Music Essays

Importance of the Counter-Culture Concept in Understanding the Changes of the Sixties

Importance of the Counter-Culture Concept in Understanding the Changes of the Sixties
Works Cited Not Included
There were many changes, shifts in ideas and movements during the
period of the Sixties, which may or not be easily defined by the term
counter-culture. It can be argued that there were changes at this
time which were a progression of earlier events over a long period of
time, and therefore cannot be defined to the Sixties; also some
changes appear to be more ideological than counter-cultural; and there
were also changes which could be considered a reaction to the
counter-culture itself, and therefore be considered counter
counter-cultural. I am going to discuss changes in History, Science
and Religion, in order to establish to what extent the concept of
counter-culture can be of use in this study of the Sixties.By careful study of the Chronology in Resource Book 4, we discover
that changes were happening to the social climate from 1954 onwards.
In theUSA, the fight for black civil rights and desegregation won a
victory in this year when segregation in public schools was pronounced
illegal in the Supreme Court. In the following year, the movement
accelerated when ‘Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat to a white
man on a segregated Montgomery, Alabama, bus’, and in the same town
‘Martin Luther King leads a boycott of Montgomery buses’ (Resource
Book 4, p5). Also in 1955, in the UK, Mary Quant opened Bazaar in
London, indicating new ideas in fashion, and we have the beginnings of
commercial television. Soon after this we see the emergence of Elvis
Presley, and both ‘pop’ and modern ‘art’ exhibitions in London. There
was another victory for the civil rights movement, when ‘President
Eisenhower sends US army to Little Rock to enforce desegregation of
central high school’ (Resource Book 4, p6). Authors were beginning to
break the boundaries with novels, and after the New Obscene
Publications Act in 1959, books like ‘Lady Chatterley’s Lover were
being published.
It is obvious that from these few examples alone that more liberal
thinking, new ideas, and questions concerning human rights and freedom
actually began in the 1950’s, and so these changes cannot be
exclusively confined to the sixties. However, there was an
acceleration during the sixties, with stuffiness on television being
replaced by satire, bands like The Beatles and The Rolling Stones
becoming popular almost overnight, and in fashion Biba and Mary Quant
produced fashions that were counter-cultural, dresses made in the
‘short, shift style made famous by Jean Shrimpton’ (Resource Book 4,
A5). There were changes in attitudes that challenged mainstream
culture, according to Maureen Nolan and Roma Singleton, who were
teenagers in Liverpool in the Sixties. They believed that the changes
in attitudes ‘gave us tolerance for new ideas, and brought us a step
nearer to equality of rights, removing many prejudices of sexual,
racial and moral origin. It gave us the freedom to accept or reject
things on their own merits…….the right of individual expression was
encouraged’ (Resource Book 4, A5).
The feminist movement didn’t achieve much in the sixties, although it
did gain prominence in the seventies, spurred on by higher
expectations and changing attitudes. Women were no longer happy with
being expected to stay at home and conform to society’s expectations.
In her book, ‘The Feminine Mystique’, Betty Friedan describes the
dissatisfaction women feel about the role they are expected to
perform, based on her own feelings ‘There was a strange discrepancy
between the reality of our lives as women and the image to which we
were trying to conform, an image I came to call the feminine mystique’
(Resource Book 4, A10, p.28).
It is clear from this evidence, that there were many changes in the
sixties, in ideas, attitudes and culture, both in Western Europe and
theUSA, nevertheless, the term counter-culture can be used only in
respect to fashion, art, music and literature, which all challenged
the mainstream culture, as the fight for black civil rights, the new
feminism, and other forms of protest are more accurately described as
movements or ideologies.
Questions were also being asked concerning the lack of women in
professional jobs, especially in science, and women were being
encouraged to take up professional careers. In Alice S. Rossi’s
article published in Science, vol. 148, she states that ‘Educators,
employers, government officials, and manpower specialists are urging
women to enter more fully into the occupational life of the nation.’
(Resource Book 4, B6, p.50). Rossi explains the difficulties women
have to overcome in order to enter professional professions due to
assumptions society places on them ‘What a man “does” defines his
status, but whom she marries defines a woman’s.’ (Resource Book 4, B6,
p.50) She also explains in her article that in order for more women
to be able to enter scientific professions, children of both sexes
need to be educated ‘for all their major adult roles – as parents,
spouses, workers, and creatures of leisure.’, and that ‘we must stop
restricting and lowering the occupational goals of girls on the
pretext of counselling them to be “realistic” (Resource Book 4, B6,
Prior to the Sixties science was classed as men’s domain, and the
research that was being performed was generally based on men’s values
and assumptions. In Rita Arditti’s article, ‘Feminism and science’,
she explains the difficulties that women working in science
encountered ‘The laboratories resemble a patriarchal household, with
the “head” of the laboratory usually male, women in marginal positions
without independent status, job security or benefits, and younger
students playing child-like roles.’ (Resource Book 4, B8, p.52).
There were also ideologies in science that were being challenged. Due
to the thalidomide tragedy it was discovered that the placenta did not
form a barrier to the embryo, as previously thought. ‘Medical
students were taught that the human placenta gave perfect protection
to the fetus and was impervious to toxic substances except in such
large doses that they killed the mother’ (Resource Book 4, B9, p.53).
Pregnant women were not given advice concerning toxic substances being
dangerous to the fetus, and ‘Routine testing of new drugs on pregnant
animals was perfunctory or non-existence’ (Resource Book 4, B9,
p.53). Since the Victorian age, the placenta was thought to be
impervious, and ‘a perfect barrier against damaging influences in the
environment’ (Resource Book 4, B9, p.54), and it was only following
the thalidomide tragedy that this mind-set was altered, when there was
such a vast amount of evidence to the contrary that it could not be
Another example of an ideology or mind-set was in the area of
primatology. Feminists began to question ideas about male primates
being dominant over females, with the females being submissive and
passive. In Londa Schiebinger’s book ‘Has Feminism changed science?’,
she describes the way primates were being studied ‘Primatologists
tended to divide primates into three groups for study: dominant
males, females and young, and peripheral males.’ (Resource Book 4,
B10, p.54). She argues that females ‘were described as dedicated
mothers to small infants and sexually available to males…but otherwise
of little social significance…. Primatologists tended to view females
as noncompetitive, docile creatures who traded sex and reproduction
for protection and food’ (Resource Book 4, B10, p.54). Primatologists
decided to examine female primates more carefully, and realised that
they were equally as competitive as males, and were not ‘housebound’
as previously thought, but ‘were found to be adventurous and to
wander’ (Unit, p.113) and ‘Like males, female monkeys were found to be
sexually assertive’ (Unit, p.113).
Another criticism of science in the sixties concerned scientists and
the work they were doing, namely developing weaponry, i.e. the atomic
bomb, and radar for the military, instead of the fundamental research
that was done prior to World War II. President Eisenhower expressed
his concerns regarding what he called the
‘military-industrial-complex’ (Unit, p75), and critics were concerned
that science ‘had become heavily militarized and that it was dedicated
to the development of weapons of mass destruction rather than to
improving the lot of humankind’ (Unit, p75). The
military-industrial-complex soon became known as the
‘military-industrial-academic complex’ (Unit, p75), due to the fact
that the universities, especially the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, were doing the majority of their research on weaponry and
technology. According to Edward Shils in his article ‘Anti-science’,
the main objections against scientists was that they had become
irresponsible ‘scientists…….are indifferent to the well-being of
mankind, basically because they are subservient to the ruling powers
of government, the military and private industry.’ (Resource Book 4,
B3, p.46).
The surfacing of New Religious Movements towards the end of the
Sixties can be described as a reaction to the failure of
counter-cultural ideas. Many young people turned to these movements,
because they had become disillusioned with the changes that had
occurred, and their expectations had not been met. There were also
many young people who had become involved with the drug culture, i.e.LSD, who turned to religion in order to regain control over their
lives. These people, however, were not interested in ‘mainstream
religion’ i.e. Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, as they felt that
these had become corrupt. David Berg states that ‘The young people
are sick and fed up with what really amounts to a pagan, cruel,
whoremongering, false Christianity. They’re trying to return to the
peace-loving religions of old, including ancient Christianity’
(Resource Book 4, C8, p.81). The peace young people were searching
for was often found in the Eastern religions, and these movements were
extremely popular. Many young people who were unhappy with their
family life also turned to New Religious Movements, where they felt
their needs could be met. Some historians describe New Religious
Movements as ‘adaptive and integrative, rehabilitating drug users and
reassimilating dropped out, transient youth, training individuals to
retake their place in it’ (Unit, p.160), while Robbins describes them
as ‘a kind of haven or asylum from both the system and the
counterculture in which individuals could temporarily sustain the
deviant style of the counterculture while changing their practical
values and behaviour in the direction of conventional expectations’
(Unit, p.160). This view seems to indicate the dissatisfaction and
disillusionment of young people at this time of contradictory cultural
changes. While these New Religious Movements were very different to
the mainstream churches, they seemed to pose no threat to them, and
therefore cannot really be considered counter-cultural. New Religious
Movements were, in the main, tolerated by the mainstream churches, as
they realised they did not pose a threat, and they saw ‘a possibility
of hope for the future of belief’ (Unit, p155).
In conclusion it is apparent that there were many changes during the
Sixties, possibly due to the high number of young people resulting
from the baby boom after World War II. The term counter-culture is
not entirely an adequate way of describing all of the changes that
took place for several reasons: some changes were a progression of
events throughout the century, other changes were due to scientific
discoveries which have always produced new ideas and ways of looking
at the world, and many changes can be better described as movements or

Concert Review of Postcard in Morocco

Concert Review of Postcard in Morocco Missing Works CitedTo gain my attention in the beginning of the opera was a vocal fight over a dream of having a boat between Matt Morgan’s character and Matthew Shaw’s character. This was a most pleasant display of range and delivery. Shaw obviously used techniques studied while he was at the Manhattan school of music and opera theatre, where he acquired his master of music degree. I felt Matt Morgan was a bit over acted on some of the vocal parts and had trouble following the music played at points, but an overall performance was adequate. Also, The knock off of the titanic when the two are pushing around on a janitors cart was a bit out of place. With Shaw being a Bass-Baritone, he really brought out the low range of voice integers, which made the difference in the first half of the opera.During the middle of the opera, Coral Owdom performed a solo. Ms. Owdom received her bachelor of music degree from the university of Dayton followed by a master’s degree in music at the Manhattan school of music in the spring of 2000. The performance was great vocally. The use of deep bass from the musicians emphasized changes in her performance and also in the whole opera. But, in a performance, I think it is important to know your audience and adapt to the stylistic comfort that they would most likely be at. When Owdom’s character performed a great musical piece, and great example of how a soprano should sound, she turned the opera into a strip tease for the 15 minutes she was singing her solo. There were comments in the crowd from Grandmothers to Grandson’s to close their eyes. Even though I felt this to be appropriate for an audience of her age, the elderly people and young folks in the crowd didn’t appreciate this as much as they would of liked to.The turning point that actually swayed my decision to stay and finish this opera about nothing, was the simple line “is that your hat boy” sung in harmony by all three females. Along with Owdom, Coker, a former standout in Hansel of Hansel and Gretel performed in North Carolina theatre last year and Gunlogson a performer with a B.A. in music from Indiana university of Pennsylvania, stole the show. The sweet sounds of harmony, polyphony and wide ranges of musical intervals really displayed un-humanlike qualities from all three females. The use of imitation was well practiced and the constant relief of strings from the composer was smooth yet powerful. I was impressed by the way these females could take the crowd over by this 1 line.The opera was definitely a well thought out performance, but could use more attention to detail and practice. I think some actions should be re-thought that occur during the play. At the climax of the opera when the painter played by Nathan Granner was overwhelmed with fog from the fog machine, the seats needed to be equipped with oxygen masks for the audience to just catch there breath. Nathan Granner dealt with the fog beautifully; while I was coughing he was putting out notes that were well inspired by his dream depicted in the storyline. I think this opera is an awkward yet intriguing story with great uses of vocal and musical response. The musical climax is displayed when two young people fall in love and go through a whole relationship without saying a word. All of the actions are depicted through the music changing from retarnando to accelerando, with soft strings for love to powerful bass and trombones for anger. Any music analyst would have been pleased by the musical aesthetics of this production. In all I think if you are willing to sit two hours to see a whole bunch of nothing happening, go see a Postcard from Morocco.


     The Holocaust was a tragic event that ended many Jewish lives. The Nazis murdered over 6 million innocent Jews. They tortured so many of them leaving the few Holocaust survivors with horrid memories.
     Propaganda played a huge role and affected many people’s thinking during this time period. The propaganda was designed to influence the targeted people’s opinions, beliefs, and emotions. Joseph Paul Goebbel’s was the German national socialist propagandist. He had complete control over radio, press, cinema, and theater. What the propagandist preached may have been either true or false. They did whatever it took to sway the people to believe their ideas. They wanted people to think that their way was right.
     The Nazi’s were known for using terms that had literal and actual meaning in their propagandized language. Their thoughts were hammered into people’s brains so they soon became unconsciously thinking the way the Nazi’s did. The propagandist had rules like our 10 Commandments. The first three were to divide and conquer, tell the people what they want, and the bigger the lie, the more people will believe it. (
     Like I stated earlier, propaganda was used to sway the ideas and minds of Jews, just like the hoax that took place at Theresienstadt. Theresienstadt was a ghetto concentration camp. It was located in today’s Czech Republic. It was suppose to be the “model ghetto” for the Red Cross. There were rumors about this killing center so the Nazis arranged a hoax. A lot was done to this ghetto; a café was created, a children’s opera was performed, a monument was built to honor the dead. When the visitors showed up to inspect the camp they had music playing in the background and a beauty garden was planted at the entrance. All of these things and more were done so that the Red Cross would be persuaded that Theresienstadt was not a killing center. This event did persuade the Red Cross, just like how the Nazi propaganda persuaded many of the Jews.

The Significance of the Title of To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee

The Significance of the Title of To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper LeeThe title of this novel is ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ and throughout the
book the word mockingbird appears several times. The mockingbird is
the most significant symbol in the novel. The motif of the story is
the innocent creature of the mockingbird. What is a mockingbird? A
mockingbird is a type of finch. It is a small plain bird and has a
beautiful song. It got its name because its beautiful sing ‘mocks’
other birds.
The mockingbird idea first comes about in chapter 10,when Atticus is
telling the children how to use their shotguns. He tells them:
“Shoot all the blue jays you want, if you can hit ’em. But remember
it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.”
It was very unusual for Atticus to say something like this, as he
never tells Scout or Jem that anything is a ‘sin’. This makes Scout a
bit surprised and so Miss Maudie explains that it is because
mockingbirds are neither harmful nor destructive and only make nice
music for people to enjoy. Here is what she said:
“Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They
don’t eat up peoples gardens, don’t nest in corncribs, they don’t do
one thing but sing their hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to
kill a mockingbird.”
In chapter 10, Tim Johnson the rabid dog is slowly walking up the road
and all the people of Maycomb are waiting for him to appear, waiting
for what is about to happen. The mockingbird idea comes up when it
’The trees were still, the mockingbirds were silent, the carpenters at
Miss Maudie’s house had vanished.’
I think that the mockingbirds in this situation are all of the
innocent people of Maycomb waiting for this rabid dog (Tim) to come up
the road. They haven’t done anything wrong and are scared that they
may get hurt or something bad may happen when the dog appears.
Another time the mockingbird idea comes up is in chapter 21,when
everyone is in the court room waiting for the verdict on whether Tom
Robinson has been found guilty or not. Scout describes the atmosphere
in the courtroom like this:
’The feeling grew until the atmosphere in the court-room was exactly
the same as a cold February morning, when the mockingbirds were still
and the carpenters had stopped hammering on miss Maudie’s new house.’
I think that when Scout talks about the atmosphere being like a cold
February morning she is describing the tension in the room. When
everyone is still and silent. When Scout says that the mockingbirds
were still I think that she was referring to Atticus and Tom Robinson.
I think this because Tom is waiting to see if he has been found guilty
or not and Atticus is waiting to see if he has won his case. They are
both deadly still and anxious to hear the verdict. They have been
regarded as mockingbirds because both Atticus and Tom are innocent
characters that have done nothing wrong.
Also another place in which the idea of mockingbirds appears is in
chapter 25,when Mr Underwood is talking about Tom Robinson’s escape
and death. He seems very opposed to Tom being shot, as he was a
cripple. In the newspaper article he wrote he said that
‘It was a sin to kill cripples, be they standing, sitting or escaping’
Then he likened Tom’s death to
‘The senseless slaughter of songbirds by hunters and children.’
Mr Underwood is likening Tom to a mockingbird/songbird. As a
mockingbird is not harmful or a horrible creature but a nice peaceful
one, Tom Robinson was a quiet family man who had done nothing wrong.
His death was an injustice.
In chapter 28,the children (Jem and Scout) are walking home from their
school Halloween play. It is night time and so everywhere is dark and
cold. The idea of the mockingbird appears when it says:
’High above us in the darkness a solitary mocker poured out his
repertoire in blissful unawareness of whose tree he was sat in.’
I think this is likening the children to mockingbirds because the
mocking bird is innocent and unaware of whose three he is sat in and
the children are innocent and unaware of what us about to happen next.
In chapter 30,Atticus and Heck Tate are deciding what to do about the
situation of Bob Ewells death. Both Atticus and Heck know that Boo
killed Bob to save and help the children but to arrest Boo would
probably kill him. Scout over-heard and says:
“It’d be sort of like shootin’ a mockingbird.”
This is saying that to arrest an innocent creature like Boo and make
it public would kill him. They need to protect him as they have
already lost one mockingbird (Tom Robinson) through injustice.
The characters I think Harper Lee regarded, as mockingbirds are Boo
Radley and Tom Robinson.
Tom Robinson is regarded as a mockingbird because he is an innocent
man who was arrested and found guilty for something he did not do. The
people of Maycomb judge him and critisise him because they think that
this black man has raped and taken advantage of a white woman. He
faces racial prejudice and discrimination and is killed in travesty of
justice. A quote to show the discrimination against black people is:
“Its time somebody taught em a lesson…the next thing they think they
can do is marry us”. This was said by a teacher at Jem and Scouts
Also when Bob Ewell is testifying in court against Tom, he uses
phrases like:
” I see that black nigger yonder ruttin’ on my Mayella.”
Boo Radley is regarded as a mockingbird because he is a lonely
innocent old man who lives in his old house on the corner away from
the public. He does not bother or disturb anybody. He is nice to the
children by giving them small gifts and leaving them in the hole in
the tree for them to find. Boo faces individual prejudice. This is fed
by fear, rumour and superstition.
Scout describes him as ‘a malevolent phantom’
In comparison to each other both Boo and Tom show kindness (Boo to the
children and Tom to Mayella), they are both innocent, both victims of
prejudice and both are imprisoned in some way (Tom is imprisoned and
then later killed and Boo is imprisoned in his home away from the
prejudiced public).
In addition, Atticus in a sense is a mockingbird too because he has
been telling everybody in Maycomb the true story and that Tom is
innocent and his innocent children are attacked as a result by Bob
Ewell because he wants to get revenge on Atticus for trying to defend
Tom Robinson. This likens to a mockingbird singing its song to the
people of Maycomb.
Scout first learnt that it was a sin to kill a mockingbird when
Atticus brought her and Jem the shotguns and told them about it. I
think that after Atticus explained that it was wrong to kill an
innocent creature that can do no wrong, Scout becomes more respectful.
Also by her father telling her this it helps her to understand her
father and what he has to do. She understands that he has to defend
innocent people like Tom Robinson that have done no wrong.
Over the course of this book Scout learns different lessons. She
learns from Calpurnia that she should be polite to everyone, from Aunt
Alexandra the value of being a lady and from Heck and Atticus the
problems that could be caused by the society’s prejudice.
I think that over the course of this novel Scout comes out to be quite
clever and forever learning new morals and ways of life. By the end of
the novel she has learnt one key lesson. That she must see thing’s
from other people’s views. She shows this in the book in the last
chapter when she is standing on Boo Radley’s front porch. Here is the
quote on what she said:
“Atticus was right. One time he said you never really know a man until
you stand in his shoes and walk around in them. Just standing on the
Radley porch was enough.”
Here she puts herself in Boo Radley’s shoes and imagines what it must
be like for him.
My final impression of Scout is that after all what she has been
through she has become wiser and more grown up. She has learnt
important values to life and has become more caring and understanding.

Film Review of Saving Private Ryan

Film Review of Saving Private RyanA slow, sombre opening to “Saving Private Ryan” leads you to believe
that this film will be like any other war film. American idealism,
German hatred, a few scattered gunshots, and a trickle of German blood
is what any film fan would expect of an American war film, and this
film certainly does lead you to believe that in the first opening
scenes. Instead, you are surprised to find yourself landed back into
1944, amongst the diffident soldiers who have been thrust against
their will into the new and terrifying world of combat.
American realism, German anger, intense gunfire, and tureens of
anybodies and everybody’s blood is what you really get at the frenzied
landings of the Dog Green Sector at Omaha Beach. No film has ever
portrayed the realism of the Normandy landings to the extent that this
film has.
This is a sharp contrast to the modern day opening scenes, featuring
an ageing war hero and his family visiting the infamous War Cemeteries
in France, complete with a patriotic faded American flag flapping in
the cold breeze.
A slow panning of the camera around the graveyard really shows the
full amount of the white crosses there. The old man, who obviously
knows which grave to see, is determined to do just that, and becomes
overcome with grief when he reaches it.
A slow zoom of the camera focuses on the man’s eyes, which transform
into wrinkle-free eyes. The solemn but calm non-diagetic music is
cruelly snatched from the viewer, to be replaced with the
uncomfortably loud crash of the sea. A fast zoom out and you find
yourself trapped in a large container filled with soldiers, sweat,
fear and vomit crashing violently into the rocks. The stormy weather
has to be a sign from Spielberg of the trauma that is about to come.
As a viewer, you have a slight inkling of what is about to come, but
nothing, nothing, can prepare you for the next 25 minutes. A jumble of
blood, noise, and death takes place not before you, but around.
Spielberg’s intentional dodgy camera work and a gun waving about in
front of the camera forces you to become a part of the brutal
Dead bodies flail about like rag dolls, gallons of blood slowly makes
its way down the beach to meet with the already blood stained sea.
Grown men run about lost and confused, unsure of what to do, deep in
shock at the trauma they are witnessing. The whole scene is filled
with emotion- shock, sadness and funnily enough, humour are all
evident in the extensive opening scenes.
Irony also plays a big part. A man is shot at his head, saved by his
helmet, which he then goes on to remove in awe to marvel at the large
dint in it, only to get shot in the head again and die.
Another man has his arm blown off, and unsure what to do, does the
crazy thing of staggering about in full exposure of the gunfire and
picks up his detached arm as if it will be useful to him.
Throughout the entire scene there isn’t really a focus on one main
character. Yes, the camera does keep on returning to the same six or
seven people, but it isn’t until the end of the scene that the camera
does start to focus on the main character.
Captain Miller, played expertly by Tom Hanks, is the soldier of the
highest rank amongst the few soldiers actually left. They look to him
for orders on what to do next, and it becomes clear that Captain
Miller is probably the old man from the first, and long forgotten
graveyard scene. However in the very last scene of the film, we
discover that the man is really Private. James Ryan, the films
Although Spielberg does focus on Captain Miller, there is no heroism
involved at all. Spielberg expertly portrays that Miller is a normal
human being, and has flaws and fears just like the rest of us.
The elongated battle scene may seem unnecessary to some when they hear
how long it actually is, but when you see this film for yourself, you
lose a sense of time. You are not aware that this momentous landing is
over until the gunshots, although still there, quieten down and the
main characters sit and regain their breath from the exhaustive
military action that they have just participated in.
One soldier, ironically, states “Quite a view” Such a statement,
usually used in completely different circumstances, allows the viewer
to regain their own breath and wonder what he is talking about.
This is the moment Spielberg excels himself. A slow panning of the
camera allows you to see the full extent of the devastation you have
just sat and watched. Thousands of bodies lie motionless upon the
blood stained terrain. The camera, no longer shaky, glides over the
bodies and goes down towards the spot where the boats landed, what
feels like, an eternity ago. Bodies clash together in the water, some
brought onto the sand by the tide, others come in and float back out
to sea again.
The camera seems to then focus on one soldier, gradually getting
closer. A zoom in allows you to see the backpack the dead soldier is
wearing, but more importantly, the name stamped on his backpack. Ryan.
Then, and only then, do the opening credits roll.
You will leave this film exhausted after experiencing a roller-coaster
of emotions. This film is a must-see, except for anyone with an
exceptionally weak disposition.

Marketing Mix

Marketing Mix PaperMotorola and the Marketing Mix
Organizations need to identify who will be interested in buying their products or services. Once this is done, they need to see if their products or services will satisfy their customers’ needs. An organization also needs to examine the packaging design, the materials used, and size. By analyzing the market requirements, an organization will be able to change the product or develop a product in order to match those requirements. In the wireless phone industry there are new products constantly being introduced. In the case of Motorola the product is the cell phone.
Considered by many as an essential part of their lives, the cell phone performs more functions today than it did just a year ago. It serves as a communication device, a source of entertainment, and a safety precaution. Motorola concentrates on attractive design, excellent call quality, ease of use, value added features such as a music player, camera, and video features, and high quality, reliable products. Text, picture, and video messaging are becoming more and more popular and Motorola phones are increasingly being used to capture and share experiences. To remain competitive, the company continually seeks to innovate by building phones that are slim and well designed. It is important that the organization remember that customer needs constantly change and their products should change as the market changes. Products also go through what is known as the product life cycle.
If a company is introducing a brand new product, it is in the introductory stage. The company needs to carefully consider how it will be introduced into the market, how it will be priced, how it will be promoted, and how it will be placed. After being introduced, the company’s product might be one of a kind, but after a short time, similar products are being introduced. This is what is called the growth phase. If a company’s product is one of many similar products, it has entered the maturity phase. This phase is a dangerous time for many products since it is in this phase that many products are swallowed up by competitors. If a company notices that sales are dropping despite marketing changes, their product may be in the decline phase.
Price is the one element of the marketing mix that generates revenue; all the others are costs. Customers obviously like a bargain and may be attracted to buy a product even if they had never considered purchasing the product before. Prices could be artificially reduced to attract customers to a new product and to discourage competitors from capturing the market. In the case where a product is in great demand or where there are few competitors, prices could be artificially raised to recoup costs or immediate profit. There is the chance that competitors could enter the market with a realistic price, thus stealing the market. Prices can be raised or lowered depending on the market where the product is sold. For companies like Motorola, price is a key element of the marketing mix.
Price is a critical selling point. Getting the price right is the key to building relationships with customers. According to Motorola’s official website, (2006), “We will build long-term relationships with our customers by demonstrating honesty and integrity.” As with other companies, prices charged are linked with product cycle. When a new product is launched, prices are usually quite high. This is the result of extensive product and market research. It usually takes time for a lot of customers to buy a new product and as the product matures and sales increase, prices will usually come down. State of the art products are sold at premium prices, however the costs to the users of Motorola phones are kept down because network providers such as Verizon Wireless subsidize them. Network providers want as many customers as possible to subscribe to their networks; they therefore link with producers like Motorola for the best-designed phones with the latest features.
According to the website (2006), “Place (or placement) decisions are those associated with channels of distribution that serve as the means for getting the product to target customers.” The term place deals with various methods of transporting and storing goods and making them available to the customer. Getting the product to the right place and time involves the distribution system. It is this process that moves the goods to the places where they are wanted. Whatever method of distribution a company chooses, they need to consider where their customers live and the cheapest and quickest way to get their products to them. The place where you are able to buy sometimes depends on the product. Some companies like Motorola often give exclusive offers to certain retailers. Many people like to buy phones from independent retailers such as Best Buy, Radio Shack, and Circuit City. A large number of customers prefer to buy from retail stores that belong to network providers such as Verizon Wireless. There is an increasing number of people that buy their phones from the network providers’ websites as well as Motorola’s website.
The fourth part of the marketing mix refers to the process of informing customers of a company’s product. Promotion includes all the techniques that a company might use to communicate with other individuals and organizations. There are a number of methods a company can use; they include media advertising, personal selling, and non-personal communication. By using market research a company can establish what are the best market segments to aim their promotional plans. An important avenue of communication is advertising.
Companies might use advertising to promote their product. An advertiser may use television, radio, newspapers, the Internet, or magazines as a means of promotion. Authors Philip Kotler and Kevin Keller (2006) state, ” A marketer might selectively employ television, radio, and print advertising, public relations and events, and PR and Web site communications so that each contributes on its own as well as improves the effectiveness of others.” Motorola effectively uses television, network providers, and their website to promote their products. Motorola works in close partnership to promote its phones with retailers. Promotion costs are shared with retailers; thus, the more retailers sell the more Motorola is able to help them.Conclusion:
Successful companies effectively use all four elements of the marketing mix: product, price, place, and promotion. If a company is introducing a brand new product, they need to consider how it will be introduced into the market, how it will be priced, how it will be promoted, and how it will be placed. In the case of Motorola the product is the cellular phone. Price is the one element of the marketing mix that generates revenue; all the others are costs. For companies like Motorola, price is a key element of the marketing mix. It is a critical selling point; people are always looking for a good product at a low price. The term place deals with various methods of transporting and storing goods and making them available to customers. Motorola often gives exclusive offers to certain retailers. Many people like to buy phones from independent retailers such as Best Buy, Radio Shack, and Circuit City. A large number of customers prefer to buy from retail stores that belong to network providers. The fourth element of the marketing mix is promotion. Promotion is the process of informing customers of a company’s product. Motorola effectively uses television, network providers, and their website to promote their products. By effectively combing all four elements of the marketing mix, a company can compete successfully in today’s economy.References
Kotler, P. & Keller, L. R. (2006). Marketing management (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Pearson Prentice Hall.
The marketing mix (the 4 p’s of marketing) (2006). Retrieved January 27, 2007, from (2007). Retrieved January 27, 2007.

Kerrang Magazine Blink182 Article Analysis

Kerrang Magazine Blink182 Article AnalysisBlink182 – when they were younger *
This Blink182 interview was published in alternative music magazine
‘Kerrang’ – issue 979 in November last year and was written by Tom
It’s purposes are mainly to discuss their past, their success and
above all their new album ! They tell us how it was almost never made
as two years ago they were ready to split.
This article is informative and at times quite humorous, ’There are
many ways you’d imagine how a conversation with Tom DeLonge might
start. Most of them involve a certain level of immaturity, a teenage
crack about blow jobs, poop or possibly your mother. A reasoned debate
on Californian politics is roughly last on the list ’. But it also
feels sad as the band recall feeling as though they were drifting
apart. I think fans of the band would find this piece interesting.
The implied readers would include Blink’s fans (usually teenagers),
people considering buying their latest album, fans of punk-rock music
and people who may just be curious about them. So in general – most
readers of ‘Kerrang’ i.e- people interested in alternative music such
as punk, metal and rock.
Having read the article through a few times now i have noticed that it
differs to previous Blink interviews i have read. As a group they have
been out of the public eye for the past two years producing their self
titled album. Although Blink are a hugely successful, international
band and every young person knows a little about them i dont think
there is any evidence of implied reader knowledge. After reading the
title page ‘But seriously folks…’ we know right away Blink have
grown up as it describes their old stuff is out and new mature
material is the way forward. This feeling of change continues
throughout the piece. It feels new, exciting and deep.
I dont think this interview was planned, as the guys seem to be
relaxed and speak their mind. Which i think helps put their
personality and true feelings across. They change location around
three times. Each time they do the new surroundings are described and
the purpose of visiting them revealed. This gives more information on
the band and the audience continue to learn more about them.
As a fan of the band i am glad to say there is a fair amount of spoken
text included in the article, without any nonfluenecy features such as
pauses or hedges. I think its very well written. Inbetween the spoken
text are narrative like passages from the writter ’Relaxing in a
pancake house a mile from the coast north…’.
At times he tells us what the band are doing (their actions) during
the interview ‘Tom DeLonge eases himself into a chair’, or he will
tell us stories of their past ’It’s been two years since the four
million selling “Take Off Your Pants And Jacket”’, he also makes sure
his own opinions are heard, ’Make no mistake about it – this is a much
more mature album’. All this combined makes for great reading, the
different types of writing hold your interest right to the end.
Because of the nature of this article and where it has been published
there is bound to be technical jargon and some slang words included in
it, as it deals with a very percific topic and audience. There are
words such as ‘stiffs’ meaning fails, used when talking about when Box
Car Racer’s only album was released,‘candily’,’eponymous’and terms
like ‘dissmissive disdain’ used when they mention hotel staff. Some
readers like myself may not be able to understand all of these
completly. But it gives the piece an intelligent and thourght
provoking feel. Which in my opinion is a good thing as they draw it’s
audience in.
Adjectives used to descirbe how the band feel/felt at the time make
any stories or actions descibed more realistic and believable.’Hoppus
and DeLonge shift uncomfortably’, ‘sharp stare’, ’non-committal
shrug’. Something fans will appreciate.
I think fans would also like the fact that there are a couple of
pictures of the band, one takes up a whole page intended to be used as
a poster. Blink are even on the cover of the magazine. I think thats
because they are the main feature of this issue and putting them on
the front would ensure good sales.
The title page is spread over two pages. On one side is Mark and the
articles title the other Tom and Travis. The title is in a large font
incased in speech marks. “But Seriously folks…” this reminds me of
cartoons (‘thats all folks’) and i think it is typical of what the
guys would say, being American and all. A brief outline of what the
next pages are about follows the title, ’Penis gags and
“donkey-f**king songs” are out, dark thoughts and fatherhood are in
for Blink182 right now. The fact their band almost split last year has
everything to do with this…>’. This short, to the point
introduction invites it’s auidence to read on.
Over the page is one full of small text and a large photograph
opposite. In the text is a section of large bold speech from Mark “At
the end of 2001 it felt like Blink182 had broken up. It wasn’t spoken
about, but it felt over.” This is the first thing i read and it makes
me wonder why he would say such a thing and want to find out.
The caption on the following picture reads, “dude, did you just fart?”
“Shut up Tom, we’re artists now, remember?” Its just a bit of fun.
Blink182 are known for playing pranks and being rude and still are,
just not so much. They have finally grown up, a little.
Over onto the final page is another picture of the guys and half a
page of text. The caption says ‘No more fools: californian punk’s
clown princes get serious: (from left)…’ In the picture the guys
look exactly that, serious and older. Something that stands out is
another quote from Mark “When Tom and Travis started Box Car Racer i
felt like the odd man out. It sucked. It really sucked”. Also right at
the end, in bold theres information on the new album, giving the
title, release date and record label.

A Comparison of Two Media Players

Contrast two computer programmes
Music has been accepted by every social level all over the world. Fortunately, instead of using radio or cassette player, two great programmes are being used globally. These programmes are called “Windows Media Player” and “Winamp”. However, even though they have many things in common. They also have some obvious differences, which are their designs and functions.The first major difference between Windows Media Player and Winamp is style. Winamp is a program which was invented before Windows Media Player; thus, its style is more simple and classic thanWMPby using plain-colored skin. On the other hand,WMPhas been designed to have a modern feature which is more attractive to the young.However, at present, these two programmes are developing their programmes to have the best quality. Additionally, due to these progressing, the benefit will finally come to consumers like us. Actually, it cannot be said that which program is better that the others. It depends on consumers choices to decide that which one is good and suitable for them the most.

