, identity is defined as the “essential aspect of who we are, consisting of out sense of self, gender, race, ethnicity, and religion” (Newman 156). mentioned how identity is see through fashion and objects. Besides clothing, cars, hats, cell phones, even food; like rice, can communicate something about an identity or identities.
There are many types of identities; one of them would be gender. Gender is defined as “psychological, social, cultural aspects of maleness and femaleness” (156). An item that I pick that communicates gender was rice. First of, women would cook the rice for her family and friends while men would plant and harvest it. It is known for many culture’s that women would prepare the food. When I visited the oriental market last weekend, I came across tons of rice bags. I noticed a male who picked up a bag of rice and placed it in his shopping cart. As I glanced at him, he look like a middle/lower class Asian. This man who will purchase the rice would head straight home where his wife would cook the rice for dinner.
A stereotypical identity would be ethnicity because when a non-Asian/Asian visits Chinatown or any Asian restaurant, the servers would give you white rice with an entrée. So non-Asians would assume that Asians always eat rice, but that’s the case. Mexicans also consume rice. Ethnically speaking, it is common of Asians and Mexicans to cook rice for dinner because it is a custom for them. No one needs to be part of a group when preparing or eating rice. It is solely use for survival.
Besides having a women who cooks and prepares food, women tend to wear jewelry to communicate her identity. One day I walked into a Tiffany & Co. store with my mom. We wanted to glace over and image that we will someday own jewelry from this store. When I looked around, I saw a woman glazed over the glass box, deciding which jewelry to choose. Next to her was her husband, waiting patiently and thinking to himself, “There goes $600.” The women saw what she was looking for. A shiny silver bracelet that has a heart shape pendent engraved with Tiffany & Co. She placed is on her wrist and showed her husband.
That bracelet communicates three identities: gender, race, and social class. A woman from a upper/middle class who happens to have light skin and blond hair brought this bracelet. It is common for a woman with light skin and blond hair to purchase this bracelet because of TV commercials. A woman with light skin and blond hair typically would have these qualities for a TV commercial. The viewers who happens to see a Tiffany & Co. commercial and would like to buy jewelry from that store would be a woman from an upper/middle class. I believe a tiffany bracelet is meant for group members because any women would like to buy this item to fit in and to show off.
In addition to rice and Tiffany & Co. bracelet, hats, particularly cowboy hats can communicate two identities. First of, a cowboy hat can symbolize different ethnicity. According to Newman, ethnicity is defined as “the sense of community that derives from the culture heritage shared by a category of people with common ancestry” (375). Southerners from Texas and Mexicans are known to wear cowboy hats. The social class for cowboy hats varies, but usually upper/middle class owns a cowboy hat. People who are in the rodeo, country singers or people who own his own ranch would typically wear a cowboy hat. We would know this by watching movies or seeing pictures of Southerners wearing a cowboy hat.
Another identity for a cowboy hat is gender. People would normally see males wear a cowboy hat than females. It is known for males to wear a cowboy hat because males would work on the ranch while the women work in the house. Males would wear a cowboy hat to provide shade when working out on the ranch. Also, when you watch country music videos or movies, you would always see a male wear a cowboy hat. Having this concept of a male figure to wear a cowboy hat will make us see that Southerners and Mexicans are known to wear a cowboy hat.
Back in the day, people would ride horses for transportation. Now, since transportation has advance, there are cars, buses, air planes, and trains to transport anyone around the country. Cars have been the most advance transportation. Years back all the cars were the same. Now if you look at the Harper College parking lot, you would see different brands and different models for cars. You would see Hondas, Lexus, BMWs, and etc. The type of car you drive can be an identity to see what social class you are in.
According to Newman, social class is defined as a “Group of people who share a similar economic position in a society, based on their wealth and income” (329). A person who owns a Lexus or a BMW would typically be upper class. Lower class would be a person who owns a used car. People who would own a Lexus or BMW would be a light skin lady or man who has blond or brown hair. You would assume these qualities because you would see actors or actresses driving these expensive cars. Cars are meant to be for group members because if you are able to afford a Lexus or BMW, you would buy one to fit in your social class.