Jourody Free Essay Importance of the Journey in Homer’s Odyssey

Importance of the Journey in Homer’s Odyssey  In the Odyssey, by Homer, Odysseus’s main goal was to reach home. Even though all of his thoughts were turned towards his home and family, he learned many lessons along the way. Odysseus’s greatest learning experiences were in his journey, not his destination. One of Odysseus’s biggest challenges was to resist temptation. The first temptation Odysseus and his men encountered was the sweet lotos plant, “They fell in, soon enough, with Lotos Eaters, who showed no will to do us harm, only offering the sweet Lotos to out friends…” (IX. 98-100). Eating the plant did not seem like a bad idea, but resisting was a much wiser option, .“..but those who ate this honeyed plant, the Lotos, never cared to report, nor return: they longed to stay forever, browsing on that native bloom, forgetful of their homeland” (IX. 101-104). If they had eaten the plant, they never would have gotten home. Another great temptation they had to withstand was the Seirênês. The Seirênês would tempt the men to them with their beauty and music, “Square in your ship’s path are Seirênês, crying beauty to bewitch men coasting by…” (XII. 101-104). If men did not resist, they would fall into the Seirênês’ clutches and die, “Woe to the innocent who hears that sound! He will not see his lady nor his children in joy, crowding about him, home from sea; the Seirênês will sing his mind away on their sweet meadow lolling…” (XII. 50-54). The biggest temptation that Odysseus had to defy was from the sea nymph, Kalypso, “I fed him, loved, him, sang that he should not die or grow old ever, in all the days to come” (V. 1420143). Kalypso wanted to have Odysseus as her husband, but all he could think of was home, “Meanwhile he lives and grieves upon that island in thralldom to the nymph; he cannot stir, cannot fare homeward…” (V. 15-17). Odysseus resisted, and was not completely unfaithful to his wife. If he had not resisted temptation, he would have been on the island of the Lotos Eaters, dead, or without a wife. Next, Odysseus learned that greed would never result in any good. After they visit Aiolia, Odysseus received a bag of wind of wind from Aiolos. His crew got jealous because they did not get anything, “How about ourselves – his shipmates all the way? Nigh home we are with empty hands. And who has gifts from Aiolos? He has. I saw we ought to crack that bag, there’s gold and silver plenty in that bag!” (X. 46-50). When they opened it up, the wind got loose and propelled them back to where they started, “Then every wind roared into hurricane; the ships went pitching west with many cries; our land was lost” (X. 53-55). The lesson that they learned was that greed sends them back, not forward, literally and figuratively. The next thing Odysseus learned was humility. Odysseus was very conceited after he escaped the Kyklops, “I would not heed then in my glorying spirit, but let my anger flare and yelled : `Kyklops, if ever mortal man inquire how you were put to shame and blinded, tell him Odysseus, raider of cities, took your eye: Laërtês son, whose home’s on Ithaka!’” (IX. 546-552). With these word, the Kyklops grew angry and almost hit their ship with a great boulder, “Now he laid hands upon a bigger stone and wheeled around, titanic for the cast, to let if fly in the black-prowed vessel’s track” (IX. 587-589). Odysseus was almost killed because he was supercilious. The next lesson he learned was if he acted like a pig, he became one. His men took advantage of Kirkê and her food, “On thrones she seated them, and lounging chairs, while she prepared a meal of cheese and barley and amber honey mixed with Pramnian wine…” (257-259). As a result they turned into actual pigs, “Scarce had they drunk when she flew after then with her long stick and shut them in a pigsty – bodies, voices, heads, and bristles, all swinish now…” (X. 262-265). Odysseus learned not to act like a swine because that is what he would become, at least metaphorically. Sometimes, sacrifice was the best option. Odysseus was willing to fight to save all of his men, “Only instruct me goddess, if you will, how, if possible, can I pass Kharybdis, or fight of Skylla when she raids my crew?” (XII. 132-134). Odysseus was willing to risk his own life for his men. Kirkê tells them to go by Skylla and sacrifice some of his men, “No, hug the cliff Skylla, take your ship through on a racing stroke. Better to mourn six men than lose them all, and the ship, too” (XII. 128-130). Odysseus realizes that losing some men would be better than losing them all; he had to sacrifice six men. By the time Odysseus finally reached home, he realized life’s greatest lessons. He knew that family was the most important thing in the world, “Now from his breast into his eyes the ache of longing mounted and he wept at last, his dear wife, clear and faithful, in his arms, longed for…” (XXII. 259-262). He resisted Kalypso, and all the other temptations, and realized that nothing is better than being home at last. He became much more humble, “May Zeus and all the gods give you your heart’s desire for taking me in so kindly, friend” (XIV. 62-63). Being modest to somebody superior is one thing, but being humble to your servant is a completely different level of modesty. Odysseus learned that you receive more with modesty, rather than arrogance. Odysseus was also not greedy, “Sit down and help yourselves. Shake off your wonder. Here we’ve been waiting for you all this time, and your mouths water for good roast pig!”(XXIV. 434-436). Instead of saving the food for himself, he offered it to everyone around him. He learned to be giving. Odysseus would not have been the man he was without the journey home. He may have been without a wife, on an island somewhere, arrogant, a swine, avaricious, or even deceased. The trials he went through may have been difficult, but they proved to be helpful in the end.  

Celebration of Black Culture

Celebration of Black Culture

Humorous Wedding Speech – Best Man

Humorous Wedding Speech – Best ManI think we all agree that Linda looks fantastic today, a number one hit if ever there was one. And Steve’s looking a bit like a chart-topper himself in that suit – although I’m not sure from which year. As for the bridesmaids, they look wonderful, and have performed their duties splendidly. It can’t have been easy dragging Linda to the church – it certainly wasn’t easy dragging Steve.We have now reached that pivotal moment in the speech where I am meant – in good taste – to put the groom down. However, when the subject of my speech cropped up during the meal, and my obligation to discuss Steve, Linda made me promise that I restrict myself to speaking only of the good things about her husband. Because a one-minute speech would seem ridiculous, I’ve decided to change course completely. And tell you about how we came to be sitting here today.Steve and Linda met five years ago in a very, very romantic location – the Hippodrome nightclub in Exeter. This place was renowned for being the hangout of drunken wide boys and white stiletto girls, so it was pure coincidence that they met on that fateful night.Steve had nearly given up hope of ever pulling a girl when he caught a glimpse of Linda across a crowded dance floor. I can see now, lying there. She smiled and shouted hello but the music swallowed her voice before it could reach him. He untucked his jeans from his florescent socks and casually strolled over to her as she slid through the crowd to meet him. With their arms wrapped tightly around each other, the two danced into the night, igniting a passion that threatened to engulf them both.When the music stopped, the legendary silver tongue – legendary in the sense that it only exists in Steve’s imagination – took over: ‘Are you lost, love?’ When the unimpressed Linda said she certainly was not, our smooth-talking love hero replied, ‘It’s just that I didn’t know that angels could fly so low!’Unbelievably, Linda agreed to go out with him. I don’t know where Steve took her on their first date. He hinted it was an expensive restaurant but he wants to keep it a secret so the place remains special only to them. All I know is that he wooed Linda that night with the immortal line, ‘If you were on the menu here, you’d be a McGorgeous!’Their romance seemed to blossom at an alarming rate and it was clear to everyone that they were extremely well suited. Linda brought to the relationship beauty, integrity, honesty, reliability and intelligence – while Steve brought, er … [pretend to check notes], ah, Steve brought his used beer matt collection and a wrinkly old copy of Readers Wives.True love finally caught up with Steve – when Linda bought him a Sony Playstation for Christmas – and he decided it was time to pop the question. Following the tradition, before they announced their engagement, Steve went to ask Linda’s father for her hand in marriage. He said that it was fine by him, providing Steve took the hand that for the last 20 years had spent most of it’s time in his wallet!Steve and Linda share the same core values, and I am sure that as husband and wife their relationship will continue to flourish. When apart, their loving co-dependence means that they pine for each other and long to be reunited, particularly when Steve needs a shirt ironed or Linda wants to set the video.Finally, I’d like to give the newlyweds the traditional best man’s wish for good luck, good health and happiness! I’m sure you’ll all agree that Linda and Steve are a marvellous couple and they thoroughly deserve all the happiness they’re going to share together.Ladies and gentlemen, the toast is to the bride and groom!

Tupac Shakur

Tupac ShakurTupac was shot five times on September 7, 1996 at a party in Knight’s Club in California. He was rushed to the hospital and remained there until September 13, 1996, when he was finally pronounced dead. Tupac officially died at 4:03 PM.(4+3 = 7) Also he “died” at an age of 25 years.(2+5 = 7) It seems as if seven is Tupac’s number. There is nothing in the new album that says “TUPAC RIP 1971-1996.” Wouldn’t it make sense to include something like that in the first album after his “death”? The only thing mentioned is “EXIT TUPAC ENTER MAKAVELI.”
A confidential reliable informant told the LVPD that the shooting might have had something to do with what had happened at the Lakewood mall in Compton. The informant stated that a man named Travon Lane, a Death Row affiliate was at the mall’s Foot Locker in July or August, where he was confronted by several members of the South Side Crips. A fight broke out and Lane’s Death Row medallion was taken from him.
On September 7, in Las Vegas, moments after the Tyson/Seldon fight at the MGM Grand, Lane was walking through the hotel when he spotted Orlando Anderson. Anderson was the same man that Lane thought had taken his medallion at the mall. Lane then pointed the man out to Tupac. Tupac confronted Anderson, and asked him if he was associated with the South Side Crips. Almost an hour later, a line of Death Row cars went to a party at Knight’s Club 662. A white Cadillac pulled up to Tupac and Knight’s vehicle. The passenger shot Tupac with a Glock 40 Caliber handgun, critically wounding him and grazing Knight.
The real question is; Is Tupac really dead or is he still living to this day? In a recent survey over 83 % of his fans believe that he is still alive. In his song, “Life Goes On,” he raps about his funeral. Tupac did many songs and videos about his death and his funeral. In the song “Ain’t Hard To Find” Tupac raps, “I heard raps that I died, murdered in cold blood, traumatized pictures of me in my final states, you know momma cried, but that was fiction, some coward got the story twisted. . . .” In Tupac’s song “Hold Ya’ Head,” on Tupac’s Machiavelli album, a voice says before Tupac, “Can you see him?,” and another one replies, “I see him.” Then Tupac softly says, “I’m alive.” In the video “I Ain’t Mad At Cha,” Tupac dies. In his next video, “Toss It Up,” his name is Machiaveli.
While Tupac was in prison, he studied Machiavelli in depth. He was a 16th century Italian philosopher who played out the staging of one’s death in order to escape one’s enemies in order to gain power. In Tupac’s new album “Machiavelli A.K.A. The Seven Day Theory,” relates to how he was shot on the seventh day of September and died seven days later. Also, in this album, he states, “I’ve been shot and murdered, can’t tell you how it happened word for word, but best believe that niggas’ gonna get what they deserve.” The cross that Tupac has on his back says, “Exodus 16:31.” The line above this one in the bible states, “So the people rested on the seventh day.” In essence, Exodus 16 is about the seven days.
The sketchy part about the whole story is that he was cremated immediately after he died, the next day. Why would they cremate a murder victim the day after the murder? That is a question that remains to be unanswered. The memorial services were canceled in both Los Angeles and Atlanta.

The Change in American Society in 1967

The Change in American Society in 1967The war in Vietnam was the main focus of many of the major things during the sixties. Thousands of men were being drated into service for the Vietnam War each year and many were scared. Because of this went to Canada where refuge was offered. Media reports from overseas were receieved back increasingly gruesome, and televisien showed the death and destruction created by the bombing of U.S. forces. By the end of 1967, 500,000 American soldiers were hopelessly killed in the Vietnam jungle. They used huge amounts of ammunition while gaining really nothing at all. Most soldiers were seen as horrible men burning villages, destroying rice crops, killing women and little children. The nation soon began to take a harder look at the United States intervention in Vietnam and began to wonder if the war was even worth fighting for.The Civil Rights movement and the endless war in Vietnam were the two main causes for social protest in 1967. Since the end of the Civil War many organizations had been created to promote the goals of racial justice and equality in America. However progress was slow and it wasn’t until around 1967 that a hundred years of effort would begin to gain the attention that it needed in order to force a change for the better. peaceful methods and believed change could be affected by working around the established system. There were tons of marches, rallies, strikes, riots, and violent confrontations with the police. The violence of racism would claim the lives of young and old African Americans. Some Restaurants, hotels, nightclubs, public facilities, and school systems were still segregated. The African-American community, being the minority, depended on the support of the white population. Those caught up in the hippie movement racial justice and equality to the heart, and then put it into action. Protests soon were being held everywhere.Who are these hippies and what do they all want? It all happened really fast. Suddenly young men were wearing long hair and growing beards. Young women were dressing like peasants and wearing psychedelic colors. Everyone just seemed dirty. They were dropping out of college, starting up rock bands, living in communes, and traveling to the far reaches of the planet. To many it was frightening and mystifying, almost surreal even. Hippies believed that the world was a beautiful place. That they were surrounded by love, and believed that love could conquer all. They were engaged in a period of the sexual revolution. This was a period in which morals were left up to the individual, and individual pleasure was what they wanted. The sexual revolution of 1967 was more about instant sexual gratification. Birth control pills, then a new thing, quickly became extremely popular among many young girls. It was a year of all kinds of experimentation.One of the major social changes brought about by 1967 was the widespread use of illegal drugs, mostly hallucinogens, marijuana and LSD. Before this time, jazz musicians and people mostly on the streets used marijuana. The people trying to copy the jazz musicians began using marijuana, and drugs were starting to be used in poems, novels, essays, and in popular protest songs. LSD, which was unknown to American society in the early sixties, gained widespread recognition. By 1967, marijuana and LSD use was common across the country. Many books were written to justify the use of drugs. Other more harmful drugs followed like cocaine, heroin, amphetamines and barbiturates. The idea of using mind-expanding drugs to gain an understanding into the world became very popular. Famous musicians such as Janis Joplin and Jimi Hendrix died as a result of this.By 1967 rock music was one of the most important styles of music that fueled the new hippie movement. Bob Dylan showed how meaningful songs could be with his strong imagery. Though he was one of the few artists who was not into the hippie style, his then revolutionary music inspired a whole bunch of bands that did. The first rock bands came from San Francisco. The Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother and the Holding Company came out with rock music and suddenly people caught on everywhere. It spread to musical groups in New York such as The Fugs and the Velvet Underground. Even soul groups like Sly and the Family Stone and the Chambers Brothers started enjoying this sound. The Beatles had many popular songs that made everyone love them. “All you need is love” dominated the charts and their album, Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band sold millions of copies that year. Pink Floyd was another very popular artist. His powerful music captivated millions and was especially great to listen to while under the influence of drugs. “Music shaped the way people felt, and it felt pretty damn good (Leonard 126.)”For some people protests, riots, and drug abuse was just not for them. To escape from the problems of society, a trip to the movies was always enjoyable. A favorite to many was “Bonnie and Clyde”. Warren Baety played a bank robber accomplice in this film. Another hit movie was “In the Heat of the Night.” The star of this move, Rod Steiger won best actor for his role as a private investigator who searches to prove his best friend’s innocence.Aside from movies many people also enjoyed watching sports. In 1967 there were so many great athletes. In baseball that year St. Louis won the World Series over Boston in a four to three series. Orlando Cepeda was voted MVP for his outstanding performance. In football the Greenbay packers defeated the Oakland Raiders thirty-three to fourteen in the Super Bowl. Johnny Unitas was voted the Pro MVP of this game for scoring two touchdowns. In basketball the Philadelphia seventy-sixers won the NBA championship. Wilt Chamberlain led this game with a whopping twenty four rebounds which gave him the MVP spot.1967 was a year of unbelievable changes in all aspects of American society. A series of political demonstrations gave people the freedom to experience their different viewpoints. These events that occurred over 30 years ago has made a major impact in our lives today. 1967 was a good year and it will never be forgotton.

Wartime Propaganda: World War I

Wartime Propaganda: World War IIt is one of history’s great ironies that Woodrow Wilson, who was re- elected as a peace candidate in 1916, led America into the first world war. With the help of a propaganda apparatus that was unparalleled in world history, Wilson forged a nation of immigrants into a fighting whole. An examination of public opinion before the war, propaganda efforts during the war, and the endurance of propaganda in peacetime raises significant questions about the viability of democracy as a governing principle.Like an undertow, America’s drift toward war was subtle and forceful. According to the outspoken pacifist Randolph Bourne, war sentiment spread gradually among various intellectual groups. “With the aid of Roosevelt,” wrote Bourne, “the murmurs became a monotonous chant, and finally a chorus so mighty that to be out of it was at first to be disreputable, and finally almost obscene.” Once the war was underway, dissent was practically impossible. “If you believed our going into this war was a mistake,” wrote The Nation in a post-war editorial, “if you held, as President Wilson did early in 1917, that the ideal outcome would be ‘peace without victory,’ you were a traitor.” Forced to stand quietly on the sidelines while their neighbors stampeded towards war, many pacifists would have agreed with Bertrand Russell that “the greatest difficulty was the purely psychological one of resisting mass suggestion, of which the force becomes terrific when the whole nation is in a state of violent collective excitement.”
This frenzied support for the war was particularly remarkable in light of the fact that Wilson’s re-election had been widely interpreted as a vote for peace. After all, in January of 1916, Wilson stated that “so far as I can remember, this is a government of the people, and this people is not going to choose war.” In retrospect, it is apparent that the vote for Wilson cloaked profound cleavages in public opinion. At the time of his inauguration, immigrants constituted one third of the population. Allied and German propaganda revived old-world loyalties among “hyphenated” European- Americans, and opinions about US intervention were sharply polarized. More than 8 million German-Americans lived in this country, and many were sympathetic to the cause of their homeland. Meanwhile, anti-German feeling was strong among the upper classes on the Atlantic coast, and was particularly intense among those with social and business connections to Britain.
The Committee on Public Information The absence of public unity was a primary concern when America entered the war on April 6, 1917. In Washington, unwavering public support was considered to be crucial to the entire wartime effort. On April 13, 1917, Wilson created the Committee on Public Information (CPI) to promote the war domestically while publicizing American war aims abroad. Under the leadership of a muckraking journalist named George Creel, the CPI recruited heavily from business, media, academia, and the art world. The CPI blended advertising techniques with a sophisticated understanding of human psychology, and its efforts represent the first time that a modern government disseminated propaganda on such a large scale. It is fascinating that this phenomenon, often linked with totalitarian regimes, emerged in a democratic state.Although George Creel was an outspoken critic of censorship at the hands of public servants, the CPI took immediate steps to limit damaging information. Invoking the threat of German propaganda, the CPI implemented “voluntary guidelines” for the news media and helped to pass the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918. The CPI did not have explicit enforcement power, but it nevertheless “enjoyed censorship power which was tantamount to direct legal force.” Like modern reporters who participate in Pentagon press pools, journalists grudgingly complied with the official guidelines in order to stay connected to the information loop. Radical newspapers, such as the socialist Appeal to Reason, were almost completely extinguished by wartime limitations on dissent. The CPI was not a censor in the strictest sense, but “it came as close to performing that function as any government agency in the US has ever done.” Censorship was only one element of the CPI’s efforts. With all the sophistication of a modern advertising agency, the CPI examined the different ways that information flowed to the population and flooded these channels with pro-war material. The CPI’s domestic division was composed of 19 sub-divisions, and each focused on a particular type of propaganda. A comprehensive survey is beyond the scope of this paper, but the use of newspapers, academics, artists, and filmmakers will be discussed. One of the most important elements of the CPI was the Division of News, which distributed more than 6,000 press releases and acted as the primary conduit for war-related information. According to Creel, on any given week, more than 20,000 newspaper columns were filled with material gleaned from CPI handouts. Realizing that many Americans glided right past the front page and headed straight for the features section, the CPI also created the Division of Syndicated Features and recruited the help of leading novelists, short story writers, and essayists. These popular American writers presented the official line in an easily digestible form, and their work was said to have reached twelve million people every month.The Division of Civic and Educational Cooperation relied heavily on scholars who churned out pamphlets with titles such as The German Whisper, German War Practices, and Conquest and Kultur. The academic rigor of many of these pieces was questionable, but more respectable thinkers, such as John Dewey and Walter Lippmann, also voiced their support for the war. Even in the face of this trend, however, a few scholars refused to fall in line. Randolph Bourne had been one John Dewey’s star students, and he felt betrayed by his mentor’s collaboration with the war effort. In one of several eloquent wartime essays, Bourne savagely attacked his colleagues for self-consciously guiding the country into the conflict. “The German intellectuals went to war to save their culture from barbarization,” wrote Bourne. “And the French went to war to save their beautiful France!… Are not our intellectuals equally fatuous when they tell us that our war of all wars is stainless and thrillingly achieving for good?”The CPI did not limit its promotional efforts to the written word. The Division of Pictorial Publicity “had at its disposal many of the most talented advertising illustrators and cartoonists of the time,” and these artists worked closely with publicity experts in the Advertising Division. Newspapers and magazines eagerly donated advertising space, and it was almost impossible to pick up a periodical without encountering CPI material. Powerful posters, painted in patriotic colors, were plastered on billboards across the country. Even from the cynical vantage point of the mid 1990s, there is something compelling about these images that leaps across the decades and stirs a deep yearning to buy liberty bonds or enlist in the navy.Moving images were even more popular than still ones, and the Division of Films ensured that the war was promoted in the cinema. The film industry suffered from a sleazy reputation, and producers sought respectability by lending wholehearted support to the war effort. Hollywood’s mood was summed up in a 1917 editorial in The Motion Picture News which proclaimed that “every individual at work in this industry wants to do his share” and promised that “through slides, film leaders and trailers, posters, and newspaper publicity they will spread that propaganda so necessary to the immediate mobilization of the country’s great resources.” Movies with titles like The Kaiser: The Beast of Berlin, Wolves of Kultur, and Pershing’s Crusaders flooded American theaters. One picture, To Hell With The Kaiser, was so popular that Massachusetts riot police were summoned to deal with an angry mob that had been denied admission.The preceding discussion merely hints at the breadth of CPI domestic propaganda activities. From lecture hall podiums and movie screens to the pages of popular fiction and the inside of payroll envelopes, the cause of the Allies was creatively publicized in almost every available communication channel. But this is only part of the story. The propaganda techniques employed by the CPI are also fascinating, and, from the standpoint of democratic government, much more significant.Demons, Atrocities, and Lies Propagandists usually attempt to influence individuals while leading each one to behave “as though his response were his own decision.” Mass communication tools extend the propagandist’s reach and make it possible to shape the attitudes of many individuals simultaneously. Because propagandists attempt to “do the other fellow’s thinking for him,” they prefer indirect messages to overt, logical arguments. During the war, the CPI accomplished this by making calculated emotional appeals, by demonizing Germany, by linking the war to the goals of various social groups, and, when necessary, by lying outright.Emotional Appeals CPI propaganda typically appealed to the heart, not to the mind. Emotional agitation is a favorite technique of the propagandist, because “any emotion may be ‘drained off’ into any activity by skillful manipulation.” An article which appeared in Scientific Monthly shortly after the war argued that “the detailed suffering of a little girl and her kitten can motivate our hatred against the Germans, arouse our sympathy for Armenians, make us enthusiastic for the Red Cross, or lead us to give money for a home for cats.” Wartime slogans such as “Bleeding Belgium,” “The Criminal Kaiser,” and “Make the World Safe For Democracy,” suggest that the CPI was no stranger to this idea. Evidence of this technique can be seen in a typical propaganda poster that portrayed an aggressive, bayonet-wielding German soldier above the caption “Beat Back The Hun With Liberty Bonds.” In this example, the emotions of hate and fear were redirected toward giving money to the war effort. It is an interesting side-note that many analysts attribute the failure of German propaganda in America to the fact that it emphasized logic over passion. According to Count von Bernstorff, a German diplomat, “the outstanding characteristic of the average American is rather a great, though superficial, sentimentality,” and German press telegrams completely failed to grasp this fact.
Demonization A second propaganda technique used by the CPI was demonization of the enemy. “So great are the psychological resistances to war in modern nations,” wrote Lasswell “that every war must appear to be a war of defense against a menacing, murderous aggressor. There must be no ambiguity about who the public is to hate.” American propaganda was not the only source of anti-German feeling, but most historians agree that the CPI pamphlets went too far in portraying Germans as depraved, brutal aggressors. For example, in one CPI publication, Professor Vernon Kellogg asked “will it be any wonder if, after the war, the people of the world, when they recognize any human being as a German, will shrink aside so that they may not touch him as he passes, or stoop for stones to drive him from their path?”A particularly effective strategy for demonizing Germans was the use of atrocity stories. “A handy rule for arousing hate,” said Lasswell “is, if at first they do not enrage, use an atrocity. It has been employed with unvarying success in every conflict known to man.” Unlike the pacifist, who argues that all wars are brutal, the atrocity story implies that war is only brutal when practiced by the enemy. Certain members of the CPI were relatively cautious about repeating unsubstantiated allegations, but the committee’s publications often relied on dubious material. After the war, Edward Bernays, who directed CPI propaganda efforts in Latin America, openly admitted that his colleagues used alleged atrocities to provoke a public outcry against Germany. Some of the atrocity stories which were circulated during the war, such as the one about a tub full of eyeballs or the story of the seven-year old boy who confronted German soldiers with a wooden gun, were actually recycled from previous conflicts. In his seminal work on wartime propaganda, Lasswell speculated that atrocity stories will always be popular because the audience is able to feel self-righteous indignation toward the enemy, and, at some level, identify with the perpetrators of the crimes. “A young woman, ravished by the enemy,” he wrote “yields secret satisfaction to a host of vicarious ravishers on the other side of the border.”Anti-German propaganda fueled support for the war, but it also contributed to intolerance on the home front. Dachshunds were renamed liberty dogs, German measles were renamed liberty measles, and the City University of New York reduced by one credit every course in German. Fourteen states banned the speaking of German in public schools. The military adversary was thousands of miles away, but German-Americans provided convenient local scapegoats. In Van Houten, New Mexico, an angry mob accused an immigrant miner of supporting Germany and forced him to kneel before them, kiss the flag, and shout “To hell with the Kaiser.” In Illinois, a group of zealous patriots accused Robert Prager, a German coal miner, of hoarding explosives. Though Prager asserted his loyalty to the very end, he was lynched by the angry mob. Explosives were never found.The War to End All Wars Emotional appeals and simplistic caricatures of the enemy influenced many Americans, but the CPI recognized that certain social groups had more complex propaganda needs. In order to reach intellectuals and pacifists, the CPI claimed that military intervention would bring about a democratic League of Nations and end warfare forever. With other social groups, the CPI modified its arguments, and interpreted the war as “a conflict to destroy the threat of German industrial competition (business group), to protect the American standard of living (labor), to remove certain baneful German influences in our education (teachers), to destroy German music – itself a subtle propaganda (musicians), to preserve civilization, ‘we’ and ‘civilization’ being synonymous (nationalists), to make the world safe for democracy, crush militarism, [and] establish the rights of small nations et al. (religious and idealistic groups).” It is impossible to make rigorous statements about which one of these appeals was most effective, but this is the advantage that the propagandist has over the communications scholar. The propagandist is primarily concerned with effectiveness and can afford to ignore the methodological demands of social science.Dishonesty Finally, like most propagandists, the CPI was frequently dishonest. Despite George Creel’s claim that the CPI strived for unflinching accuracy, many of his employees later admitted that they were quite willing to lie. Will Irwin, an ex-CPI member who published several confessional pieces after the war, felt that the CPI was more honest than other propaganda ministries, but made it clear that “we never told the whole truth – not by any manner of means.” Citing an intelligence officer who bluntly said “you can’t tell them the truth,” G.S Viereck argued that, as on all fronts, victories were routinely manufactured by American military authorities. The professional propagandist realizes that, when a single lie is exposed, the entire campaign is jeopardized. Dishonesty is discouraged, but on strategic, not moral, grounds.Post-War Propaganda In the final months of 1918, as the war drew to a close, the CPI fell under increasing scrutiny from a war-weary American public and from the Republican majority that had gained control of Congress. On November 12, 1918, George Creel halted the domestic activities of the CPI. The activities of the foreign division were ended, amidst great controversy, a few months later. One might assume that the wartime propagandists then put down their pens and paintbrushes and returned to ordinary life. This was not the case.According to Lasswell, many former agents of the CPI stayed in Washington and New York and took advantage of their skill and contacts. Two years later, the Director of the CPI’s Foreign Division argued that “the history of propaganda in the war would scarcely be worthy of consideration here, but for one fact – it did not stop with the armistice. No indeed! The methods invented and tried out in the war were too valuable for the uses of governments, factions, and special interests.” Sigmund Freud’s nephew, Edward Bernays, took the techniques he learned in the CPI directly to Madison Avenue and became an outspoken proponent of propaganda as a tool for democratic government. “It was, of course, the astounding success of propaganda during the war that opened the eyes of the intelligent few in all departments of life to the possibilities of regimenting the public mind,” wrote Bernays in his 1928 bombshell Propaganda. “It was only natural, after the war ended, that intelligent persons should ask themselves whether it was not possible to apply a similar technique to the problems of peace.”This peacetime application of what was, after all, a tool of war, began to trouble Americans who suspected that they had been misled. In The New Republic, John Dewey questioned the paternalistic assumptions of those who disguised propaganda as news. “There is uneasiness and solicitude about what men hear and learn,” wrote Dewey, and the “paternalistic care for the source of men’s beliefs, once generated by war, carries over to the troubles of peace.” Dewey argued that the manipulation of information was particularly evident in coverage of post-Revolutionary Russia. The Nation agreed in 1919, arguing that “what has happened in regard to Russia is the most striking case in point as showing what may be accomplished by Government propaganda… Bartholomew nights that never take place, together with the wildest rumors of communism in women, and of murder and bloodshed, taken from obscure Scandinavian newspapers, are hastily relayed to the US, while everything favorable to the Soviets, every bit of constructive accomplishment, is suppressed.”When one considers the horrible legacy of the war, it is tempting to pin complete responsibility for American involvement on hate-mongering militarists in the CPI. Such retroactive condemnation is no more complex than a wartime slogan. Ultimately, their guilt is less important than the questions their activities raised about the role of propaganda in a democratic society.Democratic theory, as interpreted by Jefferson and Paine, was rooted in the Enlightenment belief that free citizens could form respectable opinions about issues of the day and use these opinions to guide their own destiny. Communication between citizens was assumed to be a necessary element of the democratic process. During the first world war, America’s leaders felt that citizens were not making the correct decisions quickly enough, so they flooded the channels of communication with dishonest messages that were designed to stir up emotions and hatred of Germany. The war came to an end, but propaganda did not. For the past seven decades, those who lead our nation, along with those who seek to overthrow it, have mouthed the ideals of Jefferson while behaving like Bernays.Is propaganda compatible with democracy, or does it undermine the population’s ability to think critically about world events? What happens when simplistic, emotional appeals are endlessly repeated? During the war, Bourne complained that “simple syllogisms are substituted for analysis, things are known by their labels, [and] our heart’s desire dictates what we shall see.” Could this description apply equally to a political climate in which slogans like “Three Strikes, You’re Out,” “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” and “Just Say No” are treated as if they were actual policies for dealing with social needs?
What of the propagandist’s argument that the complexity of the modern world makes obsolete the Enlightenment faith in popular wisdom? It is impossible for one person to simultaneously be an expert in foreign policy, labor disputes, the environment, the educational system, health care, constitutional law, and scientific regulation. Even the President is forced to rely on the advice of key advisors. Should America follow Bernays’ prescription and accept the wisdom of “a leadership democracy administered by the intelligent minority who know how to regiment and guide the masses?” Or is “leadership democracy” simply one stage of our democratic development? Could it someday be replaced by something more far reaching?What contribution will emerging communication technologies make to the dissemination of propaganda? Does the myth of “interactivity” legitimize an unbalanced social relationship, or does it make it possible for the audience to challenge the propagandist? The hosts of radio talk shows claim that theirs is a democratic medium, but callers are screened in advance and filtered through a three-second time delay. Are truly interactive tools on the horizon?The important difference between our “leadership democracy” and a totalitarian state is that we are allowed to raise questions such as these. However, history shows that, in times of political crisis and social dislocation, this freedom is one of the first to disappear. As we approach the end of the twentieth century, finding answers to these questions is more important than ever.BibliographyChase, Stuart. Guides to Straight Thinking. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1956.
Combs, James and Nimmo, Dan. The New Propaganda: The Dictatorship of Palavar in Contemporary Politics. New York: Longman Publishing Group, 1993.
Doob, Leonard. Propaganda: Its Psychology and Technique. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1935.
Edwards, Violet. Group Leader’s Guide to Propaganda Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938.
Ellul, Jacques. Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes. New York: Vintage Books, 1965.
Hummel, William and Huntress, Keith. The Analysis of Propaganda. New York: William Sloane Associates, 1949.
Institute for Propaganda Analysis. Propaganda Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938.
Institute for Propaganda Analysis. The Fine Art of Propaganda. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1939.
Lee, Alfred McClung. How to Understand Propaganda. New York: Rinehart and Company, 1952.
Lowenthal, Leo and Guterman, Norbert. Prophets of Deceit. 1949. Palo Alto: Pacific Books Publishers, 1970.
Miller, Clyde. The Process of Persuasion. New York: Crown Publishers, 1946.
Pratkanis, Anthony and Aronson, Elliot. Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1991.
Rank, Hugh. Language and Public Policy. New York: Citation Press, 1974.
Thum, Gladys and Thum, Marcella. The Persuaders: Propaganda in War and Peace. New York: Atheneum, 1972.

A View From the Bridge by Arthur Miller

A View From the Bridge by Arthur MillerThe final moments of Act One are some of the most tense and dramatic
in the entire play, and thus they need to be emphasized in such a way
that the audience understand their significance and start anticipating
the next act. A director must be careful in doing this, to avoid
overdoing the drama and therefore making the production seem
In this scene, the whole Carbone family – Eddie, Beatrice, Catherine,
Marco and Rodolpho – are in the living room of the Red Hook apartment.
They have just finished dinner and I think it would be a good idea to
have the sun setting on the horizon out of a window. Some brilliant
lighting effects could be done here. It also tells the audience that
the end of this act is nigh, so something dramatic is going to happen.
All of the characters in this scene are Italian immigrants, and the
play would not be done justice if they didn’t have the appropriate
accents. They speak in Brooklynese dialect, which is a vigorous
language with lots of y’knows, ain’ts, sump’ms, and double negatives
in it, e.g. “she didn’t take nothin’ yet’’. This reflects the
characters’ lack of education due to poverty rather than intelligence.
Generally, Italian conversation contains a lot of liveliness and
gestures, and I would expect the immigrants to have taken that with
them to America. The actors in a production of this must have the
correct body language and at least not pronounce their ’g’s when at
the end of words, i.e. nothin’.
By this stage in the play, Catherine has fallen in love with Rodolpho,
one of Beatrice’s illegal immigrant cousins. He and his brother Marco
are lodging with the Carbones. Unknown to himself, or maybe just not
admitted, Eddie wants Catherine in another way than as a niece; this
is obvious throughout the play with his attempts to stop her growing
up. He comments on her short skirt and high heels, resents her getting
a job and forms a very strong grudge against Rodolpho which is based
on pure jealousy. Eddie, when confronted about his strange behaviour,
puts it down to fearing for Catherine’s safety and needing to protect
her as would an uncle in place of a father. “I don’t like the
neighbourhood over there’’, etc.
Beatrice is becoming aware of his feelings but does not comment or
action this realisation in this act; she is a very kind hearted person
who tries to appease everybody. I might tell the actress to reflect
this part of her by putting in some fake smiles.
Marco tries to stay neutral on the matter. He does defend Rodolpho in
the face of Eddie, but is firm with Rodolpho and gives him warnings,
(“You come home early now, Rodolpho’’) as he does not want him to get
into trouble and jeopardise his status with Eddie any further.
Leading up to the ending, there is a heated discussion going on where
Eddie is accusing Rodolpho of “dragging off Catherine without
permission’’. During these conversations, pauses and silences can
encapsulate the tension, and the characters’ feeling uncomfortable
with each other. Miller plays on this – “There is a pause, an
awkwardness’’. At this point Eddie is using any excuse he can to put
Rodolpho down, in order to drive a wedge between him and Catherine. It
is not working as they are deeply in love, so he gets quite desperate
and resorts to blunt, put-down comments. Rodolpho is a laid-back,
light hearted character and Eddie tries to show up his femininity with
remarks like “He sings, he cooks, he could make dresses.’’ This is a
hint that Rodolpho is homosexual, which Eddie finds the idea of
completely repulsive and hopes Catherine will too. His next ploy, near
the end of Act One, is to teach Rodolpho how to box, with the
intention of making him look feeble and sissy-like. Rodolpho crushes
his glory by being a very quick learner and impressing the rest of the
family. That done, Eddie retreats to a chair looking thoughtful, while
Catherine and Rodolpho are dancing to “Paper Doll’’. The romance could
be represented casting a red or pink, fuzzy light on them. Eddie and
Marco, who the main focus is on, would be in a harder, unstructured
light so the audience can clearly see what’s going on, and see the
characters’ facial expressions, which are very important here.
Marco knows that Eddie has just tried to humiliate his brother, and
that having failed to do so, is at a weaker point. He challenges Eddie
to lift a chair above his head whilst kneeling on the floor with one
hand behind his back. Eddie manages to raise it a couple of
centimetres and laughs it off. When Marco does it, he not only lifts
it above his head but stands up as well. Miller writes his exact
“Marco is face to face with Eddie, a strained tension gripping his
eyes and jaw, his neck stiff, the chair raised like a weapon over
Eddie’s head – and he transforms what might have been a glare of
warning into a smile of triumph, and Eddie’s grin vanishes as he
absorbs his look’’.
The ‘glare of warning’ in this is to tell Eddie that he knows what’s
going on, and he cannot keep picking on Rodolpho and getting away with
it. Eddie obviously picks up on this message, as his grin fades.
This is the point where the story changes from a petty squabble to a
civil war, and it is now inevitable that Marco and Eddie will confront
each other. The best way for the drama to be maximised is by
orchestral music, which could start up quietly whilst Eddie lifts the
chair and gradually escalate. While Marco has a go, the music could
suddenly turn sinister-sounding, which correlates with the feelings of
the characters. As the sun drops down, the tension reaches a climax
and the music gets very loud, the audience should realise that it is
too late for Eddie to even try to accept Catherine and Rodolpho’s
love, because Marco knows very well what he’s up to. If Eddie does
decide to apologize and turn over a new leaf, both Marco and Beatrice
would know that he’s lying and not accept it. There is now no solution
to this unfolding chaos – someone in it has a destiny, and that
destiny is to die.

Personal Narrative – Speeding Ticket

Personal Perspective- Speeding TicketI never predicted this beautiful trip ending up as a nightmare in my existence. I drove for approximately 40 minutes and my partner shared the driving for an additional 40 minutes. We were driving my friend mom’s brand new Toyota Camry XLE; one of the most comfortable cars I had ever been in. We enjoyed the elongated ride with new hit music, and air conditioning set to an exact temperature that met our necessities. On the way to the beach some doubts about going there started to circle around our minds, but the fact that we were about half way there made them all disappear.While arriving at the beach, I could admire the last minutes of the sun before the moon scared it across the ocean. The traffic at the strip was ridiculous, but some how we manage to turn the traffic situation to our benefit by getting contaminated with the party feeling there was in the air. Soon enough, my thoughts of swimming in the ocean and walking on the sand demolish into a tailgating feeling. Our summer trip had turn into our last spring break trip we had a couple of weeks ago.Hours after driving in the region of the Panama City Beach strip, I decided that we should go back home. Since my friend drove the largest part around the strip, he let all the driving to me. It was around 1:30 am. I was heavy-eyed, but not sleepy enough in order to impair my driving skills. My friend was guiding me the way home since I was not as familiar with it as he was, but some how due to the darkness of the night, I passed the street that I was supposed to turn, and it lead us to about 20 minutes off the schedule we had planned.This 20 minute setback impacted our whole trip. In order to get home back on time I decided to amplify the speed from 55 to 80.One of the biggest mistakes in my life occurred at that time. It was 1:45 am already and the highway was as very dark. I was still going 80, and I never thought there would be a sheriff automobile just waiting for someone at almost 2:00am in the morning to be speeding in an empty highway such as the one I was in. But some how he caught someone, and that “someone” was me. He pulled me over on the side of the grassy highway of Bay County. I was extremely nervous, but deep inside I was hoping that he would let me go since it was my first offence with the law, but this never happened. He lighted my friend mom’s car with his very powerful cop light, got off his vehicle and walked to my window. As he got to my window he asked for my driver license right away. I was in shock and so nervous that it was impossible for me to remove my driver license off my wallet. Once I gave him my license, I waited for a couple of minutes in the car until he ended his background search on me, and gave me a $204.50 speeding ticket. I was feeling crushed and guilty, but I kept driving until the nearest gas station to let my companion drive the rest of the way back.Not only did my insurance go up, but my father kept telling me I was a bad driver for about a month. What I took away from the experience was the importance of obeying the law. It doesn’t matter how tiny the law is, you must always consider the impact and consequences of your actions.

The Classical Period

The Classical PeriodThe Classical period spans roughly between 1750-1820, and was a time
where significant changes in musical form and style occurred.
Influenced by the civilised restraint of the new age of Enlightenment,
the main principle of the day was the search for intellectual freedom.
Music of the Classical period became an embodiment of Enlightenment
ideals that were centred on the idea that ‘the reason of man could
ultimately unlock every mystery, that civilisation was heading onward
and upward and that extremes of emotion were undesirable’1. The
enlightenment age brought about nationalism and humanitarian ideas
while mysticism and superstition faded.
During this period, ‘taste’ became significant and the belief was that
music was designed first and foremost to appeal to the listener and
for the gratification of the sense of hearing, not a means for the
composer to show off, as in the baroque period. The aim of the new
musical style was to make the music more directly expressive and
simpler for the audience to follow and the musicians concentrated on
making the music clearer by making the top melodic line the main point
of listening.
General Musical Characteristics of the Classical Period
The classical period is generally characterised by a near-obsession
with the clarification of formal structure as the modern sonata form
emerged from the rounded binary form of Baroque. During this period,
the evolution of the trio sonata into the string quartet; concerto
grosso into symphony concertante; and emergence of symphony and modern
solo concerto occurred, and both the symphony and concerto form
expanded so that each movement became self-contained- a small
self-sufficient unit.
Melodic style:
A new type of melody is developed and is often folk-like in its
clarity and simplicity. This homophonic texture replaced the long
lines and figuration styles of baroque polyphony. Elements of grand
baroque style such as basso continuo were abandoned and inner parts
were fully written out.
Homophonic Style:
Homophonic style has decided preference over polyphony style due to
the new importance of distinct thematic material. A special aspect of
this characteristic is the Alberti Bass, a special type of
broken-chord accompaniment
Counterpoint is still used especially in thematic development but is
of secondary importance. Contrapuntal forms were generally abandoned
although it was used sparingly and for specific purposes.
On the whole, there is less harmonic complexity and ingenuity in the
classical period with no significant harmonic developments occurring
until the time of Beethoven, although slow harmonic progression was
among the most striking features that distinguished harmony after
about 1730 from that of the Baroque era. Many passages in instrumental
music consisted solely of principle triads. Seventh chords were used
sparingly and ninth chords not at all whilst tonic-dominant harmony,
IV-V-I harmonic progressions and classical cadential progression
IIb-V-I were used frequently as the use of strong cadential
progression frequently compensated for the use of chromatism in terms
of tonality. The use of chromaticism for expressive effect was common.
This was usually melodic chromaticism without affecting the underlying
plain harmony. In its simplest form, it occurs in unaccented passing
or auxiliary notes. Melodic chromaticism was used to compensate for
the underlying harmonic plainness (especially in Mozart). Extensive
modulations (equivalent to the use of dissonance by Baroque composers)
were used to build longer arches of tension and release, and the
borrowing of one or two chords from the tonic minor key or modulating
to the tonic minor (major to minor shift was typical of Mozart and
Schubert and only used in Vienna) were used.
An aspect of formal clarity is the evident clarity of phraseology. On
the whole, the phrases in classical music are shorter and more
regular. Themes are made of very short fragments cast in 4 or 8 bar
phrases and the repetition of short phrases became the characteristic
of stile gallant, as opposed to a long uninterrupted stream of music
in the Baroque period. Classical melodies usually fall into even
phrases, and were often organized into symmetrical ‘question and
answer’ structure.
The basis of modern orchestration and instrumentation was established
in the Classical period. Instrumental combinations became
standardized. The flute and solo voice was used frequently, the roles
of the harpsichord and string instruments were reversed and the piano,
with its ability to produce gradations of dynamics, became the most
important solo instrument for Classical composers.
Composers in this period paid considerable attention to effects of
loud and soft and an enriched use of rhythm and silence was used.
There was also the use of dynamic shading, of crescendo and diminuendo
as opposed to the baroque use of contrasting levels (ripieno against
Establishing a single emotional quality and maintaining it throughout
a composition seemed constricting to the younger composers, and so the
mood of music was changeable in the same piece, with different moods
in close succession existing in Classical pieces. With the contrasting
themes of the sonata form, this thematic dualism became an essential
structural element in Classical music as opposed to the constant moods
and the principle of the basic affection of Baroque music.
The Classical Concerto
The classical concerto is a three-movement form based upon the
exchange of material between a solo instrument and the entire
orchestral ensemble (tutti).
Because it is a modified version of the classical sonata-allegro form,
the first movement of the classical concerto begins with an exposition
consisting of 3 main parts:
1) Opening tutti- principle themes are introduced, ends in the tonic
2) Entrance of the solo instrument followed by an exchange of material
3) Short tutti section to close the exposition.
The development is usually short and leads through various keys back
to the tonic. The Recapitulation is basically a repetition of the
exposition, only shorter, and with the second tutti section ending on
a six-four chord (tonic chord with the fifth in the bass). The sole
instrument then plays a cadenza- written by either the composer
himself or the performer or someone else or was improvised by the
performer, as was the case in most classical concertos. A brief tutti
section, with or without the solo instrument to conclude the movement,
then follows this cadenza.
Usually in some sort of enlarged song form, a first rondo or a
variation form, the second movement of the classical concerto is less
virtuosic and more ornamental than the first movement. The cadenza is
rarely used in the andante movement.
For a finale, the third and last movement is in a fast tempo, and,
like the last movement of the classical symphony, it is usually some
sort of rondo form. A short cadenza is occasionally used.
Horn Concerto No. 3 in E Flat- Mozart (K. 447)
Tempo: Allegro. No tempo changes
Time Signature: Common time
Rhythm: Mostly crotchets and quavers
Structure: Sonata form
Instruments: B Flat Clarinet, Bassoon, E Flat Horn, Violins, Viola,
Cello, Double Bass
Tone Colour: Happy & light, shown by the soft music, slurs and light
sound of the horn
Dynamics: Mostly played soft
Stylistic Features: Trills, cadenza, Alberti bass, homophonic,
tremolo, triplet
Exposition (bars 1-82) Development (bars 82-111) Recapitulation (bars
111-183)Starts off with the 1st theme played by Violin I and accompanied
by the strings
2nd theme starts at the end of bar 9 also by Violin I accompanied
by the strings
A codetta starts in bar 19 and leads into the soloist exposition
in bar 29. Violin II plays an Alberti bass in bars 20-24, and
syncopation in the entire orchestra (minus horn) in bar28.
At bar 36-51 is a bridge passage, which modulates into the
dominant, B flat shown by the natural placed on the A in bar 46
2nd subject starts in bar 51 first by violin I and then repeated
by the horn in bar55
Modulates into D minor in bar 60 shown by a natural sign in front
of the A and E
Codetta begins at bar 70 until development starts at 82.
Development starts in a remote key, D Flat major shown by a D flat
and G flat.
Theme in bars 85-92
Travels through various modulations in the sequence-like bars from
Recap: 1st theme in tonic by violin in bars 111-120. Taken up by
horn in 121.
Bridge passage from bars 132-139
2nd subject starts 139 by violins. Horn plays this in bar143.
Chromaticism in bars 151-152
Cadenza in bar 171
Coda from 172-end
Movement ends in a cadential 6/4 chord.
Piano Concerto No. 3 in C Minor, First Movement- Beethoven (Op. 37)
Duration: 16:58
Tempo: Allegro con brio. No tempo changes
Time: Cut common time
Rhythm: Mostly crotchets, quavers and semiquavers.
Tone Colour: Fierce, Powerful and energetic, shown by many staccatos
and sforzando.
Dynamics: Many crescendo and diminuendo, mainly loud- even fortissimo
and sforzando
Stylistic Features: a lot of trills, grace notes, Alberti bass,
cadenza, homophonic, use of rhythm and sonata form
Instrumentation: Flute, Oboe, Clarinet in B Flat, Bassoon, Horn in E
Flat, Trumpet, Timpani, Piano, Violins, Violas, Cello and Double Bass.
Exposition (1-249) Development (244-308) Recapitulation (309-443)Strings play 1st theme in unison. Oboe, bassoon and horn then
imitate melody moved up a tone, i.e. a sequence.
Starts in C minor and alternating between E Flat major and C minor
from bar 9.
2nd subject at bar 50-74, played by violin and clarinet with the
rest of the orchestra accompanying. Mainly in the relative major,
E Flat Major
Climax/codetta starts at bar 74 with an elaboration of the opening
theme played by bassoon then taken up by strings in 77 and then
orchestra with harmony
Finishes with a round of the first theme starting at bar 104
played by wind instruments then strings finishing at 111, ending
in a perfect cadence.
2nd exposition starts in bar 111with the piano playing solo scale
passages in C minor into soloists 1st subject. Strings join from
122 onwards.
Question and answer dialogue from bar131 between strings, horn and
piano. Rest of the wind instruments join in at 138. Modulates
through various keys
2nd subject starts at 114 in E Flat major with strings
Tutti comes in at 171, imitating the piano
From 199, strings accompany with the tonic-dominant theme in bar 3
until 216
Finishes the exposition with a codetta played by the tutti at 227.
Development starts in D Major, dominated by scale passages and
Canonic imitation at bars 267-271
Bars 291-309, there are various small modulations to bring the
piece to C minor
Recapitulation starts at 309 with the tutti playing the first
theme in unison
317-325 Question and answer effect using the rhythm of bar 3.
Use of alberti bass in bars 326-329
2nd subject in C Major in 340 with piano, winds take over theme
until 355
Bars 358-366 in G Major
374 in C major
Piano plays a cadenza at bar 416 ending with a trill to signal the
entrance the rest of the orchestra.
Timpani joins in tapping at 403, playing C and G-tonic dominant.
Coda starts at 417 with all instruments playing besides winds and
Whole movement ends with a scale passage in the piano accompanied
by the tutti ending with the entire orchestra on C.
Bibliography: History of Music- Hugh M. Miller

Encyclopaedia of Classical Music- General Editor: Robert Ainsley—————————————————————————————————1The Encyclopaedia of Classical Music- general editor: Robert

certain slant of light

How Nature Brings Emotions of SolemnityThe chief characteristic of this feeling drawn by the “slant of light” is its painful oppressiveness. “Oppresses,” “weight,” “hurt,” “despair,” and “affliction” convey this aspect. A large component in it is probably consciousness of the fact of death, though this is probably not the whole of its content nor is this consciousness necessarily fully formulated by the mind. Yet here we see the subtle connection between the hour and the mood. For the season is winter, when the year is approaching its end. And the time is late afternoon (winter afternoons are short at best, and the light slants), when the day is failing. The suggestion of death is caught up by the weighty cathedral tunes (funeral music possibly—but hymns are also much concerned with death) and by “the distance on the look of death.” The stillness of the hour (“the landscape listens, Shadows hold their breath”) is also suggestive of the stillness of death.
But besides the oppressiveness of the feeling, it has certain impressiveness too. It is weighty, solemn, and majestic, like organ music. This quality is conveyed by “weight of cathedral tunes,” “heavenly,” “seal” (suggesting the seal on some important official document), and “imperial.” This quality of the mood may be partly caused by the stillness of the moment, by the richness of the slanting sunlight (soon to be followed by sunset), and by the image of death, which it calls up.
The mood gives “heavenly” hurt. “Heavenly” suggests the immateriality of the hurt, which leaves “no scar”; the source of the sunlight—the sky; the ultimate source of both sunlight and death—God. The hurt is given internally “where the meanings are”—that is, in the soul, the psyche, or mind-that part of one which assigns “meanings”—consciously or intuitively—to life and to phenomena like this.
“None may teach it anything”—Both the sunlight and the mood it induces are beyond human correction or alleviation; they are final and irrevocable—”sealed.” There is no lifting this seal— this despair.
“When it goes, ’tis like the distance On the look of death”—The lines call up the image of the stare in the eyes of a dead man, not focused, but fixed on the distance. Also, “distance” suggests the awful distance between the living and the dead—part of the implicit content of the mood. Notice that the slanted ray and the mood are still with us here, but are also going. The final remarkable image reiterates the components of the hour and the mood—oppressiveness, solemnity, stillness, and death. But it hints also at relief—hopes that there will soon be a “distance” between the poet and her experience.

Composing a Piece of Music

Composing a Piece of Music We were asked to compose a piece of music that fused two different
cultures. I chose to fuse Indian Raga with western dance/club music. I
picked this because I like both Indian and Western music so it was set
fit to do a composition of the two fused together.I decided to use a keyboard for my piece because of its wide range of
voices and beats just to set my mind in what I wanted to put threw the
computer in the initial stages that is.
After that I noted down on Manuscript paper what exactly I was going
to play apart from the improvised areas which I just wrote the one
that just came in to my head first. On this I also included Chords and
a rough idea of backing notes in brackets. This was all achieved by
simple twinkling around on the piano and writing notes down as I went
along which is a skill in its self with a broken wrist so only with
one hand.
I set about thinking of a Indian top part to the music so I started
with Indian scales and progressed from there with the classical
version being popped up to produce a faster more lively scale and
Because one of are criteria was to make it danceable to I added a
computer added beat which may sound easily done but it did turn out to
be quite a task choosing what to play threw the computer what style
what tempo e.t.c.
Overall I performed my fusion piece on a keyboard with the chords and
the tune and then layed done the computer track on top after woods.

Comparing Romeo and Juliet and West Side Story

Romeo and Juliet versus West Side Story          Romeo and Juliet, West Side Story, two timeless dramas that will liveforever.  Although both of these stories have many similarities, there are alsomany differences.  These differences include the differences in sililoquy, thefact that Maria doesn’t die, the fact that we never see Tony or Maria’s parents,as well as the issues of marriage, the importance of gangs and families to eachstory.  To understand these differences, I have read and/or watched both Romeoand Juliet, and the similar tragedy, West Side Story.           Above, I named a few of the many differences between WilliamShakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and Ernest Leaman’s screenplay, West Side Story.One main difference is that in Romeo and Juliet the sililoquy is spoken while inWest Side Story there is sililoquy, but it is in song.  While both equallyexpress the character’s feelings at the moment, it is my feeling that West SideStory’s musical style brings the viewer/listener further into the play and makesthe play more effective.  An example of this is when, in Act II, Scene II, ofRomeo and Juliet, otherwise known as the balcony scene, Romeo expresses histhoughts in a sililoquy until Juliet shows up.  While in Romeo and Juliet all ofthis is spoken, in West Side Story, this is written as music shared betweenMaria and Tony.           Another major difference between these two stories is that in Romeoand Juliet, Juliet sees Romeo dead and decides to kill herself.  While, in WestSide Story, Tony (the Romeo of the play) does die – shot by Chino- Maria is notso stricken and overshelmed that she decides to kill herself.  This is veryimportant because in Romeo and Juliet, neither Romeo or Juliet is allowed tomove on with their lives.  In West Side Story, however, I’m sure Maria, althoughnot shown in the film, moves on and gets over Tony.           My theory on why the above is true, is that Romeo and Juliet are keptapart by family ties or blood; Juliet a Capulet and Romeo a Montague.  Bloodties are what family is all about and tend to be very strong bonds.  In WestSide Story the only thing holding each other back from one another are theirties to gangs; Maria, the Sharks and Tony, the Jets.  This, in my eyes, makesRomeo and Juliet’s love for one another stronger than Maria and Tony’s.  This iswhy it is easier for Maria to get over Tony.           Also a major difference between these tragedies is the issue, or non-issue as it were, of marriage.  Marriage is another tie that Romeo and Juliethave that Tony and Maria don’t.  In Romeo and Juliet’s case marriage isseriously brought up almost immediately after they meet.  In Tony and Maria’scase marriage is brought up but, only in a joking/kidding manner.  To me thisindicates that Romeo and Juliet are more grown up and ready to tackle life’schallenges, while Tony and Maria are a little more childish and unprepared forwhat they’ve gotten themselves into.           Although not a major difference, there is the absence of Tony andMaria’s parents.  This may not affect the story too much, but Romeo and Juliet’sparents come into major play in William Shakespeare’s love story or love tragedy,depending on your point of view.  In Romeo and Juliet, without Lord Capuletthere is no wedding conflict and much of the quick “thinking” doesn’t have totake place.           You may have previously thought that West Side Story and Romeo andJuliet were identical love tales.  Of course, not counting the fact that WestSide Story is obviously updated.  I hope that my report on the differencesbetween the two has finally cleared this up.  I greatly appreciated theopportunity to write this report and I certainly learned a lot from it.  I hopeyou’ve enjoyed it.

Not Looking at Pictures – Not Reading Texts

Not Looking at Pictures – Not Reading TextsOur eyes exit the frame and return to the room, where two men still stand. We walk around them to see their eyes and find both sets in motion, yet they move differently. While two paired eyes seem to move easily across the canvas, the other pair struggle-these eyes dart, they dash; and now the eyes appear to relax on a plane beyond the painting, beyond the wall on which it hangs. “Pictures,” writes E.M. Forster, bringing us into “Not Looking at Pictures,” “are not easy to look at” (130). Standing in the gallery, we are inclined to believe him, having seen St. George and the Dragon as colorless subjects and objects intermediated by verbs; here no paint has dried. Yet there must be some paint in Forster’s essay, and we would sooner see it than watch his walls go bare, for ours would go bare, too. Where Forster imagines that the dragon utters some silly things, we too have brought imagination to bear on the picture; where Forster’s vision of the picture had amazed Roger Fry “that anyone could go so completely off the lines” (131), the play of our eyes in space might have troubled the critic no less. There is some relationship between our problems, I think. Paintings are “intended to appeal to the eye,” Forster tells us in his first paragraph, and we know of no other organs that might have sensed this picture; so we do not know quite what has happened when the eyes enter a painting and the mind “takes charge instead and goes off on some alien vision” (130). The nature of a painting’s “appeal” seems to have eluded us, and I fear that our vision has moved some distance from the frame. We must realize where we stand.I have placed us within a vision of the gallery, the verbal gallery into which Forster narrates himself, helped by Roger Fry and Charles Mauron, in “Not Looking at Pictures”; we enter to see what Forster hangs on the walls. First there is “a fifteenth-century Italian predella, where a St. George [is] engaged in spearing a dragon of the plesiosaurus type”; the spear has gone through the dragon’s “hooped-up neck” (131), we read. If it has been painted by a particular fifteenth-century Italian painter, we do not know which one; if it truly hangs in a non-verbal gallery among other painted pictures, we know neither the gallery’s name nor its location. Yet it remains my expectation that Forster describes an object that verifiably exists, that he has chosen a St. George among St. Georges, one Italian painting, so that I may look at its paint. As he is seeing this picture with Fry, let us assume that the gallery is in England: there are two fifteenth-century Italian paintings of St. George in London galleries, both of whose creators are documented. In one of the paintings I see a dragon with St. George’s spear lodged in its neck, but it has been painted on canvas, not as part of an altar. The other painting is a predella, which fits Forster’s medium description, but here the dragon has taken George’s spear in the belly and, lying prone on its back, it bites the weapon. Has Forster commingled two painted St. Georges into one faulty piece of prose sketched from memory? There can be no looking at pictures of this sort, yet Forster deserves the benefit of the doubt-we draw no hasty conclusion. The St. George and the Dragon of his essay may exist somewhere as paint on canvas, but if it does it seems to have got lost in the move from experience to expression.There are other works on view in “Not Looking at Pictures,” but our eyes must rest up for their next trip to the gallery. We proceed towards the exit: “On the whole I am improving,” writes Forster in the first sentence of his essay’s last paragraph; “I am learning to get myself out of the way a little and to be more receptive, and my appreciation of pictures does increase” (133). This sentence describes an action, a small movement, a slight shift that gets “myself” out of the path of an implied object, a learned practice that, though it affords the object a free course of movement, places “myself” in a superior position to receive. But what is to be received? Forster does not tell us overtly, yet he shows us what it must be, insofar as improved appreciation is expressed in a clause conjoined to the preceding clause that describes the aforesaid movement. We can allow that to move in this particular way is to improve appreciation, but we do not yet know what Forster has learned to move, only that he calls it “myself,” and that it has hitherto diminished his appreciation of pictures; it seems to have affected his treatment of St. George and the Dragon, which he has appreciated in such a way as to forget who painted it, where he saw it, what medium had been used, and where the dragon had been speared. Paintings, we remember, are made to “appeal” to the eye; “myself,” we must conjecture, is bound up in some relationship with the eye, likewise to the mind that sets off on alien visions, and therefore to the nature of paintings’ “appeal”; with which we are deeply concerned, though we cannot interrogate it in isolation. Recalling Walter Pater’s revision of Mathew Arnold’s ‘true aim of aesthetic criticism,’ that in striving to see one’s object as it truly is, one must labor to know, discriminate, realize one’s impression thereof, we must understand that it is only through careful discrimination of Forster’s “myself” that our enquiry may truly strike the core of his “appeal.”The word “myself” has a referent in “E.M. Forster, author of ‘Not Looking at Pictures,’” but we do not go deep enough if we take this to signify Forster-discussing-Forster, as though there were a whole Forster in this text, a unitary author-man that exists without respect to time. If we can imagine ourselves perhaps 90 years into the past, there is a Forster whose feet really strike a particular gallery floor in the company of a person named Roger Fry, whose eyes strive to look at pictures and stay with them, whose body knows worldly stimuli, whose mind parses physical sensation. If we will venture back 63 years, there is a Forster whose memory has some record of galleries, St. Georges, and Fry. Though not looking at pictures is still a problem for him, his relationship to the problem has changed. And in our own time, as “Not Looking at Pictures” lies open before me, there is Forster whose I’s declare their presence, whose work it is to enfold the personal, embodied Forsters who have existed, bound by time, in timeless, impersonal literature that has body of its own, though it never walked a gallery mile. This last Forster, I believe, has mostly kept out of the way, and wants no serious repositioning. It stays near its object in this essay, the appreciator of pictures that seldom sees what the painter has painted, though nothing but paint hangs before him. We have found “myself” in the gallery, yet it has got tired of standing here, so we follow it out.There sits Forster in a concert hall, surrounded by listeners he can see and music he cannot. What to make of it? “Listening to music is such a muddle that one scarcely knows how to start describing it,” begins “Not Listening to Music.” Indeed, music can elude description for many formal reasons: unlike pictures, music exists only with respect to time-whether constrained by or free from it-so one is bound to experience music as sound over time. Another problem is that realistic representation, which seems to be the essential mode of painting by which all other modes orient themselves, does not exist in most tonal music. For these reasons, musical forms may be more difficult for lay appreciators to apprehend than visual ones. But if pictures are made to appeal to the eyes, it follows that music is made to appeal to the ears, and that if one can hear music, one ought to be able to listen to it. Forster begins describing the act of listening to music with a curious admission, telling us that “during the greater part of every performance I do not attend”-yet this man looks no different from the Forster we found in the gallery! “The nice sounds,” he continues, “make me think of something else” (127). Do our eyes deceive us; have we been duped by a Forsterian imposter? No, there sits the body, its legs draped from the seat. One foot is planted on the floor, while the other taps along to the music, emphasizing one of three counts in each measure, emphasizing the proper count for a few minutes at a time. After a while, though, the tapping foot seems to find it own tempo, its own time signature. “I do not attend,” writes Forster, though his body has not left the concert hall; this must be a special sort of attendance.Having failed to find a St. George among St. Georges, we now turn to the OED for an “attend,” finding sixteen definitions among three genuses: I. “To direct the ears, mind, energies to anything”; II. “To watch over, wait upon, with service, accompany as servant, go with, be present at”; III. “To wait for, to await, to expect.” There is work implicit in every sense of this word, in application of the mind or the senses to, in readiness to be commanded by, in anticipation of the attended, that it will command, possessing an authority to do so. In this sentence, in this essay, the attended is music, and to think of something other than music in response thereto is not to attend, to except one’s self from the network of labor and responsibility that attendance implies. Yet attendance is not merely a grim sign, for there is a rewarding moral among its signifiers: ‘attendre’ et puis ‘danser’; do work with your mind, then dance with your body. “I do not attend”: the body is not moved, cannot be moved, though the mind has wandered for its private, personal pleasure.After “. . .I do not attend,” we read, “I wool gather most of the time, and am surprised that others don’t” (127). In the paragraphs that follow, Forster shows us his mind wandering away from music, and he suggests that music may be harder to listen to than a novel is to read; this may stem from there being two sorts of music, one that does associative work, making the listener think of things other than music, and a privileged one that is designed for close listening, encouraging the listener to consider the music for its own autonomous forms. Of this privileged sort, Forster writers, “We gather a superior wool from it, still we do wool-gather, and sounds slip by blurred” (129). How we read these sentences should tell us something about why we are reading “Not Listening to Music,” what we think it might be about. Though Forster knows more about music than he overtly admits, it is not principally for music that we read his essay, though our ears remain alert. If we think that “wool-gathering” does but describe the act of not listening to music, we are not reading text. Wool-gathering ought to strike us as a uniquely chosen phrase. Though some meaning of the term has come to us through context, this is but one and, in fact, the second listed entry in the OED. Here is the first: “The action of gathering fragments of wool torn from sheep by bushes, etc.” What we took to be a general absent-mindedness or inattentiveness is, we learn, grounded in a particular practice that we have not likely encountered off the page.Here is an analogy that wants parsing: not listening to music is to wool-gathering, as listening to music is to not wool-gathering. To wool-gather is to collect small, non-whole pieces of wool that a sheep has lost gradually, perhaps unknowingly, never touching, perhaps never seeing, the sheep from which the wool has come; one attends to a bush or some other thing, which, having caught a certain amount of wool by standing in the way of sheep, has no special relationship with, reveals nothing we did not already know about wool-it grows on sheep, from which it detaches. To not wool-gather, then, is perhaps to shear larger pieces of woolen coat from a captive sheep, removing the wool thoroughly and deliberately until the whole coat has come off the sheep. So the sheep is present, restrained, movement being limited to the hand that shears, such that the wool removed is whole and substantial. But is this any way to listen to music?Let us see if we can listen to music as we do not wool-gather. First, the music’s source must be present, and we must see that it is producing the music we hear, and lastly we must end up with a complete musical form at the end, having accumulated a complete form in whole pieces. We do this steadily and consistently, with purpose, so that we may have a full piece of music when our action is complete. Now comes our time to move, to claim the music from the musicians using our ears, and we cannot do it. Time is passing, sounds are changing, and the change over time implies movement, musical movement. We sit in our chairs, essentially still, and the music moves around us, causing our eardrums to vibrate sympathetically, that is, to be moved by movement. “The sounds!” continues Forster, “It is for them that we come, and the closer we can get up against them the better” (129). What getting up against the sounds can there really be if they are always in motion? We may have come for them, but it is they who travel to us once we are properly positioned. Music itself or music that makes one think of something else, all of it is sound, and though we may travel to hear it, sound moves much faster than our feet. In the concert hall, Forster may shift in his chair a bit, but the music he is not listening to refuses to be still for an instant.We are still looking for “myself.” That it often does not attend is one thing, but how, by what means does it attend in the first place?Leaving Forster to his experiential problems, we incorporate a new one: here we stand on a geometric plane, our eyes closed, ears open. A busy noise encircles us, crashing into itself in the psycho-acoustic location from which the first noise sounded, and we open our eyes to find ourselves bound by a high wall of translucent glass bricks, segregated from a space beyond it that we have never seen; yet we know it exists without the walls by virtue of the sounds that reach our ears, a distant, muffled voice that we, having kept our mouths shut thus far, could not have made; and though we agree that the voice comes from beyond the walls, moving around our interior space, the sound is shifting, following us though we do not consciously lead. The wall, we realize, does things to the voice: some waves strike the wall’s exterior, and it resonates, while others that have struck are reflected away from us; some waves may travel over the wall, but they will collide with the wall’s interior, causing further resonance and reflection, which we hear as reverberation. Let us pause. What are the physical aspects of our problem? There is we, there is an object from which the voice we have been hearing emanated, there is a wall that cordons us from the object, and yet there is more: the voice has a physical dimension, both as expressed by the original object and as sound heard by our ears; the object has a voice, and we have heard some of it, but how much in proportion to the voice as affected by the walls, baffled by the acoustic properties of its exterior and distorted by those of its interior, we do not know. We know that we see a wall and hear sounds, but have not heard the voice, and we do not see the object.We have gone somewhere to listen to personality, but now we look at it: Experience, already reduced to a swarm of impressions, is ringed round for each one of us by that thick wall of personality through which no real voice has ever pierced on its way to us, or from us to that which we can only conjecture to be without .(60)We are poised to read a sentence from the Conclusion to The Renaissance, Pater’s prose study of Renaissance painting, that tells us what has happened to him, the paintings he has studied, and his prose in the course of looking at pictures; in so doing, he schematizes our problem. We begin: one’s “experience” with an object, “already reduced to a swarm of impressions” thereof, which cannot be equivalent to the experience itself, “is ringed round for each one of us by that thick wall of personality,” not “personality” generally but a particular sort, “through which no real voice,” a voice that was once embodied, “has ever pierced on its way to us, or. . .” We attend: “from us to that which we can only conjecture to be without” (60).Reading this sentence again, I fear that I have misunderstood, and that my misunderstanding has made me imagine the model wrongly: “we can only conjecture to be without” “Experience, already reduced to a swarm of impressions,. . .ringed round for each one of us by that thick wall of personality through which no real voice has ever pierced on its way to us,” I now read. It is “experience” that lies tattered in the center, not unknowable beyond a wall in infinite space. What fixes the space in which the former experience, the swarm of impressions (whose reduction Pater describes a few sentences earlier), exists, what encases it is “that thick wall of personality,” alienating each one of us from experience. The object has a material life and we have known it, yet we have forgotten, and then relied on coarse tools to serve our memory-we leave ourselves outside. Paterian personality, then, is not an intermediary field through which all physical sensations must pass before they reach us; it does not distill our experiences into something that is uniquely our own in a valuable way. This wall bars us from our objects, and it exists apart from us, not equivalent to us, other, neither a semi-permeable membrane nor a translucent envelope. We may take Pater’s use of the passive voice to delude ourselves if we like, believing that the wall rings itself round, that this takes place in a mystical register to which we have no access, and that we are, therefore, not implicated in the scheme, but this an unwise choice.Though we have recourse to many definitions of “personality” that seem to exonerate us from guilt in our subject-object problem, we must fly over the OED’s first definition of the word to do it, which is “The quality, character, or fact of being a person as distinct from a thing: that quality or principle that makes a being personal.” The language of this entry will not pin our problem down, yet it reinforces what we have learned from Pater by differential diagnosis: personality is neither person nor thing; it distinguishes person from thing variously, taking no specific form, but never the shape of person or thing. Yet the word “personality” is a noun, which ought to limit its variety to three familiar categories, ‘person’, ‘place’, and ‘thing’. In grammar school, these categories were always presented to me in this order, and, having just written them, I realize that I have inadvertently rewritten Pater’s subject-object schematic, and that a term has shifted: the yoke of “personality” has come off the object (or ‘thing’) and now it lies between us (‘persons’) and the object in ‘place’, where I have put it myself.What is ‘place’ as distinct from ‘thing’? We are accustomed to thinking that the items of the latter category are found in instances of the former; but are ‘things’ always found in ‘places’, and never ‘places’ in ‘things’, their relationship fixed with total rigidity? Let us consider our earthly “moon,” for surely we know what sort of noun it is. Though I remember hearing tales of a man in the moon as a child, never was I told that the moon was a man; the moon is, of course, not a ‘person’. The moon, then, is a ‘place’ or it is a ‘thing’. Men have traveled to the moon, and travel is nothing but movement from one ‘place’ to another. But what was the moon before it had been visited, before an outer space was conjectured to be without our atmosphere? It was a ‘thing’ in the sky, which was a ‘place’, for it contained a ‘thing’; it was ‘the sky in which one finds the moon’ until boots struck its surface, until a flag pole pierced the dusty floor. And yet the moon has always been the moon so long as there have been people to see it. Its verbal status, much younger than the moon itself, changed over time, but its physical state did not. Such a change in the verbal status of a ‘thing’, an object, can only be made by a ‘person’, a subject. Pater’s sentence, the problem it schematizes, our subject-object problem, is fundamentally a verbal problem, for he expresses it in verbal terms, having written it in a book of essays that binds the visual discourse to the verbal: “That thick wall of personality” is built of words, and we have built it ourselves.I have been searching for pictures in this essay that I write, while my eyes have done little seeing of their own; they need a bit more practice before I can take us back to “Not Looking at Pictures,” where Forster has hung more than we have yet seen.So I have come to the Metropolitan Museum of Art on a Tuesday afternoon, accompanied by my girlfriend, Helen, who is an art history major. We are on a working date, I think, though we have come on our separate projects; different books have brought us here, hers being fewer, heavier, and more cumbersome than mine, though they are neatly illustrated: the pictures in Helen’s books are set bare upon the pages, wanting no readerly imagination to make them visual, remaining pictures when the book is shut just as easily as when the book is laid open. Her books have sentences too, but the work they do often confuses me. Whenever I look at the pages, I feel a bit strange: here is a variously colorful rectangle, and there is a monochrome block of characters; here, I presume, is ‘art’, and there, I suppose, must be ‘history’, art existing within and often representing an historical frame, these histories of art seeming at times a bit artless. Scanning the pages of Helen’s books, I am not sure that I read art history, for the prose seems largely instructive.As we walk through a gallery of post-impressionist paintings, my eyes move across the walls, in and out of pictures: I see people and things in spaces, some of which are places, a few of which are uninhabited, thing-less scenes-moving rather quickly, my eyes do not see the strokes of paint that my I’s, my writerly declarations, do upon reflection. I move nearer the wall on my left as we walk forward. My eyes move between the space in front of me and the wall, from which I now stand only a few feet; the paintings have swollen from my nearness such that my drifting eyes see no whole picture at once. Now my eyes enter a framed space: there is a beige hand, really just an outline of one, and now an arm, and now another hand-this one is much darker than the first-and they hold a baby, the lines of whose facial features are painted thickly, especially its solid black eyes that seem to stare at me. “This is a picture of a baby held by hands,” I apprehend, and my eyes depart the painting. Helen has also been looking at it.“Van Gogh,” she begins, “painted Madame Roulin and Her Baby in 1888, during his period in residence with the family. What was the first thing you saw in the painting?” I shrug.“A hand, I think, the lower of the two-that’s what I saw.”“Impossible,” she gasps. “You saw the baby’s eyes first. He made your eyes go there by painting the picture in a certain way.” Helen has begun telling me just how the dead man did it, when I interrupt, protesting that it was actually the hand I saw first, much as I agreed that the baby’s eyes are the work’s focal points. To have seen as I maintain I did is scientifically impossible, she insists; theories of color and composition, laws of optics, preclude it; the painter, knowing such principles, made rational and conscious decisions as he painted, predetermining my visual path. “You saw the baby’s eyes first,” she pronounces, “unless there’s something wrong with your eyes.”Fearing for my sight, I return home to make a study, make a curious discovery: “There is a makeshift vase of yellow flowers on my desk as I type this sentence.” That is my first impression. I read the sentence I have just written, “There is a makeshift vase of yellow flowers on my desk. . .” and it does not tell me what I know about the thing before me, which I have moved to the floor and out of sight. I saw, and I described: my description was not equivalent to what I saw; in fact, it was so poor that it was scarcely a vision of anything. Moving the item back to my desktop, I try again. “There is a makeshift vase of yellow flowers on my desk as I type this sentence whose position has changed slightly, though the change seems negligible.” “Flowers” is on my page, but it is no match for the flowers on my desk. The I’s that I have written, placed in my sentences to signify my authorial presence in the study, do not yet do enough of the work that my eyes have done with this still-life, so I keep writing. After a few pages, “flowers” and flowers seem to be converging, and I have done it. But have I surely done it myself?Taking up “Not Looking at Pictures” once more, we reenter the gallery, hurrying past a “St. George and the Dragon” that refuses to hang stably; having once appeared to be a 15th century Italian painting of unknown authorship, the object now seems to have grown 400 years younger, British, and come into a medium a bit more various than paint on canvas. We approach three objects further down the gallery hall, “Giorgionne’s Castelfranco Madonna,” “Titian’s Entombment at Venice,” and “Velasquez’s Las Meninas,” which make it necessary to perform a bit of research outside the gallery: happily, each of Forster’s “pictures” has a discrete paint-on-canvas referent in the material world, although Titian painted at least four pictures called The Entombment during his career, most of which had been “at Venice” at some point in their histories-the picture I have selected among them seems to match Forster’s description, but one cannot be sure. Having wandered our share of miles down a verbal gallery space, we are finally treated to a look at pictures.Castelfranco Madonna and The Entombment hang next to one another, that we might see how Forster’s eyes treat them. He adverts to them in his essay as examples of pictures whose composition he has learned to identify using a special tool, the diagonal line; “When I find such a line I imagine I have gutted the picture’s secret,” he writes, before moving into and rather quickly over Castelfranco Madonna, which “has such a line in the lance of the warrior-saint” (132). Here stand a knight in armor on the left and a man wearing a frock on the right before a tall platform, where a Madonna sits on a light olive throne, a rosy red robe cloth draped over her right shoulder and across her lap, on which she cradles an infant with her right hand, her left hand grasping the throne’s hard, rectangular armrest; the knight’s wooden lance, blunt end resting on a beige tile in the monochrome parquet floor, indicating about one-third of the pictures width, rises towards the picture’s upper-left corner, crossing the knight’s left forearm, grazing his iron-clad shoulder, moving just a bit behind his helmeted head, comes to a sharp gray point in the golden haze above, from which a maroon and cream flag drapes down towards the ground.We have seen the diagonal line Forster describes, though I doubt we have gutted anything; the line, the painted lines that form the lance, was surely no secret itself, but we may use it to imagine something: though he might find it against his profession, let us repeat the lance across the picture’s vertical axis, such that it falls into the priest’s right hand, which he holds, fingers open and extended, across his right breast; now we extend both lances downward-they must pierce the parquet floor, or we betray perspective-until they meet beneath the ground. Now a V-shape safeguards Madonna in her throne, and we see that she is raised high and centered. Yet Giorgionne Giorgionne painted but one lance, one narrow diagonal form, and we have gone off the lines if we imagine any more. Whatever secrets of composition Castelfranco Madonna may have held died with Giorgionne, but this is not so lamentable. As we stand before this picture, we look at it, and see that its painter has kept nothing from us.Moving our eyes a few feet across the wall, we find The Entombment, and it seems that Forster’s eyes have done good work, for he has given us a line, not merely found one, and it gives us some direction:. . .beginning high on the left with the statue of Moses, it passes through the heads of Magdalene, Mary and the dead Christ, and plunges through the body of Joseph of Arimathea into the ground. Making a right angle to it, flits the winged Genius of Burial. And to the right, apart from it, and perpendicular, balancing the Moses, towers the statue of Faith. (132)
These are prosaic lines, and yet they move our eyes through the painted picture. Forster writes that this is one of his easiest pictures, that he looks at it intelligently, that the lines he has seen and the emotional life of the picture complement one another in his mind, and yet this picture is not easy, and the work he does with it is promising. He does not attend as long as we might like him to, offering us the “grim alcove,” “sinister tusked pedestals,” and “sounds of lamentation” before giving us color, bodily situation, lighting, and the appearance of the paint itself-and it is for them that we come, as much as we had come for the sounds in “Not Listening to Music”-but Forster makes progress looking at pictures, and our appreciation does increase.Las Meninas looms nearly life-size in the distance, though we can only guess as much before walking towards it. As our feet strike the floor, we listen for our steps and cannot make them out distinctly: scuffles and screeches bounce around this box, the gallery, filling it to a capacity we did not anticipate with our eyes; we have been joined by Charles Mauron and Forster-together we approach the picture.We near the dimly lit interior space that Velasquez has painted, and I do not know where my eyes begin. Standing before this picture, we see the backside of a very tall canvas enter the frame from the left side; a man with dark chin-length hair, holding paint brush and palette, stands before the canvas, and it casts a shadow over him. Nine more figures appear to the painter’s left, positioned at different depths. Framed rectangles appear on the back wall of this space, two of which are so lit up, suggesting particular images, not just the presence of pictures. There are three girls, dwarves, two women, a man, and a dog.But how do we begin looking at this picture for its figures; how have they been arranged? There are no diagonal lines to guide us through this picture, and so we turn to one possessing the sort of “natural esthetic aptitude” that Forster says he lacks: under the tutelage of Mauron, we are to see this picture for its waves, though the painter’s brush seems to have traced no such shape; the figures’ eyes do not signify a unified path of movement; and the bodies themselves, strewn across the dull salmon floor in such various and apparently disorganized manner, do not seem to wave at all. How can Mauron go so far off the lines; what right has he to put waves in this painting, where Velasquez has painted none? Asking this question, we have stopped looking at the picture, preferring to focus our enquiry on a Velasquez whose body, his painterly mind therein, died in 1660. What we now neglect is this picture’s only knowable painter, who is represented standing before a canvas that we cannot see; let us try looking at this Velasquez.His moustache is thick and brown, nearly black, as are his eyebrows, which hang over his sharp, crisply defined eyes. Light blue sleeves ruffle out of his dark vest, belted at the waist, on which a crimson dagger shape is emblazed, pointing down to the sharply painted brush that runs through a blurry beige shape that is a hand only by virtue of the paint brush it now seems to hold; whether its blurriness represents motion, we cannot say, but this hand that paints is paint itself, taking the form of a painted shape first, and a hand second.We have found the painter in Las Meninas, and it is over his head that the wave begins, cascading downward, sweeping over the curly auburn hair of a short, pale-skinned girl who stands in profile, bent at the waist towards a tiny girl, whose chest and upper torso are wrapped tightly in a white dress with beige overtones that blooms outward at the waist, falling to the floor almost as tablecloth from a round table; a carnation fixed to her breast, head turned slightly to her left, wispy blonde hair pinned to one side and drifting down to her shoulders, covering her ears, the girl gazes in our direction. Indeed, her eyes are so deep that we might linger in them until the gallery closes; yet we fool ourselves if we remain here too long, believing that it is we who have attracted their attention, for these are not young eyes. Over her blonde head, the wave proceeds, arcing over the head of a taller girl who stands slightly behind and to the left of the blonde girl in semi-profile, her eyes also appearing to face us; atop her head one wave ends, having given us some sense of the ceiling’s height, and another begins, swooping down over a chubby-faced female dwarf who stands facing us, exiting the frame as it moves over the head of a shabbily dressed girl who stands in profile, her left foot stepping on a dog that lies on the floor, near us in the foreground. These are waves, we must remember, not two-dimensional curvilinear outlines; they have depth, and we see one nearing us as it moves from the painter to a blonde girl, receding from us as it passes over her rightmost attendant, nearing us again as it passes over the dwarf and out of the frame. We see a small shallow wave moving across the floor, from the right edge of the painter’s canvas to the central blonde girl’s hanging dress, to the dog’s paws: this movement carves the picture’s foreground space, and, seeing that it is but a portion of the space Velasquez has painted, we may appreciate what a deep space this is.All of this seeing follows from Mauron’s “cautiously underlined” themes, and it has helped us to look at this picture, though we have gutted no secret, and more remains to be seen. We still need help seeing the picture for what it is, an enormous painted canvas. Looking for the picture’s paint, we can scarcely find any such as a brushstroke might have left. An art history text book attributes this paucity of stroke to “optical realism,” and Forster calls it the picture’s “snap-shot quality,” but neither term sits very well with me; if the painting looks the way it does because of optical devices, these glass eyes surely have a strange way of seeing, and if such a lens could be fitted to a camera. . . . Let us speak no more of the camera, for the picture has been painted, and we get ourselves in the way if we try to shoot it. Though the paint may be difficult to see, looking at the picture, we do see what the painter has painted: there is the painter himself, the subject, standing off to the side, behind his easel, the canvas placed between we who look at the painting and he who paints; and there are his objects, front and center, that he may paint them and we may look at them. What we do not see is a mirror in which the painter might find his objects, and though we might conjecture it to be without the frame, we cannot know its size, shape or location; were the easel within the picture flipped round, we might guess at the mirror’s attributes and position, but, as a museum guard taps our shoulders, we remember that only one picture stands before us, and that its flipside is bare.It has got late, and the hour has come to leave the gallery. We retrace our steps towards the exit, our eyes now following our feet, too tired to run the walls one last time. Walking, our eyes shut; we hear a new music, our steps beating regularly, keeping time for the voices that surround us. These objects we have attended will sing all night-we may depend on it. Tomorrow, they will have new listeners, and there may be more song; tonight we leave our objects, not alone, but to themselves.As we walk down the gallery’s concrete steps towards the avenue, no longer considering pictures, feeling a bit hungry and wondering where we might eat, not watching our feet as they shuffle towards the sidewalk, now feeling a bit relieved that our eyes’ work is done, a city bus enters our field of view. It rumbles up to the curb, heaving to a halt; we hear a hissing, as the bus’s suspension lowers it to the ground; the doors fly open, and a few passengers exit. The bus’s doors close, it lunges from the curb, and we see a thin rectangular space pulling away from us: here was color, here was shape, here was text before the bus left us for its next stop; it had been an advertisement, perhaps one we had seen before, not likely worth our time or attention. Sitting down on the steps only moments later, the entire bus has become a problem. And yet buses do not become problems; buses are always buses, though they may seem problematic when we encounter them ourselves. Bringing our selves to bear on these objects, in the gallery or on the street, whether by accident or by choice, we begin to realize our subject-object problem. The gallery closes, the bus leaves for good, but the problem will not, cannot leave us. Our objects come and they go, only to be replaced by new ones. We are our selves, and though we may not know who we are or what we are like, we are present, wherever we might find ourselves, whatever objects complicate our presence. “Not looking at art leads to one goal only,” ends “Not Looking at Pictures”; “Looking at it leads to so many” (134). Looking at Forster’s art has led us, I think. But even as the body of a text offers up its last contour, though we say we have read this essay, looked at that painting, watched an ordinary city bus make a stop and considered the event no further, we find a conclusion only where we have tired of working. Looking at an artful essay, not just reading one and considering it read, we must know that the work we do as readers does not end on the last page: if we strive to be led, we will find ourselves moved from the end to the beginning anew; we will not only re-read, but re-see the text with older, wiser eyes, with a set of readerly expectations that have been transformed by the text that we read. If my essay truly ends with this sentence, I have done a poor job of writing it.Works CitedForster, E.M. Two Cheers for Democracy. New York and London: Harcourt, 1951.Giorgionne. Castelfranco Madonna. Oil on wood. Duomo, Castelfranco Veneto, ca. 1506.Pater, Walter. Selected Writings of Walter Pater, Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Columbia, 1974.Titian, The Entombment. Oil on Canvas. Madrid, 1576.Velasquez, Diego. Las Meninas. Oil on canvas. Madrid, 1656.