Nevertheless, these objects we possess are important to us because without them people won’t be able to see our identity. Each object communicates information about gender, ethnicity, social class, and race. We posses these items to present who we are and to shape the views of others.

Christian Beliefs About Forgiveness

Christian Beliefs About ForgivenessChristians believe that forgiveness is there trade mark and is
essential that you call yourself a Christian.
Jesus had more to say about forgiveness than anything else through out
his teaching. So this shows us how important it is to us today. He
taught forgiveness and carried his teaching into his own life.
The old law of moses stated “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth
and a life for a life”. but Jesus replaced this and said “love god
and love your neighbour as you love yourself”. this became known as
the golden rule.
Every action taken should be guided by these principals.
In the sermon on the mount Jesus also explained about loving enemy’s.
Jesus told his followers to love their enemy’s and to pray for them as
Jesus was making a great demand of his followers, there was to be no
revenge or retaliation but instead he said “love your enemy’s and pray
for those who persecute you. Forgiveness was to be the
characteristics of his followers. This love asks Christians to show
forgiveness to people who have offended you.
God also wants us to be forgiving people. Christians are guided by
what Jesus said or did through out his life.
He told many famous parables on forgiveness one of these is known as
‘the unmerciful servant’.
‘A man owed a great amount of talents to the king and was brought to
him. He was not able to pay so his family was to be sold to pay of
the dept. the servant begged and so the king called of the dept and
let him go. The servant then went out and seen one of the servants
who owed him a smaller amount so he went over to him and began to
choke him. “pay back what you owe me” he said and the servant fell
and begged. The fellow servant was thrown into prison until he was
able to repay the dept. the other servants were distressed and told
the king.
The king called the servant in “you wicked servant, I cancelled all
your debts and begged you did too. Shouldn’t you have mercy on your
fellow servant as I had mercy on you.” in anger the master had him
handed over to the jailers to be tortured until he should pay back
what he owed’.
The king in this parable represents God who forgives sin. The parable
teaches that if we want God to forgive us then we must be prepared to
forgive the sins of others. Although the servant in the story is
forgiven, he is not prepared, in turn, to forgive the smaller sin of
another. Jesus warns that god will punish those who do not forgive.
The master (God) is willing to welcome back sinners if they turn to
him. People must show god that they are sorry for their sins.
Another parable was the one on ‘the prodigal son’
‘A man had two sons which the younger one wanted a share of the
estate. Not long after that the younger son packed up and had left to
a distant country and there he squandered his wealth in wild living.
He hired himself out to a citizen who sent him to feed pigs in the far
fields. He finally came to his senses and said to himself what was he
ever going to say to his father. He was thinking it through in his
head and finally thought of what he was going to say “father I have
sinned against heaven and against you I am no longer worthy to be
called your son make me one of your hired men”. so he got up and
went. His father saw him and was filled with compassion and ran to
him. His father said “quick bring me the best robe, put a ring on his
finger, sandals on his feet and bring me the fattened calf and kill
it”. The eldest son heard all the music and someone told him his
brother had returned. He refused to go into the house so his father
went out and pleaded with him to come in. he said “ my son you are
always with me, everything I have is yours. We have to celebrate
because this brother of yours was dead and is alive again.
The forgiving father represents God. All people sin- they are
represented by the younger son. Yet God waits for them to see the
error of their ways and return to him. When they do, god rejoices and
welcomes them back with open arms. The elder son represents those who
believe that some sins cannot be forgiven. Jesus teaches that
Christians must learn to forgive those who repent, just as God does.