Descriptive Narrative: The Wash Pub

Descriptive Narrative: The Wash Pubthe noise. This place sounds more like a bar than a laundry mat. There is music playing,beeping from the arcade games, a metal fan going, tumbling noises from the dryers, andwet clothes being thrown around in the washers. I can barely keep my train of thought.The humidity in the room made it very uncomfortable. The smell on the other hand isgreat it smells so clean and warm. The room was filled with many different people.There were college students, families, people that were by themselves, screaming babiesand a few senior citizens. The room is fairly large with dinghy white walls that have amoldy green border running along the bottom. The floor is covered with white vinyl tilesthat have hints of blue in it and about twenty empty laundry baskets. You probablywould never notice the blue though due to hundreds of black scuffs and old dirty gumthat covered most of the floor. The ceiling looks very industrial much like one thatwould be in a warehouse or factory. It is made up of tons of black metal pipes. To theleft of the front doors is a huge bulletin bored displaying a variety of signs advertisingeverything from used cars to Avon products. There is also a gigantic world atlas on thewall that is only partly visible because of the three arcade games standing in its way.Hanging from the ceiling there is a t.v monitor playing the news. In front of the arcadegames is a round wooden table accompanied by two dark green plastic chairs and a cokemachine with a faint buzz. To the right of the doors there is a large window that canbarely be seen out of. In front of the window is a green newspaper stand and ten redtwenty-five cent machines that contain an assortment of different candies and fakejewelry. In the clutter of twenty five-cent machines stands a tall beige scale that claimsto be able to tell your fortune by your weight. Behind that mess is another round woodentable surrounded by three more dark green lawn chairs. Sitting beside the table is a largeroaring metal fan. Hanging above the table is a surveillance camera an another t.vmonitor that displays what the camera picks up. In the center of the room there is amuddle of noisy washing machines. In both the first and last rows are ten white washingmachines similar to household ones. Between the white washers are fourteen stainlesssteel washing machines and a small lounge area. These washers are not similar tohousehold ones. They look like huge metal boxes and have a round clear window thatreveals the inside of the washer. The lounge is in the middle of the steel washingmachines and enclosed by wood railing that has two openings to get in it. A blue tweedcarpet that looks worn covers the floor. The lounge also contains two round woodentables and four blue chairs where college kids can do their homework or just stare at thewet laundry swirling around through the clear windows in the steel washers. On the backwall there is a detergent vending machine called “The Soap Stop” that dispenses manydifferent kinds of detergent and fabric softeners. Beside “The Soap Stop” is changemachine that is black with a big green money symbol on it. There are two wooden doorsin the back of the room. One is labeled with the word women in black lettering and theother labeled men. On the wall to the right are fourteen dryers that are built into the walland warm to touch when in use. Above the dryers are a few signs with warnings anddisclaimers on them. On the other wall are eleven more built in dryers. A few of thesedryers are labeled with signs that say out of order. Finally above these dryers there is aplain round clock similar to the ones you would see in a classroom. As I walked out thedouble glass doors I was filled with relief. The clutter of the room was distracting anddifficult to write about. The noises in the room were becoming unbearable so it felt goodto now hear nothing but a few crickets chirping and some leaves blowing in the wind.Bibliography:

Free College Admissions Essays: A Mind Expanding Experience

A Mind Expanding ExperienceIn reflecting upon my experiences in Singapore, I have nothing but good things to say. Overall, it was a most valuable experience, and I hope I have other such opportunities in my life. First of all, I truly enjoyed the chance to travel overseas to a place full of diversity and excitement. I have not traveled overseas before, and this experience was incredibly worthwhile. Being able to say that I have gone where few people in Duluth have traveled is extraordinary! In the past, I have seen the East Coast, the majority of the South, parts of the Midwest, and many provinces in Canada, but never a greater change in landscape, culture, and education as I did in Singapore. It was an utterly remarkable trip! Secondly, I had the opportunity to meet many new people in Singapore — even people from different parts of the United States. I have made numerous new acquaintances and good friends all from distinct places in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of my precious new friends come from Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia, just to name a few. We were able to communicate well with each other; thus, we shared much laughter, ideas, wisdom, and camaraderie during those two weeks. Furthermore, it was a pleasant change to have the majority of students, especially the Asians, be polite and mannerly — something that is not always existent in our American lifestyle. For example, the young men many times offered me their seats if I did not have one, or if I happened to be in line to get a beverage and was trying to balance a plate of food as well, the person in front of myself would offer me his or her full cup and take my empty one for his or herself! It was quite nice to have the men acting like gentlemen, which everyone should have the courtesy to do, whether they reside in America or in the Asia-Pacific region. The people at this function were again extremely kind, helpful, and conversant, and it made my trip ever so much more gratifying and amusing! Thirdly, I was exposed to an entirely different culture, as previously mentioned. One astounding feature for myself was to be put in a minority situation. In the United States, the Caucasian race comprises the majority of the population, with African-Americans, Asian-Americans, Native Indians, and Hispanic-Americans each encompassing only a portion of the society. In Singapore, Asian is the dominant race, completely inverting the circumstance in the United States. In fact, being part of a minority completely changed my outlook while I was in Singapore. Before traveling there, I had a fixed idea of what every Asian was like. I did not realize that every person there is just as unique as anyone here in America is! Being in Singapore made me change my perspective on the Asian individual and their lifestyles. I now have a greater understanding of the culture, daily life, and education. In addition, I also had the opportunity to participate in the Homestay Program. During those hours with my host, I again had the chance to witness the Asian and Singaporean existence. While with my host, I saw local markets, shopping areas, the inside of a Singaporean flat, ate true Chinese and Indian cooking, and overall had a wonderful time experiencing the “real” Singapore. The Cultural Exchange performances were also exhilarating and intriguing. I was able to see native dress, dance, and music that I would normally not have seen otherwise. The performances were quite dramatic, but it gave me a true sense of the abundance of tradition and customs upheld in these Asia-Pacific economies. The Singaporean civilization is quite different than northern Minnesota, yet it has a unique and phenomenal personality all its own! The major opportunity I received in Singapore was the chance to learn. It is impossible to recount all of the experiences I had with intelligent people, exciting sites, and the shared wisdom between participants and myself, but I will try to give an overview of all the significant happenings. Firstly, the learning began even before my arrival in Singapore! In San Francisco, during our orientation and preparation, I had the pleasure to hear Donald L. Dahlsten speak on biological control. His presentation was very interesting as I have not done research in this area, and I did not know the extent to which biological control is utilized. Next, upon my arrival in Singapore, I heard from Teo Chee Hean, Minister for Education and Second Minister for Defense, and others, at the opening ceremony. Hearing from these speakers was engaging and informative, and I learned even more the magnitude of APEC, the Youth Science Festival, and the work towards educating the young minds of today on science and technology! From there I saw displays from area students and the participating economies on their work in the science and engineering fields. It was interesting to see the diversity of each country’s and each student’s work. One of the most beautiful places where I learned during my stay in Singapore was the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. It is the highest point in Singapore (164 meters) and one of only two locations in the world that has a piece of primary rainforest right in the heart of a city! The scenery was beautiful and the spot was perfect to prepare a presentation on the Nature Reserve. My group then presented our Power Point display to other groups who had traveled to different sites. In addition to experiencing the lush rainforest of Bukit Timah, I also had the chance to hear about other localities. These included the Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research and MacRitchie Reserve Park. All of the tours taken by every group demonstrated how nature can survive in the midst of a bustling city. The next day I heard lectures from renowned scientists and scholars. In particular, I listened to Professor Kevin Warwick and Professor Casey Chan Kwan-Ho. Professor Kevin Warwick, of the United Kingdom, spoke about super intelligent machine and cyborgs, and the role they may play in the future. He believes that combining technology into humans may be the best way to progress into the future— electronics in the brain controlling movements, using thoughts to move and perform certain tasks, etc. The second speaker, Prof. Casey Chan, talked about how to successfully invent, patent, and market a product. One of the most important things to remember, he said, is persistence because that makes all things possible in the world of inventing! That day I also went to Little India on my Heritage Trails. We visited a Hindu temple, a parrot astrologer, spice and garland shops, and other interesting sites. Other great places I visited during the week were the Singapore Science Centre, the Nanyang Technological University, and the National University of Singapore, and I also heard another lecture, this time about the Human Genome Project from Professor Lap-Chee Tsui. Although all of these experiences left my mind full of enlightenment, none were quite so beneficial as the Youth Science Summit. My group was in the theme conference of Diseases. Our conference paper was on HIV/AIDS and the potential solutions to this worldwide problem. One of solutions, also voted one of the best two solutions in our conference, was a new prototype of a HIV vaccine where a protein coat from RNA in the HIV disease is extracted and put into E. Coli where it multiplies and forms antibodies which are subsequently injected back into the body in a purified form as a vaccination. Listening to the other groups presentations, I was able to learn a multitude of information about copious diseases, including malaria, genetic abnormalities, and lifestyle diseases. During this summit, all of the conference’s participants discussed critical disease issues, made recommendations, and proposed solutions to the ever-present disease problems that will be facing us, as adults, in the future. As you can see, I learned so many useful ideas, problems, solutions, and facts during this very short stay in Singapore! It was an honor to be selected by AAAS to travel to Singapore on this fantastic science journey. I learned ever so many things about the culture (including the traditions, customs, and day-to-day life of a Singaporean), about the manners and personalities of the Asia-Pacific people, and the up-to-date occurrences and facts on some of the most important science and technology issues. In its entirety, the trip to Singapore was most beneficial, not to mention fun! I believe that this trip and the multitudinous things that I learned will stay with me forever and moreover, will be extremely instrumental in the years to come!

Why The Banjo Makes America Great

Do you know what a banjo is? In case you don’t, a banjo is a four to six stringed instrument with a drum for a head. You probably know that is it played in country and bluegrass bands and might be seen in hillbilly movies. Unfortunately, you might also believe that it’s an annoying instrument and has no place in music today. This just may change your mind.
It was invented in the early 1800’s by African slaves imitating instruments from their own country. The instrument most likely imitated was the banjar which was commonly made from a hollowed out gourd. Because of its origins, the banjo was an instrument untouched by white society until, according to, “A young man named Joel Walker Sweeney, of Appomattox Court House, VA, learned to play a four- string gourd banjo at age 13, from the black men working on his father’s farm.” When he was older, Joel added a shorter fifth string to the banjo, and started to tour. Until this time, all performances on the banjo seem to have been from black players. Joel started to travel around the country playing his banjo. This was the first time a banjo had preformed in concert halls and people found it new and exciting. The banjo continued to increase in popularity from here on out. Soon minstrel and darkie bands popped up all over the country and performed in crowded concert halls, saloon theatres, wherever they were needed. Darkie bands were called so because they rubbed burnt cork on their face to appear as if they were from the Deep South. In 1857, minstrel banjo playing reached a high point as the first banjo contest ever was held in New York City. Over half the city attended this stunning event, in which, everyone was cheering and shouting for their favorite banjo player creating a huge uproar. The winner of this competition was a man named Tom Briggs who played for the Christy Minstrels. He was sent on a tour to California, where he and his band would go on tour. Unfortunately, on the boat trip through Panama, Briggs contracted a fever of which he died shortly before he arrived. A few years after this event, the Civil War began and spread the banjo even further.
During the Civil War, many banjo players joined in both the Confederate and Union armies. The players who joined were mostly amateurs and taught each other the banjo for enjoyment between fighting. Throughout the war, banjoists were constantly sought out for units because during the lulls between battles there wasn’t anything to do other than listen to music. A banjo was a valuable spoil when found among the dead, even if you couldn’t play it. If you had the good fortune to find one, chances were that if you didn’t know how to play it, someone in your brigade could teach you. Because of the reaches of the American Civil War, the banjo spread west further than it had gone before. According to,” The minstrel show, playing the popular music of the day, continued to be the biggest influence on the popularity of the banjo, not only in the West, but in the entire nation, as well as England and Australia. Of course, the most popular minstrel troupes, like Christy’s Minstrels, Buckley’s Serenaders, The Congo Melodists, and The Virginia Minstrels, to name a few, remained on Broadway in New York and other big Eastern cities where they reigned for fifty years.” The banjo also returned to the mining camps out west and could be heard at night around the fires in camps. If a town was large enough to have a theatre, opera house, or show hall, or even a saloon with a stage, chances are that there was a banjo in there and chances were that it would fill the hall. In fact, some of the high-class member in American society believed that the banjo should be an orchestra instrument.
Probably the most drastic change in banjo history was influenced greatly by a man named Earl Scruggs, a man who began playing the banjo at an early age. Earl learned the style that was relatively common in his native town of Flint Hill, North Carolina; a style called three finger picking. The banjo was usually strummed upon but the three finger style made sharp crisp notes and was similar to the way a fiddle is played. By the time earl was in the 3rd grade he had already designed his own banjo tunes. Before World War Two, Earl was a professional musician who worked with his brothers. During the war, he quit to work in a textile mill. After the war, he joined a band called the Bluegrass boys led by Bill Monroe. This is where he became famous and changes the banjo forever. The banjo used to be a supporting instrument and got very little spotlight time. However, when Scruggs got his spotlight, according to, “Scruggs was dead serious in the spotlight, and the avalanche of notes that cascaded from his banjo astounded audiences. Neil V. Rosenberg notes in Stars of Country Music that Scruggs’s version of banjo picking “sounded fresh, new, and exciting, especially at the higher pitch and tempos of the Blue Grass Boys.” Monroe was quick to capitalize on the talents of his young protege. Malone writes: “In the three-year period from 1945 to 1948 the banjo assumed a prominence in Monroe’s music that it had never enjoyed in any previous band…. Throughout the nation, largely unnoticed by the more commercial world of country music, a veritable ‘bluegrass revolution’ got underway as both fans and musicians became attracted to the music.” The Bluegrass Boys were always a favorite on the Grand Ole Opry, a radio show broadcast from Nashville, Tennessee, that has been continuously running since 1925. In 1948, Scruggs formed his own band called “Flatt and Scruggs and the Foggy Mountain Boys” The banjo quickly became the lead intrument in bluegrass music. They wrote the theme song for the Beverly Hillbillies and regularly starred as guests on the show, usually being introduced as a cousin or uncle. By 1963, “Flatt and Scruggs” was as popular as Coca-Cola. In 1968, the movie Bonnie and Clyde was realeased in the US immortalizing the two criminals life and ironically the banjo. Earl Scruggs had written a score for the movie called Foggy Mountain Breakdown. This is the song that is considered epitome of banjo music. With a fast pace, difficult riffs, pinches, hammers, and pulls, Foggy Mountain Breakdown is known as the hardest tune to play on the banjo as well as on many other instruments. Today, any bluegrass band worth their snot can play this song.
From Joel Sweeney to Earl Scruggs, the banjo has had an amazing, but little known history. It has been slandered, beaten, and spat upon by people who don’t understand it’s interesting nature. It has travelled over seas and has camped in the desert. It is an instrument to which we owe many folk songs and country bands. In fact, the banjo dominated over a century of music. Where it will go next, no one knows.


ListenersMy hands were dirty. I was playing in the mud with the Dolinger’s up the street when I heard the bell ringing faintly in the distance. It was time to go home. A sweet soft summer breeze pushed me down Delaware Av. to my house on the corner. This same warm fresh breath of air then gracefully passed through the windows of my living room and finally escaped my home overflowing with music.
I walked into a dark and cool living room, my sisters not far behind me. We were immediately greeted with the pleasantly pungent odor of cigar smoke and the powerful music of Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue. My dad was lying on the couch, his eyes closed, listening. Only the light above the kitchen stove was on.
He would invite and encourage us to listen with him. Since we were only 5 and 6 we would naturally prefer to mindlessly watch the Brady Bunch. But on occasion, I remember sitting and listening with him. I remember dancing around the room or lying on cool hardwood floors. I remember feeling the vibrations of the speakers through the floor, tickling my body, imprinting the notes on my soul. My dad provided an environment in which we might learn to appreciate the enriching sounds of various musical genius’s from Copland to the Grateful Dead. He gave me an amazing gift, the opportunity to learn how to simply listen.
Sweets sounds, melodies, rhythms and beats, have been changing and growing for as long as man has walked the earth. Music is not just a pastime or entertainment, but a method of communication, of identification, of bonding, and learning about other people and cultures around the world. As I grew older, I learned that music or rather the listeners of such enrapturing sounds, make up a very powerful and unique community.
Music has always been apart of my life. However, it did not begin to recognizably contribute to my own personal development until sixth grade when my then best friend of six years, Colleen, and I began to “travel down two different paths”. While I was beginning to seriously commit my time to dance, she was going to cheerleading. When she quit the band, I decided to continue on with the Orchestra. Our interests and tastes had begun to diversify with the most significant difference being what we enjoyed listening to. I was beginning to listen to the music of such performers as Hot Tuna and Prince while she was going to see the Spice Girls, Backstreet Boys, and N’SYNC. Moreover I was beginning to feel a strong preference to not listen to generic and formulated music.
By the time I entered high school I was beginning to listen to a lot of classic rock. I remember lying on my bed, looking up at the skylight, listening to the music of The Doors, Cream, Grateful Dead, Led Zeppelin, and Jimi Hendrix. I would often wear a big black clunky pair of headphones which were almost as comforting as the music itself, sealing of the outside world from the experience I was having with the music.
Now it is one thing to listen to music alone, but the true art of listening is achieved only when you learn the importance of sharing the sweet sounds with someone else. Moreover, this realization allowed me to begin to build relationships and friendships with people who also loved music. As I look back at my high school experience, I now realize that the majority of my close friendships were the product of shared listening. I also found that I was deeply attracted to individuals who were listening to something I had never known existed.
It was sophomore year, winter. I was standing outside the gym in my black spandex and a grey sweatshirt. I had just come in from running a warm up mile and was conversing with several other members of the indoor track team. And there he was. He was tall and had thick afro-ish curly blond hair, a quirky smile, a contagious laugh, and was wearing a most amusing beat up black shirt with the chest of a skeleton appropriately printed on. I was drawn to this friendly figure and approached him.
“What are you listening too?” I asked.
He looked down at me and smiled, “Jimi Hendrix man, Driving South for sure.” We introduced ourselves and the conversation evolved into an interesting conversation of music ranging from classical to psychedelic. By the time our coach had come gave us our workout for the day, Chris and I had agreed that we were going to have a radio show the following year. And that was that, I had just made a strong friendship that still remains today.
Chris and I did not necessarily listen to the same kind of music all the time. In fact, we both listened to a lot of different bands and musicians that we had each never heard of before we had shared the music with the other. Every Tuesday of that following spring we would come together after school, our arms filled with CD cases. We would dump all the music on the counter of a 10 × 6 room filled with sound equipment. We had an exceptionally long slot which begun at 2:30 and would last as long as five and a half hours. Our music lay strategically placed around us. He would take the switchboard and I would answer the calls.
And thus we would begin our ritual. We would listen. Sometimes we put on a full album, perhaps the Pink Floyd’s Dark Side of the Moon or Meddle or The Who’s Tommy and just go sit out on the sunken couches in the “living room” of the radio station and just talk. We would talk about what we wanted to play next, what happened in school that day, or enjoy the quiet silence of simply listening to some amazing music.
Chris and I and whatever was playing at the time made up a beautiful, magical, and extremely unique community. We would come together and share our thoughts, our music, and ourselves. Moreover, we actually had a “listening community”. We would often get calls from students or middle age men, all who identified with the music we were playing. We were friends who were friends of other listeners and we all knew that no matter what drama was going on that week we would always have music. We had our radio show, the method of meeting for our community to sit back and listen. We had a lot of favorite friends. Frank Zappa would visit on occasion with Sifl and Ollie, “the talking socks”. Coldplay would often follow in behind Ben Harper and then David Bowie would come in to wind up the show after Classic Kennedy. And then we would put Echoes on at the end of every show. Yes, the echoes run through my head.
So where is the music? Music lies in the background of everyone’s lives. When you are watching T.V., there is music in commercials and in the opening credits of your favorite show. There are even whole cable stations that devote their programming to music. When you are pushing your cart around Walmart or Superfresh, you are listening to some radio station projected through the speakers throughout the store. When you are driving in your car or riding on the bus, you are most likely listening to music. Even when you are walking to class or working out in the gym, you are listening to music. We are surrounded my music constantly.
Music is in all our lives. Those who truly listen, listen with others and are sharing similar experiences. Listening is a community that exists beyond culture, age, race or gender. Listening has no boundaries, no right, and no wrong. You need to feel it, accept it, and enjoy those sweet sounds. It is a community that everyone has the opportunity to be apart of in their own willingness to take the time to really embrace what this masterful art has to share with you. And it is this community of listeners that I know will always be there, no matter where I am, because they are always out there, the listeners. All you have to do is ask, “What kind of music do you listen to?”

music history

An orchestra is an organized body of bowed string instruments, with more than one player to a part, to which may be added wind and percussion instruments.In the Greek theater the term denoted the semi-circular space in front of the stage where the chorus sang and danced; in the Roman theater is was reserved for the Senators’ seats,Throughout the years the size and strength of orchestras across the world have varied. In the mid-18th century the orchestra of the Berlin Opera had 12 violins, 4 violas, 4 cellos, and 3 double basses; 4 flutes, 4 oboes, and pairs of bassoons and horns. Such instruments as trumpets and drums were engaged as needed. A century later in Dresden the court orchestra employed 16 violins—4 each of violas, cellos, and double basses; 4 each of flutes, oboes, and clarinets and 3 bassoons; 5 horns, 4 trumpets, 3 trombones, and timpani. During the same time the London Philharmonic seemed to strive for a far richer sound, engaging 16 first violins, 16 second violins, 10 violas, 8 cellos, and 7 double basses; 3 flutes and pairs of oboes, clarinets, and bassoons; 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, and timpani.
Between Beethoven’s first and ninth symphonies (1800 and 1823) and Schubert’s first and ninth (1813 and 1828), the concept of the symphony orchestra was expanded and enlarged. Over the course of the three decades, the orchestra became a vehicle for expressing a composer’s most serious thoughts and not simply an instrument heard in secondary role in the church, the theater, and at festive entertainment’s. But in the later 19th century such symphonic composers as Anton Bruckner (1824—96) and Gustav Mahler (1860—1911) significantly expanded the orchestra’s size.
Orchestra sizes reached its highest in the early 20th century with such works as Arnold Schoenberg’s ‘Gurrelieder’ (1901), scored for massive orchestra, and Gustav Mahler’s ’ Symphony No. 8 ‘, the “Symphony of a Thousand.” The American composer Roger Sessions wrote his ’Symphony No. 2’ (1946) for the 100-plus members of the New York Philharmonic, and the spirit of this lush, romantic work was carried on in the 1960s and 1970s by such composers as David del Tredici and Jacob Druckman, whose works are said to belong to the “new romanticism.”
Because wind parts are performed by a single musician apiece, the number of wind players has remained minimal since the 19th century, but the size of the string section has fluctuated widely among orchestras. In the symphony engaged by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), there are 20 first violins, 18 seconds, 14 violas, 12 cellos, and 8 double basses. In a great American ensemble such as the Philadelphia Orchestra, there are 17 first violins, 16 seconds, 12 violas, 12 cellos, and 8 double basses, providing a rich and forceful sound. A reason for these expanded contemporary string sections can be found both in the larger size of today’s concert halls—auditoriums regularly seat more than 3,000 people.

The Uses of Design and Language in the Creation of DVD Covers

The Uses of Design and Language in the Creation of DVD Covers- Around the character on the front cover we can see names of all the
stars that are in this film, the title of the film, any awards the
film has won, and there are also warning on the front cover because of
the amount of language, violence and nudity within the film.
- The back cover carries a blurb of the film, stills from the film and
lists any and all special features theDVDhas.
- There are also a lot of promotions for Eminem’s songs and music
videos, which will further promote both his rap and film careers.
- Eminem sitting down by himself writing on his hand, he is most
probably writing song lyrics, as he is a rap icon and this film is
based around rap battles
- The only visible prop in the shot is the pen that Eminem is writing
on his hand with. This is representational of the characters lifestyle
in the film as an up and coming rapper
- Eminem has a very determined, concentrated look on his face, this
may have to do with the fact he is writing song lyrics on his hand and
is concentrating on them.
- The dark tone of theDVDcover is also representative of the dark
tone of the film, which highlights Eminem’s characters hardships and
his poor quality of life.
Dress Codes:
- Eminem is dressed all in black, which is quite representative of the
black culture in which Eminem’s character and Eminem himself lives in.
- The dark clothes that Eminem wears on theDVDcover accurately
reflects the dark tone of the film
It is clearly stated on theDVDcover that this film is intended for a
more mature audience (ages 15+) due to the amount of language, nudity
and violence contained within the film.
This particular film will appeal to fans of Eminem and his music, and
fans of rap culture in general. Also the film deals with a lot of
black culture, which will appeal to a more ethnically diverse
The blurb on the back of theDVDcover clearly describes the narrative
of the film, yet only gives us a taster in order to hook the audience
into wanting to watch the whole film.
The genre of the film is anchored in the image on the front cover.
Eminem is a famous rap star and the front cover clearly depicts him
writing on his hand, strongly suggesting to us that this film will be
rap orientated, which is incidentally described to us on the back of
- The front cover of theDVDis taken up with a close up shot of Cate
Blanchett’s character in the film, Charlotte Gray.
- Text underneath the image on the front cover tells us the title of
the film, the actors starring in the film, the film company that
produced the film, and the tagline for the film “She put her life on
the line to find the man she loved”
- The back cover of theDVDgives us a synopsis of the film, tells us
the special features on theDVD, and it has endorsements for the novel
“Charlotte Gray” and another novel by the same author.
- There is a silhouette on the back of theDVDof a man and a woman
hugging each other.
- The film itself is set in 1943 during world war two, this is stated
on the back of theDVD- We can see the couple on the back of theDVDcover hugging on a
desolate dirt road with bare trees nearby, suggesting its autumn.
- The war theme of the film is emphasised by the fighter planes in the
image with spotlights below them.
- There are no props to speak of on thisDVDcover
- The couple hugging in the background suggests that this film will be
a love story
- The soft colours don’t suggest an action film, which is typical of
the World War 2 genre.
- The determined look on Cate Blanchett’s face is very representative
of the struggle she will undergo in the film.
Dress Codes:
- There are no real visible dress codes to speak of except that the
clothing worn looks typical of the time in which the film is set
This film will appeal to all fans of the Charlotte Gray book and any
fans of the books author. A largely female audience will be interested
in this film because of the strong female representation within the
Also, this film will appeal to a largely British audience because of
both the British film company that produced this film (film four) and
the strong British roots within the film.
The synopsis on the back of theDVDcover clearly describes the
narrative of the film, yet only gives us a taster in order to hook the
audience into wanting to watch the whole film.
The genre of the film is anchored in the images seen on theDVDcover.
We can see a close up image of the protagonist of the film on the
front cover, the tag line strongly suggests that this film will be a
love story, this is backed up by the image of the couple hugging on
the back on theDVDcover.
The fighter planes and spotlights on the back of theDVDcover enforce
the World War 2 aspect of the film.

College: Time To Finally “shed My Skin”

College is the greatest opportunity in the world. Where else would I be able to study what I want to study, rather than what I am made to study? Nothing sounds better to me than going to school everyday and learning about subjects and issues than I am realy interested in.In college I intend to major in psychology and minor in music. I have chosen psychology because I am interested in studying the human mind and why people behave and act the way they do. I am interested in working with children and adolescent at risk. I am almost certain that this will be a profession I will love and feel good about. I wish to minor in music because I love music and have a need to learn more about it. If possible, I plan to combine these two areas of study in my future career. Perhaps in the field of music therapy.

The Elements of Writing

Elements of writting2. Writer’s Goal By art to attain simplicity.3. A good style is simple and powerful, like a wave breaking on a beach.4. Simplicity La Bruyère, knowing that many writers make the mistake of expressing simple things in a complex way, gave this advice to writers: “if you want to say that it is raining, say: ‘It is raining’.” Simplicity is the mark of good prose, and it’s also a virtue in other branches of culture, such as architecture. The chief virtue of Greek architecture is simplicity.The Greeks regarded simplicity as both a cultural virtue and a moral virtue. “Beauty of style,” wrote Plato, “and harmony and grace and good rhythm depend on simplicity—I mean the true simplicity of a rightly and nobly ordered mind and character.”(1) If there is one quality that is lacking in modern art, in modern architecture, and in the modern soul, it is simplicity.5. Clarity Serious writers strive to be understood, strive for clarity. Bad writers, on the other hand, aren’t afraid of being obscure as long as they can make the reader think, “What an extensive vocabulary! What learning! What talent!” The surest sign of bad prose is the use of uncommon words where common words would suffice.Clarity can be achieved by the repetition of certain words. Repetition is more comprehensible for the reader than variety. As Anatole France said, “You will find in my paragraphs a word that comes over and over again. That is the leit-motiv of the symphony. Be careful not to delete and replace it by a synonym.”(2) One of the most common stylistic mistakes is avoiding repetition, and replacing a previously-used word with a synonym.
But clarity alone doesn’t make good prose; clarity must be combined with brevity. Good prose is so concise that every word has the importance of an italicized word.6. Five Techniques A good writer makes skillful use of five techniques: he addresses someone, gives orders, asks questions, makes exclamations, and repeats certain words. Addressing someone is sometimes described as the vocative case, while ordering someone, telling someone what to do, is sometimes described as the imperative case.Shakespeare uses the vocative case, followed by the imperative case, when he makes Juliet say, “Romeo, doff thy name.” Melville gives us an example of exclamation when he writes, “Nantucket! Take out your map and look at it.” This passage also uses the imperative case. Thoreau gives us an example of the repetition of certain words when he writes, “Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity! I say, let your affairs be as two or three, and not a hundred or a thousand.” This passage also uses exclamation. In one line of poetry, Virgil uses three techniques: he repeats a word, he addresses someone, and he asks a question: “Ah, Corydon, Corydon, what madness seized you?”(3) In a passage in his novel, The Castle, Kafka uses four techniques: he addresses someone, asks a question, makes an exclamation, and repeats certain words: “Do you hear that, Frieda? It’s about you that he, he, wants to speak to Klamm, to Klamm!”7. Best Style Though it’s possible to lay down rules for style, though it’s possible to describe the ideal style, it’s impossible to teach someone to write great prose. Style is an expression of personality. Great prose writers don’t follow rules, they follow their taste. Great prose writers are born, not made.Style and content are of equal importance; literature is a combination of style and content. Only a philistine would overlook style, and only a pedant would overlook content. If style is pursued for its own sake, it becomes artificial; style should be the vehicle of thought. In order to write well, one must have something to say. If one has something to say, if one has profound ideas and strong convictions, style comes naturally. Great thinkers are great stylists, and great stylists are great thinkers. Plato, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche are considered models of Greek style, Danish style and German style respectively, and they’re also the deepest thinkers that those three nations have produced. Emerson is the deepest thinker that America has produced, and also America’s best prose writer.8. Nicknames, store names, and advertising are the poetry of everyday life, and one finds in them many of the techniques that one finds in poetry.9. Reader and Writer Reading is often a kind of friendship. The reader gets to know the author, and if he likes him, if he feels akin to him, a kind of friendship develops. (The saying “opposites attract” may apply to love, but it doesn’t apply to friendship; friendship is based on kinship, on similarity of character.) Sometimes reading leads to actual friendship, friendship between living people; Emerson and Carlyle, for example, became friends after Emerson read Carlyle’s writings. More often, however, reading leads to friendship at a distance—a distance in space or a distance in time.The writer is sometimes a father figure rather than a friend. Shakespeare was a father figure to Goethe, and Schopenhauer was a father figure to Nietzsche. When a young reader idolizes a writer, he often wants to imitate the writer, to model his whole life after the writer. The young Victor Hugo, for example, said that he wanted to be “Chateaubriand or nothing.” The young reader envies the accomplishments of the writer he admires, he wants to accomplish as much himself, and he’s discouraged when he thinks of the great distance that separates him from the writer he admires. Like a hiker setting out to climb Mt. Everest, he feels that he must work hard, and strain himself to the breaking point, in order to reach his goal.
The sons of today are the fathers of tomorrow, and the youth who reveres a writer may someday become a revered writer himself. Nietzsche realized that he would someday be an idolized and envied father figure, just as Schopenhauer had been a father figure to him. Thus, Nietzsche makes the young man say to Zarathustra, “it is envy of you which has destroyed me.”(4) While self-satisfaction makes life easy and pleasant, envy makes life difficult and painful. Greatness is forged in suffering. Dissatisfaction with oneself, coupled with reverence for someone else, spurs one to great accomplishments. Envy has positive effects when it aims not to lower someone else to your level, but rather to raise yourself to someone else’s level. Every great man was once a youth who envied someone else, was dissatisfied with himself, and was spurred to great accomplishments by his envy and dissatisfaction. Every great man was once a youth who revered greatness.10. What is the purpose of literature? The purpose of literature, like the purpose of art in general, is to make life more palatable to people, more interesting, richer. Art provides pleasure, stimulation, inspiration. Art doesn’t have to teach, it doesn’t have to be moral or religious or political or philosophical. There are great imaginative writers who don’t teach us anything, just as a composer of music doesn’t teach us anything.11. Is Beauty Universal? Beauty is neither universal nor timeless, it fades with distance and time. An imaginative writer from ancient Greece has little appeal for most modern readers; ancient Greek writers appeal only to scholars. Likewise, Shakespeare will someday appeal only to scholars. Westerners find little enjoyment in Eastern culture; the poets of China and Japan are enjoyed only by a few Western scholars.Eastern painting is more enjoyable to Westerners than Eastern literature. The beauty of fine art reaches further, and lasts longer, than the beauty of literature. And the beauty of music lasts longer than the beauty of fine art. Music is the most universal, the most timeless, of the arts.12. Educated Laymen A culture of scholars isn’t a healthy culture. A culture that is preoccupied with recapturing the faded beauty of old classics isn’t a healthy culture. But a popular culture that appeals chiefly to uneducated people is also unhealthy. The best culture is a culture that appeals to educated laymen. The best culture respects the old classics, but it also respects the pleasure that contemporary artists provide. The best culture avoids the sterility of scholar culture, and also avoids the barbarism of popular culture. Modern culture isn’t healthy, it isn’t a culture of educated laymen. Modern culture is divided between sterile scholar culture and barbaric popular culture.13. Goethe Goethe’s novels have little interest for modern readers. Gide described one of Goethe’s novels as “unbelievably silly”; Gide said that Goethe “could not have written it at present.”(5) Like Goethe’s novels, Scott’s novels strike modern readers as dull, though they were once considered immortal classics. There is a certain progression in the history of the novel, a progression that has relegated many early novelists, including Scott and Goethe, to obscurity. The history of the novel casts doubt on the old theory that art, unlike science, is timeless and never progresses.Goethe’s poetry, like most poetry, holds little attraction for those who read it in translation. (As Robert Frost said, “poetry is what gets lost in translation.”) Goethe’s best works, for those who read him in translation, are his autobiography and his conversations, as recorded by Eckermann. His autobiography is as pleasurable to read as Rousseau’s autobiography, and his conversations with Eckermann are more interesting than Boswell’s Life of Johnson.14. Letters During the early 1500’s, collections of Erasmus’ letters were in greater demand than any other book. Voltaire’s letters from Ferney were so lively and witty that they were handed around Paris. It is said that Voltaire’s writing is at its best in his letters. Letter-writing affords writers a freedom that they aren’t afforded by any other type of writing.15. The most interesting literature is the most personal literature: biographies, autobiographies, diaries, letters and conversations.16. One of the most valuable services that a writer can perform for a reader is to call his attention to good writers.17. Maturing Taste Psychologists often say that the individual repeats, in his own development, the development of the human race as a whole. The individual repeats the religious history of mankind by beginning life with the earliest forms of religion, animism and totemism; that is, he begins life by believing that inanimate objects and animals have feelings and thoughts similar to his own. The individual repeats the literary history of mankind by beginning life with the earliest forms of literature, fairy tales and animal fables. By age ten, we’ve graduated from fairy tales to myths, just as mankind once graduated from fairy tales to myths. At fifteen, we’re able to read early novelists like Defoe and Dumas. At twenty, we’re able to read later novelists like Dostoyevsky and Tolstoy. Not until twenty-five are we able to read twentieth-century novelists like Proust and Joyce.18. Chekhov depicts people whose romantic visions are shattered by day-to-day living. No matter what they’re doing, they always wish that they were doing something else, and no matter where they are, they always wish that they were somewhere else. They remind one of Socrates’ comment about marriage: if you get married you’ll regret it, and if you don’t get married you’ll regret that, too. Chekhov’s characters also remind one of Flaubert’s character, Madame Bovary, who found that reality never lived up to her expectations; Chekhov must have been influenced by Flaubert. Layevsky, a character in Chekhov’s story, “The Duel,” is typical of Chekhov’s characters. “Two years ago,” Chekhov writes, “when [Layevsky] fell in love with Nadyezhda Fyodorovna, it seemed to him that he had only to join his life to hers, go to the Caucasus, and he would be saved from the vulgarity and emptiness of his life; now he was just as certain that he had only to forsake Nadyezhda Fyodorovna and go to Petersburg to have everything he wanted.”Like many modern writers and painters, Chekhov doesn’t depict reality as it is, but reality as it is perceived. Instead of describing a woman’s personality, Chekhov describes the impression that she made on people; he says of one of his characters that since she was always seen with her dog, people thought of her as “the lady with the dog.”
Chekhov believed that art should be realistic and true to life; in this respect, he’s similar to other late-nineteenth-century writers, such as Ibsen, Flaubert and Zola. Chekhov’s specialty is detail; in Chekhov’s stories, the parts are more important than the whole.
Chekhov depicts the absurdity of life, as Kafka does. But Chekhov is more realistic and less imaginative than Kafka. Chekhov composed his works from notes that he jotted down during the course of his daily life, while Kafka composed his works during inspired periods, periods in which he surrendered himself to his unconscious.19. Kafka Philosophers often have one central idea around which their entire philosophy revolves. Likewise, imaginative writers often have one central theme that is expressed in all their work.In the case of Kafka, this central theme is the overwhelming of the individual by huge institutions, by huge inanimate objects, by huge crowds, and by the absurdity of the world. This theme is especially evident in The Trialand The Castle. In Kafka’s Amerika, and in some of Kafka’s short stories, this theme, although it isn’t as pervasive as it is in The Trial and The Castle, recurs again and again. Examples of huge institutions in Amerika are the Hotel Occidental and the Theatre of Oklahoma, which has “almost no limits.” An example of a huge inanimate object is the ocean liner, with its “endlessly recurring stairs” and its “corridors with countless turnings.”
While Joyce’s prose is innovative and eccentric, and Proust’s is precious, Kafka’s prose is simple, pure and classical. Hence Kafka is more readable and popular than Joyce or Proust.
While most modern writers stay close to reality, and draw on their own lives, Kafka created worlds that were far removed from the real world; Kafka’s work has rare imaginative power. A book of aphorisms could be compiled from Shakespeare’s philosophical comments, from Tolstoy’s psychological observations, and from Proust’s remarks on art. Kafka’s work, however, doesn’t contain any such comments or observations; Kafka is impossible to quote. Kafka doesn’t try to understand reality, he creates fantasies that contain psychological truth.
One factor that shaped Kafka’s work was the development, in recent times, of large institutions and bureaucracies; Kafka himself was a government bureaucrat. Another factor that shaped Kafka’s work was Gogol’s stories, which often begin with the protagonist finding himself in a strange and absurd situation, just as some of Kafka’s stories—“The Metamorphosis,” for example, and The Trial—begin with the protagonist finding himself in a strange and absurd situation. A third factor that shaped Kafka’s work was that his father was an aggressive, dominating personality who instilled in him a feeling of guilt, inferiority and powerlessness. A fourth factor was that Kafka was Jewish; being Jewish increased Kafka’s feeling of powerlessness.
Kafka found relief for his sufferings, his guilt and his powerlessness in humor. Kafka is an extraordinary writer because he had an extraordinary sense of humor. As Freud said, “It is not everyone who is capable of the humorous attitude: it is a rare and precious gift.”(6)20. Flaubert While the dominant note in Kafka’s personality was humor, the dominant note in Flaubert’s personality was pride. Flaubert was proud of his devotion to art, regardless of whether his books were acclaimed or not: “As for the outcome, or for success, who cares? The main thing in this world is to keep one’s soul on the heights, out of the bourgeois noise and the democratic mire. The pursuit of Art makes one proud, and one can never have too much pride. That is my philosophy.”(7)Flaubert despised the materialistic values of the middle class; he satirized the middle class in his Dictionary of Platitudes, and also in the character of M. Homais. Like Ibsen, Flaubert rebelled against the democratic trend of his time. Flaubert had little regard for universal suffrage or for equality: “I am grateful,” he told Renan, “for your protest against ‘democratic equality’; which is, to my mind, a seed of death in the world.”
Like other great writers, Flaubert studied the classics and scorned journalism. His scorn for journalism prompted him to wish that printing were banned: “If the Emperor were to abolish printing tomorrow, I’d crawl to Paris on my hands and knees and kiss his behind in gratitude.”(9) Flaubert anticipated that democracy and the mass media would put the future of culture in doubt.
For Flaubert, as for Proust, literature was a religion, and was treated with the seriousness of a religion. Literature made Flaubert’s life meaningful and challenging. Literature gave Flaubert something to respect, and something to be proud of. It elevated him above the trivial, the material and the mundane. It helped him to cope with life, and it helped him to face death. The example of Flaubert shows that modern man can use literature to help in developing a new religion, a religion that will fill the void created by the decline of Christianity, a religion based on philosophy, psychology and art, not based on God, sacred texts, and divine commandments.21. Objective or Subjective? Flaubert believed that literature should be impersonal, that literature shouldn’t be a vehicle for the author’s feelings and experiences. This was a widespread view in the late nineteenth century; it was a reaction against Romanticism, against the Romantic tendency to write in a personal, subjective way. Since Flaubert’s time, the view that literature should be objective has been embraced by many writers and critics.In support of the objective theory of literature, one could argue that some of the best literary works are objective; Homer’s works, for example, don’t express their author’s feelings, or describe their author’s experiences. In opposition to the objective theory of literature, one could argue that some of the best literary works are personal and subjective. Most of the outstanding Western writers since the Middle Ages have been subjective. Ibsen, for example, was subjective; Ibsen said, “If you want objectivity, then go to the objects. Read me so as to get to know me!”(10) Great literature can be objective or subjective, just as great literature can be realistic or unrealistic.22. Dostoyevsky wrote in a subjective way; many of his characters are based on facets of his own personality. The main characters in The Brothers Karamazov, for example, are based on facets of Dostoyevsky’s own personality: Dmitri is a losing gambler (like Dostoyevsky), Ivan a journalist tormented by religious doubts (like Dostoyevsky), Smerdyakov an epileptic (like Dostoyevsky), etc.(11) Many of Dostoyevsky’s characters possess the sadistic and masochistic tendencies that Dostoyevsky himself possessed. The protagonist of “A Gentle Creature,” for example, says, “I tormented myself and everybody else.”Masochism leads many of Dostoyevsky’s male characters to love crippled women. The severe super-ego of these characters prevents them from loving normal women. Masochism also leads many of Dostoyevsky’s characters to be buffoons, to make fools of themselves; such characters derive a certain pleasure from publicly humiliating themselves. One can compare Dostoyevsky with Johnson’s biographer, Boswell: both had tyrannical fathers, both developed defective super-ego’s, both experienced bouts of masochistic severity toward themselves, and both had tendencies to make fools of themselves.
Dostoyevsky’s greatest fault is that he carries his psychological analysis to an excessive and morbid point. This fault is particularly evident when Dostoyevsky is compared with Tolstoy. Tolstoy has Dostoyevsky’s profundity and keen insight and, in addition, Tolstoy has a simplicity and serenity that Dostoyevsky lacks.23. Tolstoy While Dostoyevsky is famous for his psychological insights, Tolstoy’s greatness as a psychologist is sometimes overlooked. Dostoyevsky could understand others because he probed his own complex, neurotic personality. Tolstoy was less neurotic than Dostoyevsky, but he lived with exceptional intensity, energy and animal vitality. Tolstoy experienced many things, and was familiar with his own rich personality, hence Tolstoy understood others as few people ever have. Understanding of others comes from understanding of oneself; psychological insight comes from self-consciousness.If one compares Tolstoy’s observations on human nature with Freud’s, one finds a striking agreement between them. Tolstoy said, “[Levin’s] conception of [his mother] was for him a sacred memory, and his future wife was bound to be in his imagination a repetition of that exquisite, holy ideal of a woman that his mother had been.” Likewise, Freud said, “A man…looks for someone who can represent his picture of his mother, as it has dominated his mind from his earliest childhood.”
Tolstoy spoke of “the vindictive fury which can only exist where a man loves,” and Tolstoy said, “where love ends, hate begins.” Likewise, Freud said, “Love is with unexpected regularity accompanied by hate [and] in a number of circumstances hate changes into love and love into hate.”
In his case history of Dora, Freud said, “the usual sexual attraction had drawn together the father and daughter on the one side and the mother and son on the other.” Tolstoy discusses this “usual sexual attraction” in the following passage: “The little girl, her father’s favorite, ran up boldly [and] embraced him….’Good morning’, he said, smiling to the boy….He was conscious that he loved the boy less, and always tried to be fair; but the boy felt it, and did not respond with a smile to his father’s chilly smile.”
Great thinkers often reach the same conclusions independently of each other. A thinker’s ideas usually come from his own experiences, or from his observations of other people. Since human nature remains much the same in different times and places, the experiences and observations of different thinkers are often similar. Truth agrees with itself and confirms itself.
Just as great thinkers often agree with each other, so too one’s own experience often agrees with the observations of great thinkers. Here again, truth agrees with itself and confirms itself. An idea drawn from experience is confirmed when one finds the same idea in a book. Likewise, the ideas in a book are confirmed when one finds that they agree with one’s own experience.24. Joyce While the novels of Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky express ideas and reflect their authors’ struggles for spiritual peace, the novels of Joyce have a different purpose. Joyce said, “Ulysses is fundamentally a humorous work,” and Joyce said that Finnegans Wake was “meant to make you laugh.”(16) Ulysses andFinnegans Wake belong in the comic tradition of Petronius, Rabelais and Sterne. Joyce’s short stories, on the other hand, remind one, by their simplicity and by their realism, of Chekhov’s short stories.Joyce had no interest in politics and little interest in philosophy. He disliked Shaw’s plays, which set forth ideas. When World War II was breaking out, and his brother asked him what he thought about the political situation, Joyce said, “I’m not interested in politics. The only thing that interests me is style.”
Like many imaginative writers, including Ibsen, Tolstoy and Proust, Joyce observed and wrote about parapsychological phenomena. In A Portrait of the Artist, for example, Stephen Dedalus is lying in bed, thinking of his girlfriend, and he wonders what his girlfriend is doing: “Might it be, in the mysterious ways of spiritual life, that her soul at those same moments had been conscious of his homage?….Conscious of his desire she was waking from odorous sleep.” Joyce’s interest in parapsychology sets him apart from Kafka; Kafka never discusses parapsychology or aesthetics or religion. Kafka stays in the world of fantasy, and never leaves it for a moment.
Sound is as important in Joyce’s prose as it is in the work of modern poets. It isn’t surprising that Joyce himself wrote poetry. Joyce erased, or at least blurred, the distinction between poetry and prose. Just as poetry is impossible to translate, so too Joyce’s prose is impossible to translate. Just as poetry can be read over and over, so too Joyce’s prose can be read over and over.
While Proust reminds one of a painter (he called one of his chapters, “a seascape”), Joyce reminds one of a musician. Joyce often alludes to other writers and to his own work, just as musical compositions often allude to earlier motifs. Joyce is like ancient poets, who often alluded to earlier poets, and to earlier lines in their own work.25. Proust One might describe Kafka as humorous, Joyce as comic, and Proust as nostalgic. Kafka’s humor conceals suffering and seriousness; one cannot imagine Kafka telling the bawdy jokes that Joyce tells. Joyce’s comic sense expresses not suffering but joy; Joyce said that literature “should express the ‘holy spirit of joy’.”(18)Proust’s nostalgia has two sources: his detachment from the present, and his attachment to his mother. Proust wrote his magnum opus while he was entombed in his cork-lined Paris apartment, isolated from the world. Such a detachment from the present has the effect of awakening memories of the past. Proust had an unusually strong attachment to his mother. After his mother had died, Proust told his maid that, “if I were sure to meet my mother again, in the Valley of Jehosaphat or anywhere else, I would want to die at once.”(19) Proust’s attachment to his mother, and his detachment from the present, combined to form the nostalgic tone of his work.
One prominent theme in Proust’s work is idealism, that is, the notion that the world is one’s idea of the world. Proust isn’t as concerned with depicting Balbec and the Duchesse de Guermantes as he is with depicting how the narrator perceives Balbec and the Duchesse de Guermantes. Proust’s main subject is the narrator’s mind, the narrator’s thoughts and feelings. Thus, he’s akin to Cervantes, whose main subject was not the world as it is, but the world as it is perceived by Don Quixote.
But while Don Quixote is always the same, Proust’s narrator changes over time. The narrator’s attitude toward Albertine, for example, changes over time; though the narrator is obsessed with Albertine, and is crushed by Albertine’s flight, he eventually puts Albertine out of his mind and becomes indifferent to her. Proust depicts how time changes one’s idea of the world, and also how time changes the world itself.
Proust’s work contains much character analysis and little plot. His narrative ambles along at a leisurely pace, and often stands still; it reminds one of two people who go for a walk, and then become so involved in their conversation that they come to a stop.
Proust’s peculiar style is related to his peculiar personality; the style marks the man. Proust’s prose is precious, convoluted and obscure.
Of all imaginative writers, Proust is one of the most religious. Proust created his own personal religion, a religion based on literature and art. Like all religions, Proust’s religion justifies life, makes it possible to accept death, and holds out the hope of life after death, of immortality.
Proust is a profound thinker, and can teach one much about life, about the passage of time, and about death. Proust’s work contains more philosophical wisdom than the work of any twentieth-century philosopher. But Proust isn’t the sort of thinker that Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky were, and his work doesn’t contain discussions about the existence of God. Proust’s thinking isn’t speculative, like a philosopher’s thinking; Proust’s thinking is based on sensation and feeling.26. The Desire to Die Tragedy depicts suffering, suffering that drives the tragic hero to desire death. Why do we derive pleasure from tragedy? Why do we derive pleasure from the depiction of suffering?Suffering is a universal human experience; it is impossible to live without suffering. When suffering reaches a certain degree, one wants to die, one wants to commit suicide. Almost everyone, at one time or another, has thought of committing suicide. Suffering, and longing for death, deepen and strengthen one’s character. “No man is educated,” said William James, “who has never dallied with the thought of suicide.” If one never suffered, and never longed for death, one would never attain maturity or strength of character, and one couldn’t accomplish anything. As the result of suffering and of longing for death, one resolves to act decisively. Suffering and the desire to die make one fearless, and this fearlessness translates into decisive action. As Johnson said, “after a man has taken the resolution to kill himself…he has nothing to fear.”
One decisive action that is often preceded by suffering and by the desire to die is a religious conversion. Tolstoy’s religious conversion, for example, was preceded by suffering and by the desire to die; Tolstoy described his pre-conversion state thus: “Behold me…hiding the rope in order not to hang myself.”
Crime is another decisive action that is often preceded by suffering and by the desire to die. The criminal often resolves to commit a crime after suffering has driven him to ask, ‘what have I got to lose? Since I no longer want to live, why don’t I fulfill my criminal desire at the same time as I end my life?’ Mass murderers often end their killing sprees by killing themselves. When Stendhal was contemplating suicide, he thought of assassinating LouisXVIII, in order to “make something of your misery,” instead of dying to no purpose.
Sex is a third decisive action that is preceded by suffering and by the desire to die. Sex is closely related to death; people often fear sex, just as people often fear death. Lower animals, such as insects, often die during the sexual act. Orgasm is sometimes called, “a little death.” Rank said, “the compulsive neurotic…abstains from sexual intercourse in order not to die.”(21) According to the Book of Genesis, sex brought death into the world. If one never suffered, and never longed for death, one wouldn’t have the courage and the strength of character that are needed for sex. In addition to religious conversion, crime and sex, many other decisive actions are preceded by suffering and by the desire to die. Suffering makes one fearless, and thus prompts one to act decisively.
Tragedy depicts suffering, suffering that drives the tragic hero to desire death. The tragic hero’s suffering and his desire to die instill in him courage for decisive action. The spectator, empathizing with the tragic hero, vicariously suffers and desires to die. The spectator’s suffering and desire to die, though they are vicarious, instill in him courage for decisive action, and an appetite for living.27. Flabby Just as suffering strengthens the moral fiber of an individual, so too suffering, war and poverty strengthen the moral fiber of a nation. The moral fiber of modern man has become flabby through comfort, peace and prosperity.28. Heroes There is a close kinship between tragic drama and epic poetry. Tragic drama and epic poetry both depict characters who are superior to real people. The author of an epic poem or a tragic drama must have an ideal man, a hero, in his imagination. Modern imaginative writers don’t have a high conception of man, hence they don’t write in a tragic or epic vein. They tend to write in a morbid or comic vein, and to depict people in a disparaging way. While modern literature shuns the heroic for the morbid and the comic, modern visual art shuns the heroic for the nihilistic, and modern music shuns the heroic for the hedonistic.