Not only did Jesus teach forgiveness but it was a part of his life
right to his death. There are many examples of Jesus showing
forgiveness. One was ‘the woman caught in adultery’
‘The Pharisees and the chief priests brought this woman to Jesus and
she was supposed to have committed adultery. They made her stand
before the group and they said to Jesus “this woman has committed
adultery, The law of moses states that we should stone such women”.
Jesus said “if any of you is without sin let him be the first to throw
the first stone at her”. at this they began to leave one by one
oldest first until Jesus was only left with her. Jesus said “woman
has no one condemned you” “no sir” she said. “ then neither do I”
Jesus said “go now and leave your life of sin”.
The message of this incident is at the end when Jesus says to the
woman “neither do I condemn you. Go now and leave your life of sin”.
the woman has been given a chance to repent by Jesus and told to sin
no more.
Living out the teaching of Jesus on forgiveness it is not always
easy. It is natural not to forgive especially when it is a major
crime done to a member of your family like murder or rape.
People want to retaliate and look for revenge to get their own back.
Forgiveness is one of the hardest things to do but there is no limit
to the forgiveness that God expects them to show.
But Jesus also said “forgive us out trespasses as we forgive those who
trespass against us”. this means that if someone has committed crime
or sin against you, you should forgive them and like wise they should
do the same. It goes by the saying “if someone strikes you on the
left cheek you turn the other”.
He set himself an example when he was on the cross and the soldiers
were beating him he said “father forgive them for they no not of what
they do”.

Comparison Between Compact Disc (CD) and Digital Versetile Disc (DVD)

Comparison Between Compact Disc (CD) and Digital Versetile Disc (DVD)Compact Disc (CD):
Optical disc technology
CD just happens to be one of the first in a long line of optical media
which are read using a laser beam which is reflected in varying
intensity from the surface of a rapidly rotating metallic disc
embedded in a protective plastic substrate. Other optical disc formats
include the Philips Video Laserdisc (LD) for recording of analogue
video signals, and more recently the minaturized Sony MiniDisc (MD)
for digital audio and the much denser Toshiba Digital Video Disc (DVD)
which has myriad applications, including high-definition digital
CD is a very adaptable format which was initially only intended to
store digital audio data. Today however, CDs are also used to store
computer files, multimedia content and even digital video.
Additionally, while CD was initially evisaged as a read only medium
which was pressed in a die, cast forever with one digital imprint, it
wasn’t long before ways were found to exploit heat-sensitive dyes as
well as the magneto-optical properties of some other compounds to
allow CDs to be recorded and rerecorded by powerful lasers and
magnetic heads.
The key technology needed to realise optical discs, apart from the
laser, is error correction. Without it, optical discs would be far
more sensitive and prone to errors than they are known to be today.
Error correction, specifically the Cross-Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code
(CIRC,) allows small errors in the read signal to be seemlessly
corrected by applying mathematical transformations.
Prerecorded audio CDs
Audio CDs contain audio data which has been encoded into a fixed-rate
digital bitstream. The audio is sampled at a rate of exactly 44.1 kHz
to a resolution of 16 bits, and two channels of such data are stored
to give stereo output. This yields a bit rate of approximately 1.4
Mb/s, and such measures are often invoked to compare sound quality of
digital audio media and encoding schemes. Generally, a higher bitrate
means a nicer sound, although there are schemes to achieve higher
quality for a given bitrate (such as Digital Theatre Systems Coherent
Acoustics (DTS) encoding, which delivers maximal sound quality over 6
channels at CD bitrate.)
The sampling rate of CDs is no accident. It is believed that the
highest frequency a young human can detect is around 22kHz. By setting
a sampling rate just above this, the standard supposedly allows
perfect reproduction of all audible frequencies (which is not
necessarily the same as “all audible waveforms.”) The 16 bit linearPCMsamples are signed numbers lying between -32767 and +32768, which
represent the divergence of the audio waveform from the time axis on a
linear (as opposed to logarithmic) scale. The magic number “16” comes
from the power of two (and even better, multiple of 8) which allowed
an hour of recording time at 44.1 kHz. It allows a theoretical dynamic
range of greater than 100 dB. This scheme has become the benchmark for
high quality audio in recent times, and all modern audio media and
encoding schemes compare themselves to CD quality using phrases like
“near CD quality” or “better than CD quality.”
The most common type of audio CD is the prerecorded Red Book CD.
Initially, the only way to produce optical disc media was through
mastering and pressing. First comes the manufacture a glass master,
which in turn gives rise to metal stampers which is then be used to
press aluminium sheets with the required pits. These sheets are
subequently embedded in a plastic substrate to keep them rigid and to
afford protection to the aluminium surface. The result is a
prerecorded CD.
The name “Red Book” refers to the original CD specification originated
by Philips, which specified how audio data should be encoded on CD.
The “Red Book” defines what is understood by discs bearing the words “Compact
Disc Digital Audio” (often abbreviated to CD-DA in technical
documents) and the corresponding logo. “Red Book” is the widely
adopted name of the specification for the simple reason that the cover
of this specification was red. Since then, in keeping with tradition,
the various emerging CD standards have also been commonly referred to
by the differing colours of the covers of the books in which their
specifications are published.
Data and hybrid CDs
The “Yellow Book” specification document (in combination with an
associated document known as te “High Sierra Application Format”)
discusses an extension of the CD format, initially only intended to
carry digital audio data, to accomodate more rigorously
error-protected computer data in a hierarchical filing system. This is
the format which forms the basis of all CD-ROM(Compact Disc Read Only
Memory) discs in use today. It is more technically referred to as
Compact Disc Digital Data (abbreviated to CD-DD.) The “Yellow Book”
and associated “High Sierra” document will now simply be referred to
collectively as “Yellow Book” in this document. (This is a common
simplification.) Under this definition, Yellow Book comprises ISO10149
(error protection layer) and ISO9660 (hierarchical filing system
format,) which are theISOstandards document describing it.
Because Yellow Book was written in the early days of microcomputers,
it unfortuantely shares some of the limitations of the filing systems
of those computers. The all uppercase, eight character filename with
three letter extension was the most painful of these. Unfortunately,
many extensions were developed to overcome this obvious of flaws in
the original design, all mutually incompatible to a degree. The
Microsoft Joliet extension was one attempt to overcome this
limitation, and perhaps one of the more popular solutions today,
though this wasn’t always the case. Other solutions included Apple’sHFSsolution and Compact Disc Extended Architecture (CD-XA.)
Another limitation of Yellow Book was that it didn’t allow for hybrid
discs-that is, discs which contained both Red and Yellow Book
sessions-or for discs with multiple Yellow Book sessions-an extension
most useful in allowing CDs to be written in “stages.” Multisession
extensions given in the first part of the “Orange Book” specification
overcame this limitation in a standardized way. Most computer drives
and operating system device drivers now support hybrid or multisession
discs, popularized under names such as “CD Extra” (formerly “CD Plus”)
and “Enhanced CD.”
Recordable and Rewritable CDs
Orange Book defines two standards for recordable and rewritable CDs,
one of which is really only used today as the basis of Sony’s MiniDisc
system. The first, still common format, Compact Disc Recordable (CD-WO
or CD-R,) uses a heat-sensitive dye which can be “burned,” but only
once, with a powerful laser to form a pattern by a device known as a
CD writer or burner. The second, Sony/Philips CD rewritable (CD-MO,)
uses a material with magneto optical properties which can be rewritten
many times by using a powerful laser in combination a magnetic field.
This format should not be confused with what is currently commonly
called CD Rewritable (CD-RW,) which is a purely optical media.
While CD-R is today used for audio, even in solid-state consumer
recorders, CD-Rewritable (CD-RW) unfortunately it is incompatible with
most audio players, being designed primarily as a medium for
transporting computer data. This is expected to change as solid-state
recorders become more popular, because CD-R is a difficult format to
work with due to its more permanent nature.