An Inspector Calls by J.B. Priestley

An Inspector Calls by J.B. PriestleyAn Inspector Calls was written in 1945 and was set in 1912 in a house
owned by a high class family and is about what they have done wrong.
The play was by J.B Priestly.
The time that the play was set was set in is important, as world war
one was going to start in a few years and the Titanic was just about
to set sail.
In the play Mr Birling says that we will never go to war with Germany.
“The Germans don’t want war. Nobody wants war”, and he also says that
the titanic is unsinkable “Why, a friend of mine went over this new
liner last week – the Titanic – she sails next week – forty-six
thousand eight hundred tonnes – New York in five days – and ever
luxury – and unsinkable.”, he is wrong about both of these.
J.B Priestly was born in Bradford, Yorkshire on 13th September 1894 he
was a playwright. Before becoming a playwright he wrote two novels.
His first novel was the bestselling The Good Companions (1929) and his
second novel was Angel Pavement (1930).
In 1932 he wrote his first play called Dangerous Corner and he also
wrote several other plays before An Inspector Calls.
Priestley’s last play was A Severed Head (1963)
Priestley was into politics, he speaks a lot of politics in An
Inspector Calls as Mr Birling speaks of socialism.
J.B Priestley died in1984 aged eighty nine.
I will now write about each of the characters in the order that they
met Eva Smith.
Mr Birling:
Mr Birling is Sheila’s and Eric’s Father. He is the owner of a
business and he is quite well off, he also was once the mayor of the
town and he mentions that he might be getting a knighted, “there’s a
fair chance that I might find my way onto the next Honours List. Just
a knighthood, of course”.
Mr Birling thinks that everyone should fend for themselves and not
look after other people, “a man has to make his own way – has to look
after himself”. He also mentions he thinks community is nonsense, “But
the way some of these cranks talk and write now, you’d think everybody
has to look after everybody else, as if we were all mixed up together
like bees in a hive – community and all that nonsense”.
Mr Birling’s involvement with Eva Smith is he employed her in his
works, when she asked for a pay rise he sacked her.
Mr Birling does not feel guilty or responsible at all he says “Still,
I can’t accept any responsibility. If we were all responsible for
everything that happened to everybody we’d had anything to do with, it
would be very awkward, wouldn’t it?”
He has this attitude all the way through the play.
I think that Mr Birling is the second most responsible character in
the play for Eva Smith’s death as he started off the chain of events.
Shelia is the daughter of Mr Birling, she is just about to get married
to Gerald and they are having their engagement party when the
inspector arrives.
Shelia’s was involved with Eva Smith when she got Eva fired from her
job at Milwards which is a large department store.
Eva was fired because Shelia complained to the manager of the store
after she saw Eva smiling at the assistant, “I went to the manager at
Milwards and I told him that if they didn’t get rid of that girl, I’d
never go near the place again and I’d persuade mother to close our
account with them.”
Shelia regrets these events as she says she feels guilty all of the
way through the play, and even after the inspector leaves.
I think that Shelia is the third most responsible for Eva’s death
because she got Eva fired from “her last stable job.” as the inspector
says, if she didn’t get Eva fired then she wouldn’t have met any of
the other characters apart from Mr Birling in bad circumstances.
Gerald is engaged to Sheila which is his connection to the Birling
Gerald’s Involvement withEva Smith is when he met her at the palace
music hall in the bar, a man was harassing her and Gerald stopped her,
“The girl saw me looking at her then gave me a glance that was nothing
less than a cry for help. So I went across and told Joe Meggarty some
nonsense – that the manager has a message for him or something like
that – got him out of the way – and then told the girl that if she
didn’t want anymore of that sort of thing she’d better let me take her
out of there. She agreed at once.”
He started to use her as his mistress, but he was kind to her because
he helped her out by letting her stay in some rooms he was looking
after for a friend, “It happened that a friend of mine, Charlie
Brunswick, had gone off to Canada for six months and had let me have
the key of a nice little set of rooms he had – in Morgan Terrace – and
had asked me to keep and eye on them for him and use them if I wanted
to. So I insisted on Daisy moving into one of these rooms and I made
her take some money to keep her going there.”
I think that Gerald is the least responsible for Eva Smith’s death
because he helped her to survive and gave her something to live for,
he says, “I want you to understand that I didn’t install her there so
that I could make love to her. I made her go there because I was sorry
for her, and didn’t like the idea of her going back to the palace bar.
I didn’t ask for anything in return.”
Mrs Birling:
Mrs. Birling is the wife of Mr Birling. Mrs Birling doesn’t’t say much
until she is interviewed by the inspector.
Mrs Birling’s Involvement with Eva Smith Is she went to her charity
for help.
When the Eva Smith asks for help she says her name is Mrs Birling, and
because of this she was rejected help from the charity.
“Yes I think it was simply a piece of gross impertinence – quite
deliberate and naturally that was one of the things that prejudiced me
against her case.”
When Mrs. Burling was asked if it was due to her influence that Eva
was refused help she replied, “Yes it was I didn’t like her manner she
impertinently made use of our name, though she pretended afterwards it
just happened to be the first name she thought of. She had to admit,
after I began questioning her, that she had no claim to the name, that
she wasn’t married, and that story she told at first – about s husband
who deserted her – was quite false. It didn’t take me long to get the
truth – or some of the truth out of her.
Mrs Birling doesn’t’t feel guilty at all about what she has done as
she says “I did nothing that I’m ashamed of or that won’t bear
I think that Mrs Birling is the most responsible for this is because
she didn’t help Eva when she was in need.
Eric is the son of Mr Birling He is often getting drunk and doesn’t
have much part in the play.
Eric’s involvement with Eva is that He met her at the Palace Music
hall in the bar he was drunk and he went with Eva back to Her lodgings
She didn’t want him to go in But he threatened to make a row. “I was
in that state when a chap easily turns nasty – and I threatened to
make a row.”
He then met her a fortnight afterwards when he happened to see her
again at the Palace bar.
This time they talked a bit about themselves.
The next time they met she told him that she thought she was going to
have a baby.
He then stole fifty pounds from his Mr Birling’s office to keep Eva
In conclusion I think that Mrs Birling is most responsible for Eva’s
death because she refused to help Eva when she most needed it.
Even though I think that Mrs Birling is the most responsible for Eva’s
death I also think that everyone else apart from Gerald are still
highly responsible for her death. I think that Gerald is not
responsible for her death because he was the only person who helped

Flowers For Algernon by Daniel Keyes

This is the fifteenth in a series of reviews of those pieces of written science fiction and fantasy which have won both the Hugo and Nebula awards. I had some reservations about including “Flowers for Algernon” in this series. It is an unusual case in that different versions of the story won different awards; the original short story, published in Fantasy and Science Fiction in 1959, won a 1960 Hugo, while the novel length expansion jointly won a 1966 Nebula. So to do it justice I would have to review two separately published versions of the story in one web page.
However it is pretty clear to me that the story must be the best known of any Hugo or Nebula winner, partly because it is on many junior high school reading lists in the United States and Canada, but also because it is quite simply of outstanding quality. I also had to acknowledge that I had personal reasons for not wanting to write about “Flowers for Algernon”, which I will come to at the end, and perhaps doing this article is a kind of useful therapy. I am going to assume that you have also read “Flowers for Algernon” and there will be no attempt to conceal plot details below. If you have not read it, you should go somewhere else now.But in the novella category, there was a very clear winner: of 842 votes cast (the most votes cast for any category), “Flowers for Algernon” received 201 first preferences – more than the next three stories added together – 100 second preferences and 71 third preferences. (The next three stories were Anne McCaffrey’s “Weyr Search”, which of course was the start of her Dragonriders of Pern series; “Enemy Mine”, by Barry B Longyear; and “Ill Met In Lankhmar”, by Fritz Leiber.) It seems pretty likely that if the poll had been a single ballot for all works of fiction which have won Hugos, the short version of “Flowers for Algernon” would have easily beaten all comers.The novel version is slightly less celebrated, but only slightly. SFWA members were asked to rank all Nebula winners from 1965 to 1985 in the summer of 1987, and while Ben Bova does not give awfully full details in the resulting “Best of the Nebulas” anthology, it seems a reasonable deduction that Flowers for Algernon came second or third in the novel category, definitely behind Dune and possibly behind either The Dispossessed or The Left Hand of Darkness.The success of “Flowers for Algernon” is really due to three things: the beginning of the story, the middle and the end. To start with the beginning: “progris riport 1: martch 5, 1965. Dr. Strauss says I shud rite down what I think and evrey thing that happins to me from now on.” There are not a lot of sf stories written in diary format (apart from Dracula, the vastly inferior Podkayne of Mars is the only one that occurs to me right now) but immediately one wants to find out what happins, er, happens. And the first paragraph established our narrator, 37 years old, with considerable learning difficulties, and keen to “be smart”. The details of the scientific procedure are not at all clear but don’t need to be; the experiment, the bakery, and the adult literacy classes, are all simply and clearly laid out.The middle of the story includes two crucial scenes. The first of these is the moment when Charlie realises that his colleagues from the bakery have been mocking him rather than being friendly; a fact that we the readers have known for some time. It’s the crucial (and cruel) demonstration that Charlie’s new intelligence puts him completely out of phase with his previous life. The second is the point when Charlie realises that his new intelligence puts him far ahead of the scientists who have created it as well. In both short story and novel this is crystallised in the moment when he is astonished to learn that Professor Nemur doesn’t understand Hindi. It’s well done, because we the readers are unaware until then that Charlie has learnt the language in a matter of weeks, but it’s perfectly credible that he has forgotten to mention this in his diary. The novel version of the story embeds this incident in the middle of the conference in Chicago episode.But it’s the end of the story that really sticks in your mind. Charlie’s realisation that his new intelligence is only temporary, Algernon’s death, and Charlie’s subsequent regression back to the point where we first met him, all add up to perhaps the most poignant climax of any sf story, ending with one of the most memorable final sentences, “Please if you get a chance put some flowrs on Algernons grave in the bak yard.” Keith Kushner comments on rasfw that in most diary-style stories, the narrator ends up dead, but singles out Flowers for Algernon as an exception; I don’t think it is, though I notice that a number of the on-line reviews listed below assume that Charlie has left New York to find a new life. For me this reading best supported by the text is that Charlie has ended his diary because he still knows, at some level, that very soon he is going to die, and he is going off to find himself a quiet place where his life can end.Some find “Flowers for Algernon” manipulative; I think that Keyes steers the right side of what is a very fine line. Some find his treatment of people with learning disabilities outdated and unrealistic. He can hardly be blamed for the first (I admit the use of the word “moron” does startle one); on the second point, of course Charlie has some rather unusual attitudes for someone with his level of disability, but I don’t think it’s completely off the spectrum, and in any case great novels are often about rather unusual people. Some find the novel far too slow moving and padded compared with the short story. I have a little sympathy for this viewpoint, and would probably have thinned some of the second half, but I feel that the extended portrayal of Charlie’s psychosexual development does add depth (admittedly to a story which was already quite profound). In my 0-3 stars ranking system for these reviews, I am in no doubt that both versions of “Flowers for Algernon” deserve all three stars; the only question is whether I could give an exceptional fourth star to the shorter version.I find this a particularly difficult story to write about because I have witnessed a regression including complete loss of speech in a young member of my immediate family. As a callous and callow teenager I found the story exceptionally moving; now I find it almost unbearable. (For similar reasons I find that Dan Simmons’ Hyperion and Mary Doria Russell’s Children of God stick in my mind but I will not rush to reread either book.) I hope that you reading this do not ever experience such an event, either first hand or in a loved one.

Mental Health Issues and the Psychodynamic Approach

Mental Health Issues and the Psychodynamic ApproachThe psychodynamic approach highlights the importance of the
unconscious mind and early childhood experiences, therefore
practitioners of this approach will attempt to deal with the mental
health issues of their patients by incorporating these ideas and
creating ‘therapies’ using these bases. The basic concept behind
psychoanalysis is that a patient that suffers from mental health
problems such as depression can address any regressed feelings thus,
the patient gains insight of and can learn to work through their
emotional ‘baggage’. It is a generalised notion that if the cause of
the symptoms were tackled it would only be logical that the symptoms
would desist.
The psychodynamic approach is mainly comprised of ideas and notions
suggested by Sigmund Freud, based partly on his psychosexual
development theory. In essence, the child passes through stages such
as oral and the anal. Major conflicts or excessive gratification at
any of these stages can lead to fixation, therefore if an adult
experiences great personal problems, he or she will tend to show
regression (going back through the stages of the psychosexual
development) to the stage at which he or she had previously been
fixated. Thus because conflicts cause anxiety, and the ego defends
itself against anxiety by using several defence mechanisms to prevent
traumatic thoughts and feelings reaching consciousness, mental
disorders can arise when an individual has unresolved conflicts and
traumas from childhood. Defence mechanisms may be used to reduce the
anxiety caused by such unresolved conflicts, but they act more as
sticking plaster than as a way of ‘sorting out’ an individuals
Psychodynamic therapy is based on psychoanalysis, and was introduced
by sigmund Freud at the start of the twentieth century. Freud and
other psychoanalysts used various methods to uncover repressed ideas,
and to permit the client to gain insight into his or her unresolved
problems. As a form of therapy the approach uses hypnosis, Freud and
Breuer treated a twenty one-year-old women called Anna O, who suffered
from several neurotic symptoms such as nervous coughs and paralysis.
Hypnosis uncovered a repressed memory of Anna O hearing the sound of
dance music coming from a nearby house as she was nursing her dying
father, and her guilty feeling that she would rather be dancing than
looking after her father. Her nervous coughing stopped after that
repressed memory came to light. However, patients are either hard or
impossible to hypnotise and people under hypnosis become very
This approach has shown different ways in treating mental disorders,
and in doing so have shown inadequacies and ethical implications that
are both positive and negative in their therapeutic perspectives. The
psychodynamic model also suggests that the individuals are not really
responsible for their own mental disorders, this is because these
disorders depend on unconscious processes which individuals have no
control. However with both of these approaches suggesting that the
individual has no responsibility may carry the undesirable effect of
encouraging individuals with mental disorders to hand over complete
responsibility for their recover to other people. Also with the
psychodynamic approach there is the notion that adult mental disorders
have their basis in childhood experiences suggests that parents or
other caregivers are at least partially to blame and this can lead to
distress within the family. Although it can be argued that at least
with the psychodynamics’ therapeutic approach, nevertheless the
psychodynamic approach has encountered serious problems, with the
numerous recent cases of false memory syndrome. In these cases,
patients undergoing psychotherapy have made allegations about
childhood physical or sexual abuse that have turned out to have no
basis in fact.
However, the psychodynamic approach though positive in many ways is
limited because it tends to ignore genetic factors unlike the medical
approach and cultural and subcultural differences between societies in
diagnosing and giving therapy to those with mental disorders. In its
original form, the patients current concerns and interpersonal
relationships were de-emphasised and there was undue focus on
childhood experiences and sexual problems.

Creating Situational Irony in Poetry

Creating Situational Irony in PoetryBibliography:
Works Cited
“Collards.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989
“Disclaim.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989
Holman, M. Carl “Mr. Z.” Perrine’s Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense, 8th ed.
Ed. Thomas R. Arp and Greg Johnson. Fort Worth: Harcourt, 2002. 1037.
“Jazz.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989
“Spirituals.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Selina and Gordon’s Friendship in A Patch of Blue by Elizabeth Kata

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Selina and Gordon’s Friendship in A Patch of Blue by Elizabeth KataIn her novel, A Patch of Blue, Elizabeth Kata tells a story of Selina, an eighteen year old blind girl who meets and develops a relationship with Gordon, an older black man. Gordon helps Selina realize many hopes and dreams, though not without some drawbacks.
One of the disadvantages of Selina and Gordon’s relationship is that he is able to withhold telling her about the colour of his skin. Selina hates black people because the only colour that she can see is black, and she has grown to despise it. Rose-Ann and Ole Pa also don’t like black people, and Selina has therefore grown up to believe that she too, should hate Negroes. For example, she meets a little girl named Pearl. Since Selina is blind, she has no way of knowing that Pearl is black. Ole Pa returns and tells Selina that Pearl was a black girl. Selina instantly thinks “Black! I hated Pearl. I had enough black in my life.”There are several advantages of Selina and Gordon’s friendship, the first being the many new experiences he gives her. Not all were positive experiences, but they were all exciting and new. Gordon gives her some pineapple juice, which she has never tasted before. Selina instantly loves the taste describing it as drinking “…beautiful fruity stuff from bottles…” They also go to Gordon’s apartment, which is where many new things happen for Selina. The first of these is her first taxi ride. In the beginning, she was scared, but was eventually coaxed into it by Gordon and she ends up thinking “I would have liked a longer drive.” They then go into the elevator up to his home, which also scares her and she ends up liking. Once in his apartment, Selina discovers that it contains carpet, which is something she had never dreamed could be in a place where you live.Secondly, Gordon promises Selina freedom by telling her that it is possible for her go to school. She would go to a school especially for the blind. This would remove her from her present home which is marred by neglect and abuse. Gordon will introduce Selina to Alice Bradden who is also blind, and has a seeing-eye dog named Duke. Going to school would allow Selina to use her brain to her full potential and to learn everything that she wants to know, not just what the radio tells her.The main advantage to Selina’s newfound friendship with Gordon becomes her favorite word: friend. Gordon gives Selina a couple of concrete gifts. One is a pair of sunglasses, to hide her face, which was disfigured by the acid. The other is a music box, which Selina does not need to see to be able to enjoy. Gordon Ralfe helps Selina build up her self esteem and confidence. He teaches her to like herself by instilling some self image. Selina falls in love with Gordon, and he grows to love her. Perhaps the greatest gift of all however is that of tolerance, his favorite word. Gordon teaches Selina to love everything, no matter what colour, shape, or size it is.

Target Audience Appeal in Blind Date

Target Audience Appeal in Blind DateQuotes are taken from the Cosmopolitan Magazine article, Blind Date
Application form and new stories about Blind Date.
’Blind Date uses several techniques to make the programme appeal to a
target audience. ‘Blind Date’ genre is that of a romantic but fun game
show that tries to bring people together and form a relationship that
might work, (to the television viewers eyes anyway), the programme has
been popular since “it’s ’80s heyday.” People find the programme
enjoyable because it is funny and its light entertainment so you and
the rest of the audience don’t have to think, you just sit there and
watch. To make any game show work you need four items, it is how you
these items that makes the genre. These items are:
· Contestants
· Viewers
· Studio audience
· Host(s) /presenter(s)
The target audience is supposed to be people aged from twenty to
thirty years old although other people can watch. Old people and
children usually watch it as well. This is mainly because there is a
fine line on ‘Blind Date’ between plain rude and hidden laughable
rudeness that isn’t too visible, in a manner of speaking. ‘Blind Date’
rarely or never has crosses this line, therefore, children are allowed
to watch it and old people want to watch it. The fact that this is
light entertainment that you don’t have to think about just adds to
the reason, why people watch the programme.
The contestant stereotypes are normally people who will anything for
fifteen minutes of fame, do as they are told to do and have a lot of
fun and be mischievous at the same time, “the show is looking for the
unusual unpredictable mix of funny characters who can come out with
some put downs and chat-up lines.”
When the show starts some music that is easily recognisable starts and
there is voice over that tells you what is coming up on today’s show.
Some animated cartoons come up as well which then are added to some
scenes selected from today’s show, which would have been filmed
earlier. When the graphics disappear the show starts and the cameras
is pointed at the stage. The voice over then welcomes Cilla Black as
she comes down the steps. Cilla Black then introduces the show and
then introduces the first contestants. When the contestants have been
introduced the picker is introduced. The picker now reads out three
questions in turn which the contest all have to answer. When the
pickees have answered the questions, then the picker chooses whom he
will go on the blind date with, with the help from the voice over. The
screen that divides the picker from the pickees then comes back and
the picker then gets to see who he is gong on the date with. One of
the contestants chooses an envelope of which Cilla Black is holding
and then they go when they have opened the envelope to decide where
they are going. Just before the advertisements Cilla Black, with the
help of visual aids, shows the audience what else is coming up on the
show. Usually the adverts now come on and last for about five minutes.
The adverts normally consist of things that would interest a mother or
a single person in their mid-twenties. I watched a ‘Blind Date’ and
the intervals and recorded the advertisements that were on:
· Nike
· ‘The Scorpion King’ (film)
·DFS· Demestos Ox
· Amstrad
· Garnea
· Smirnoff
· The Mail
· Yorkie
· Nivea
· Blockbuster
· Thorpe Park
· Capital FM
· Honda
· Carlsberg
· ‘A Beautiful Mind’ (film)
Advertisements are extremely important, especially forITV. This is
becauseITVgets its funding from the companies wanting to advertise
onITV. Without the funding from the advertisements thenITVwouldn’t
be around.ITVstill has to make entertaining programmes but still get
profit so most of the programmes it airs are low budget so they can
make a profit.
‘Blind Date’ is aired, though not live, at 7:10 p.m. on a Saturday on
the family channel, ITV1. 7:00 p.m. on a Saturday is a prime viewing
time. This is because families, single parents, adults around their
mid-twenties and children have just come back from work, mothers have
finished tiding the house and students have just finished their work
and therefore just want to sit down and watch some light
entertainment. This is why ITV1 airs a night of cheap, fun and
entertaining programmes on a Saturday. As you can see from the
schedule below, ITV1 airs similar types of programme, this is so that
the target audience at the start of the evening stays with the channel
throughout the evening with other people joining in.
Another technique used to make viewers stay loyal to the channel is to
make other programmes intrude on another programme. By doing this,
especially when remote controls hadn’t been invented, people wouldn’t
be bothered enough to go and change the channel. They would then just
watch the intruding programme and wait for the rest of the programme
they were trying to watch, just because they wouldn’t be bothered
enough to go up to the television and either turn it off or change the
channel. Looking at the schedule above ‘Pop Idol’ is a perfect example
of this, though, I think thatITVis pushing their luck trying to get
three programmes intruding on ‘Pop Idol’
The placing of a programme (when a programme is aired) is very
important is very important and if it isn’t aired at the right time
the programme could seriously fail by not getting the viewers it could
potentially get. For instance not long ago a programme called ’The
Premiership’ failed becauseITVaired it at totally the wrong time.
The programme used to take the place of ‘Blind Date’ but when you have
just finished some work or cleaning the house then you don’t really
want to watch something like ‘The Premiership’, you want to watch some
light entertainment. The programme failed and was moved to a later
time on a different date when it’s the time the man of the house is
home and he wants to see the football results by watching ’The
Premiership’. 7:10 p.m. on a Saturday night is a great time for ’Blind
Date’ because it is exactly the type of programme that you want to
watch once you have done all of your chores and your tired, because
it’s funny, a bit of light entertainment and something you can sit
back and watch without thinking too much.
The opening credits and music of a programme is one very important
technique to attract viewers. The music needs to be something you can
relate to so that people hear the music and then think, “Hey I know
that music, yer that’s Blind Date.” Then they would run in and watch
it rather than coming back to the television an just change the
channel or turn off the television straight away because they think
that nothing decent is on. The opening credits of a a programme is a
very important technique. When you have first time viewers that want
to watch your programme you need to show them what your show is about,
so as to give them good first impressions. ‘Blind Date’ does this with
some fun funky music.

Gender Roles in Contemporary Film and Music

Gender Roles in Contemporary Film and Music
The representations of women in film.In contemporary film women’s roles in films have varied quiet
considerably between genres, geographical placement, and between
period settings. These factors contribute to the different
representations of women’s roles in the film they are present in.
These roles are diverse going from the traditional maternal role to
that of manipulative murderer. In contemporary media these roles are
given higher status, in the pass the highest a female role could be at
most was a side-kick or a co-star, they were given the title leading
lady if they were at there best and yet they would always be second
best. However, in present times in more contemporary times women’s
roles have been the highlight of the movie being the leading actor.
Women’s roles in movies can be of almost equal to the male roles and
the co-stars are not given the majority of the acclaims just because
they are male. Therefore, in recent films, female roles have comes to
include the traditional household/ motherly role. Yet this is mainly
in contemporary films about periods in the past, in the modernistic
films out at the moment women’s roles in the films were more dominant
and masculine and all the while maintaining there feminine qualities
that have always been represented in films. The genre can affect the
role of the female character as for example in film noir there is
always a femme fatal get in a science fiction there maybe no femme
fatal iconology get there maybe a sci-fi connection to a femme fatal
yet the genre of it alters it completely. This can be seen in the
modern film “Kill Bill” where the lead was an aggressive, strong and
powerful character and yet this aggression and revenge was steaming
from the lose of her child thus the feminine mother aspect can be seen
clearly in comparison to a film from the 1980’s such as “Little Shop
of Horrors” in which the leading lady was a weak, feminine women who
had a strong sense of her sexuality and how to manipulate it in order
for her to gain the one thing she wanted and her mother taught her to
want, a good husband so she could be a mother and a wife. Even from
these two examples we can see that there is great diversity within the
representation of differing people in film. Especially over time as
the social norms vary in due course with alterations in social morals
and events that have occurred over the time period that it was filmed
in. Therefore the representation of women in filmed in is all based
upon the interpretation of the director’s view within the ideology of
the narrative of the film by which they have created the film around
the institution that best suits there script. They are in a majority
of cases in contemporary film portrayed as strong figures who assists
in the narrative and reinforces the plot in order to reach and optimum
climax in a film. This can be achieved as Laura Mulvey points out by
taking advantage of the femininity of the female body and manipulating
the sexual figure in order to gain an erotic aspect to the film and
producing a male view on the film. The representation of women in
films tend to be in some films for the use of comedy stereotypical and
sexist, this is very evidence in such films as Austin Powers, in which
Austin merely sees women as objects for his desire and pleasure and of
course them being from the 60’s and it being a time of sexual
liberation especially for women accept it. This is shown by the
statement “You’re an object Baby” as it is degrading to a woman’s
independence and paints as a possession of a man, this is one of
Austin’s regularly used phases in all the Austin Powers movies. This
is one of the very few movies of contemporary times that have been so
sexist towards women in such a way and been successful in its
promotion and showings. Yet in the majority of mainstream films of
present the representation of women in this way does not occur. Thus
in contemporary film the roles and representations of women have
altered a lot in comparison to a few decades ago and yet they have
also just been regurgitate over and over again as more new films come
out and directors have been allowed to just copy the films previous to
them and all come out with the same representations of women that were
highlighted in an original narrative representation of a female
figure. This is in complete contrast to that which is portrayed of the
male figure in the films of contemporary times and even in the early
years of the film business and yet in comparison to today there is a
great variation to the representations. They have moved on a lot in
comparison to the older films and yet in contemporary films it is not
as noticeable as we live in a more liberated time for women yet the
‘film business still is pre-dated in comparison’ to the position of
women within the maintenance of society as this is not a
representation of the ‘social realism’ of the times we are presently
in. This is noticed when we compare it with the male representations
the in especially of contemporary times.
The representations of men in films.
In contemporary film the men’s roles in the films have been quiet
constant in their representation of the male gender in the films by
which they are depicted. Just like in past films the male roles have
usually been in the lead thus the representation of the men are that
of their leadership qualities due to them being the stronger more
dominant sex they are represented as hero’s, villains and geniuses who
must protect the weak and fragile public which usually is a female
character. This presents a male iconography or profile that retains
the stereotype of masculine traits of strength and protection of a
muscular and handsome man who can do no harm to the innocent making
him a morally responsible character. Yet the male gender can also be
portrayed as a heartless, villain who cares about no one and is greedy
in order to further himself no matter who he hurts on the way. In most
contemporary films the representation of men in them are usually
generalised and they can always be found in specific examples that are
present in every film. Though the male role is much stronger, it
actually works against the plot as this equation of plot type has been
successful so many times before that directors have just stuck to it
and not dare venture into new types due to production companies not
wanting to lose profits therefore the male representation although it
could be very dynamic in variety, it actually turns out to be similar
and repetitive. However like all film gender representations there are
of course the exception to the dominant rule of the social norms that
are reflected by the film representations setting up an idol by which
the male public have to look up to. This explains why the production
companies reinforce the idea of a male character being a family man
who stands by his family, the hero who will do anything for his
sensitive and vulnerable wife and children. Therefore like all
dominant representations there are the opposition to the rule, that is
the likes of the drag queen character, the lonesome stranger, the
handsome man to turns out to be gay, the lady’s man with something to
hide. This shows that even this comedy is induced by the genre, for
example, the ’highly camp drag queens, who employ a drag aesthetic
based on clown-like values like exaggeration, satire, dirty jokes,
putting on airs, and so forth. Divine is an example of a camp queen.’
These are highly amusing comic relief and yet the means of
representing the male character in this way does so it in such a way
that it protrays it as socially wrong frowned upon. This is reinforced
by the visual discourse that is applied within film and yet is
highlighted by the relationship between the language engaged and the
linguistics used. Not only are these representations evident in the
film business but they are employed in nearly every aspect of the
entertatinment business. To highlight this point it would be just as
evident and useful to take an indepth probe at the representations
that are produce in the music business. Therefore by analysing the
messages mediateed through the visual and linguistical discourse and
the opposite representations of gender that are in direct corrolation
of those in the film business.
The representations of women in music.
Thus the diversity of women representations in music are a lot greater
than in film this is due to the varying music genres and presentations
having specific iconolographical goals and distinctive aspects that
must be achieved in order for the artist/artists to fall into this
category. However, the main theme that occurs in mainstream ‘pop’
music genre is the commercialized artists that usually gain there
audience through the appearance of the individual rather than the
music as the musical talents tend to be very good but nothing
spectacular and very similar. It is the appearance that they sell
singles through. Women must live by the fashions of the time whether
they like them or not, they are made to gain the ideal image, in the
media at the moment it is a size 8 in frame and they spend hours on an
exercise regime in order to achieve the desired dance routines portray
the ‘social psychology’ that are subconsciously being mediated and the
production of the desired figure which every girl/women wants i.e. the
muscular and toned look with the perfect tan and usually blond hair.
The women are representations of what a woman wants they are scantily
clad and their songs consist of love, hurt and the hunt for the man
they need and want so badly. They are represented as a weak and
sensitive person who needs protection from the world and in an attempt
to get it they dress to impress the men and gain male attention. i.e.
the “male gaze” (Mulvey, Male Gaze, 1998, Routledge) get the person
managing them is usually male and does what he feels will sell the
records and thus using the female body as a tool through the knowledge
that the human psyche can be manipulated due to the structured means
by which Freud states that the mind is established in that is the ’Id
of the males Ego’ (see Freud,ID and Ego,1997,2nd edition John Storey)
also explained by Freud in this theory of the human’s innate sexual
drive that is dominant in everyone and can be brought to the surface
through the human body, this applies to both men and women. Therefore
girls buy the records to try to learn more men buy the records to
admire and the desire is present. In such genres as Rap and R’n’B
women are portrayed as strong, independent women who can support
themselves without a man. However they are still represented as
mothers who have to single-handedly look after their children and show
them how to live thus they are still controlled by a male dominance in
society as well as being icons of sexuality and feminity that men find
appealing to the eye they are constantly presenting themselves to the
attention of men and are either trying to find a man or constantly
hurt by a man. The songs they produce have strong theme involving men,
however the image of the men from the female perspective can show the
representation of women’s attitudes towards men in contemporary times,
they portray them as cruel creatures, and yet they are also kind,
loving humans who these strong independent women log for. Therefore,
representing women as incomplete without a man in her life. Even in
the more classical less mainstream music genres such as opera, country
‘n’ western, and even mainstream but still underground music genre
like heavy metal or gothic. In all these genre categories the female
representations are not typical or in some cases any reflection of the
generalized images of women in society, the representations of them
are a question of ‘verisimilitude’. They are in most of the cases
fantasy images and unrealistic images of a longing desire that the
artists are meant to be influential in social discussions and morals.
In operas the female characters and artists tend to be strong and yet
also so fragile and they can reach such powerful notes as well as such
tender sensitive notes that produce a message of need for protection
and longing for company. While country ‘n’ western artists usually
exploit the sexual appeal they have to manipulate and put forward
their message in their songs which usually have a straightforward yet
a very strong and emotional lyrics of there true feelings on the
aspect of there life in which they are singing of.
We find that in the more gothic genres and artists tend to be strong
figures who have been hurt by so many factors that there image
portrays a lonely, strong character who does not need men or anyone.
Yet even in the darkest gothic artists they tend to be Satan
worshippers and yet this representations means that they speck of
being followers thus are being controlled by a man and they do not
make decisions they are merely objects of a mans desires. Only the
extreme feminist artists isolate themselves from the male control with
there view that their ruler is female and yet the image they produce
for the media is one of appeal to men as well as women as they are
trying to get both audiences of the sales spectrum even if it is just
to gain more money they still sell out to a mainly male audience in
order to gain a sexual point of recognition. This is also noticed in
heavy or light metal genres as the female artists tend to be more
sexual and appealing than the male artists. Female “metalers” tend to
wear more revealing clothing and more sexually diverse representation
of themselves. This is seen in the presentation of two similar
artist’s one male one female. The very few female artists you find are
scantly clad and the male artists are full dressed and there are a lot
more of them thus women are under represented in the metal music
[IMAGE] [IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE] As these pictures show the male representations in this genre are
strong, brooding icons of strength, power and dominance. Yet the
female representation shown is a female figure exposed and vulnerable,
in need of help and weak unable to protect her naked, and sexual
figure that the whole world is able to see and she can’t stop them. It
takes complete advantage of the exploitation of the erogenous zones,
this is a brilliant example of fetishism this is the psychoanalytical
term used by Laura Mulvey to show the audience was therefore an
inevitable voyeuristic position in which women are rendered
‘to-be-looked-at’ thus there being a masculine control constantly
present. Thus being an item of male vision and fantasy not a domiant
figure like the one portrayed in the male icon. Therefore in all the
female representation of women in the music business is usually under
represented and those that are tend to represented a figures of
sensitivity, weakness and insecurity as they provoke an emotional song
that has a core theme of male wanting and desires as they try to lure
men with their looks and sexuality that they use to their advantage to
aim for their goal. This is therefore a similar representation of
women as is portrayed in films, yet the difference is that the artist
can put there own unique influence to it and yet they still must
maintain certain boundaries that are unspoken of and get are mediated
psychologically through pervious artists and there representations.
The familiarities between these representations are that they are
direct parallel to those that are represented in the films and yet
they vary in influence. However music should be flexable enough to
change its representations and ultimately change these portrayals as
they have the scope to adapt the artists own personality and views
into there music. Yet as noted this does not occur and can signify
subconscious influences. The varying representations of gender can be
seen by the close analysis of the representations of the male gender
in music.
The representations of men in music.
[IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE] As noted the male figures in the music
business have quite a range of diversity in them from one extreme to
another when considering every aspect of the music spectrum. If we
look at all genres whether mainstream or underground the variation
between the artist’s representations is more noticeable and obvious to
acknowledge. By looking at the male representations in a variety of
genres it is easier to highlight the representations of men that are
common traits of representations of men throughout all genres and
periods of time. As it is not just genre alone that affects the
representations portrayed but also the geographical location, the
audience it is being produced for, as well as the time of the
productions and any major events that may affect the reason for this
production. The male figure is usually portrayed as a strong, dominant
figure of power and self-control and yet can also be a figure of
malice and malevolence. These varieties of genres could be from
mainstream Pop to underground gangster rap, and R ‘n’ B. The main
iconography of men in the typical Pop genre spectrum appears to be a
‘pretty boy’ who is clean and well-cut always nicely dressed in the
latest fashions and very appealing to women as a gentleman who would
be perfect for meeting the parents and a brilliant symbol of what a
man should be like. This is the media representation that is used as
the majority of influencing propaganda promotional campaigns, by
mediating the message that the male representation for the mass should
be a man who is strong and healthily while well cut and clean, yet at
the same time being appealing to women due to his sexually attractive
body that show good breading in that he can maintain a strong build as
well as being sensitive an emotional yet still maintaining his male
source of identity, that he is so secure with that he can connect with
women and there femininity thus being able to connect with his
feminine side of his persona in a masculine way. Thus this
representation is a strong figure and get at the same time he is
sensitive and sexual. This is a contrast to the main underground
gangster rap genre. These artists tend to be aggressive, strong and
dominant figures that are very violent and rough, they gather in large
groups and have a common theme of carrying weapons such as guns and
knives in order to defend themselves. In their music they are very
sexually explicit and vulgar especially towards women and show no
respect towards the female sex as well as the minority groups or any
group that the do not have a connection with or an ‘alliance’. They
represent themselves as macho men who can handle themselves they don’t
need women for anything but sex. Thus to the masses they portray
themselves as ‘bad boys’ who don’t need anyone and they would be the
groups you would avoid and not want your parents to meet, they mediate
a message that for them they are above the law and they can do
anything they want, for them there lives evolve around using women for
sex, drugs, violence, and their gang. Yet both these extreme opposites
have common traits they are that the male figure in the music business
no matter what genre it is they are always portrayed as a strong,
dominant figure who can control and always be better than women as
they can either be there for them and be the woman’s love of her life
or they can be strong and dominant and use women for what they want
and then leave them as they are not dependant on women. Yet they both
mediate a message that women need a man as they can not support or
protect themselves. This is an ’empowerment of the icon of
masculinity’ that is echoed throughout the media in order to meet the
norms of societies values inorder to maintain a sense of the
patriarchal environment that is enforced so as to keep a sense of
structure and allow a collective ideology that is easily identified in
every genre. This is the acknowledgement of the masculine pride in a
format that can be a ‘world-view’ for them that is frequently getting
more influential, as the male position is jepodized by the increasing
position of women in society therefore the male representation in the
music business is an icon of there portrayal that is being reduced
within society as it is identified in the music genres portrayed in
the acknowledgement. The male representations are in such a way as to
’produce a universal message through the
language’(Saussure,Linguistics, 2000,Hodder & Stoughton) this is
stated through the works of the structuralist Saussure of it inorder
to create a support and influence to reinforce the manipulation and
creation of the dominance of the male figure. Also it is due to gender
that male artists can free themselves more and escape the dominance of
the management by with they are held in due to record companies. This
is evident when using the example of the artist formerly known as
Prince. ’ As Prince used more than he could to manage to change his
name so that he was no longer manageable, due to the factor that he
was not using the record company’s copyrighted name of Prince thus is
was then free, this was only able to be done as he was male and able
to do so due to this. That is that he was truly manageable of himself
therefore Prince was a fee not free-fencing artist.’
Therefore as highlighted the above we can clearly seen a direct
correlation and involvement in the lack of audience influence on the
representations of gender and the boundaries by which they must meet
inorder to be anyway successful. This results in an influence over
society’s gender representations in an indirect method that is
effective in maintaining an in-balance of gender equality in the
visual and linguistically influence of the mass media machine that is
film and music businesses all over the world no matter what period it
is evolving from and originating. Thus in total it is very evident
from all that is reviewed that there is a distinctive gender divide in
representations in the mediation of mass media. We find that women are
portrayed as sexual desired object for male attention, very caring,
and motherly figures. In contrast men are portrayed as strong,
masculine figures, who have dominance over the female figure as they
are mature and have a strong hold as provider to women. This is the
same representations presented for both music and film and therefore
seems to be the dominant representations of both groups with evident
differences in portrayal off figures. Thus I conclude that these
representations seem to be the most dominant and closes representation
of both groups that I feel could be described as universal. Yet I do
realise that at the same time it is not to be considered universal as
it does not apply to every gender representations and diversity is
present, yet these are frequently the representations mediated to the
audience, in the differing genres through the guidance of certain


Russian Culture     Russia culture is very different from any other culture that I have ever read about. This is a country that is dominated by males. Males actually run the county of Russia. The men are so dominated that every Russian women dream is to be married and have a family with these men. Russia is known for its poor society. In the book Sakharov he mentions how he moved from one place to another. He first was in Moscow’s larger apartments with his family. In this apartment there were six families. With thin the six families they had to share the kitchen and the bathroom. Then he states that he moved into a very old house and in this old house there was a leaking ceiling. With in this house there were still six families that shared everything. (Sakharov 24-25)
     In Russia there is a very high divorce rate. The divorce rate is high because of the prostitution and getting married just for religious purposes. My couples get married in Russia at a young age. Getting married at a young age is not a good idea in Russia or nowhere. Because of the prostitution rate in Russia it is bringing the abortion rate also. Just about every woman in Russia has had at least five abortions. The reason why woman get abortions is because they were either messing around with some one else man or they are married and got pregnant and neither of the spouses want the child.
     Russia has a high crime rate also. Their crime rate is so high that if you were to go to the store like the grocery store, when you walk in the store u have to lock your things up in a locker and shop. When you got through shopping then you were to pick up your stuff out of your locker. The whole time that you are shopping there are people watching your every move. The reason why the crime rate is so high is because they work hard to get paid a little amount of money. Russia’s unemployment rate is very high. There are not enough jobs in Russia for everyone to have a job. For example if you were to get a job at a fast food restaurant, you were only getting paid a little or nothing an hour and that’s not even close to minuan wage in America. Because of the unemployment rate in Russia this leads to the large drug cultures. There are many drugs that are being abused in Russia. They have most of all the drugs that we have in the United States. Hereon is a big drug that is being used in Russia. This is a drug that just about everybody does. This drug is shared buy nettles. This is one of the reasons why the aids count is so high in Russian and the count is getting higher and higher.
     Russia is overpopulated with drugs and alcohol. Every nine out of ten Russians are alcoholics or use drugs. It is said that the only thing you can do in Russia is to drink or smoke all your depressions away. Russians can brink vodka, cognac, and chaplain everyday as a regular drink. Russians did not only drink on the holidays or special occasions, it was an everyday thing. It is normal for a Russian to throw a party or a gathering and not go home that night because they are drunk or pass out at their friend’s house. Smoking is normal in Russia. The earliest on may start smoking is in the early teenage years. In Russia there are television and news paper articles that would try to get young kids to smoke. It is normal to see a young person smoking a Russia.
     Russia is known for the beautiful churches and cathedrals. Russia is a very religious country. They have many religions in Russia. The main religion in Russia is the Orthodox. The Orthodox churches are beautiful. The outside of them have there big domes and balls mad out of real gold. The height of the churches is so high they can be seen form miles away. On the inside of the churches have marble floors and the walls are beautifully hand painted (also is the outside of the buildings). In church woman should wear skirts and cover their heads with a scarf or a hat. Men should bare their heads in church because that is a sign of respect. In services in the Orthodox Church you stand for the whole service.
     In Russia they do like to have fun. Some of there traditions are to dance. Dancing is normally done at a celebration or just at a gathering. Russians enjoy Going to the opera, symphony, movies, ballet, and the theater. Russians listen to music also. They like jazz, folk and country. There are many things that I have learned for reading about Russians and their country and that is why I am happy to say that I am an American.