Video and Interactive CDs
Building on the basic data formats (CD-DA, CD-DD and hybrid) and media
modes (CD-R and CD-RW) are standards which further specify the usage
of CDs in particular areas of application.
Movie CD
(Yellow Book)MCDA CD-DD based format storing digital video files
to be played back on a personal computer.-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————
Video CD, Compact Disc
Digital Video
(White Book)VCD, CD-DV
A CD-DA analogous format storing anMPEG-1
video stream, either forPALshape orNTSCshape,
at a fixed 1.4 Mb/s.-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————
Super Video CD
(White Book)SVCD, VCD3,CVD,HQVCDA hybrid format storingMPEG-2 quality video
streams and auxillary data at variable bitrate.-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————
Digital Video CD
(Rainbow Book)DVCD,DVD-CD
ADVDVideo based format on CD carrier media
for use inDVDplayers.-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————
CD Interactive
(Green Book)
Philips’ platform independent multimedia format
to be viewed on solid state electronics.-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————
CD Extended Architecture
(Green Book)
A CD-DD based format storing multimedia content
for general use.-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————
Video CDROM(Blue Book)VCD-ROMA multisession format with White Book and Yellow
Book sessions.-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————
CD Extra, CD Plus
(Blue Book)CDX, CD+
Sony/Microsoft’s multisession format with Red
Book and Yellow Book sessions.-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————-—————————————————————————————————
CD Enhanced, Enhanced
CD (Blue Book)
CD-E,ECDA multisession format with Red Book and Yellow
Book sessions. Sometimes “Stamped Multisession.”
Notes about Audiotek CDs and numbering schemes
At the present time, Audiotek does not have the capacity to produce
CDs en masse. Almost all CDs in the Audiotek collection have been
produced by external parties, and all but a mere few are prerecorded.
The Audiotek CD catalogue is divided into five sections, based on the
format of the various media and their applications. Recordable and
Rewritable CD variants, CD-R (from Orange Book Part II) and CD-RW
(from later standards) respectively, are not distinguished.
TheATKRRed Book catalogue consists of CD-DA compatible discs,
including those with other sessions. This implies that all CDs with a
red book session have anATKRcatalogue number, however the number in
theATKDmultisession catalogue is to be used by preference. The
exception is backup copies which only include the audio session-in
these cases theATKRcode should be used. Mix-mode discs, where data
masquerades as an audio track in a Red Book session, belong to theATKRcatalogue. CD-Text is an extension to Red Book which stores track
titles in the unused subcode space, and is not distinguished. Hidden
Track, CD+G or CD+Graphics, CD-ROMReady, Track Zero, i-Trax and Audio
Vision discs are also primarily enhanced music discs, so belong toATKRas well.
TheATKRcatalogue lists whole second timings for tracks and CDs, and
for each track the title and primary artists are given. The title of
each CD is derived by the primary artists and the longest form of the
title printed on the CD, and the publisher is listed. For soundtrack
CDs, the designation “Soundtrack” is included in the title. Special
formats are denoted by an annotation in box brackets. Additionally,
the copyright year for the CD is given. No data on the mastering of
tracks is listed, as this is rarely given in any detail on prerecorded
CDs anyway.
TheATKYYellow Book catalogue consists of all CD-DD discs which have
no Red Book sessions and do not fall into theATKJorATKGcatalogues
(see below.) This includes all variations and extensions on CD-DD,
such asHFS, Joliet, El Torito/Bootable, Hybrid/Janus CDs as well as
those CD-XAs which are computer specific. Only Yellow Book CDs which
contain primarily audio or video content (i.e. files containing
audio/video data) appear in theATKYcatalogue. Movie CD, distinct
from CD-DV andVCD(White Book) by being specifically designed for use
in personal computers, belong in theATKYcatalogue.
TheATKDBlue Book catalogue consists of all multisession CDs which
have at least one Red Book session. These include CDs bearing the
marks “CD-Plus,” “CD+,” “Enhanced CD,” “ECD,” “CD-Extra,” “CDX,” “CD-Enhanced,”
“CD-E” and “Stamped Multisession.”
TheATKJWhite Book catalogue consists of all CD-DV orVCDcompatible
discs (including multisession and hybrid discs with a White Book
session) which contain highly compressedMPEG1 video.NTSCandPALVCDs are not distinguished. TheATKGGreen Book catalogue consists of
all CD-i and CD-XA compatible discs which contain machine-independent
interactive content.DVCDorDVD/CD hybrid media are typically
distinguished by receiving a categorization in theATKXcatalogue forDVDVideo media.
Digital Versitile Disc (DVD):DVDBackground and How the Technology Works
Since the Audio Compact Disc and CD-ROMwere introduced in 1982 and
1985 respectively, compact discs (CDs) have become popular media
formats, and are used to carry music, data, and multimedia
entertainment (AME). When the CD-ROMwas developed, it had the ability
to store over 650 megabytes (MB) worth of data or music (Disc
Manufacturing, Inc.). Today, however, the capacity of 650 MB of
storage is too limited for computer applications. As a consequence, a
second-generation disc technology is needed to provide video,
multimedia, and databases more quickly and in greater volume. In 1995,
the successor to CD,DVD, was announced.DVDrefers to a high density optical disc format. The specifications
for the five variations ofDVDare as follows:DVD-ROM is a high capacity data storage medium which is similar to
DVD-Video is a specific application of DVD designed to deliver
linear motion picture content;
DVD-Audio, which is similar to CD Audio, is designed for
audio-only usage;
DVD-R or DVD recordable permits one time recording of data, a
write once, read many (WORM) implementation;
DVD-RAM is erasable and rewritable (IMA DVD SIG).
Currently, however, onlyDVD-Video andDVD-ROMare available now.
EveryDVDdisc is made of two parts, each of which is 0.6 mm. Thick;
thus, together, the two parts are 1.2 mm. thick, which is the
thickness of a current CD (IMADVDSIG). Compared to a CD, which has
ability to store 650 MB,DVDholds seven times the data. The storage
capacity of a Single Sided/ Single LayerDVDis 4.7 gigabytes (GB).
“That’s enough room to store 133 minutes of full-motion video per
side” (Normile 56). Single-Sided/ Dual Layer, which is expected to be
the most popular configuration, can hold a special editionDVDvideo
movie or 8.5 GB of computer data (Disc Manufacturing Inc.). Another
configuration is Double-Sided/ Single Layer, which can hold 9.4 GB of
computer data or one movie plus 4.7 GB of data. (IMADVDSIG). The
last one is Double-Sided/ Dual Layer, which can store 17 GB. This disc
could pack up to four movies (Normile 57).
Owing to the data capacity,DVDwill be able to provide multiple
language and subtitle tracks, which allow users to choose whether to
listen to the original movie dialogue, with or without subtitles, or
to a dubbed version (Normile 57-58). Moreover, in theory, the viewer
would be able to control how a scene is viewed, choosing from as many
as eight different camera angles (Vizard 71).
The Factors Speeding the Rate of Adoption
“Innovations that are perceived by individuals as possessing greater
relative advantage, compatibility, and the like, have a more rapid
rate of adoption” (Rogers 23).
As we know,DVDis a successor to CD, and it has been created to have
more capability than CD. However, it is not only improved features ofDVDthat will accelerate the rate of adoption, but its backward
compatibility-the ability to use CDs and CD-ROMin equipment designed
forDVDdisc-is another factor that will help to speed the rate of
adoption.DVD-Video is intended to replace theVHStape and it will consist of
linear movies encoded inMPEG2 and Dolby Ac-3 audio (IMA). “DVDoffers 500 lines while aVHStape offers a mere 240 (laser disc has
420). BasicallyDVDoffers twice the visual experience of videotape.