Internet Advertising

Advertising can mean many different things in today’s world. When advertising first was developed it was done by would of mouth and the classic flyer or poster. Then it moved up to using the radio to help capture a bigger audience. After that it moved towards the television where an even bigger audience could be reached. Lastly companies started to realize the shear amount of traffic that was generated by the Internet.An additional way companies advertise on the Internet is with the use of banners. A banner is basically a rectangular shaped ad at the top or bottom of a web page. These usually are put in as a link, so a user can click on them and the link would take them to that product that was being advertised. Overall a banner is very effective because they stay on the website the entire time the user is on it and if the user really wants to view all they have to do is click on it. Because the banner is not bugging the user, the banners are sometimes clicked on based on curiosity. Usually a banner is sold by the pixel, which is a unit of area on a computer screen. Because this size can vary vastly, some say that a banner is the simplest way to advertise on the Internet. One main component about a banner is the colors used in it. As an advertising company you would want your banner to have colors that stood out and were easy to read. As a company you would not want to spend thousands of dollars on one banner just to have two or three colors clash and that causes the banner to be hard to read. ( college student was surfing the web and he realized how the banners worked and how they sold by the pixel. He came up with this brilliant idea to maximize the computer screen and make it one thousand by one thousand pixels. With this he sold every pixel for one Dollar and came up with the appropriate named website, One thousand times one thousand equal one million dollars. This college student filled his host site to the brim and made himself a real one million dollars to help pay for his college career. ( To some this sounds ridiculous but to some it sounds scary because it can be that easy to make huge amounts of money on the Internet with barely any work.Back to another type of advertising found on the internet is spyware. To many this may be a very controversy subject. Spyware is basically a pop up ad or link that a user will click, but soon after the link or ad will start to take up space in your personal computers memory and space. The tricky part is that it is really hard to determine if an ad is spyware or not. Once you click that ad or download a program, it could be history for your computer. Spyware can totally destroy a user’s computer and cause him or her to consult a system restore. Luckily there are programs which are used to remove spyware from a user’s computer. One program that I know that loves to produce spyware is Kazza which is a music, video, program, and image downloading program that is free to download off the internet. Once a user starts downloading files the program will make its way into the user’s programs by acting as a music or video file, and then corrupt your computer. Spyware only exists because some websites need the money from advertising to support the website. And if the company doesn’t want to show a lot of advertising they will use spyware to basically sneak advertising to the user.Now one major thing every advertising company must deal with is the FTC, or the federal trade commission. They basically control every rule of how, where, when, of advertising in the United States. Some basic rules that the FTC has are; cannot mislead consumers and affect consumers’ behavior or decisions. The FTC also controls the privacy of online users. The FTC did an investigation and around 85% of all websites collected some kind of person information, and only 14% provided a notice of how their personal information was used. (
With all these different ways to advertise on the Internet I think the Internet is the most cost effective and logical way to advertise. Just imagine how many people that you know go on the internet everyday. Then imagine how many people access the internet all over the world in a day. The amount is very overwhelming and with that there is no face to face selling which some consumers can’t stand. Being able to just simply brainstorm a picture and a couple words can now make a company millions in profit because of the internet. Working as an intern with the New York State Lottery in their marketing and sales, I’ve come to realize how effective the internet can be in advertising. The lottery does tons of advertising over the internet and because of that the New York Lottery is the largest lottery in the United States. The possibilities are endless with what advertising teams can put on a website. From banners and pop up ads to ads that require a user to fully interact with the ad. To me the biggest and most popular ads definitely are video ads. Even though they are very similar to a T.V. commercial the vibe from the internet users are different because they are not forced to watch it. Most times they have the choice to close or mute the video. With the use of humor and wits videos can produce the most “bang for the buck” for a company. I feel, as though the only things that can somewhat compete with Internet advertising are the Super Bowl commercials. There are many people in today’s society that will only watch the game just for the commercials. To me that would be very difficult to advertise against such a huge sporting event. The one thing the Internet has going for it, is that it is available everyday and on every hour, all over the world.Overall Internet advertising has only been increase in population drastically over the last five years. With more and more users surfing the web it is only the smart thing to do and keep pushing advertising on the web. Not only are there more users in today’s world but also more and more businesses are starting up on line, which calls for more and more advertising. Even with such government controls such as the FTC, advertising is still in my mind the most important asset to a company demanding profits.Resources:

My Life is a Cluttered Drawer

My life is a cluttered drawer if you looked inside you would see a variety of pictures.Pictures of places far and near. Pictures of friends, family and loved ones. In the back of
the drawer tools for the tinkering that everything seems to need at one time or another.
Different types of music would be scattered throughout the drawer on tapes and CD’s for
the good times and the bad.     As the drawer slides more than half way open now the stacks of CD’s and tapes
begin to come into view. The tapes mostly of childhood music that got lost or out grown.
The lessons or sharing, and good attitude all waiting to be passed down to a cousin or
niece in dire need. The CD’s in the drawer I am sure have been pulled out, and again
returned depending on the mood, or the company. As for the artists of these CD’s, mostly
String Cheese, a semi blue grass band with a song for every mood.     At the far back of my cluttered drawer there are several tools. The tools you
would find in my drawer are common tools. The tools needed just for the basic
workshop. Both kinds of screw drivers, Phillips head and a flat head. A hammer, and last
but not least needle nose pliers. With this set of tools I feel I can fix, or “rig” almost
anything I own to a certain extent. This set of tool would also cure the boredom of
everyday life. Scratch up some nails and grab my trusty hammer with a cuple of planks of
scrap wood, in my mind that can cure the boredom of any uneventful Saturday. The
screw drivers are for any and every thing with screws, from the lose door knob to the
leaky faucet that lost a handle years back. The pliers I keep in my drawer are for the hard
to reach spots that you always seem to drop the most important thing you own.      
          All in all I would consider the drawer my life consists of a junk drawer.
Little things that people along the way have passed by and drooped in. A collection of
items with no real connection but myself. my life is like a cluttered drawer if you looked
inside you would see me.

The Effectiveness of Goldeneye’s Pre-credit Sequence at Gaining the Viewers Attention

The Effectiveness of Goldeneye’s Pre-credit Sequence at Gaining the Viewers AttentionThe film Golden Eye (1995) is a well known film. Martin Campbell, the
director uses many techniques such as death defying stunts, villains,
attractive Bond girls, exotic locations, and sarcastic humour to
create an exciting action film. Even though the audience all know that
MI6’s finest agent James Bond will escape near death, save the day and
bed the girl, we all return to watch the next mission. Goldeneye
fulfils all of the audience’s expectations by exploring all the music,
camera angles and shots that Campbell uses I intend to show that
Goldeneye is one of the most exciting Bond films available.
At the start of the film, the audience sees a black screen with white
spotlights coming from the left hand side. The spotlights are in the
middle of the screen, then leaving the at the right hand side. Bond
walks into the gun barrel and faces the camera and shoots his gun. It
has a white and black back ground until he shoots his gun when it
becomes red. This creates the illusion of blood falling down the
screen. The barrel shakes from side to side before the whole image
becomes one whole searchlight. The searchlight goes into the bottom
left hand corner. This makes it look like the light is becoming the
plane. You know this because it makes the sound of a plane. The plane
then returns into the middle of the screen. Martin Campbell keeps the
audience watching by inventing new gadgets, different transport and
sound affects. The audience know what to expect because the good guys
always win, so they know that some gadget is going to rescue him and
that he always gets the girl.
The opening sequence is an important event in a Bond film. Ever since
the second James Bond film, there has been an action sequence as an
introduction to the main feature. These sequences invariably involve
dangerous stunts, which are designed to act as eye candy. Since 1977
when Roger Moore skied off a cliff to safety.
The pre-credit sequence has involved aerial stunts. Campbell continues
this tradition with not one, but two aerial stunts in his pre-credit
sequence including a bungee jump and a preposterous freefall into a
plane. The sequence begins with a plane flying but we don’t know who
the person is inside. We hear a huge metal gate that opens up, then
somebody running. The audience attention is grabbed with the steep
dam. The mystery man was running across the dam, he got to the middle
and attached a harness to himself. The camera zooms in to show what he
is doing. When he jumps off of the dam, there are four shots during
the jump and it lasts for 13 seconds. The audience assumes it is Bond
because he uses a gadget to hold him to the ground after he jumped
over the dam. There are all different types of camera angles such as:
high, low, extreme close up, etc. Martin Campbell uses a high camera
angle when the person jumps, this is so the audience can see how high
he is going to jump. He also uses a close up of the person’s eyes and
the harness. This shows something is going to happen, and because of
the close up of the harness, the audience know he is going to jump.
This has an effect on the audience because they don’t know how high he
is going to jump from, and they don’t know where from. At this point
the audience should be wondering what going to happen next.
Bond breaks into the weapons facility before descending from the air
vent of a toilet and knocking a guard out. He cracks a joke “beg your
pardon, I forgot to knock” to keep the audience watching and carries
on as nothing has actually happened. We then see a different man come
on the screen holding a gun to the other man’s head. The man holding
the gun says “you’re late”. The audience are confused with what is
going on but they realise that it is 006 and 007. They go into the
weapons base, and Bond sets a bomb to go of in the next six minutes.
They go to get out but there is an alarm that goes off so they have to
find an exit. The Russian grab the audience’s attention when they
swarm the base and try to shoot 006 and 007. The audience’s attention
is grabbed once again when the Russians have captured Trevelyan. Bond
has to come out in the next ten seconds. The chief kills Trevelyan.
The part where the chief counted down ten to one, the audience new
whatever Bond done 006 would have died. Martin Campbell played music
loud on the parts where the audience’s attention was grabbed mostly,
he also adds humour in, and it’s always after Bond kills someone. All
different kinds of camera angles are used in this scene, mostly mid
shot. Trevelyan uses some kind gadget to open the door with activating
the alarm. The audience think that 006 and 007 are going to get
captured and killed by the Russians.
Bond shouts out for Trevelyan but he doesn’t answer so he moves
towards the Russians pointing his gun at them. Bond goes back to alarm
the bomb to go off in the next three minutes. The audience’s attention
is grabbed by the 3 minutes that are left before the bomb goes off.
Bond hides behind a trolley and moves towards a track, the Russians
are just laughing. The chief says “you can’t escape” Bond then jumps
on the track and presses a button to start it moving, also he shoots a
metal fence which has barrels stored behind it, and they all fall down
and knock them all over. The audience are very excited at this point
because Bond has escaped. Bond runs after a plane to try and get away
before the Russians catch him. He gets in the plane but has a bit of a
fight with the other man who is in there so they both fall out. Bond
escaping from the Russians grabs the audience’s attention. He knocks
someone off a motorbike and chases after the plane, he gets back in
the plane but it falls of a cliff. Martin Campbell uses a close up off
Bonds eyes and the joystick. He does this so you can see the pressure
that is on Bond and how hard it is to move the joystick. Bond manages
to move the joy stick before the plane crashes. The audience is
relieved that Bond has escaped once again from a tricky situation.
Martin Campbell uses a high camera angle so we can see how steep the
cliff is and uses a low one so we can see the plane coming down. The
director keeps us watching by building our tension up and then
dropping it.
The pre-credit sequence is a really exciting part of the film. I think
it is a really successful and it makes the audience want to carry on
watching the rest of the film. Martin Campbell is a great director for
the James Bond films. Goldeneye is one of the most popular films that
he has directed. This film builds up your tension and then drops it,
just like a rollercoaster. Pierce Brosnan plays James Bond in this
film, I think he suits this part very well.

A Happier Tomorrow in Today Will Be a Quiet Day

A Happier Tomorrow in Today Will Be a Quiet Day  First, the father decides to take the day off and spend some time with his children. He lets his son and daughter skip their music lessons and they all take a trip to Patella. This little get-away is the father’s attempt to have a fun, relaxing day with his children. This is shown throughout the car ride when the boy and girl are telling jokes, and the boy constantly recites humorous bumper stickers. Another example of the father’s attempt to have fun with his children is his initial plan to attend the arm wrestling tournament. This is shot down by the children, but they still find an interesting place to have a nice lunch. The day proved to be a fun and relaxing day for the family, and hinted that less disastrous times are in store for them.Next, the fact that the daughter has just received her driver’s license is a step towards happier times. Driving on her own is probably one of the most exciting times of her life, and she makes it known to her family that she received the highest grade in the class. The father trusts her and lets her drive all the way home, which raises her confidence and shows the trusting relationship between the father and daughter. Another example which shows happier times coming to the family is when the father tells the children that he has both good and bad news. He goes on to ask which would the children prefer to hear first. The daughter immediately answers that she wishes to hear the bad first. This is surprising to her father, but it shows that she is beginning to mature. The father is glad to hear that the daughter can handle the bad news, when earlier the truth had to be hidden from her, like the death of the dog. This shows how naive the daughter was in her younger years, and now that she has been through so me can finally handle the truth. Upon hearing his daughter’s response the father smiles and realizes that their lives together will be just fine.More proof that the story is going to turn out for the best comes from Hempel herself. Hempel, who often uses her traumatic childhood experiences while growing up in California as a basic plot for many of her stories, believes that resilience is the key to character. The motto she lives and writes by is taken from Dr. Christian Barnard: “suffering isn’t ennobling, recovering is” (Hall 68). This proves that Hempel feels that recovering, though very tough, should be looked upon with great pride and respect, for it is very noble to recover.These examples show that this family is recovering from hardships, and they are recovering very well. They have moved past traumatic experiences and are ready to face the future. Their little excursion to Patella has proved that they are capable of being a happy, mature family. Putting the past behind them was tough, but they are ready to move into the future as one. The three will live through any misfortunes, as Hempel did, and go on to live a happy life.Works CitedHall, Sharon K., ed. “Amy Hempel.” Contemporary Literary Criticism. 39 vols. Michigan: Gale Research Company, 1986.Hempel, Amy. “Today Will Be a Quiet Day.” Harper Anthology of Fiction. Ed. Sylvan Barnet. New York: Harper Collins, 1989.    

Gender Roles of the 21st Century

Gender Roles of the 21st CenturyIn my coursework I will look at how gender roles were in the past and
present and compare them to see if there have been any changes.
I know that ‘Sex’ refers to the biological, anatomical differences
between males and females, whilst ‘Gender’ refers to the
psychological, social and cultural differences between them.
This is why sex is a biological construct and gender is a social
A person’s sex is a natural quality, but a person acquires his/her
gender through a process called gender socialization. This means how
people learn. I will look into this in more detail.
The society in which we live plays an enormous role in determining the
different attitudes and behaviour of us all. These differences are
shown most strongly in the development of certain gender related
social roles and behaviour traits. Gender is a socially constructed
term, and the development of gender roles often begins as early as
From the moment of birth, a child’s world is prepared along
gender-related rules. The blue vs. pink-colored blankets, and jackets
used to wrap infants, the nursery rhymes that describe what boys and
girls are made of, and the sex-based separation in classrooms are but
a few of the hundreds of behaviors that underline the importance of
gender as a classification scheme.
Gender is socially constructed to make a clear division between the
two sexes, and to describe their characteristics through gender roles.
Culture forms much of what people consider masculine or feminine. In
most societies, the “feminine” is usually categorized by delicacy,
sensitivity, innocence, sympathy, and who cares for others. The
“masculine,” however, is characterized by strength, aggressiveness,
independence, intelligence, and a hard worker.
Gender is different from sex, which is biologically determined.
Although we see that gender roles are mainly socially built, it is
certain that biologically based characteristics also lead to the
development of some traditional social roles.
There has been lively debate for many years over the relative
importance of genetic and environmental factors in determining human
attributes. This is often referred to as the “Nature verses Nurture”
Since women are the carriers of babies and have the ability to
breastfeed, it is not strange that women should be given the role of
the caretaker of the home, while men, who are physically stronger, are
the protectors and providers.
It is a worldwide feature that males are more physically active and
aggressive than females, while females engage in activities that
require precise mental skills.
Gender roles in the past
The females of the past had to go through a lot to have the right just
to be equal as men. In this case they wanted to vote and also rule and
get into the ugly world of politics which was supposed to be only for
men, and women would not be able to survive if they interfere with
politics but this was their argument, and why not? If men could do it
why cant they. I will tell you what the women of the past went
through, so that the modern women of today have many privileges that
they wouldn’t have 100’s of years ago.
By 1900, the attitude towards women was still the very traditional
view that women were the homemakers and belonged in the running of the
household and bringing up of children and the supporting of their
husbands. Women were viewed as morally better to their male
counterparts and had to be protected from the rough world of politics.
Domestic service continued to be the most common occupation for
working-class women and so women were still working as servants, which
supported the view that their best qualities lay within household
management, and not in the running of the country.
During the 1800s, women began to speak up and organize to gain women’s
rights. In 1848, the first women’s rights meeting was held in New York.
One important issue from that meeting was women’s suffrage — the
right to vote.
A group of women suffragettes fought for the rights of women to vote.
Even though suffrage eventually became headline news, no party was
willing to accept women before 1918.
The suffrage bills in Parliament were put forward by sympathetic MPs
as private members’ bills, which meant they had little chance of
success because they did not have majority party backing.
One of the main problems with women not being taken before 1914 was
that the Liberal government was not willing to give them the vote.
The Liberals had won a landslide victory in the General election of
1906 and needed to keep this majority in order to stay in government.
The Liberals began to introduce new welfare improvement such as the
School Meals Act and Old Age Pension’s Act to tackle the problem of
poverty and generally improve the lives of the British public. These
changes took time and money to launch. The Women’s Suffrage Bill was
rejected in 1907 and then carried in 1908 but in 1909 when it received
its second reading, they failed to give it support so it failed. This
proves that the government undercut the efforts of the supporters of
women’s suffrage.
Most politicians wanted women to have the vote only if their party
benefited from it. The Liberals in general believed women should have
the vote, but they were fearful of the property qualification for the
vote and were convinced new female voters would support the
Conservatives as most women who held property were upper or middle
There wasn’t a problem about giving the vote to women as few of them
actually could meet the existing qualification, and this also applied
to one third of all men as well.
Gender Roles in the 20th Century
Women have spent much time struggling for equality; supporting for the
right to vote, the right to own property, the right to education, the
right to equal employment opportunities and amongst others, the right
to legal status.
Women have always wanted to be pleased of their minor position in
society and to improve their domestic, economic and political position
within it. They have wanted to break out of their so-called ’private
sphere’ long time ago and be able to contribute fully and freely
within the ‘public sphere’ of society.
In the quest for equality, the law is often seen the most powerful
tool which can be used to support women’s causes. The law has been
used to tackle various issues and various Acts have been passed to
reflect this. However, there is some doubt now as to how effective the
law is. It would therefore seem that the law is not quite the
dangerous weapon it is thought to be and some other alternative may be
The perfect example of the lack of the law in this topic relates
specifically to employment and the lack of the anti-discrimination at
work legislation.
Even with the fact that women are now able to participate more in the
public world and get paid employment, they still face inequality in
the work place.
There are major occupational differences, where women are often found
employed in low paid, low status jobs with few chances of promotion.
Women are also more likely to be employed in part time work. This
reflects the minor position of women within the business ladder. Two
reasons can be given for this imbalance in the workplace, firstly
because women are the focus to gender discrimination and secondly,
women’s role in the private sphere is to be the primary carer.
The first significant piece of legislation in the UK was the Equal Pay
Act 1970 which aimed to promote equality at work between men and
women. The Act provides that a female employee is to be treated no
less favourably than a male employee who is occupied on ‘like work’ or
on ‘work rated as equivalent’.
Despite these requirements, women still experience large pay
differences between what they earn and what their male counterpart
earns in the same job.
My research shows that women in full time work earned on average 82%
of the average hourly pay of males in full time employment and earned
on average 60 % of the average hourly rate of pay to males in part
time work.
Such mathematical data and findings from many other studies on pay
differences are evidence of the fact that the law has been ineffective
in realistic terms with regard to equal pay for men and women.
Yet women still find they are stuck working in low paid jobs with poor
job security, poor salary and little opportunity for promotion.
Research shows that often employers will directly discriminate against
women by not offering them jobs or passing them over in promotion, but
few will actually admit that their decision is based on the woman’s
Therefore, now discrimination is happening secretly. However, in
comparing her treatment to someone of the opposite sex, it is not
required that the other candidates were in fact treated more
favourably than she was.
Indirect discrimination occurs where an employee requires a condition
or requirement equally to all employees. However, that condition or
requirement has the effect that it disadvantages a larger amount of
one sex than the other. Again proof lies with the applicant.
The law applies the idea of equality in the work arena but must also
do so in other areas. The current blanket approach of the law is
ineffective and even devastating.
Cultural and social limitations are largely responsible for the minor
position of women in society and we must look to social, political and
economic issues to make any significant changes.
However, the law is not completely useless. It has been a useful
supporter in bringing issues into the public arena and bringing
changes even if they didn’t gain any large benefit at least it has
given formal equality.
The world has changed now and the modern woman has nearly as many
rights as men. But there is still a lot of discrimination going on
around the world, it happens both openly and discreetly.
Gender Roles in the home
You play with dolls, you learn manners, you obey your parents, you
never talk back, you marry, you give birth, and you stay at home. Your
husband goes out to work and you take care of the children. You are
the obedient one; you are a woman.
Is this really true?
I have researched on gender responsibilities in the home to
distinguish any changes from the past. I will be using 3 different
homes in different age groups to see if the household is more old
fashioned or the other way round. I will place my observations onto a
table so it will be easier for me to analyse the results.
M = Male and F = Female.
1st Household
Washing up
Cleaning bathroom
Locking up house
Shopping for food
As you can see the 1st household is quite a contemporary, modern
household as most chores are being shared by both male and female. The
male and female in the house are in their early 40’s.
2nd Household
Washing up
Cleaning bathroom
Locking up house
Shopping for food
In the 2nd household we can spot out that there is a traditional house
wife. The woman does all the housework and the man does the earning.
The male and female in this house are in their late 40’s. So not much
difference in age as in the 1st household but they still use the old
fashioned system.
3rd Household
Washing up
Cleaning bathroom
Locking up house
Shopping for food
And in the 3rd household it is a traditional old fashioned house wife.
The woman does all the housework and the male does hardly anything.
The male and female in this house are in their early 70’s. So they are
quite old and they stick to the old fashioned system by which they
were brought up with, but in this case the woman earned a good salary
as well as the man.
I carried out this survey as I required to find out if the gender
roles are being challenged or reinforced in the 21st century in the
My survey results illustrate, that in my house the gender roles have
transformed, but it was not so likely in the other households.
In the past domestic work was mostly carried out entirely by the women
in the lower social classes and by male and female servants in the
higher social classes. This means more men worked than women as they
were brought up with traditional values.
I think housework is much more equally shared out today as men are
less sexist than before and there are more women working now so
sometimes men have to overlook what people say and look after the
children or even be the “house husband” for sometime or maybe always.
If I had more time I would have done a survey of a lot more houses to
obtain more accurate information, and then I could target a similar
age group or I could see if specific cultures play big parts in gender
roles in the home.
Gender Socialisation
A person acquires his/her gender through a process called gender
socialisation. This is the learning of a particular social role
according to an individual’s sex. It has a major effect on how men and
women act in society. Through this process, a person learns what is
masculine and feminine and learns to act accordingly. The period in a
person’s life when this process begins and ends is controversial. In
fact, I think that it begins at infancy, whereas some think that it
takes place later in a child’s life. But it has been scientifically
proven that it takes place from birth to the age of 5.
A child’s imagination is a huge way of learning social and language. A
child will mimic the behaviour of those around them, so if a child has
a number of people around them to learn from it may take different
pieces of information from each person, or may focus on one person.
This will usually be a caretaker of sum sort weather it is a parent,
guardian or any other.
These are stereotypical male and female differences
The colour of a baby’s room
Typical Toys
Types of children’s clothes
Adult response to a child falling over
Picking child up and saying everything’s OK
Hugs and kisses
Playground games
catch, football
Hop scotch, skipping
Comics/reading materials
Story books
Games adult plays with child
Physical games
Mind games
Attitude of adults to a child getting dirty
Don’t worry, ask your mum you need a bath
Oh look, you’re all dirty, now I need to wash you
Attitude of adults to a child making loud noises
Get angry and shout,
Stop making noise
Be quiet sweetheart
Subjects studied at school
PE, Maths
English, Food Tech.
Attitude of adults to a child crying
Don’t cry, Why are you crying for?
What’s wrong baby, don’t cry
Attitude of adults to a child carrying heavy objects
Well done, you’ll get big muscles
Oh that looks heavy let me take that for you
Attitude of adults to an older child hugging mummy
Don’t be jealous
Don’t worry, come and hug me as well.
Attitude of adults to a child getting into fights
You have to be strong and fight
Fighting is wrong honey.
I did this to show you the male/female stereotypical differences.
Gender Roles in the Media
In TV advertisements, gender stereotyping is very strong. In adverts,
men are described as more independent. They are shown in more
prestigious occupations than women; they are very likely to be
advertising a car or a brand company whereas women are shown mainly as
housewives and mothers. They would be advertising something like
kitchen rolls and other domestic appliances. Men are more likely to be
shown outdoors in a suit and in business settings while women wearing
aprons in household settings.
What is it Advertising
Time, Length and Date
Which people are in advert
Is the advert discriminating the sex you expected?
Therefore is the advert Reinforcing or Challenging the sexual
Any other observations about the advertIBMNew Laptop technology
30 seconds, 18:02, 07/03/05
Only Men, wearing suits
Yes, they are showing only men in the working environment.
This ad is reinforcing sexual stereotyping as no women are shown
It may have been an advert from abroad but screened in London so that
may have something to do with it.
Yes Car Insurance
35 seconds, 17:01, 08/03/05
Only men looking around for cars.
Yes because they are showing only men looking around for cars.
The ad is reinforcing sexual stereotyping as they are showing only men
The host of the ad was a woman though and I think other ads of the
same company had women in it.
Green Flag Motoring Assistance
(I took further action-see page 16)
25 seconds, 17:09, 08/03/05
Mechanic is a man and woman in the car doing her make up and incapable
of fixing the car.
Yes because they are showing that women are incapable of fixing cars.
The ad is reinforcing sexual stereotyping as they are discriminating
against women.
Although they are showing that women now drive, they still are
discriminating against them.
Pepsi Max
30 Seconds, 17:09, 08/03/05
A man falling through an office block where there are only men wearing
suits in a meeting and 1 woman assistant.
Yes because they are showing that men only have the high positions and
women are just minor assistants.
Even though it is a drink commercial it still manages to reinforce
sexual discrimination against women.
There are other Pepsi Max adverts out but this was the one I saw
discriminating a certain gender.
I will now analyse 4 different adverts and observe if they manage to
discriminate an individual sex in any way.
There is a general compromise that the mass media act as important
agents of socialization, together with the family and peers,
contributing to the moulding of gender roles.
Surely we learn to be male or female; it doesn’t come ‘naturally’ and
the mass media plays a part to making such roles seem ‘natural’. And
there is no doubt that TV presents powerful, attention-grabbing images
of gender.
I think that the most “gender related” advert would have to be the
Bounty adverts for the kitchen rolls where they have two men dressed
up as women pretending to be housewives testing out the kitchen rolls.
This could either show that they are challenging the gender roles by
showing males also are now associated with the kitchen or they are
mocking the women. But if they had two real women we would start
arguing about it saying they were gender stereotyping and
discriminating against women. So either way it is the most gender
related advert I have come across.
In most modern children TV ads feature both girls and boys, but boys
tend to be the dominant ones. Ads aimed at boys show far more activity
and aggressive behaviour like jumping around, running, shouting
whereas the ads for girls are likely to be quieter. Boy’s ads contain
active toys, and loud, dramatic music and sounds. Girl’s ads tend to
have frequent fades, dissolves, and gentle background music.
Sport on television is dominated only by men and it stays that way as
men can express sports their way, however recently I was viewing the
Chelsea vs. Barcelona match onITV1 and I saw a woman with Terry
Venables explaining everything in half time. She had the same amount
of football knowledge as Gary Linekar and the rest of them. I’m sure
she went through a lot of discrimination and she is now climbing up
the job ladder.
Whereas most women are dominating the cooking channels as women are
adapted for the kitchen and are more likely to cook better then men.
And the majority of viewers would also be women. However these days
there are quite a few number of really famous male chefs who women
can’t get enough of. Some of them having their own show for an hour or
so. The male chef that comes to mind out of the top of my head would
be Jamie Oliver and his show “The Naked Chef” which is quite a hit for
both male and female audiences.
However nowadays there are quite a generous amount of movies that hit
the big screen which challenge the old sexual stereotyping rather than
making the same old dry movies. I will only give an example of 2
movies which are “Taxi” (1998) and “Daddy Day Care” (2003). I will
analyse both briefly just so that you get a taste of how these films
are challenging the ordinary gender roles.
This is a movie about 2 ordinary cops about to catch the robbers of a
big crime. There was said to be three robbers; which were extremely
dangerous and ruthless. They have already robbed the most secured
banks of America. Which big tough guys would these 3 robbers be? The
robbers are a bunch of six foot supermodels, led by Gisele Bundchen,
Leonardo Di Caprio’s erstwhile girlfriend, who here makes her screen
debut. Which is not normal as every single person on this earth would
expect these robbers to be men.
Daddy Day Care
This movie is about two hopelessly inept fathers running a pre-school
day care facility. They are seriously taking a massive risk as Eddie
Murphy’s wife (in the movie) thinks the job of nurturing kids is only
up to women and no one else.
So these two movies are challenging the original gender roles from the
past in two different but similar ways. Both taking the position of
their opposite gender.
Gender Roles in Education
During colonial times, girls and boys were educated differently. Girls
went to “dame” schools where they were taught how to read and write.
The “master” schools; similar to today’s high schools; were for boys.
Girls could attend the master schools, generally during the summer
when boys worked and only if space was available.
In the 1800s, prospects for women in education began to improve. High
schools and colleges for girls were established. Some colleges and
universities that accepted only young men began to accept young women.
In 1833, Oberlin College became the first higher education institution
for young women and men. At the beginning of the 20th century, more
than one third of all college students were women.
The females are now dominating the world in education. The females
have always been getting better results than boys after the
Educational Equity Act. The women of the past were never educated due
to the tyrannical belief that men were superior to women in many ways.
They considered the females rightful place was at home.
However despite this women have shown us that they are equal maybe
even better than men. This has been shown from long time ago when
great; great women have changed the world by their exceptional
discoveries and leadership.
National figures for pupils gaining 5+ A*-CGCSEgrades-——————————————————————————
Percentage of pupils aged 15 on roll in all English
Schools gaining five or moreGCSEgrades A* – C
                                           Year         All pupils     Boys         Girls
                   %            %            %
2004           53.3         48.4         58.4
2003           52.9         47.9         58.2
2002           51.6         46.4         57.0
2001           50.0         44.8         55.4
2000           49.2         44.0         54.6
1999           47.9         42.8         53.4
1998           46.3         41.3         51.5
1997           45.1         40.5         50.0
1996           44.5         39.9         49.4
1995           43.5         39.0         48.1
1994           43.3         39.1         47.8
1993           41.2         36.8         45.8
1992           38.3         34.1         42.7
1991           36.8         33.3         40.3
1990           34.5         30.8         38.4
As you can see the results of girls compared to boys there is a huge difference. The girls have got higher grades from 1990 and are still rocketing high up the educational ladder and are still achieving more than boys. This reflects the world’s attitude to women succeeding rather than failing now. Everyone expects girls to do better, so moving on girls will be having better jobs in high positions and everyone will be hiring women now as they are more capable than men. A long time ago society had pushed and in a hypothetical way bullied woman to become house wives or do minor low paying jobs if they were lucky. So this shows us that the gender roles of previous centuries are being challenged rather than reinforced, so the gender discrimination has changed in the likes of education.
Are Gender Roles still applicable in Modern Times?
Interview: Mrs Hussain 42 yrs old Tax Inspector, married with 2
Interviewer: Zakir Hussain 10TR
Date: 6 March 2005
Q1: Describe your role in the family and society in general please.
A: Well I am a wife and mother of two sons; I have been married for 19
years. I have had a career since graduating and I am a daughter,
sister, Aunty etc.
Q2: How has the gender role changed for you over the years?
A: My role has changed slightly as our lives have changed.
My husband used to help me a lot more on housework when we first
married but as he has become busier he helps a lot less, he helped 50%
with housework and bringing up children and now it is 30% because he
has taken on more work earning money.
I am lucky in that my husband is the modern man, he helps with
everything, and we are a good partnership.
Q3: How did your gender role vary at home, school and work?
A: As a child my gender role was no different to my brothers as my
father was an advocate of equality amongst the sexes, we both carried
the same amount of shopping home, I was taught to change a fuse wire,
wire a plug etc. Because in those days’ lots of immigrant en worked
night shifts and my father did not want me unprepared in the future.
As my brother was older and went to work, he did less housework and we
adopted traditional gender roles but due to my father’s views of
equality my brother still had to help a little.
At school we were very traditional except my history teacher who was a
staunch feminist, we were given skipping when the boys played football
in primary school, and the secondary school taught home economics
instead of Technical Drawing. I campaigned and won the first football
magazine in a girl’s school. At university we were treated as equals.
At work there is definite bias towards men, towards friendly
attractive females, and people who go drinking in pubs. I overcome
such barriers all the time by having a thick skin, positive attitude
and hard work, and have got promotion sometimes over men in the 16
years I have worked for the Inland Revenue as a Tax Inspector.
There is a lot of stereotyping and being a small sized female people
underestimate me, for example in meetings my older male staff is
looked at as the boss, only to be told with a smile that the little
lady is the boss!
Q4: How is your role different from your mothers?
A: My mother is 63 years old, she also had a family and career, my
father helped very little, she was a teacher and she did more
traditional female roles at say 90% compared to my 50%, so the roles
are slowly changing. It depends on the woman’s career. Women are
taking on more challenging roles, especially the traditional male jobs
are more demanding and these women do less of the traditional female
roles because they earn more and demand the man do more to help in the
Q5: If you were a housewife would your role be different?
A: I think my husband would do less and probably I would do the more
traditional roles, but being a modern woman I would still expect him
to help more on housework than my father did because times have
changed and attitudes to traditional roles have changed, thank god.
Q6: How do you see your role develop as you get older?
A: As I retire, I will probably do more of the housework if I am at
home, but he will always help because we are set in our habits. It
will depend on health more than anything, who is capable of doing what
rather than gender role.
Women’s Hall of Fame
Some of the women who had shown the world that they were as powerful
and as capable as men, they overcame traditional gender roles due to
their passion for their vocations:
Clara Barton (1821 – 1912)
Founder of the American Red Cross, Barton ministered to injured
soldiers during the Civil War and became known as the “Angel of the
Battlefield.” Devoted to the organization, she later took to the
field, providing relief in the Spanish American War at the age of 77.
Amelia Bloomer (1818 – 1894)
First woman to own, operate and edit a newspaper for women, The Lily.
First published in 1849 in Seneca Falls, New York, it became a
recognized forum for women’s rights issues. She often wore full-cut
pantaloons under a short skirt, giving birth to the term “bloomers.”
Myra Bradwell (1831 – 1894)
America’s first woman lawyer. When denied permission to practice law
in Illinois (despite passing the bar examination) because of her
gender, she began publishing The Chicago Legal News, a very successful
legal journal. When the laws changed in 1892, Bradwell was admitted to
practice in Illinois and in the U.S. Supreme Court.
Mother Teresa (1949)
She dedicated every day of her adult life caring for “The dying, the
cripple, the mentally ill, the unwanted, and the unloved” and she
loved every minute of it because she was loving, she was cleaning,
feeding. They found men, women, and children dying on the streets who
were rejected by local hospitals. The group rented a room so they
could care for helpless people otherwise condemned to die in the
gutter. In 1950, the group was established by the Church as a Diocesan
Congregation of the Calcutta Diocese. It was known as the Missionaries
of Charity.
In conclusion, I think that gender roles of previous centuries still
play a huge part in modern society, although they are being challenged
immensely and the attitudes have gone a long way to changing in many
spheres, the legislation has helped to bring equality amongst men and
women with more women challenging the implementation of the
legislation. For example pay amongst top city workers, a hugely male
dominated profession which has been challenged publicly to bring into
line the equal rights issues of the genders.
Better and more available higher education, media and female role
models with high flying careers, better and easily available
contraception has led to a falling birth rate in many European
countries. Followed by a change in attitude in society to the
traditional role of men and women in a nuclear family, and with the
presence of more one parent families where the need for women to work
is a necessity rather than desire, has all led to women seeking
careers and now the second generation of emancipated women are looking
to better their mother’s careers and are aiming for the higher and
challenging careers traditionally dominated by men.
Poverty and lack of education in certain class and cultures still mean
in parts of society gender roles of previous centuries are still being
reinforced in the 21st century, for example there is still the
existence of honour killings and domestic violence where women are the
Better education has led to wealth and equal opportunity in certain
class and cultures like IT jobs in India and Indonesia where the
gender roles are being challenged and as skills are gained by both
genders equality is being obtained challenging gender roles of
previous centuries.
Although more gender roles are being challenged in the 21st century,
it will be a long time before all societies can be challenged for a
better and equal role for both genders, wherever there is poverty or
no education traditional gender roles will be reinforced.
Emancipation of all women of the world can only come as part of a
social revolution when the need arises out of desperation, for example
with a lot of dead men in the war now there are a lot more women
politicians in Iraq. In Turkey the rights of women are being
challenged to gain acceptance into the European Union.
I enjoyed this project as I really looked into the real facts about
gender discrimination and to find out how females were discriminated
in the past. I enjoyed doing the gender roles in education as I could
easily see that girls always did better than boys. I didn’t have
enough time to visit any old peoples homes, so if I had more time I
would interview an old man and an old woman from this country and an
old woman and man from another country, and compare if they had the
same experiences and beliefs or if their beliefs have changed from the
past. My strengths were when I could research about Gender Roles in
the home as I used both my nuclear and atomic families’ household so
it was easy and fast. My weaknesses was that I interviewed only one
person, if I had more time it would be better to have interviewed both
genders and of differing generations to get a real feel for the
changes in society with time.
I published my work on computer as it looks much neater and organised
rather than my own handwriting and it also has introduced me to a lot
of new vocabulary and phrases which I am now confident with using, I
learnt a lot of new skills, as I am now capable of putting together
information into a structured piece of work. I didn’t do any graphs
showing women’s jobs changing through the years which I could’ve done
if I had more time for research. I also wrote a letter to one of the
channels of my choosing asking them why their advert was
discriminating against a specific gender and I could’ve sent if I had
more time
(Attached to page 16).
This study also has highlighted to me the need to analyse my personal
views on gender roles and to be aware of my need to challenge
traditional roles for a better life in modern society where equality
of the genders must become reality because there is a need and not
just for the sake of challenging the roles, men could be made to carry
a baby but is this necessary given their bodies are not made for this
purpose. It would be better if men learn to nurture the baby once it
is born and take equal part in upbringing which is needed if the woman
is to have a career. This will benefit both genders and lead to a
better society.
I got some information from the articles in ‘The Economist’
I used a search engine for all of my research and that was
I typed in several things, several times. I wrote:
Gender Roles
Gender Discrimination
Gender in the Media
Women’s Hall of Fame
The other support I received was from my teacher.
Text Box: To the manager ofITVMr. Angry ViewerRE: Discrimination of gender on our advertsI am writing to inform you that you are showing an advert that is severely discriminating women. This is the advert of Green flag Motoring Insurance. I have also contacted them concerning this issue.First of all I just wanted to make sure you know how they are discriminating women in the advert. They are screening a woman in a car which has broken down; while doing her make up and acting all dumb and incapable of doing anything. She calls for roadside assistance and a male mechanic comes zooming in with his truck to save “the damsel in distress” by fixing her car.Now yes, some women may be less capable in fixing cars but why did you have to show the woman doing her make up in the car waiting for the male mechanic? Now this is showing us the woman doesn’t really care or know what’s going on. She just calls the male mechanic if there’s any trouble and starts to look good (as if all she cares about is her looks).Why couldn’t the person in the broken down car be male? Or why couldn’t the Green Flag mechanic be a woman? Yes, it may be rare but there are hundreds of woman mechanics now in this day and age.But where my argument is about the woman doing her makeup. This really drives me mad as if she is representing all females being incompetent and useless sitting in the car broken down doing nothing but her makeup. It would be better if she would get out the car and be a little bit more active, maybe opening the bonnet to see what’s wrong.I feel very strongly about this so ITV can you please get together with Green Flag and take some action before I sue a company for discrimination and quasi-stereotyping.Yours SincerelyAn Angry Viewer