TheDVD-Video player, like aVCR, will be connected to the TV, and it
will play these specially made movie discs; furthermore, it will also
play CD audio discs (IMA). “Backward compatibility with CD formats is
a feature ofDVD, not a requirement” (IMADVDSIG).DVD-ROMis expected to deliver high volume, high bandwidth content. ADVD-ROMdrive, like a CD-ROMdrive, will be used to read data from theDVD-ROMdisc; in addition, it is expected that movie titles will play
onDVD-ROMequipped computers (IMA). Due to backward compatibility,
current CD-ROMs will also play onDVD-ROMdrives. On the other hand,
current CD-ROMdrives cannot play the denserDVDandDVD-ROMdisc.
The relative advantages of this technological innovation will be the
major key to speed the rate of adoption. It is likely that most
individuals will perceive the advantages of this new technology. “The
greater the perceived relative advantage of an innovation, the more
rapid its rate of adoption will be” (Rogers 15). Besides, the
compatibility with the existing technologies is another factor to
motivate people to adopt the innovation
The Factors Retarding the Rate of Adoption
In early 1995, two major groups were competing to develop the second
generation of high density compact discs (Disc Manufacturing, Inc.).
This competition led to incompatibleDVDformats. The first group was
the alliance between Philips and Sony, the creators of the compact
disc. Another group was led by Toshiba and Time Warner (Normile 55).
Due to the competition between the two standards established by the
two groups, time has been wasted in the search for solutions.
Fortunately, in September 1995, the two groups agreed to develop a
single standard for a high-density compact disc (Disc Manufacturing,
Even though a standard format forDVDhas been decided upon, there
will still remain some factors that must be resolved.
Firstly, becauseDVDis still in developmental stages, this technology
is not available in all formats. Though compared withVHStape,DVDhas the advantage of superior video and sound, instant search and
rewind and greater durability, theVCRowners still hesitate to adopt
the new technology,DVD. The reason is thatDVDplayers are not able
to record. People do not want to give up their options even though
surveys shows that the majority ofVCRowners use their machines only
for playback (Vizard 71).
Another factor retarding the rate of adoption is the price. ADVDplayer itself costs $500 or more, and each movie costs $20 (Vizard
70). Compared with theVCR, the price ofDVDis higher. If the price
of the innovation drops, the rate of adoption will take off. It is
expected that the price ofDVDwill drop toVCRlevel within the next
few years.
The last factor is the standard ofDVD. Similar to theVCRformat war,
digital convergence seems to have been complicated in the process of
negotiation and implementation. Recently, Matsushita, Zenith, and
Thompson Multimedia announced plans to create a variant ofDVDcalled
Divx. Divx or Digital Video Express is being developed by a
partnership between retailer Circuit City Stores and a powerful
Hollywood law firm (Gross, Brull, and Grove 35). A Divx player will
play Divx discs and normal DVDs; on the other hand, a regularDVDplayer which is available now cannot play Divx discs (Divx: the death
ofDVD?). Furthermore, each Divx disc will cost only $5 and will have
48 hours of viewing time (Divx: the death ofDVD?). “TheDVDdrama is
already looking like a replay of Betamax vs.VHS, the epic battle of
rivalVCRformats from Sony corp. and Matsushita Electric Industrial
Co. in the late 1970s (Gross, Brull, and Grove 35). This competition
causes uncertainty among the adopters and it will retard the rate of
In conclusion, the innovation ofDVDis in the early stages and it is
still in the process of being developed. All formats ofDVDare not
yet available, some formats are still in the works. Besides, the price
of the innovation is too expensive for the majority of people to
adopt. Accordingly, this technological innovation will require time
before it is able to replace the similar technologies, which already
exist. However, most likely,DVD-ROMwill take off faster thanDVD-Video because the computer companies are makingDVD-ROMdrive
available in their new products.