Rock Festival

Rock Festival
As I walked through the gate I could hear the buzz of chatter. The
smell of the food stalls wafted through the air. As I moved closer I
could see the stage it was about 10 metres wide and about 5 in width.
Almost everywhere people were seiging in to the camp. There were loads
of music stores with all kinds of music. As the time passed people
started to move towards the stage to try and get a good view. Suddenly
the chatter died down and the announcer appeared on stage and
introduced the first band which were s club seven to sing reach, as
they got on stage there were quite a few boo’s and hisses but by the
end they were cheered off the stage. The rock festival went on and was
thoroughly enjoyed by the audience. Finally after four hours of music
the announcer came on stage and announced ‘the mystery band’ everyone
had been waiting for “and now” said the announcer “to finish off this
festival its Eminm” there were cheers and he went on stage. First he
rapped ‘my name is’ and then ’ I don’t give a f***’ and finally to
round up a brilliant festival he rapped ‘brain damage’. When he had
finished he threw copies of his first and second album out to the
crowd. A buzz of chatter rippled through the audience and people
finally started to get up. I went to the other facilities while I
waited for the queue to get out of the gate died down. I wondered
around and before I left I got a hotdog. As I walked through the gates
I thought of all the acts, just as I was about to eat the last bit of
my hotdog a dog jumped out and barked like mad I was so surprised that
I dropped my hotdog. I cursed the dog and carried on walking
thoughtfully home.

Odysseus as a Heroic Individual

Odysseus as a Heroic IndividualThesis: Odysseus was a true hero he showed this through his
determination and courage.
Odysseus, A True Hero?
What is a hero? The dictionary defines a hero as being a mythological
or legendary figure often of divine descent endowed with great
strength or ability; an illustrious warrior; a man admired for his
achievements and noble qualities; one that shows great courage.
Odysseus was a true hero; he showed this through his determination and
The dictionary definition of a hero includes courage, strength and
great ability. Odysseus fits the dictionary description of a hero. Two
characteristics that I believe are essential to the definition of a
heroic individual are determination and courage. Odysseus embodies
these characteristics through out the whole story. After all the whole
story is about his determination to get home; he doesn’t let all the
battles he has to fight along the way stop him from getting to where
he wants to be. Odysseus persevered through everything the gods
through at him. Imprisoned by Calypso for seven years and never lost
sight of his goal, survived Poseidon’s wrath, beat the Cyclops and
made his way back to sea, got past the sirens, any ordinary man would
have given up after the battle or two. Odysseus was no ordinary man he
was a hero.
To say Odysseus had courage means that he (according to the
dictionary) used mental or moral strength to venture, persevere, and
withstand danger, fear, or difficulty. Using that definition Odysseus
displayed courage in each and every battle he fights on his journey.
An action that would have made Odysseus heroic in the eyes of his
peers, but not in my eyes would have to be if he killed everyone he
came into battle with. Like instead of just blinding the Cyclops he
killed him but he choose to go another way.
“My heart beat high now at the chance of action, and drawing the sharp
sword from my hip I went along his flank to stab him where the midriff
holds the liver. I had touched the spot when sudden fear stayed me:
if I killed him we perished there as well, for we could never move
his ponderous doorway slab aside.” (Homer ix. 312-318),
This also could have been true in various other situations like
instead of just leaving Calypso he killed her, or if had made and
attempt to kill the God Poseidon. I don’t perceive killing every man
or woman you come into battle with as a heroic action. Sometimes to be
the hero of a situation you must be the bigger man and walk away from
a battle letting the other man live. The difference being that his
peers see the death of an enemy as a victory whereas I see it as a
loss. Killing someone doesn’t make you a winner it only makes you a
loser, a true victory is one that both people walk away alive and yet
one person may have the upper hand on the situation.
A hero is a person that thinks about others before themselves, whether
it be physical or emotional. A hero puts others in perspective with
every aspect of their life. Odysseus shows this when sail past the
sirens. Odysseus and his men must sail past the island of
seductresses. He plugs the ears of the men so they would not hear the
sexy music and go mad, ultimately causing them to be killed. But he
had himself tied to the mast so he could enjoy the music, but not
physically be able to act on it. To me this is a scarafice he made
maybe a little bit selfish but he made sure everyone was taken care of
before he thought of himself.
When Odysseus arrived home and killed all the suitors and the suitors’
harlots, his peers found his actions to be heroic because he was
defending his home against anyone who mocked it. This is not heroic to
me. It is cold-blooded murder. I have to take into account, though,
that we live in a very different time. It seems as if Odysseus could
have banished these suitors and harlots from their homeland instead.
Disposing of all the mockery and shame inflicted without having to
kill so many people is heroic in my eyes.
Odysseus may have had the help of Gods to win this battle but even
without their assistance he would have been a hero in his own right.
He fought each and every one of his battles using his own intelligence
and determination; eventually he got home and got his family back in
order. Odysseus was a very determined and extremely courageous man and
embodying these two characteristics made him a hero. Odysseus was a
man who did not let any mortal man, god, or goddess stand in his way
of getting what he wanted no matter how long or how hard he had to
fight, Odysseus a true Greek Hero.
Works Cited
Homer. The Odyssey. The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. Ed.
Sarah Lawall. 7th ed. New York: Norton, 1999.

The Sauerkraut Festival

The Sauerkraut FestivalAs I continue to traverse down the congested street I see many more craft booths. Some of the booths are filled with hats, shirts, and an assortment of jewelry. Scents fill the air as well. The overwhelming scent of sauerkraut is very heavily in the air now. Sauerkraut hot dogs and bratwurst, as well as “kraut-burgers,” which are hamburgers with sauerkraut on them, are being sold to help thicken the aroma.As I draw closer to the heart of the festival I hear music playing in the distance. I become curious and begin to try and walk a little faster. I come to the corner, sit on the stairs leading from the local bank, and listen to the band playing on the stage set up in the bank parking lot. It is an all male band with female line dancers dancing in front of the stage. The band is wearing tight blue jeans, white shirts, black western hats, and brown western boots. The dancers are all wearing tight blue jeans, red shirts, and white western hats. The band is playing one of their original country songs and the dancers are quite good at the dance they are doing. I watch and listen to this song in its entirety, and after that the band takes a break. As I continue my journey to the end of the festival I see many more craft booths and some more food booths as well. The food booth that really catches my eye is that of a local church. The product that the booth is selling, a bowl of pork, mashed potatoes, and sauerkraut, is spewing its fumes into the crowd. It looks delicious and I stop to get myself a bowl. It is apparent that I was not the only person who thought it looked good because I waited in line for a bowl for about 10 minutes. This is one thing I do not like about the festival. To do anything, I must wait in line. There are lines for the bathroom, and even to cross the street when leaving the festival.I walk around this booth and up onto the sidewalk to eat my food, and I notice that there are not very many people on the sidewalk. I see only a select group of people traversing this area, and they all seem to be move as if they are in a hurry. I watch one of the walkers, a young lady, enter a food booth and start working there. The knowledge that I have gained through the research paper informed me that the food booths are only rented out to local organizations, so I am assuming that this lady lives in Waynesville. This tells me that residents of Waynesville who have to help with the festival do not like the crowds and they walk on the sidewalk to avoid a lot of people and make it through the festival much faster.After finishing my delicious meal, I return on my journey. I pass a variety of food booths and a few more craft booths until I hear a man yelling about the necklaces he is selling. Being a man who doesn’t mind wearing a necklace, I decided to take a look around his shop. He is selling quite an assortment of hemp necklaces and even a few shelled ones. He has a bead for every color in the rainbow as well. A customer can order many kinds of necklaces, and if the craftsman has not already made it, he can make it for the customer and allow them to pick it up later. I bought a few necklaces and checked the time. Being there for over an hour, it became later in the day and the temperature had risen quite a bit. The temperature had reached 78 degrees, and with a crowd this large it felt a lot warmer than that. I am close to the end of the festival though, so I keep on walking. I see a McDonalds and wonder if they are open, or if maybe it had some sort of special menu with sauerkraut that they use on this weekend. I keep on walking as I think. There are a few craft booths on the right and an ice cream shop on the right. This side of the festival is really crowded, and if more than one person stops to look at a booth, the whole street stops because no one walks around the crowd and a massive traffic jam occurs. I try to rush through this section of the festival because I am getting very annoyed at the people here. Once getting around all of the heavy traffic, I hear music again. I squeeze through the crowd, which is not moving at all, and the booths finally end. I find myself at a real traffic jam of cars, sitting on the road waiting at a red light, and one of the cars has its radio up quite loud. Then a police officer holds traffic and the massive group of people that I squeezed through all rushes across the road. I go with them and then return to my car.The trip to the festival was great, but I am not big into crafts. I would have a much greater time at the festival if the crowd was not so big; this way I can take all of the time that I need, and not have to worry about stepping on someone or running into someone. I now appreciate all of the time that the village puts into the festival. They do a great job.

Cultural Event

Scissors, Paper, Rock!

Adam De La Halle And Ars Antiqua Time Period

Adam De La Halle and Ars Antiqua Time PeriodLife SummaryHis MusicAdam de la Halle was of French origins. All of his lyrics were written in French.
Much of his early music was monophonic which shortly after became homophonic and
then transformed into polyphonic. Much of his polyphonic work was set for 3
voices or instruments. If a piece of music is monophonic, then it has only a
melody line and no harmony. Much of the medieval music was monophonic. If the
music is homophonic then there is only one melody line, but it may be played by
two or more instruments. Many of the songs that were originally monophonic were
easily transformed into homophonic by add extra voices or instruments.
Polyphonic is the type of music we hear today. Polyphonic is when there is a
melody line accompanied by harmony. A considerable amount of Adam de la Halle’s
polyphonic work was designed for plays. One of Adam’s manuscripts contains the
oldest known existence of the sharp sign. In 1872 his music was officially
published.Ars Antiqua Time PeriodArs Antiqua is Medieval Latin for “ancient art”. Ars Antiqua was the period of
musical activity in 13th century France. The music was characterized by the
increasing sophistication of counterpoint (the art of combining simultaneous
voice parts). Modern music historians classify the whole 13th century as Ars
Antiqua where as older historians classified only the later half of the 13th
century as Ars Antiqua. This was the time period when music started to become
more formal. In this time period, musical plays were just becoming popular and
in 1283 one of the first operas was performed.Most of the music of the Ars Antiqua time period is anonymous. Two important
figures stand out among the anonymity. Pérotin, who became famous in the late
12th century, composed the earliest known music for four voices. Franco of
Cologne, who flourished in the middle of the 13th century, was a theorist who
organized a new, more precise system of rhythmic notation, the direct ancestor
of modern notation.The most important style of music to originate in the Ars Antiqua is the motet,
which retained its popularity for centuries. The essence of this style of music
is the simultaneous presentation of more than one text. It originated with the
addition of a new text to the upper voices of a sacred polyphonic composition.
The lower, slower moving voices retained the original text.Ars Antiqua was the time period when music as we know it was just beginning.
Composers were considered innovators because they invented a great deal of what
is used in modern music (for example harmony and modern notation). The music we
listen to today is comprised of everything these composers created. Without this
great musical minds, music today would be significantly different.

Shrek and Reversal of Fairytale Tradition

Shrek and Reversal of Fairytale TraditionShrek directed Andrew Andamson and Vicky Jenson by contradicts the
traditional view of a fairytale characters and settings. Although your
first impressions may lead you to believe that that the story is
totally different to a traditional fairytale looking more closely you
find that there are a few similarities. This essay will be looking at
the characters and the different presentational devises used to show
how fairytale traditions are reversed. The presentational devices
which are looked at are camera angles, lighting and music. In a
traditional fairytale you would expect to find a prince and a princess
who fall in love and live happily ever after. For example in Snow
White and the Seven Dwarfs the prince comes and rescues Snow White and
then they live happily ever after. In Shrek the prince is revealed to
be evil, like the giant in Jack and the Beanstalk, and the princess
turns out to be an ogre and not as beautiful on the outside as first
impressions may lead you to believe. Throughout the film the ugly ogre
is slowly revealed as good whereas in a traditional fairytale the ogre
would have been evil throughout the story. During the film there are a
lot more differences which help us to see that the ogre is good and
the Prince is evil.
At the beginning of the film it opens like a traditional fairytale
using the well-known opening ‘Once upon a time.’ This is suddenly
interrupted by a hand snapping the book shut. Shrek then appears and
modern rap music starts to play. This surprises the viewers and begins
to give the audience the impression that this is not going to be a
conventional fairytale.
When the storybook characters arrive at Shrek’s house Shrek threatens
them saying he will ‘grind your bones for my bread’ and ’shave your
liver and make jelly from your eyes.’ He tries to frighten them away
by his threats and telling them that ‘Ogres are worse than giants.’ He
achieves his aim and scares of the characters and they run away
screaming. This gives the audience the impression that he is a
traditional ogre who is terrifying and evil. This supports the view
about ogres being man eating beasts in traditional fairytales.
When Donkey and Shrek meet, Shrek attempts to intimidate the donkey
but Donkey is not frightened and he just ridicules Shrek about his bad
breath by saying that he ‘needs some Tic- Tacs.’ Donkey is not at all
frightened and continues irritating Shrek by persistently asking him
questions. Shrek tries to scare the Donkey away again by reminding him
that he is an ogre but Donkey is not remotely frightened. Later on the
film mice run around the table and up on Shrek’s shoulders. As Shrek
tries to catch them he fails on numerous occasions turning this scene
into a bit of a comedy. The behaviour of the donkey and the mice
suggests that Shrek is not as frightening an ogre as he should be and
shows the soft side of him. This makes the viewers sympathise Shrek
and notice that he is not as bad as first impressions show. Throughout
the film Shrek continuously has to remind the other characters that he
is an ogre and therefore they should be scared of him. He also
threatens characters throughout the film but the audience soon works
out that these are empty threats and Shrek is not capable of carrying
them out even if he wanted to. This shows how the film has reversed
the traditions of fairytales and shows that although first impressions
may lead viewers to believe that Shrek is a traditional ogre these
scenes show that Shrek really isn’t as intimidating or scary.
In contrast to Shrek’s character, Lord Farquaad is revealed to be
cruel and evil. When he is shown torturing the gingerbread man we see
him as the heartless character he is. He is shown as selfish and
arrogant. He taunts and mocks the gingerbread man by saying ’run, run,
run as fast as you can’ although he knows that the gingerbread man is
going nowhere without his legs. He then tries to pull off the
gingerbread man’s buttons even though the gingerbread man is begging
continuously. He then throws the screaming gingerbread man into the
bin. He is evil and inconsiderate and has shows no affection towards
others. At the end of the film when the princess is revealed as an
ogre he orders the knights ‘get that out of my sight.’ He is shown as
selfish and is only willing to marry the princess because of her
beauty. This is a complete contrast to a lord’s character in a
traditional fairytale. Here he is shown as evil and selfish while in a
traditional fairytale he would be kind and big-hearted.
Donkey is the first character who sees through Shrek and sees the real
person behind the ogre. He is a main character as he helps the
audience realise that Shrek is not all that he pretends to be and he
is just scared to show his true feelings. He also helps to turn some
of the scenes into a comedy. He is shown as Shrek’s advisor and Shrek
listens to his answers when he is having problems. The audience sees
the start of a great friendship and, although Shrek tries to brush the
Donkey off, the Donkey is persistent and in the end Shrek understands
the true value of their friendship. This helps to show what feelings
Shrek goes through and helps to reveal him as the kind- hearted person
Shrek really is, because we understand that Shrek is scared to show
his good kind-hearted person he is.
The different types of camera shots used throughout the film also
reveal the different character of Shrek and the Lord throughout the
film. This is also shown when a low angle shot is used to make Shrek
appear as though he is looking down at the fairytale characters that
arrive in his swamp. He is shown as towering over these characters,
showing that he has more power than the other characters in this
scene. This makes him appear like a traditional ogre to the audience.
When Lord Farquaad is shown looking down on Shrek and his subjects a
low angle shot is used to show his superiority. Low angle shots are
used in the film to reveal characters superiority and power. It helps
to reveal the lord as evil and his true self but also confuses the
viewers by showing Shrek as a traditional ogre. When Shrek and Donkey
arrive at Dunlop a high angle shot is used to reveal the height of the
tower. This makes the two characters seem more vulnerable compared to
Shrek. High angle shots are used in the film to reveal characters
vulnerability and this helps to reveal the true character of Shrek.
Mid- angle shots are used to show the different characters socialising
with each other and shows that the characters are on an equal footing
and that no character has more power over the rest. This is also used
in the film when Shrek and Donkey are shown relaxing together. There
are also some close-ups in the films. These are used to show the true
emotions of the characters. For example when§ there are close-ups of
Shrek and Princess Fiona smiling this shows their true happiness. When
there are shots of the characters backs it shows their isolation from
the rest of the characters. This is used in the film when Shrek turns
his back on Donkey to show the end of their friendship and also when
he is sitting on the cliff edge looking out at the moon and stars.
I think high angle shots are used in the film to show characters power
and dominance while the low angle shots are used to show characters
vulnerability. These are used when Lord Farquaad is in the arena with
his knights and Shrek is also there. He shown standing The close ups
show characters reveal character’s true feelings to the audience.
These are used to show Shrek’s feelings towards the princess. This
helps show Shrek as the lovable and kind person he is. The mid-angle
shots show that the characters are equal and this helps to show
friendships and good relationships between people. This is shown when
Donkey and Shrek are together. This shows their understanding of each
other and how Donkey knows how Shrek feels which reveals Shrek as a
kind person hiding behind an ogre’s personality, therefore showing him
as good and kind.
The main setting of the film is in Shrek’s swamp. This is the expected
home of an ogre yet other creatures attempt to go into it. Donkey even
attempts to set up home there. The swamp is then revealed over time as
welcoming and not as it should, with dark forests and evil creatures
within. This shows Shrek as good because you can see he lives in a
nice friendly place. Another setting is Lord Farquaad’s castle. Here
the torture of the gingerbread man takes place and the courtyard where
the knights tried to defeat Shrek. Although the castle should be a
place of splendour it is revealed to be a place of violence and
secrecy just like the lords character.
The lighting also helps to reveal the characters. When the princess
leaves Shrek at dusk, he is staring into the black of the night at the
moon which reveals his isolation. When Shrek and the princess walk
through the woods, the sun is shining and the birds are chirping,
showing the contentment of the characters. At the end of the film
there is a bright light suggesting goodness and showing a magical
fairytale ending where the two good people live happily ever after
while the baddies end up dead. The only difference with Shrek’s ending
is that the two people who live happily ever after are not the
prettiest on the outside. Shows the audience Shrek’s feelings and how
he gets upset just like any person. Show he too has a heart.
The film makers use music and sound effects to reveal the characters
true selves. When the audience first meets Lord Farquaad and the
hooded figures there is marching music which reveals the tension and
suggests battle. Lord Farquaad wanting to go to battle suggests that
he is not as good and kind as he should be. When Shrek enters the
arena there is organ music that suggests the importance of Shrek’s
tournament and of the Lord. When Shrek misinterprets the conversation
between the Donkey and the princess there is slow music which reflects
his unhappiness and his disappointment. When Shrek goes home near the
end of the film there is a and promises which is supposed to make the
viewers feel sad and song about broken dreams unhappy and relate to
Shrek’s feelings. Shows that he too has feelings and that he too is
At the start of the film we begin to expect a traditional fairytale
but then the different presentational devices help us to reverse our
expectations so that by the end of the film, the audience has
discovered the true characters. By the end of the story the audience
feels hatred towards the lord and they want Shrek as a friend because
his character is so lovable. Shrek is revealed as lovable and fun
whilst the audience have seen right through the Lord’s character and
seen him as the evil and manipulative character he is. The ideas about
the characters in a true fairytale are reversed yet the film still
comes across as a true fairytale. The ogre who should have been an
evil man-eating beast is shown as good and kind. The Lord on the other
hand is shown as the bad guy of the film whereas in the traditional
fairytale he would have been a true hero. The message of the story is
that you can’t judge a book by its cover and that reveal a true person
you have to look deep within as first impressions can be deceiving.

Social Responsibilities of businesses

“Outline the argument for and against business having social
responsibilities beyond that of making a profit. In the light of this, do
you think businesses should make charitable donations to the Tsunami
appeal? Justify your answer.”To best understand the nature of the posed question I propose the
articulated finding of the widespread acceptance that cooperate official
and labour leaders have a ‘social responsibility’ that extends beyond the
realm of serving shareholder and its members (Friedman 1962, p. 133). The
following essay is aimed at highlighting the role of businesses, whether
they are to have interest other than solely making profit and if so what
groups should benefit from the success of a company.According to Wilson (2004, Vol.23, p. 23) arguments, the nature of
existence for business or corporations should be ‘everything to do with
service to society, and only secondarily to do with profitability.’ But
this is quite on the contrary to the apparently antediluvian view put
forward by corporate executives Friedman and Levitt (cited in Wilson, 2004,
Vol.23, p. 23) highlighting ‘.the business of business is making money, not
sweet music.’ So why is there discrepancy between the ideal view of
business and which should be placed under higher priority the shareholders
or stakeholders (society).To understand both points of view we need to identify the party’s involved
and the relationship they have to the business and business operations. A
stockholder (shareholder) is one that owns or holds a share or shares of
stock in company, enterprise or organisation (The American Heritage
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2005). Shareholders are
the financial backing in the organisation, they are generally people
interested in making a profit (in the form of dividends) and they supply
capital to the organisation. On the contrary stakeholder are seen as any
party that has an interest in an organization. Stakeholders of a company
include stockholders, bondholders, customers, suppliers, employees, and so
forth (Scott, 2003).Given the definition or both involved parties it is clear to see that the
success of the business in making a profit will please the shareholders
however, to make long-run profits in turn requires compatibility and
complacency from its revenue source; the stakeholders. This requires the
need for mission and vision driven company which must be truly responsive
to stakeholders not only its shareholders (Wilson, 2004, Vol.23, p.23).These ‘social responsibilities’ must however be driven directly at the
stakeholders involved with the business dealings in order to serve equally
the shareholders. A clear example of miss-aimed social contribution and one
which resulted in strong shareholder opposition was outlined when a number
of Australian companies pledged finances to the tsunami relief effort in
Asia. An ideally complementary statement was given by the spokesman of the
Australian Shareholders Association, Stephen Matthews when he said that one
foreseeable premise to make contributions to the tsunami relief would be to
“.businesses who have activities up in South Asia (ABC – news online,
2005).”Because after all the fundamental truth which may be hard to swallow and
one which my opinion sways away from that of Freidman, is that business are
there to make a profit. The social responsibilities that they do act on are
egotistically based upon a future increase in either customer relations,
loyalty or positive exposure which in turn are a sole benefit to its
shareholders. And as to the suggestion presented whether companies should
make charitable donations to causes such as the tsunami relief appeal, my
opinion is in strong lure of that of Mr. Matthew; “donations should only be
made in situations that are likely to benefit the company through greater
market exposure (ABC – news online, 2005).”Reference List:ABC News Online 2005, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, viewed 26 April
2005Friedman, M 1962, Capitalism and Freedom, Phoenix Books, Chicago & London.Scott, DL 2003, Wall Street Words: An A to Z Guide to Investment Terms for
Today’s Investor, Houghton Mifflin Company, Houghton.The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2000, ed. 4,
Houghton Mifflin Company, Houghton.Wilson, I 2004, The agenda refining corporate purpose: 5 key executive
actions, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 21 – 26.

The Importance of Family

The Importance of FamilyMy generation is one who emerged from a society of the eighties and through the nineties that has experienced amazing discoveries of countless measures. Over the last twenty years, we have watched our world evolve into a place decorated for its strengths economically. Many of us in the later years of our childhood became members of a group given the name the latchkey kids. Due to the needs of our economy as well as our home lives, both parents found it important to become members of the working class.
The American culture of the United States puts a very large emphasis on a person’s sense of individuality. We are told from the time that we are born that we can be whatever we want to be and to set our goals high. Doctors, Lawyers, Teachers are some of the common careers that a young child chooses. They set a path for them to achieve this, and along the way may make sacrifices for this choice of career. They want only the best for themselves and would never dream of selling themselves sort. This very idea of self-sacrifice has sparked a curiosity in my own mind. When you ask a young child what they want to be when they grow up, you expect them to reply with an answer such as a doctor. What if that child said that they just want to be a mommy or a daddy? Do you think that the general feeling for this response would be a positive one?
I have often wondered if due to the high emphasis on careers in our society, do people, or more specifically, my generation still consider having a family as important to their future? Or does their future only include their career? I, for instance, am a person of more personal than economic goals. I wanted to see if there is a parallel within my generation between careers and family. My findings, as you will see in this paper, have proven that there is not a direct parallel. Through the use of survey’s, an interview, and personal history, I researched the values of my generation to find that with the strong emphasis on careers in our society, college students are likely to not value having children to a great degree any more.
Survey’s are a useful tool in research because they give the public being surveyed the ability to be completely honest when it is an anonymous survey. My surveys that I distributed were anonymous so that I would acquire what I feel to be the most truthful data. I constructed a survey of five questions that I submitted to 10 random people. My survey consists of five females and five males. I chose to have equal amounts of both genders so I can compare the answers due to gender as well as other topics such as college majors. Once my surveys were complete, I analyzed my data. Prior to my research, I made a guess that a person’s major may have an influence on their choice to have a family. Once I examined my data, I found that a person’s major really had no influence at all. People from political science to music education both had the same answers when asked if having a family is important to them in the future. When I compared answers given by females to those given to males, I found that both were basically consistent to one another. Two questions that I asked in this survey were, Do you see yourself having a family and are having a family an important part of your future? To my surprise and proving my thesis wrong, all but one survey responded to both questions with a yes. I wanted to push this idea a little farther and find out what influenced this decision to have or not to have a family. My final question required the person to choose from a short list of answers, which one best pertained to them. My results were not very surprising to me. Most of the surveys, exactly eight of them, checked the box that showed that family has most influenced their decision, leaving only two of the surveys with the answer of Experience with children. Through my surveys alone, I found that most college students do value the idea of family in their futures.
This research paper was my first experience in conducting an interview. I surveyed a female college student whose major is athletic training. I started off the survey with a very common question, where do you see yourself in ten years? Her answer was what I feel is very common to most college students; she felt that, “Working as an athletic trainer is my first priority. But as well, I hope to be in a committed relationship or even just an exclusive one. I don’t want to have any children at this point.” This answer linked very directly to a question that I asked a few moments later in which she explained that having stability financially and in her relationship is crucial to having children. I also asked her if she had to choose a career and money, or family and a less luxurious life-style, which would you, choose. Immediately her answer was “No matter what, I would choose a family.” People such as this young woman that I interviewed are faced with a dilemma in my opinion. Financial stability, having a career, and having children are all high priorities to this young woman. I wanted to find what the most significant influence for my person I interviewed was. As with my survey’s, I wanted to get a deeper incite to what aspects of her life affected her decision. She made it very clear that her experiences with her large family of six children are the most significant without a doubt. “They kept me grounded, and are the primary reason I am the person that I am today. I couldn’t imagine a life without them.” This close family bond has followed her into her adult life, and has reminded her how important children can be.
In the past, I had no knowledge of a method of research called personal history. Given my curious personality, I wanted to experience this concept. This research paper has taken my ideas as a researcher to a new level of activity. In this case, I was given the opportunity to go out into the public and get the information that was needed from people, not books. A method that I used in gaining information as a researcher was to create a survey in which I distributed to five males and five females, all being anonymous. This was my first experience doing a survey, which alone made it very exciting. In my thesis, I made the prediction that with the changes in our society over these recent years, the idea of family is not something that most college students find appealing or important to their future. Interestingly, my thesis was proven wrong, and all but one person that I surveyed replied that they did find having a family an important part of their lives. Even though my thesis was proven wrong, I was actually elated at the idea that this is still important to my generation.
When administrating my surveys, I watched those who were filling them out to see what facial expressions that they had as they read over the survey. Every person who filled a survey appeared somewhat torn with my last question. They had to choose from a short list, and answer, which one of the following choices most greatly influenced their choice to have or not to have a family. Many of them had a difficult time choosing between their families having the most influence, or their experiences with children. In fact, several of them explained to me after they were finished that they had a hard time choosing. When I was making the survey, I purposely made that question difficult to answer because I wanted them to really examine themselves and think very critically. It’s very easy to fill out a survey and check a yes or no answer, but much more difficult to explain why.
As a researcher, I also chose to do an interview because I really believe that this is a wonderful way to gain more insight into the question of why people feel that a family is or is not important. The person I interviewed expressed opinions that are very similar to my own, but with different reasons as to why. Their reason for having a family was most greatly influenced by their experience within their family. To her, life would be incomplete without having children of her own. My life as well would have a significant gap without children. I too lived in a home with siblings. They have made an impact on my life of great magnitude and have shaped so many aspects of me as a person. The process of this interview showed me the intensity and emotion of a young lady who held an opinion so strong that nothing in this world could shake her. To me, this is a remarkable fact and respectable opinion.
It is true that our world has changed to a very great degree in my lifetime of only twenty years. But, throughout this research process, I was elated to find that even through the changes, one thing is certain. My generation still values family even with their emphasis growing on their careers. All but one of the persons I surveyed chose that they do want to have a family in the future, and the young lady I surveyed showed me how great the importance of children is to her future. In both cases, the survey’s and interviews, I was able to recover the great magnitude that my generation holds for the ideal of family. I believe there is great value in this research. I was given the opportunity to look into the lives of my peers, and discover what direction our future is leading to. We are a whole, and it is comforting to know that my peers are reaching for their goals but not forgetting their personal lives. As with any research, there were limitations. If I had more time, I would have liked to interview and survey persons in my parent’s generation to find if when they were my age, did they feel they would have a family? I did everything that I believe I could to find the truth-value in my research, but I think that to look into the future it would have been beneficial to look at the ones who are already there, meaning our parents.
My generation is the future, this I knew before this paper. But what I didn’t know, is that my peers have gone from children wishing to be doctors, to young adults following that path to get there. They haven’t sold themselves short. They have kept their dreams alive, and haven’t forgot the importance of family.